Recognition by scavenger receptor cysteine-rich domains on membrane proteins regulates innate and adaptive immune responses. Two receptors expressed primarily on T cells, CD5 and CD6, are linked genetically and are structurally similar, both containing three scavenger receptor cysteine-rich domains in their extracellular regions. A specific cell surface interaction for CD5 has been difficult to define at the molecular level because of the susceptibility of CD5 protein to denaturation. By using soluble CD5 purified at neutral pH to preserve biological activity, we show that CD5 mediates species-specific homophilic interactions. CD5 domain 1 only is involved in the interaction. CD5 mAbs that have functional effects in humans, rats, and mice block homophilic binding. Ag-specific responses by mouse T cells in vitro were increased when engagement of human CD5 domain 1 was inhibited by mutation or by IgG or Fab fragment from a CD5 mAb. This showed that homophilic binding results in productive ...
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The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR) superfamily, and is exclusively expressed in monocytes and macrophages. It functions as an acute phase-regulated receptor involved in the clearance and endocytosis of hemoglobin/haptoglobin complexes by macrophages, and may thereby protect tissues from free hemoglobin-mediated oxidative damage. This protein may also function as an innate immune sensor for bacteria and inducer of local inflammation. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011 ...
Summary is not available for the mouse gene. This summary is for the human ortholog.] This gene encodes a protein that belongs to the serine protease family. The encoded protein contains a serine protease domain, a transmembrane domain, an LDL receptor-like domain, and a scavenger receptor cysteine-rich domain. Serine proteases are known to be involved in a variety of biological processes, whose malfunction often leads to human diseases and disorders. This gene was identified by its association with both congenital and childhood onset autosomal recessive deafness. This gene is expressed in fetal cochlea and many other tissues, and is thought to be involved in the development and maintenance of the inner ear or the contents of the perilymph and endolymph. This gene was also identified as a tumor-associated gene that is overexpressed in ovarian tumors. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2012 ...
The accumulation of soluble oligomeric amyloid-β peptide (oAβ) proceeding the formation of senile plaques contributes to synaptic and memory deficits in Alzheimers disease. Our previous studies have indentified scavenger receptor A (SR-A), especially SR-A type I (SR-AI), as prominent scavenger receptors on mediating oAβ clearance by microglia while glycan moiety and scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR) domain may play the critical role. Macrophage receptor with collagenous structure (MARCO), another member of class A superfamily with a highly conserved SRCR domain, may also play the similar role on oAβ internalization. However, the role of N-glycosylation and SRCR domain of SR-AI and MARCO on oAβ internalization remains unclear. We found that oAβ internalization was diminished in the cells expressing SR-AI harboring mutations of dual N-glycosylation sites (i.e. N120Q-N143Q and N143Q-N184Q) while they were normally surface targeted. Normal oAβ internalization was observed in 10 SR-AI-SRCR and
Macrophage scavenger receptor 1, also known as MSR1, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the MSR1 gene. MSR1 has also recently been designated CD204 (cluster of differentiation 204). This gene encodes the class A macrophage scavenger receptors, which include three different types (1, 2, 3) generated by alternative splicing of this gene. These receptors or isoforms are trimeric integral membrane glycoproteins and have been implicated in many macrophage-associated physiological and pathological processes including atherosclerosis, Alzheimers disease, and host defense. They were thought to be expressed macrophage-specific, but recently shown to be present on different dendritic cells classes, too. The isoforms type 1 and type 2 are functional receptors and are able to mediate the endocytosis of modified low density lipoproteins (LDLs). The isoform type 3 does not internalize modified LDL (acetyl-LDL) despite having the domain shown to mediate this function in the types 1 and 2 isoforms. It ...
The protein encoded by this gene is similar to SCARF1/SREC-I, a scavenger receptor protein that mediates the binding and degradation of acetylated low density lipoprotein (Ac-LDL). This protein has only little activity of internalizing modified low density lipoproteins (LDL), but it can interact with SCARF1 through its extracellular domain. The association of this protein with SCARF1 is suppressed by the presence of scavenger ligands. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
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Scavenger receptors (SRs) are a superfamily of membrane-bound receptors that were initially thought to bind and internalize modified low-density lipoprotein (LDL), though it is currently known to bind to a variety of ligands including endogenous proteins and pathogens. New family of SRs and their properties have been identified in recent years, and have now been classified into 10 eukaryote families, defined as Classes A-J. These receptors are classified according to their sequences, although in each class they are further classified based in the variations of the sequence. Their ability to bind a range of ligands is reflected on the biological functions such as clearance of modified lipoproteins and pathogens. SR members regulate pathophysiological states including atherosclerosis, pathogen infections, immune surveillance, and cancer. Here, we review our current understanding of SR structure and function implicated in health and disease.
Abcam provides specific protocols for Anti-Macrophage Scavenger Receptor I antibody (ab123946) : Immunohistochemistry protocols, Immunocytochemistry &…
Binds to extracellular matrix proteins. Binds to pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) present on the cell walls of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and fungi, behaving as a pattern recognition receptor (PRR). Induces bacterial and fungal aggregation and subsequent inhibition of PAMP-induced cytokine release. Does not possess intrinsic bactericidal activity. May play a role in the innate defense and homeostasis of certain epithelial surfaces (By similarity).
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The macrophage scavenger receptor 1 (Msr1, also called SRA)is a pattern recognition receptor primarily expressed on myeloid cells, playing an important role in the maintenance of immune homeostasis. Since MSR1 expression was up-regulated in the livers of patients with fulminant hepatitis (FH), we investigated the functional mechanism of Msr1 as related to FH pathogenesis. METHODS: Msr1-deficient (Msr1(-/-)) mice and their wild-type (WT) littermates were infected with mouse hepatitis virus strain-A59 (MHV-A59) to induce FH, and the levels of tissue damage, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), inflammatory cytokines and complement C5a were measured and compared ...
MSR1 antibody (macrophage scavenger receptor 1) for ELISA, FACS, ICC/IF, IHC-F, IHC-P, WB. Anti-MSR1 pAb (GTX51749) is tested in Human, Mouse, Rat samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
The results presented here demonstrate that the endocytic clearance of acetyl-LDL from the surface of mouse macrophages is slow compared with the clearance of LDL. Following this slowed clearance, acetyl-LDL joins LDL in the late endosomes/lysosomes. Surface-retained acetyl-LDL appears in fine dots in the cell periphery, and it is accessible from the extracellular space, as demonstrated by TNBS quenching. Quantitative fluorescence measurements further reveal that surface-retained acetyl-LDL (slow component of internalization) accounts for more than 40% of total cell-associated acetyl-LDL. Surface-retained acetyl-LDL is resistant to release by fucoidin. Electron microscopy studies confirmed the fluorescence microscopy results and showed that acetyl-LDL was frequently associated with microvilli or ruffles, especially at the base or intersections of these projections.. It is not immediately clear why fucoidin failed to release surface-retained acetyl-LDL. As shown in Figs 9⇑ and 10⇑, it is not ...
Gene Information The scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR) superfamily is an ancient and highly conserved group of cell surface and/or secreted proteins some of which are involved in the development of the immune system and the regulation of both innate and adaptive immune responses. Group B SRCR domains usually contain 8 regularly spaced cysteines that give rise to a well-defined intradomain disulfide-bond pattern.[supplied by OMIM Apr 2004]. ...
SiliaMetS TAAcOH is an effective scavenger for metals in low or zero oxidation states, which includes many of the most synthetically useful catalysts. Best scavenger for: Ca, Co, Ir, Li, Mg, Ni, Os, Ru & Sc. Good scavenger for: Cr, Cs, Fe, Pd, Rh & Sn.
Complete information for SSC4D gene (Protein Coding), Scavenger Receptor Cysteine Rich Family Member With 4 Domains, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Unique proposal ideas include a scavenger hunt and a return to the place where the couple first met. These ideas incorporate fun and adventure into the proposal without being overplayed, as in a...
Compare Scavenger Receptor Class B, Member 1 ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations, reviews, and more.
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Christiane Danilo, Jorge L Gutierrez-Pajares, Maria Antonietta Mainieri, Isabelle Mercier, Michael P Lisanti, Philippe G Frank].
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine (eCAM) is an international peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that seeks to understand the sources and to encourage rigorous research in this new, yet ancient world of complementary and alternative medicine.
Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease that is characterised by the involvement of chemokines that are important for the recruitment of leukocytes and scavenger receptors that mediate foam cell formation. Several cytokines are involved in the regulation of chemokines and scavenger receptors in atherosclerosis. CXCL16 is a chemokine and scavenger receptor and found in macrophages in human atherosclerotic lesions. Using double-labelled immunohistochemistry, we identified that smooth muscle cells in human lesions express CXCL16. We then analysed the effects of IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, IL-12, IL-15, IL-18, and LPS on CXCL16 expression in cultured aortic smooth muscle cells. IFN-gamma was the most potent CXCL16 inducer and increased mRNA, soluble form, membrane form, and total cellular levels of CXCL16. The IFN-gamma induction of CXCL16 was also associated with increased uptake of oxLDL into these cells. Taken together, smooth muscle cells express CXCL16 in atherosclerotic lesions, which may play a ...
Der Scavenger Receptor BI (SR-BI) vermittelt den selective lipid transfer von Cholesterol und Vitamin E aus HDL in die Leber. Die zelluläre Aufnahme verschiedener Lipide aus HDL über den selben Mechanismus, vermittelt durch den selben Rezeptor wirft die Frage auf, ob diese Aufnahmeprozesse einander beeinflussen. Aktuelle Forschungsergebnisse zeigen, daß die Aufnahme von neutralen Lipiden (Cholesterolester, Triacylglycerol) aus HDL in die Zelle von der Lipidzusammensetzung der Donorpartikel abhängen könnte. Wir untersuchten, ob der Vitamin-E-Gehalt von HDL die Aufnahme und den Efflux von Cholesterol in und aus HepG2-Zellen beeinflußt. Die Inkubation von HepG2-Zellen mit [3H]Cholesterol-markiertem HDL mit ansteigendem Vitamin-E-Gehalt ergab eine steigende Aufnahme von Vitamin E, während sich die Cholesterolaufnahme nicht veränderte. Der erhöhte zelluläre Gehalt an Vitamin E bewirkte eine Reduktion der PKC-Alpha- und SR-BI-Expression in Verbindung mit einem erniedrigten Cholesterolefflux ...
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Over the past few years, growing evidences revealed that clearance of apoptotic cells by phagocytosis can result in powerful anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects. In vivo, apoptotic cells are cleared rapidly by neighboring cells, macrophages and related scavengers. Defective clearance of apoptotic cells has been linked closely to autoimmunity and persistent inflammatory disease. Several phagocytic receptors, bridging molecules produced by phagocytes and eat-me signals on apoptotic cells are coordinately involved in mediating clearance of apoptotic cells. Complement receptors (CR3, CR4), collection, CD14, CD36 (Class B scavenger receptor), class A scavenger receptor, asialoprotein receptor, Mer receptor kinase were reported to recognize apoptotic cells. The best characterized system for clearance of apoptotic cells is the recognition of phosphatidylserine (PS) on apoptotic cells by phosphatidylserine receptor (PSR). Milk fat globule- epidermal growth factor 8 (MFG-E8) is an opsonin ...
Tan, J., Prosser, H., Dunn, L., Vanags, L., Ridiandries, A., Tsatralis, T., Leece, L., Clayton, Z., Yuen, S., Robertson, S., Lam, M., Celermajer, D., Ng, M., Bursill, C. (2016). High Density Lipoproteins Rescue Diabetes-Impaired Angiogenesis via Scavenger Receptor Class B Type I. Diabetes, 65(10), 3091-3103. [More Information] ...
article{a4a89a77-6245-40ad-adfc-12ba8e92c5b8, abstract = {OBJECTIVE: Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease. Several chemokines are important for monocyte/macrophage and T-cell recruitment to the lesion. CXCL16 is a recently discovered chemokine that is expressed in soluble and transmembrane forms, ligates CXCR6 chemokine receptor, and guides migration of activated Th1 and Tc1 cells. It is identical to scavenger receptor SR-PSOX, which mediates uptake of oxidized low-density lipoprotein. We investigated whether CXCL16 expression is controlled by interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma)-cytokine abundant in atherosclerotic lesions. METHODS AND RESULTS: CXCL16 and CXCR6 expression was identified by polymerase chain reaction and histochemistry in atherosclerotic lesions from humans and apolipoprotein-E-deficient mice. In vitro IFN-gamma induced CXCL16 in human monocytic THP-1 cells and primary human monocytes, which led to increased uptake of oxidized low-density lipoprotein in THP-1 cells, which could be ...
Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumors-1 protein (DMBT1), salivary agglutinin (DMBT1SAG), and lung glycoprotein-340 (DMBT1GP340) are three names for glycoproteins encoded by the same DMBT1 gene. All these proteins belong to the scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR) superfamily of proteins: a superfamily of secreted or membrane-bound proteins with SRCR domains that are highly conserved down to sponges, the most ancient metazoa. In addition to SRCR domains, all DMBT1s contain two CUB domains and one zona pellucida domain. The SRCR domains play a role in the function of DMBT1s, which is the binding of a broad range of pathogens including cariogenic streptococci, Helicobacter pylori and HIV. Mucosal defense proteins like IgA, surfactant proteins and lactoferrin also bind to DMBT1s through their SRCR domains. The binding motif on the SRCR domains comprises an 11-mer peptide in which a few amino acids are essential for binding (GRVEVLYRGSW). Adjacent to each individual SRCR domain are glycosylation domains,
Receptors involved in innate immunity to fungal pathogens have not been fully elucidated. We show that the Caenorhabditis elegans receptors CED-1 and C03F11.3, and their mammalian orthologues, the scavenger receptors SCARF1 and CD36, mediate host defense against two prototypic fungal pathogens, Cryptococcus neoformans and Candida albicans. CED-1 and C03F11.1 mediated antimicrobial peptide production and were necessary for nematode survival after C. neoformans infection. SCARF1 and CD36 mediated cytokine production and were required for macrophage binding to C. neoformans, and control of the infection in mice. Binding of these pathogens to SCARF1 and CD36 was β-glucan dependent. Thus, CED-1/SCARF1 and C03F11.3/CD36 are β-glucan binding receptors and define an evolutionarily conserved pathway for the innate sensing of fungal pathogens ...
Our laboratory focusses on understanding how enveloped viruses attach to and enter cells to initiate viral replication and immunological responses that prevent infection with a vision to develop the worlds first preventative HCV vaccine for HCV elimination. Hepatitis C Virus contains two envelope glycoproteins, E1 and E2, that function as a heterodimer to mediate attachment and virus-cell membrane fusion. The viral glycoprotein E2 is primarily responsible for receptor binding to scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SRB1) and CD81. Antibodies directed towards regions of E2 that interfere with SRB1 or CD81 binding, block virus entry and are neutralizing antibodies. Therefore, understanding the structure of E2, how it interacts with both cellular receptors and how antibodies prevent these interactions are pivotal for vaccine development. Through our studies, we have identified a leading HCV vaccine candidate (HepSeeVaxDelta3) that we are currently assessing in preclinical studies as a recombinant ...
FUNCTION: [Summary is not available for the mouse gene. This summary is for the human ortholog.] This gene encodes the class A macrophage scavenger receptors, which include three different types (1, 2, 3) generated by alternative splicing of this gene. These receptors or isoforms are macrophage-specific trimeric integral membrane glycoproteins and have been implicated in many macrophage-associated physiological and pathological processes including atherosclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, and host defense. The isoforms type 1 and type 2 are functional receptors and are able to mediate the endocytosis of modified low density lipoproteins (LDLs). The isoform type 3 does not internalize modified LDL (acetyl-LDL) despite having the domain shown to mediate this function in the types 1 and 2 isoforms. It has an altered intracellular processing and is trapped within the endoplasmic reticulum, making it unable to perform endocytosis. The isoform type 3 can inhibit the function of isoforms type 1 and ...
OBJECTIVE-Scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) is a cell-surface HDL receptor that is implicated in reverse cholesterol transport and protection against ...
Discussion. The results suggest that the largest community of scavengers is present during the first 11 days of access, when the carcasses contain the most meat. The longer the amount of time that has passed, the less meat is available to the scavengers. By Day 12, when bones were visible on the carcasses, the three most common scavengers dropped in number significantly (p = 0.0003). Hooded vultures remained at a relatively constant average across the days, suggesting they do not have a preference for which part of the carcass they consume.. The largest of the avian scavengers, the marabou stork, was the most common scavenger for the majority of the time at the carcasses. Given that it has the greatest body mass, of 9 kilograms, the marabou stork most likely had dominance over the scavenger guild and therefore remained at the carcasses for the longest amount of time (Wallace, 1987). The smallest avian scavenger, the sacred ibis (1.35 kilograms), would therefore have the least amount of dominance ...
Accumulation of foam cells containing cholesterol in arterial intima is a key event in the early stages of atherosclerosis (Paulson et al., 2010). Exposure to TLR agonists such as LPS or CpG oligodeoxynucleotide converts macrophages into foam cells (Kalayoglu and Byrne, 1998). There are various types of essential factors that contribute to foam cell formation. Among them, scavenger receptors that uptake modified lipoproteins are known to be critical (Badimón et al., 2009). TLRs directly cause inflammatory responses and induce the expression of specific scavenger receptors, such as lectin-like oxidized low density lipoprotein receptor 1 (Lee et al., 2008b). Although it is clear that PKC-PLD signaling participates in mechanisms that increase atherosclerosis, few research studies have addressed the function of RGS2 and the PKC-PLD pathway in the development of atherosclerosis.. The present results demonstrate that the PKC-η-PLD2 signaling pathway decreases LPS-induced RSG2 expression, thereby ...
Rabbit polyclonal Scavenger Receptor BI + BII antibody validated for WB, IP, BL, ICC/IF and tested in Human and Mouse. Referenced in 3 publications. Immunogen…
A brief communication: Enhanced CD36 scavenger receptor expression in THP-1 human monocytes in the presence of lupus plasma: Linking autoimmunity and atherosclerosis. Experimental Biology and Medicine. 2009 ...
Dendritic cells are the most potent antigen presenting cells responsible for the development of immune responses in cancer. However, it is known that the function of dendritic cells in tumor-bearing hosts is severely compromised. Our previous studies demonstrated that the defects in dendritic cell function are due, to a large extent, to the accumulation of high amounts of lipids--predominantly triglycerides--in a substantial proportion of dendritic cells in tumor-bearing mice and patients with cancer. The dendritic cells accumulation of lipids is likely associated with their up-regulation of a scavenger receptor A. This receptor is primarily responsible for uptake of modified lipids. Here, by using different versions of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, we identified several molecular species of oxygenated lipids in plasma of tumor-bearing animals that may be responsible for their uptake and accumulation by dendritic cells via scavenger receptor A-dependent pathway--the effect that may be ...
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Scavenger receptors (SRs) expressed on the activated macrophages in inflammation sites have been considered as the most interesting and important target biomarker for targeted drug delivery, imaging and therapy. In the present study, we fabricated the scavenger receptor-A (SR-A) targeted-photoactivatable nanoagents (termed as Ce6/DS-DOCA) by entrapping chlorin e6 (Ce6) into the amphiphilic dextran ...
Alfa Aesar™ QuadraPure™ DET, 450-650 micron, metal scavenger 5g Alfa Aesar™ QuadraPure™ DET, 450-650 micron, metal scavenger Polymers
5- Oxidized LDL taken up by macrophages through scavenger receptor and this leads to extreme release of IL1 and TNF which inturn attract even more monocytes and stimulate smooth muscle cell and fibroblast proliferation ...
Schematic representation of human SR-AI, SR-AII, and SR-AI variants. Constructs 430, 407, 371, and 341 were SR-AI variants with truncated SRCR domains. Construc
[114 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Global Formaldehyde Scavengers Sales Market Report 2017 report by QYResearch Group. In this report, the global Formaldehyde Scavengers market is valued...
The second annual Great Culver City Scavenger Hunt will take place on Sunday, April 10th from 10 a.m. to 1 p.m. Registration is open to all and will take place
Its your body, so why not be an expert on it? Youll find the answers to all of these questions in the How the Body Works section. Happy hunting!
This green off-hand frill of item level 31 goes in the Held In Off-hand slot. It is looted from Bloodscalp Scavenger. In the Off-hand Frills category.
Shad Darshan - Sankhya and Yoga:. General. Since Hinduism has its base in Vedas and Vedas are considered words of God directly revealed to the great Rishis, Hinduism is not considered as a philosophy. Hinduism is the Vedic way of describing the Absolute Truth. Vedas are considered eternal (without any origin), authorless (apaurusheya - means not the work of mankind or beyond human imagination), and infallible (never wrong). The directly revealed words of God are considered as the form of God. "mada vāni, mada rupam", meaning, "My words are my form." It is considered as one of the ways of understanding or claiming the Truth, just like any other religious philosophies. It will be surprising to know that almost all religious philosophies agree to believe that the "Truth" or "Absolute" is one, but it is equally surprising that the claimants or claimers are many! Because, Hinduism is not considered as a philosophy but is considered as the first hand or direct information about the truth, the ...