PACAP receptor antibody (adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide 1 (pituitary) receptor type I) for IHC-P, WB. Anti-PACAP receptor pAb (GTX30026) is tested in Human, Mouse, Rat samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
This is a receptor for PACAP-27 and PACAP-38. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins which activate adenylyl cyclase. May regulate the release of adrenocorticotropin, luteinizing hormone, growth hormone, prolactin, epinephrine, and catecholamine. May play a role in spermatogenesis and sperm motility. Causes smooth muscle relaxation and secretion in the gastrointestinal tract (By similarity).
TY - JOUR. T1 - The effect of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide on elevated plus maze behavior and hypothermia induced by morphine withdrawal. AU - Lipták, Nándor. AU - Dochnal, Roberta. AU - Babits, Anikó. AU - Csabafi, Krisztina. AU - Szakács, Júlia. AU - Tóth, Gábor. AU - Szabó, Gyula. PY - 2012/2/1. Y1 - 2012/2/1. N2 - The aim of the present investigation was to study the effects of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) on morphine withdrawal-induced behavioral changes and hypothermia in male CFLP mice. Elevated plus maze (EPM) and jump tests were used to assess naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal-induced behavior responses. Different doses of subcutaneous (s.c.) naloxone, (0.1 and 0.2. mg/kg, respectively) were used to precipitate the emotional and psychical aspects of withdrawal on EPM and 1. mg/kg (s.c.) was used to induce the somatic withdrawal signs such as jumping, and the changes in body temperature. In our EPM studies, naloxone ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Changes of dopamine content and cell proliferation by dexamethsone via pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide in PC12 cell. AU - Yang, Ting Ting. AU - Tsao, Chiung Wen. AU - Li, Jin Shiou. AU - Wu, Hung Tsung. AU - Hsu, Chao Tien. AU - Cheng, Juei Tang. PY - 2007/10/9. Y1 - 2007/10/9. N2 - Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is an endogenous neuropeptide observed in adrenal gland and sympathetic ganglia to regulate catecholamine synthesis and release. Both PACAP and glucocorticoid showed the activity to elevate catecholamine level through the stimulation of biosynthesis. However, the relationship of glucocorticoid and PACAP for this action is still unclear. Thus, alterations of gene expression, dopamine (DA) content, and cell proliferation in rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells are employed as indicators to clarify this relationship in the present study. From the analysis of RT-PCR, the mRNA level of PACAP was observed to be raised by dexamethasone ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide prevents cytokine-induced cytotoxicity via inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in βTC cells. AU - Sekiya, Kayo. AU - Nagasaki, Hiroshi. AU - Ozaki, Nobuaki. AU - Suzuki, Atsushi. AU - Miura, Yoshitaka. AU - Oiso, Yutaka. PY - 2000/11/11. Y1 - 2000/11/11. N2 - Type 1 diabetes mellitus is an autoimmune disease resulting from apoptotic destruction of pancreatic β-cells. The activation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) by inflammatory cytokines is considered a mediator of destruction in β-cells. Recent findings showed that the neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), whose distribution was identified in pancreatic neurons, inhibited nitric oxide (NO) production in cytokine-activated macrophages. In the present study, we investigated the cytoprotective effect of PACAP in the cytokine-exposed mice β-cell line, βTC cells. 1 x 10 -8 M PACAP inhibited the reduction of cell ...
Article Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide 38-mediated rin activation requires src and contributes to the regulation of hsp27 signaling during neuronal differentiation. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide 38 (PACAP38) i...
Photoaffinity labeling analysis of the interaction of pituitary adenylate-cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) with the PACAP type I receptor -- Cao et al. 244 (2): 400 -- FEBS Journal: YJ Cao, E Kojro, G Gimpl, M Jasionowski, F Kasprzykowski, L Lankiewicz and F Fahrenholz Max-Planck-Institut fur Biophysik, Frankfurt am Main, Germany. To identify residues and domains of…
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) plays several important roles in vasodilation, neurotransmission, neuromodulation and neurotrophy, as well as activation of the trigeminovascular system. The aim of the present study was to explore the relationship between altered PACAP levels in peripheral blood and different types of headache. The present study enrolled 101 outpatients with headache and 35 healthy control volunteers. Blood samples were collected from the cubital vein and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were separated. Total mRNA in the PBMCs was extracted and the expression of PACAP mRNA was analyzed by quantitative-polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR). There was a significant decrease in PACAP mRNA expression in the PBMCs of the migraine (M) group relative to the healthy control group. However, there were no significant differences in PACAP mRNA expression between the control group and tension-type headache (TTH), cluster headache (CH), or medication overuse headache
Neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) on mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons ...
A multi-function neuropeptide that acts throughout the body by elevating intracellular cyclic AMP level via its interaction with PACAP RECEPTORS. Although first isolated from hypothalamic extracts and named for its action on the pituitary, it is widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous systems. PACAP is important in the control of endocrine and homeostatic processes, such as secretion of pituitary and gut hormones and food intake ...
Chemical-registry-number] 0 / ADCYAP1R1 protein, human; 0 / JV 1-53; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Cell Surface; 0 / Receptors, Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide; 0 / Receptors, Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide, Type I; 0 / Receptors, Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide; 0 / Receptors, Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide, Type II; 0 / Receptors, Vasoactive Intestinal Polypeptide, Type I; 0 / VIPR1 protein, human; 0 / VIPR2 protein, human; 37221-79-7 / Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide; 9034-39-3 / Growth Hormone-Releasing ...
It has been observed that pituitary-adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) rescued DAergic neurons from neurodegeneration and improved motor alterations induced by 6-hydroxy-dopamine (6-OHDA) in rat parkinsonian models. Recently we investigated the molecular background of the neuroprotective effect of PACAP in DA-based neurodegeneration using rotenone-induced snail and 6-OHDA-induced rat models of Parkinsons disease. The behavioural activity, monoamine (DA and serotonin), metabolic enzyme (S-COMT, MB-COMT and MAO-B) and PARK7/DJ-1 protein contents were measured before and after PACAP-treatment in both models.. Locomotion and feeding activity were decreased in rotenone-treated snails which corresponded well to findings obtained in 6-OHDA- induced rat experiments. PACAP was able to prevent the behavioural malfunctions caused by the toxins. The monoamine levels decreased in both models and the decreased DA level induced by toxins was attenuated by ∼50% in the PACAP-treated animals. In ...
One of the first studies to show convincing proof of agonist-specific states was transfection studies using the type-1 pituitary adenylyl cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) receptor. The agonists (PACAP-27 and -38) stimulated adenylate cyclase (AC) with equal potencies, but only PACAP-38 could invoke the inositol phosphate response through phospholipase C (PLC) (Spengler et al., 1993). In subsequent work, the authors document the existence of a new splice variant of the PACAP receptor that was characterized by a 21-amino acid deletion in the N-terminal extracellular domain. They demonstrated that this domain modulates the receptor selectivity with respect to PACAP-27 and -38 binding and controls the relative potencies of the two agonists in phospholipase C stimulation (Pantaloni et al., 1996).. One of the first examples of agonist-specific states from mutational analysis was a Cys to Phe mutation in TM3 of the α1b-AR, a helix-turn below the critical Asp 125 involved in binding the ...
21 April 2017:. A new paper from CNBP researchers (lead author Wenjie Chen pictured) reports on the design of a new light-triggerable liposome. The work has just been published in the journal Molecular Therapy: Nucleic Acid and is accessible online.. Journal: Molecular Therapy: Nucleic Acid.. Title: Light-triggerable liposomes for enhanced endo/lysosomal escape and gene silencing in PC12 cells.. Authors: Wenjie Chen, Wei Deng, Ewa M. Goldys.. Abstract: Liposomes are an effective gene/drug delivery system, widely used in biomedical applications including gene therapy and chemotherapy. Here we designed a photo-responsive liposome (lipVP) loaded with a photosensitizer verteporfin (VP). This photosensitizer is clinically approved for photodynamic therapy (PDT). LipVP was employed as a DNA carrier for pituitary adenylyl cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) receptor 1 (PAC1R) gene knockdown in PC12 cells. This has been done by incorporating PAC1R antisense oligonucleotides inside the lipVP cavity. ...
The pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a peptide hormone, which binds to the pituitary adenylate cyclase type I (PAC1) receptor, and is recognized as a factor with pleiotropic physiological functions in many different organ systems. The PAC1R receptor is a G-protein coupled receptor and is part of the glucagon superfamily. The structure for the ectodomains of PAC1 receptor has been determined by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and x-ray crystallography. However, the binding pose of PACAP remains debatable as the structure from NMR shows different topology from the structure derived from x-ray crystallography. In this study, we used molecular dynamic simulations to effectively understand the most stable and reliable interaction between this neuropeptide and its receptor. The binding pocket of PAC1 and interaction between PACAP and PAC1 receptor will be used to design PAC1 receptor peptidomimetics and small molecular antagonists.
Harmar AJ, Arimura A, Gozes I, Journot L, Laburthe M, Pisegna JR, Rawlings SR, Robberecht P, Said SI, Sreedaran SP, Wank SA, Waschek JA. 1998. International Union of Pharmacology. XVIII. Nomenclature of receptors for vasoactive intestinal peptide and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide. Pharmacol Rev 50:265-270 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Changes in expression of neuropeptides and their receptors in the hypothalamus and gastrointestinal tract of calorie restricted hens. AU - Simon, Ádám. AU - Oláh, János. AU - Komlósi, István. AU - Jávor, András. AU - Németh, József. AU - Szilvássy, Zoltán. AU - Reglodi, Dóra. AU - Tamás, Andrea. AU - Czeglédi, Levente. PY - 2017/9. Y1 - 2017/9. N2 - The list of orexigenic and anorexigenic peptides, those are known to alter feed intake, is continuously growing. However, most of them are studied in mammalian species. We aimed to investigate plasma level and mRNA expression of the pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), gene expression of its receptor (PAC1), furthermore the gene expression of galanin (GAL), neuromedin U (NMU), and its two receptors (NMUR1 and NMUR2) in the hypothalamus, proventriculus, and jejunum of hens exposed to 40% calorie restriction. Feed restriction resulted in a 88% increase in mRNA and a 27% increase in peptide level of ...
Affiliation:宮崎大学,医学部,助教, Research Field:Otorhinolaryngology,Otorhinolaryngology, Keywords:パッチクランプ,Endolymph,RT-PCR,Basigin,Endocochlear potential,Cochlea,Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide,In situ hybridization,血管条,分子生物学, # of Research Projects:4, # of Research Products:6
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) was originally isolated from the ovine brain in 1989 as a novel hypothalamic hormone that potently
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PACAP is a pleiotropic neuropeptide that belongs to the secreting/glucagon/VIP family. PACAP functions as a hypothalamic hormone, neurotransmitter, neuromodulator, vasodilator, and neurotrophic factor. Its structure has been remarkably conserved during evolution. The PACAP receptor is G protein-coupled with seven transmembrane domains and also belongs to the VIP receptor family. PACAP, but not VIP, binds to PAC,SUB,1,/SUB,-R, whereas PACAP and VIP bind to VPAC,SUB,1,/SUB,-R and VPAC,SUB,2,/SUB,-R with a similar affinity. Despite the sizable homology of the structures of PACAP and VIP and their receptors, the distribution of these peptides and receptors is quite different. At least eight subtypes of PACAP specific, or PAC,SUB,1,/SUB,-R, result from alternate splicing. Each subtype is coupled with specific signaling pathways, and its expression is tissue or cell specific. Although PACAP fulfills most requirements for a physiological hypothalamic hypophysiotropic hormone, it does not consistently ...
JNeurosci Print ISSN: 0270-6474 Online ISSN: 1529-2401. The ideas and opinions expressed in JNeurosci do not necessarily reflect those of SfN or the JNeurosci Editorial Board. Publication of an advertisement or other product mention in JNeurosci should not be construed as an endorsement of the manufacturers claims. SfN does not assume any responsibility for any injury and/or damage to persons or property arising from or related to any use of any material contained in JNeurosci.. ...
In the goldfish pituitary, nerve fibers containing pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) are located in close proximity to somatolactin (SL)-producing cells, and PACAP enhances SL release from cultured pituitary cells. However, there is little information about the mechanism of PACAP-induced SL release. In order to elucidate this issue, we used the cell immunoblot method. Treatment with PACAP at 10−8 and 10−7 M, but not with vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) at the same concentrations, increased the immunoblot area for SL-like immunoreactivity from dispersed pituitary cells, and PACAP-induced SL release was blocked by treatment with the PACAP selective receptor (PAC1R) antagonist, PACAP(6-38), at 10−6 M, but not with the PACAP/VIP receptor antagonist, VIP(6-28). PACAP-induced SL release was also attenuated by treatment with the calmodulin inhibitor, calmidazolium at 10−6 M. This led us to explore the signal transduction mechanism up to SL release, and we ...
Autonomic control of cardiac function depends on the coordinated activity generated by neurons within the intracardiac ganglia, and intrinsic feedback loops within the ganglia provide precise control of cardiac function. Both pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) are important regulators of cell-to-cell signaling within the intracardiac ganglia, and PACAP and VIP action on these ganglia, mediated through associated receptors, play an important role in the regulation of coronary blood flow, cardiac contraction, relaxation, and heart rate. Results reported here using PACAP and VIP provide direct evidence of some of the complex signaling which occurs in neurons of the rat intracardiac ganglia.
A migraine attack is an extraordinarily complex brain event that takes place over hours to days. This review focuses on recent human studies that shed light on the evolution of a migraine attack. It begins with a constellation of premonitory symptoms that are associated with activation of the hypothalamus and may involve the neurotransmitter dopamine. Even in the premonitory phase, patients experience sensitivity to sensory stimuli, indicating that central sensitization is a primary phenomenon. The migraine attack progresses to a phase that in some patients includes aura, which involves changes in cortical function, blood flow, and neurovascular coupling. The aura phase overlaps with the headache phase, which is associated with further changes in blood flow and function of the brainstem, thalamus, hypothalamus, and cortex. Serotonin receptors, nitric oxide, calcitonin gene-related peptide, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide, and prostanoids are demonstrated specific chemical ...
Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) contribute to the cellular uptake of cationic cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs). However, molecular details about the contributions of GAGs in CPP internalization remain unclear. In this study, we examined the cellular uptake mechanism of the arginine-rich CPP pituitary adenylate-cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP). We observed that the uptake efficacy of PACAP is dependent on the expression of cell surface GAGs. As the binding of PACAP to sulfated GAGs induced a random coil-to-α-helix conformational conversion, we investigated the role of the helical formation in PACAP internalization. Whereas this secondary structure was not crucial for efficient internalization in GAGs-deficient cells, PACAP α-helix was essential for GAGs-dependent uptake.. ...
DI-fusion, le Dépôt institutionnel numérique de lULB, est loutil de référencementde la production scientifique de lULB.Linterface de recherche DI-fusion permet de consulter les publications des chercheurs de lULB et les thèses qui y ont été défendues.
Protein ubiquitination is a key regulatory process essential to life at a cellular level; significant efforts have been made to identify ubiquitinated proteins through proteomics studies but the level of success has not reached that of heavily studied post-translational modifications such as phosphorylation. of more than 400 ubiquitinated Phentolamine HCl proteins a fraction of which were found to be sensitive to HRD1 and were therefore deemed candidate substrates. In a second approach ubiquitinated peptides were enriched after tryptic digestion by peptide immunoprecipitation using an antibody specific for the diglycine-labeled internal lysine residue indicative of protein ubiquitination with peptides and ubiquitination sites identified by LC-MS/MS. Peptide immunoprecipitation resulted in identification of over 1800 ubiquitinated peptides on over 900 proteins in each study with several proteins emerging as sensitive to HRD1 levels. Notably significant overlap exists between the HRD1 substrates ...
Reduced expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in mice deficient for pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide type-I-receptor ...
Breast cancer vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) receptors were characterized. Using in vitro autoradiographic techniques, 125I-labeled VIP bound with high affinity to breast biopsy sections. 125I-labeled VIP bound specifically to five breast cancer cell lines examined using receptor-binding techniques. Specific 125I-labeled VIP binding to MDA-MB-231 cells was inhibited with high affinity by VIP and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (ICb50 = 2 nm) and with moderate affinity by the VIP hybrid (IC50 = 0.5 µm) VIP elevated the cAMP in a dose-dependent manner, and VIP hybrid (10 µm) inhibited the increase in cAMP caused by VIP. Using Northern blot analysis, VIP (10 nm) stimulated c-fos and c-myc mRNA, and the increase caused by VIP was reversed by the VIP hybrid. The VIP hybrid inhibited breast cancer growth in vitro and in vivo using nude mice bearing breast cancer xenografts. These data suggest that the VIP hybrid is a breast cancer VIP receptor antagonist.. ...
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Horváth, G and Németh, J and Brubel, R and Opper, B and Koppán, M and Tamás, A and Szereday, L and Reglődi, D (2016) Occurrence and Functions of PACAP in the Placenta. In: Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase Activating Polypeptide - PACAP. Current Topics in Neurotoxicity . Springer International Publishing, pp. 389-403. ISBN 978-3-319-35135-3 (In Press) ...
Recent studies have identified the Class B g-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide type 1 (PAC1R) as a key component in physiological stress management. Over-activity of neurological stress response systems due to prolonged or extreme exposure to traumatic events has led researchers to investigate PAC1R inhibition as a possible treatment for anxiety disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In 2008, Beebe and coworkers identified two such small molecule hydrazide antagonists and a general pharmacaphore for PAC1R inhibition. However, a relative dearth of information about Class B GPCRs in general, and PAC1R in specific, has significantly hindered progress toward the development of small molecule antagonists of PAC1R. The recent crystallization of the homologically similar glucagon receptor (GCGR) by Siu and coworkers in 2013, also a Class B receptor, has provided an experimentally resolved template from which to base computationally derived
PACAP (1-38), Human, Ovine, Rat, 10 mg. Kojro et al. observed that the PAC1 agonists PACAP-27 and PACAP-38 strongly increased the activity of ��-secretase.
PACAP (1-38), Human, Ovine, Rat, 5 mg. Kojro et al. observed that the PAC1 agonists PACAP-27 and PACAP-38 strongly increased the activity of ��-secretase.
Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a pleiotropic neuropeptide with widespread distribution. It plays pivotal role in neuronal development. PACAP-immunoreactive fibers have been found in the tooth pulp, and recently, it has been shown that PACAP may also play a role in the regeneration of the periodontium after luxation injuries. However, there is no data about the effect of endogenous PACAP on tooth development. Ectodermal organogenesis including tooth development is regulated by different members of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), hedgehog (HH), and Wnt families. There is also a growing evidence to support the hypothesis that PACAP interacts with sonic hedgehog (SHH) receptor (PTCH1) and its downstream target (Gli1) suggesting its role in tooth development. Therefore, our aim was to study molar tooth development in mice lacking endogenous PACAP. In this study morphometric, immunohistochemical and structural comparison of molar teeth ...
The two sister peptides, pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and their receptors, the PAC1 -and the VPAC2 receptors, are involved in regulation of the circadian timing system. PACAP as a neurotransmitter in the retinohypothalamic tract (RHT) and VIP as a neurotransmitter, involved in synchronization of SCN neurons. Behavior and physiology in VPAC2 deficient mice are strongly regulated by light most likely as a result of masking. Consequently, we used VPAC2 and PAC1/VPAC2 double mutant mice in comparison with PAC1 receptor deficient mice to further elucidate the role of PACAP in the light mediated regulation of behavior and physiology of the circadian system ...
Autoimmune dysfunction of certain vasoactive neuropeptides (e.g., vasoactive intestinal peptide, pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide) m
Pro Pac, including Pro Pac - NutRNipz Dog Biscuit Treats, Pro Pac - Woof Em Down Sticks Dog Treats, Pro Pac - Smoky Sausage Bites Dog Treats, Pro..
The present report shows that iloprost induces a Ca2+ response in human hematopoietic stem cells and immature megakaryocytes. Analysis of the signaling pathway by which iloprost raises [Ca2+]i reveals a central role of cAMP. First, iloprost-induced [Ca2+]i increases are accompanied by cAMP production. Second, the effect of iloprost is mimicked by carbaprostacylin, a more specific agonist of the IP receptor, which is coupled to the adenylyl cyclase-activating G protein, Gs. Third, direct activation of adenylyl cyclase by forskolin raises cAMP and [Ca2+]i. Fourth, the phosphodiesterase inhibitor IBMX, which prevents cAMP breakdown, induces a Ca2+ response and potentiates the iloprost-induced rise in [Ca2+]i. Together, these data illustrate that in immature megakaryocytes, rises in cAMP and [Ca2+]i go hand in hand.. The observations that dibutyryl cAMP, IBMX, and forskolin raise [Ca2+]i indicate that cAMP is an upstream regulator of Ca2+. Elevated cAMP levels have been shown to induce Ca2+ ...
Summary of ADCYAP1R1 (PAC1, PAC1R, PACAPR) expression in human tissue. Cytoplasmic expression mainly in CNS and subset of cells in adrenal gland.
Poznata su dva receptora za vazoaktivni intestinalni peptid (VIP): VPAC1 i VPAC2.[1][2] Za ove receptore se vezuje VIP i u izvesnoj meri hipofizni adenilat ciklazno aktivirajući peptid (PACAP). Oba receptora su članovi 7 transmembranske familije G protein spregnutih receptora.. VPAC1 je široko zastupljen u centralnom nervnom sistemu, jetri, plućima, crevima i T-limfocitima.. VPAC2 je prisutan u centralnom nervnom sistemu, pankreasu, skeletalnim mišićima, srcu, bubrezima, masnom tkivu, testisima, i želucu.. ...
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Retinal ischemia can be effectively modeled by permanent bilateral common carotid artery occlusion, which leads to chronic hypoperfusion-induced degeneration in the entire rat retina. The complex pathways leading to retinal cell death offer a complex approach of neuroprotective strategies. In the present review we summarize recent findings with different neuroprotective candidate molecules. We describe the protective effects of intravitreal treatment with: (i) urocortin 2; (ii) a mitochondrial ATP-sensitive K+ channel opener, diazoxide; (iii) a neurotrophic factor, pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide; and (iv) a novel poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor (HO3089). The retinoprotective effects are demonstrated with morphological description and effects on apoptotic pathways using molecular biological techniques.
Expression of ADCYAP1R1 (PAC1, PAC1R, PACAPR) in small intestine tissue. Antibody staining with HPA049877 in immunohistochemistry.
Dear Dr. I am urologist in IRAN 64 years old and since 1983 until now with a sever anxiety and depression and treatment had no effect.from 10 years ago i had PAC 1-5 days per week and last 3 to 12 hours (2 to 10 pac per min.). In 2011 with a sever PAC(2normal and one PAC)I hospitalized in ccu and discharched after 4 days and I had no PAC for 6 months after that I had PAC once or twice per week 2 t0 10 pac per min. and some times I had no PAC for 10 to 20 days since2011 I use propranolol 10 mg. TDS ...
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