The thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptor (TRHR) is a G protein-coupled receptor which binds the tripeptide thyrotropin releasing hormone. The TRHR are found in the brain and when bound by TRH act (through phospholipase C) to increase intracellular inositol trisphosphate. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000174417 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000038760 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". "Mouse PubMed Reference:". Yamada M, Monden T, Konaka S, Mori M (November 1993). "Assignment of human thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) receptor gene to chromosome 8". Somatic Cell and Molecular Genetics. 19 (6): 577-80. doi:10.1007/BF01233384. PMID 8128317. Gershengorn MC (1993). "Thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptor: cloning and regulation of its expression". Recent Progress in Hormone Research. 48: 341-63. PMID 8382829. Short RE, James LF, Panter KE, Staigmiller RB, Bellows RA, Malcolm J, Ford SP (November 1992). "Effects of feeding ponderosa pine needles during ...
Title:Thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptor: cloning and regulation of its expression.,Author:Gershengorn M C,Journal:Recent Prog Horm Res,1993;48:341-63.,Publication type:Journal Article,Review
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Domestic ducks in southern China act as an important reservoir for influenza viruses and have also facilitated the establishment of multiple H6 influenza virus lineages. can facilitate significant genetic and antigenic changes in viruses established in this host and highlight gaps in our knowledge of influenza virus ecology and even the evolutionary behavior of this virus family in its aquatic avian reservoirs. INTRODUCTION Aquatic birds are accepted as the natural reservoirs of influenza A viruses, and these viruses have been introduced to other animals, shaping the current ecology of influenza viruses (17). Alteration of the influenza virus ecosystem by the emergence of novel host species or marked changes in the size and structure of host populations can impact the behavior of virus evolution. The establishment of multiple influenza virus subtypes (H5N1, H6N1, and H9N2) in the poultry of southern D609 China provides the best example of this (4, 5, 20). Domestic ducks in China have ...
Suppressed parasympathetic function is often present in cardiovascular diseases ageing obesity and various other health conditions. and metabolic disorder in mice. These obese mice exhibited an attenuated response in heart rate to vagal activation indicating impairment of peripheral parasympathetic activity in the heart. In cholinergic function-related proteins in the atria protein levels of choline transporter and vesicular acetylcholine transporter werent reduced but elevated and type 2 muscarinic receptors demonstrated a Telmisartan development toward a decrease in HFD mice atria in comparison with regular diet plan (RD) mice handles. While the proteins degree of acetylcholinesterase had not been different butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) proteins level demonstrated a twofold upsurge in HFD mice atria in comparison with RD mice. Functionally inhibition of BChE activity partly and considerably improved the attenuated response in heartrate to vagal arousal in HFD mice. Collectively these data ...
Rabbit anti Human TRHR antibody detects thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptor (TRHR), a G protein-coupled receptor which binds the tripep
Gene target information for Trhr2 - thyrotropin releasing hormone receptor 2 (house mouse). Find diseases associated with this biological target and compounds tested against it in bioassay experiments.
Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) immunoreactivity occurs in high concentration within the rat prostate. Previous studies have shown that the immunoreactive species consists of more than one TRH-like tripeptide which cross-reacts in the TRH radioim
The effects of iontophoretically applied thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) on cat retinal brisk-sustained (X) and brisk-transient (Y) ganglion cells were studied in the intact eye in vivo. Under photopic illumination we found a differential action of TRH on ON- and OFF-centre cells: the maintained activity and light response were suppressed in ON-centre cells and enhanced in OFF-centre cells. This was true for both brisk sustained (X) and brisk-transient (Y) cells. In contrast, TRH did not influence the ganglion cell discharge under scotopic stimulus conditions. These results indicate that TRH acts on neurons presynaptic to ganglion cells and these neurons are only active under photopic conditions. We suggest that a possible functional role of this specific action of TRH is in light adaptation. ...
A sensitive and specific radioimmnunoassay has been used to measure the distribution of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) in rat brain. All areas of brain tested, except cerebellum, contained readily measurable amounts of TRH. The hypothalamus contained only 31.2 percent of the total brain content of TRH. These results support recent suggestions of central actions for TRH in addition to its hypophysiotropic functions. ...
2,4-diiodoimidazole- thyrotropin-releasing hormone: imidazole-substiuted analog of TRH, limits behavioral deficits after experimental brain trauma; structure given in first source
Lothrop CD, Jr., Tamas PM, Fadok VA. Am J Vet Res 1984;45:2310-2313. A canine and feline pituitary-thyroid function test based on thyrotropin-releasing hormone
This report describes the extraction of synthetic TRH and its metabolic conversion in the perfused guinea pig placenta. These studies were performed to obtain an estimate of fractional fetal TRH losses through the placenta and to determine if some of these losses are due to TRH metabolism. The in situ guinea pig placenta was perfused through an umbilical artery for 90 min, and placental effluent fractions were collected at timed intervals from the umbilical vein. Experiments were performed in which the perfusion buffer contained 0.01, 1, and 10 micrograms/ml or no synthetic TRH. Synthetic TRH was always perfused in the presence of 3H2O. In experiments in which TRH was perfused, the perfusion reservoir contents and placental effluent fractions were counted for 3H, and TRH and deamido-TRH were determined by RIA. Similarly, cyclo(His-Pro) was measured when 10 micrograms/ml TRH were perfused. When no TRH was perfused, the perfusion reservoir and placental effluent contents were processed to determine their
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This study addresses the in vivo and in vitro expression pattern of three genes that are operative in the thyrotroph subpopulation of anterior pituitary cells: glycoprotein α-chain (Cga), thyroid-stimulating hormone β-chain (Tshb), and TRH receptor
Affiliation:福山大,薬学部,教授, Research Field:Biological pharmacy,General pharmacology,General pharmacology, Keywords:アデノシンA1受容体,鎮痛作用,アデノシン,β-endorphin,N-アセチル-β-エンドルフィン,アデノシンA2受容体,β-エンドルフィン,adenosine,hypothermia,Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), # of Research Projects:9, # of Research Products:12
MGEDDAALRAGSRGLSDPWADSVGVRPRTTERHIAVHKRLVLAFAVSLVALLAVTMLAVLLSLRFDECGA 1 - 70 SATPGADGGPSGFPERGGNGSLPGSARRNHHAGGDSWQPEAGGVASPGTTSAQPPSEEEREPWEPWTQLR 71 - 140 LSGHLKPLHYNLMLTAFMENFTFSGEVNVEIACRNATRYVVLHASRVAVEKVQLAEDRAFGAVPVAGFFL 141 - 210 YPQTQVLVVVLNRTLDAQRNYNLKIIYNALIENELLGFFRSSYVLHGERRFLGVTQFSPTHARKAFPCFD 211 - 280 EPIYKATFKISIKHQATYLSLSNMPVETSVFEEDGWVTDHFSQTPLMSTYYLAWAICNFTYRETTTKSGV 281 - 350 VVRLYARPDAIRRGSGDYALHITKRLIEFYEDYFKVPYSLPKLDLLAVPKHPYAAMENWGLSIFVEQRIL 351 - 420 LDPSVSSISYLLDVTMVIVHEICHQWFGDLVTPVWWEDVWLKEGFAHYFEFVGTDYLYPGWNMEKQRFLT 421 - 490 DVLHEVMLLDGLASSHPVSQEVLQATDIDRVFDWIAYKKGAALIRMLANFMGHSVFQRGLQDYLTIHKYG 491 - 560 NAARNDLWNTLSEALKRNGKYVNIQEVMDQWTLQMGYPVITILGNTTAENRIIITQQHFIYDISAKTKAL 561 - 630 KLQNNSYLWQIPLTIVVGNRSHVSSEAIIWVSNKSEHHRITYLDKGSWLLGNINQTGYFRVNYDLRNWRL 631 - 700 LIDQLIRNHEVLSVSNRAGLIDDAFSLARAGYLPQNIPLEIIRYLSEEKDFLPWHAASRALYPLDKLLDR 701 - 770 MENYNIFNEYILKQVATTYIKLGWPKNNFNGSLVQASYQHEELRREVIMLACSFGNKHCHQQASTLISDW 771 - 840 ...
The field of hair growth and hair restoration has introduced a new player to its lineup: TRH (Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone). It is likely TRH may turn out to be a heavy hitter in the fast-growing hair transplant industry.. Just recently, a new finding in hair elongation and the hair growth cycle was published in the Journal of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (The FASEB Journal). The research was conducted in Germany by Dr. Gaspar at the top-ranked University of Lbeck, Department of Dermatology and Department of Internal Medicine.. Its been shown that Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone (TRH) is one of the crucial elements involved in the hair follicle growth cycle. Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone is very closely situated to the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. This axis stabilizes thyroid hormone synthesis.. Scientists have decided to study whether human hair follicle functions are also modulated by thyrotropin-releasing hormone, because its been found in human ...
[Serum prolactin response to thyrotropin-releasing hormone in normal subjects and in patients with thyroid diseases (authors transl)].: Synthetic thyrotropin-r
Rovatirelin Hydrate, S-0373, Rovatirelin, RN: 204386-76-5 UNII: 9DL0X410PY (4S,5S)-5-methyl-N-((2S)-1-((2R)-2-methylpyrrolidin-1-yl)-1-oxo-3-((1,3-thiazol-4-yl)methyl)propan-2-yl)-2-oxo-1,3-oxazolidine-4-carboxamide (4S,5S)-5-methyl-N-((S)-1-((R)-2-methylpyrrolidin-1-yl)-1-oxo-4-(thiazol-4-yl)butan-2-yl)-2-oxooxazolidine-4-carboxamide4-Oxazolidinecarboxamide, 5-methyl-N-[2-(2-methyl-1-pyrrolidinyl)-2-oxo-1-(4-thiazolylmethyl)ethyl]-2-oxo-, [4S-[4α[R*(S*)],5α]]- Phase III A thyrotropin-releasing hormone potentially for the treatment of spinocerebellar ataxia. CAS No.204386-76-5(Rovatirelin) 879122-87-9(Rovatirelin Hydrate) C17H24N4O4S Exact Mass: 380.1518 Rovatirelin is a novel synthetic agent that mimics the actions of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH). Rovatirelin binds to the human TRH receptor with higher affinity (Ki=702nM) than taltirelin (Ki=3877nM).…
A number of clonal cell lines derived from a rat pituitary tumour, collectively termed GH cells, have retained a range of differentiated cell functions, including their ability to secrete the hormones prolactin and growth hormone in response to stimuli such as thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH). The mechanisms underlying this release process involve, at least in part, an increase in cytosolic free calcium levels, and the cells have proved useful as a model system in studies of receptor-controlled calcium mobilization. The initial response of the cells to the addition of TRH now appears to be the interaction of the occupied TRH receptor with a GTP-binding protein. A sophisticated signalling system is then activated which initially involves the phosphodiesteratic hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate to 1,2-diacylglycerol and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate. Both of these products are important intracellular messengers, and their formation leads to a plethora of biochemical and ...
Abstract: We have reported a highly cooperative interaction between leptin and thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) in the hindbrain to generate thermogenic responses (Hermann et al., 2006) (Rogers et al., 2009). Identifying the locus in the hindbrain where leptin and TRH act synergistically to increase thermogenesis will be necessary before we can determine the mechanism(s) by which this interaction occurs. Here, we performed heat-induced epitope recovery techniques and in situ hybridization to determine if neurons or afferent fibers in the hindbrain possess both TRH type 1 receptor and long-form leptin receptor [TRHR1; LepRb, respectively]. LepRb receptors were highly expressed in the solitary nucleus [NST], dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus [DMN] and catecholaminergic neurons of the ventrolateral medulla [VLM]. All neurons that contained LepRb also contained TRHR1. Fibers in the NST and the raphe pallidus [RP] and obscurrus [RO] that possess LepRb receptors were phenotypically identified as ...
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Thyrotropin-releasing hormone-immunoreactive system in the brain and pituitary-gland of the sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, Teleostei ...
Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone: Biomedical Significance. Effects of TRH on Serum Calcium, Calcitonin, Parathyroid Hormone, and TSH in Patients with Eating Disorders. N. KIRIIKE, S. NISHIWAKI, T. NAGATA, Y. MAEDA, K. SOEZIMA, Y. KAWAKITA ...
TOPIC: A biologically inactive TRH due to a mutant TRH-receptor Title: A family with complete resistance to thyrotropin-releasing hormone Authors: Bonomi M, Busnelli M, Beck-Peccoz P, Constanzo D, Antonica F, & Dolci C. Reference: New England Journal of Medicine 360: 731-734, 2009 Summary Background Recessive resistance to the action of TRH is a rare disorder […]. ...
Fort Washington, PA - Madrigal Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (NASDAQ:MDGL), a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company focused on the development and commercialization of innovative therapeutic candidates for the treatment of cardiovascular, metabolic and liver diseases, today announced the completion of its merger with Synta Pharmaceuticals Corp. (NASDAQ:SNTA) (through July 22, 2016), effective as of July 22, 2016.. The combined company has more than $40 million in cash to advance its research and development efforts, including the clinical development of MGL-3196, Madrigals lead product candidate. MGL-3196 is a Phase 2-ready once-daily, oral, liver-directed selective thyroid hormone receptor-ß (THR-ß) agonist for the treatment of NASH and heterozygous and homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HeFH, HoFH).. On July 22, 2016, prior to the closing of the merger, Synta completed a one-for-35 reverse stock split. As a result of the reverse stock split, every 35 shares of Synta common stock ...
The field of hair growth and hair restoration has introduced a new player to its lineup: TRH (Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone). It is likely TRH may turn out to be a heavy hitter in the fast-growing hair transplant industry.. Just recently, a new finding in hair elongation and the hair growth cycle was published in the Journal of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (The FASEB Journal). The research was conducted in Germany by Dr. Gaspar at the top-ranked University of Lbeck, Department of Dermatology and Department of Internal Medicine.. Its been shown that Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone (TRH) is one of the crucial elements involved in the hair follicle growth cycle. Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone is very closely situated to the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. This axis stabilizes thyroid hormone synthesis.. Scientists have decided to study whether human hair follicle functions are also modulated by thyrotropin-releasing hormone, because its been found in human ...
is one such condition which is affected highly by the imbalance of hormones. Testosterone is one of those hormones. Increase in testosterones (male hormone) inside females causes the reproductive system to become infertile along with the development of multiple cysts in the ovaries. This worsens the condition of PCOS.. Thus, hypothyroidism gives rise to PCOS inside females. It has been seen that thyroid disorders and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are two of the most common endocrine disorders in the general population.. WHAT COULD BE THE REASON BEHIND DEVELOPMENT OF PCOS DUE TO HYPOTHYROIDISM?. One reason has been given that increase in testosterone levels causes PCOS in hypothyroid-affecting females.. Another reason is the rise in thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH). Rise in thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) in primary hypothyroidism leads to increased prolactin and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). Prolactin contributes toward polycystic ovarian syndrome by inhibiting ovulation as a ...
1.TRH (thyrotropin-releasing hormone) -----| TSH (thyroid-stimulating hormone) -----| Thyroid hormone 2.CRH (corticotropin-releasing hormone) ---
de Gortari,P. Gonzalez-Alzati,M.E. Cisneros,M. Joseph-Bravo,P. 2000. Effect of fasting on the content of thyrotropin-releasing hormone and its mRNA in the central nervous system and pyroglutamyl peptidase II activity in the anterior pituitary of post-weaned and adult rats.Nutritional Neuroscience, 3, 255-265 ...
Data CitationsShi Z, Pelletier NE, Wong J, Li B, Sdrulla Advertisement, Madden CJ, Marks DL, Brooks VL. neurons. PVN LepR are not expressed in astroglia and rarely in microglia; instead, glutamatergic neurons express LepR, some of which project to a key presympathetic hub, the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM). In PVN slices from mice expressing GCaMP6, leptin excites glutamatergic neurons. LepR SEC inhibitor KL-2 are expressed mainly in thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) neurons, some of which project to the RVLM. Injections of TRH into the RVLM and dorsomedial hypothalamus increase SNA, highlighting these nuclei as likely targets. SEC inhibitor KL-2 We suggest that this neuropathway becomes important in obesity, in which elevated leptin maintains the hypothalamic pituitary thyroid axis, despite leptin resistance. mRNA has also been detected in astroglia (Kim et al., 2014; Hsuchou et al., 2009), and leptins ability to suppress feeding also may involve astroglia (Kim et al., 2014). Finally, ...
In rat paraventricular thalamic nucleus (PVT) neurons, activation of thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) receptors enhances neuronal excitability via concurrent decrease in a GIRK-like conductance and opening of a cannabinoid receptor-sensitive transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC)-like conductance. Here we investigated the calcium (Ca2+) contribution to the components of this TRH-induced response. TRH-induced membrane depolarization was reduced in the presence of intracellular BAPTA, also in media containing nominally zero [Ca2+]o, suggesting a critical role for both intracellular Ca2+ release and Ca2+ influx. TRH-induced inward current was unchanged by T-type Ca2+ channel blockade, but was decreased by blockade of high-voltage-activated Ca2+ channels (HVACCs). Both the pharmacologically isolated GIRK-like and the TRPC-like components of the TRH-induced response were decreased by nifedipine and increased by BayK8644, implying Ca2+ influx via L-type Ca2+ channels. Only the TRPC-like ...
Eligible patients will be post-menopausal hormone receptor- and lymph node-positive females who recently underwent primary surgery for breast cancer. Patients will be randomized to letrozole (2.5 mg per day for 5 years) vs anastrozole (1 mg per day for 5 years). Follow up will occur for 5 years after the completion of enrollment for survival and disease status updates ...
Roger Charles Louis Guillemin (rođen 11. siječnja, 1924. u Dijonu, Francuska) je američko-francuski liječnik koji je 1977.g. dobio Nobelovu nagradu za fiziologiju ili medicinu za svoj rad na neurohormonima. Guillemin je diplomirao medicinu 1949.g. u Lyonu, i nakon toga preselio u Montréal, u Kanadi, da bi 1953.g. preselio u SAD. Godine 1965.g. postao je naturalizirani građanin SADa. Potkraj 1950ih, Guillemin i Andrew V. Schally uspjeli su, neovisno jedan od drugoga, u svojim labaratorijima, iz hipotalamus ovce i svinje, izdvojiti neke tvari, koje su u tkivu hipofize dovele do izlučivanja hormona te žlijezde. Jedna je tvar uzrokovala otpuštanje ACTH, druga otpuštanje TSH, a treća otpuštanje LH i FSH. Nazvali su te tvari "oslobađajući faktori", RF (prema engl. releasing factor) ili RH (prema engl. releasing hormon). Na primjer, tako je tvar koja uzrokuje oslobađanje TSH iz hipofize dobila naziv TRH (engl. thyrotropin-releasing hormon), hormon koji oslobađa tiretropin. Oba ...
Intracisternal injection of a stable thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) analog increases gastric prostaglandins release and mucosal resistance to injury through central vagal pathways. The effects of two nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, indomethacin (INDO) and nabumetone on intracisternal injection of various doses of TRH-induced gastric acid secretion and changes in mucosal resistance were investigated in urethane-anesthetized rats. Doses of INDO (5 mg/kg) and nabumetone (13.75 mg/kg) producing similar acute anti-inflammatory response in the carrageenin-induced paw edema were injected i.p. in all studies. INDO potentiated the acid secretion induced by intracisternal injection of TRH at 25, 50 and 200 ng by 5.1-, 1.9- and 1.4-fold, respectively, whereas nabumetone did not modify the secretory response to TRH. Moderate erosions were observed in 100% of rats treated with the combination of INDO and TRH (200 ng) whereas no erosions were observed when TRH or INDO were given alone or TRH in ...
Right on the heels of the nasal flu vaccine the Army issue the release of a new nanotech nasal spray to help slow down the rate of suicides in the military. The active ingredient is a neurochemical called thyrotropin-releasing hormone, or TRH, that has euphoric, calming, anti-depressant effects. TRH is a naturally occurring hormone made in the body but doesnt have the ability to cross the blood brain barrier the mad chemists have figured a way to adhere nanoparticles to the TRH making this process possible. Wouldnt you think if the TRH was supposed to go into the brain it would do so naturally not having to be forced by the hand of man? The Cocaine Vaccine science has declared a success uses the same principles of tricking to insert a chemical into the brain. The results of the Cocaine vaccine were that the test rats consumed 10 times the amount of cocaine need in order to achieve a euphoric high (success?).The first news of this was report by the Army times website where they mention a $3 ...
This study investigated bevacizumab administered with anastrozole or fulvestrant as first-line therapy in postmenopausal hormone receptor- positive metastatic
Although physiological and anatomical evidence had clearly indicated for many years that the secretion of anterior pituitary hormones is under control by the central nervous system, it is only recently that the isolation and determination of structure of three hypo- thalamic hypophysiotropic hormones have been accomplished. This has brought the concept of neurohormonal control of adenohypophyseal function into precise biochemical and chemical terms. The relative ease of synthesis of TRH (thyrotropin-releasing hormone), LH-RH (luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone), somatostatin and their analogues has opened a new era in the field of endocri- nology and has led to a rapid expansion of our knowl- ge of the control of anterior pituitary function. The rapid evolution of fundamental and clinical research on hypothalamic hormones and the many potential clinical applications indicate the importance of inte- grating the knowledge gained in recent years. This is well illustrated in the Proceedings of the
T3 is also known as triiodothyronine, a thyroid hormone. It is related to and even more important than the other but more popular thyroid hormone, T4 or thyroxine. Thyroxine is the precursor of T4 and the production of both hormones is signaled in the thyroid gland by TSH or thyroid stimulating hormone. Thyroid stimulating hormone is released from the pituitary gland and forms a feedback loop with both T3 weight loss doctors in jacksonville fl T4.. Therefore, when the plasma levels of the thyroid hormone falls, TSH production is increased and when the thyroid hormones rise above their normal plasma levels, TSH production is reduced. The control over the release of TSH itself is found in thyrotropin-releasing hormone TRH which is released from the hypothalamus. However, in the plasma T3 is only 2. It does not last as long as thyroxine the time taken for T3 concentration to reduce to half is 2.. Furthermore, most of the T3 found in circulation are produced from T4. By simply removing an iodine ...
PIT1 is a pituitary-specific transcription factor responsible for pituitary development and hormone expression in mammals and is a member of the POU family of transcription factors that regulate mammalian development. The POU family is so named because the first 3 members identified were PIT1 and OCT1 (MIM 164175) of mammals, and Unc-86 of C. elegans (Herr et al., 1988). PIT1 contains 2 protein domains, termed POU-specific and POU-homeo, which are both necessary for high affinity DNA binding on genes encoding growth hormone (GH; MIM 139250) and prolactin (PRL; MIM 176760). PIT1 is also important for regulation of the genes encoding prolactin and thyroid-stimulating hormone beta subunit (TSHB; MIM 188540) by thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH; MIM 257120) and cyclic AMP.[supplied by OMIM ...
in Neuroscience (1992), 51(2), 401-10. In a previous work we have shown that culturing adult rat dorsal root ganglia neurons modifies their neurotransmitter phenotype in such a way that cultured neurons synthesize transmitters that are not ... [more ▼]. In a previous work we have shown that culturing adult rat dorsal root ganglia neurons modifies their neurotransmitter phenotype in such a way that cultured neurons synthesize transmitters that are not found in situ, while several other transmitters are expressed in a much higher percentage of neurons in culture than in situ [Schoenen J. et al. (1989) J. Neurosci. Res. 22, 473-487]. The aim of the present study was to investigate the origin and the nature of the relevant environmental signals that allow this plasticity to be expressed, focusing on three neurotransmitters: 5-hydroxytryptamine, thyrotropin-releasing hormone and calcitonin-gene related peptide. The main results can be summarized as follows: (1) culturing cells in fetal calf serum ...
Production of thyroid hormones is regulated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis (Figure 22-2). Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) is produced in the hypothalamus and induces thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH or thyrotropin) production in the anterior pituitary. TSH, in turn, stimulates thyroid hormone production and release by the thyroid gland. TSH production is inversely related to plasma thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) concentrations. The 2 primary hormones synthesized and secreted by the thyroid gland are T4 and, in lesser quantities, T3 (Figure 22-3). They are transported by plasma proteins-notably thyroid-binding globulin (TBG), transthyretin, and albumin-to various tissue sites where T4 is deiodinated to the active form, T3, and the inactive form known as reverse T3 (rT3). Thyroid hormones act through nuclear hormone receptors that are transcription factors for numerous genes. These genes regulate a number of critical physiologic functions in development and metabolism. ...
TSH (with a half life of about an hour) stimulates the thyroid gland to secrete the hormone thyroxine (T4), which has only a slight effect on metabolism. T4 is converted to triiodothyronine (T3), which is the active hormone that stimulates metabolism. About 80% of this conversion is in the liver and other organs, and 20% in the thyroid itself.[1]. TSH is secreted throughout life but particularly reaches high levels during the periods of rapid growth and development, as well as in response to stress. The hypothalamus, in the base of the brain, produces thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH). TRH stimulates the anterior pituitary gland to produce TSH. Somatostatin is also produced by the hypothalamus, and has an opposite effect on the pituitary production of TSH, decreasing or inhibiting its release. The concentration of thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) in the blood regulates the pituitary release of TSH; when T3 and T4 concentrations are low, the production of TSH is increased, and, conversely, when T3 ...
Processes that regulate site of fat deposition in beef cattle are poorly understood. For the producer to procure the greatest profit, it is ideal to maximize intramuscular fat. Furthermore, to understand the physiological mechanisms affecting fat depots, it is necessary to evaluate hormones involved in growth regulation. Using a 2 x 2 factorial design of treatments, four experiments were conducted to examine two adipogenic compounds, chlortetracycline and dexamethasone. Synovex-S® and Revalor-S® were used to investigate potential interactions between growth implants and adipogenic compound. Growth performance, carcass quality, organ and fat mass and plasma hormone concentrations were measured in these studies. In Exp. 1, 24 steers received either 0 or 350mg chlortetracycline/d, with or without Synovex-S®. On d 30, 56 and 106, steers received a bolus injection of 1 ug/kg BW thyrotropin-releasing hormone and 0.1 ug/kg BW GH-releasing hormone and serial blood samples were collected. Synovex-S®
The pathological basis of multiple sclerosis involves damage to both myelin sheaths and axons. Demyelination and axonal transection are considered to cause reversible and irreversible neurological deficits respectively, gradually destroying the neuronal circuitry of the CNS. In order to analyse the individual effects of the pathological hallmarks of multiple sclerosis on neurons, the pontocerebellar pathway was targeted with either lysolecithin-induced chemical demyelination or complete pathway transection. Transcriptional changes in the pontocerebellar neuronal nuclei were investigated with microarrays at days 4, 10 and 37 post-intervention to identify underlying molecular responses. A common as well as unique set of injury response genes was identified in the transection and the demyelination conditions. The increased expression of activating transcription factor 3 (Atf3) and thyrotropin-releasing hormone (Trh) in both injury paradigms was validated by immunohistochemistry. Expression of Atf3 in a
The PRXamide family of neuropeptides is based on the core amino acids at the C-terminal end that are required for activity and on sequence homology of their cell-surface G protein-coupled receptors. The PRXamide family of neuropeptides includes the pyrokinins, pheromone biosynthesis-activating neuropeptides, diapause hormone, CAPA/periviscerokinins (aka cardioacceleratory peptide 2b), and ecdysis-triggering hormone found throughout the Insecta. The vertebrate homologues include neuromedin U because it has a PRNamide C-terminal sequence. The vertebrate G protein-coupled receptors that are homologous to the insect receptors also include receptors for ghrelin, motilin, and thyrotropin-releasing hormone in addition to the neuromedin U receptor. This review will not only summarize the recent literature on this neuropeptide family but also include recent information about the prevalence of the neuropeptides across the Insecta based primarily on genomic and transcriptomic sequence information. Information is
A lactotropic cell (also known as prolactin cell, epsilon acidophil, lactotrope, lactotroph, mammatroph, mammotroph) is a cell in the anterior pituitary which produces prolactin in response to hormonal signals including dopamine which is inhibitory and thyrotropin-releasing hormone which is stimulatory. Other regulators include oxytocin, estrogen and progesterone. Prolactin is involved in the maturation of mammary glands and their secretion of milk in association with oxytocin, estrogen, progesterone, glucocorticoids, and others. Prolactin has numerous other effects in both sexes. Prolactin cells are acidophilic by hematoxylin & eosin stains and comprise about 20% of all cells in the anterior pituitary gland. If these cells undergo neoplastic transformation, they will give rise to a prolactinoma, a prolactin-secreting pituitary adenoma. ...
PIT1 is a pituitary-specific transcription factor responsible for pituitary development and hormone expression in mammals and is a member of the POU family of transcription factors that regulate mammalian development. The POU family is so named because the first 3 members identified were PIT1 and OCT1 (MIM 164175) of mammals, and Unc-86 of C. elegans (Herr et al., 1988). PIT1 contains 2 protein domains, termed POU-specific and POU-homeo, which are both necessary for high affinity DNA binding on genes encoding growth hormone (GH; MIM 139250) and prolactin (PRL; MIM 176760). PIT1 is also important for regulation of the genes encoding prolactin and thyroid-stimulating hormone beta subunit (TSHB; MIM 188540) by thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH; MIM 257120) and cyclic AMP.[supplied by OMIM][1] ...