Autor: Wicher, D. et al.; Genre: Zeitschriftenartikel; Im Druck veröffentlicht: 2008; Keywords: Neurosecretory insect neurons|br/|Olfactory receptor|br/|Molecular-basis|br/|Functional expression|br/|In-vivo|br/|Camp|br/|Transduction|br/|Melanogaster|br/|Proteins|br/|Antenna|br/|Multidisciplinary in Current Contents(R)/Agricultural, Biology & Environmental Sciences Multidisciplinary in Current Contents(R)/Life Sciences Multidisciplinary in Current Contents(R)/Physical, Chemical & Earth Sciences; Titel: Drosophila odorant receptors are both ligand-gated and cyclic-nucleotide-activated cation channels
Olfactory receptors interact with odorant molecules in the nose, to initiate a neuronal response that triggers the perception of a smell. The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding-exon genes. Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are responsible for the recognition and G protein-mediated transduction of odorant signals. The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and proteins for this organism is independent of other organisms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
Olfactory receptors interact with odorant molecules in the nose, to initiate a neuronal response that triggers the perception of a smell. The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding-exon genes. Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are responsible for the recognition and G protein-mediated transduction of odorant signals. The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and proteins for this organism is independent of other organisms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
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Olfactory receptor 51B5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the OR51B5 gene. Olfactory receptors interact with odorant molecules in the nose, to initiate a neuronal response that triggers the perception of a smell. The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding-exon genes. Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are responsible for the recognition and G protein-mediated transduction of odorant signals. The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and proteins for this organism is independent of other organisms. Olfactory receptor GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000242180 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". "Entrez Gene: OR51B5 olfactory receptor, family 51, subfamily B, member 5". Bulger M, van Doorninck JH, Saitoh N, et al. (1999). "Conservation of ...
Olfactory receptor 10A3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the OR10A3 gene. Olfactory receptors interact with odorant molecules in the nose, to initiate a neuronal response that triggers the perception of a smell. The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding-exon genes. Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are responsible for the recognition and G protein-mediated transduction of odorant signals. The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and proteins for this organism is independent of other organisms. Olfactory receptor ENSG00000170683, ENSG00000281680 GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000273953, ENSG00000170683, ENSG00000281680 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000046431 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". "Mouse ...
Gene Information Olfactory receptors interact with odorant molecules in the nose to initiate a neuronal response that triggers the perception of a smell. The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding-exon genes. Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are responsible for the recognition and G protein-mediated transduction of odorant signals. The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and proteins for this organism is independent of other organisms. [provided by RefSeq Jul 2008]. ...
Gene Information Olfactory receptors interact with odorant molecules in the nose to initiate a neuronal response that triggers the perception of a smell. The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding-exon genes. Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are responsible for the recognition and G protein-mediated transduction of odorant signals. The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and proteins for this organism is independent of other organisms. [provided by RefSeq Jul 2008]. ...
Olfactory receptors interact with odorant molecules in the nose, to initiate a neuronal response that triggers the perception of a smell. The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding-exon genes. Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are responsible for the recognition and G protein-mediated transduction of odorant signals. The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and proteins for this organism is independent of other organisms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
FUNCTION: Olfactory receptors interact with odorant molecules in the nose, to initiate a neuronal response that triggers the perception of a smell. The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding-exon genes. Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are responsible for the recognition and G protein-mediated transduction of odorant signals. The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and proteins for this organism is independent of other organisms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
FUNCTION: Olfactory receptors interact with odorant molecules in the nose, to initiate a neuronal response that triggers the perception of a smell. The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding-exon genes. Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are responsible for the recognition and G protein-mediated transduction of odorant signals. The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and proteins for this organism is independent of other organisms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
Olfactory receptors interact with odorant molecules in the nose, to initiate a neuronal response that triggers the perception of a smell. The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding-exon genes. Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are responsible for the recognition and G protein-mediated transduction of odorant signals. The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and proteins for this organism is independent of other organisms ...
Present in the aqueous fluid surrounding olfactory sensory dendrites and are thought to aid in the capture and transport of hydrophobic odorants into and through this fluid.
We have used a population genetics approach in conjunction with behavioral measurements to identify OBPs that recognize benzaldehyde, while at the same time gaining insights in the history of natural selection, mutation, and recombination of members of the OBP multigene family. Sequence analyses showed that not all OBPs share the same evolutionary history. While patterns of polymorphism in six OBPs do not depart from those expected under neutral mutation-random drift balance, statistical tests for deviations from neutrality identify signatures of positive selection or balancing selection for seven OBPs. These diverse evolutionary trajectories may result from the diversity of biological functions influenced by OBPs. Differential expression of OBPs has been observed in lines artificially selected for aggression (Edwards et al. 2006), alcohol sensitivity (Morozova et al. 2006), copulation latency (Mackay et al. 2005), and starvation stress resistance (Harbison et al. 2005).. Sequence analyses ...
With almost 1000 odorant receptor genes, most mammals are able to identify a huge array of odorants. Each of the several million olfactory neurons of the mammalian nasal epithelium expresses just one type of odorant receptor (and from only one of the genes two alleles), and each receptor is expressed in only one of four zones of the nasal epithelium. But how does each olfactory neuron know which single receptor allele to select?. Serizawa et al. have engineered mice to express an odorant receptor that carries a green dye if encoded by the endogenous gene (representing one allele) and a red dye if encoded by a transgene that has the same regulatory and coding sequences (representing the other allele). Both the gene and the transgene were found only within zone 4 of the nasal epithelium and were rarely co-expressed in the same olfactory neuron. The authors propose that an olfactory neuron may select a single odorant receptor gene in the same way as an immune cell selects a single antigen receptor ...
Patterns of sequence conservation between D. virilis and D. melanogaster OS-F genes suggest OBP functional domains: A comparison of OS-F protein sequences in D. melanogaster and D. virilis suggests that there are varying selective constraints across these sequences. Overall, D. melanogaster and D. virilis OS-F proteins display 76% amino acid identity. However, this identity masks a marked difference in the level of sequence conservation across the protein. The majority of nonconserved amino acids are found either at the N terminus, of which many, but not all, residues are predicted to lie within the signal sequence or in a 22-amino-acid stretch in the carboxy-terminal half of OS-F. This heterogeneous 22-aminoacid region displays only 55% amino acid identity. In contrast, the remaining portion of mature OS-F is 86% identical in these two species. Furthermore, only conservative amino acid substitutions (D-E, F-I, S-T, L-F, and I-V) are observed in OS-F residues following the first conserved ...
At a molecular level, insects utilize members of several highly divergent and unrelated families of cell-surface chemosensory receptors for detection of volatile odorants. Most odors are detected via a family of odorant receptors (ORs), which form heteromeric complexes consisting of a well-conserved OR co-receptor (Orco) ion channel and a non-conserved tuning OR that provides coding specificity to each complex. Orco functions as a non-selective cation channel and is expressed in the majority of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs). As the destructive behaviors of many insects are principally driven by olfaction, Orco represents a novel target for behavior-based control strategies. While many natural and synthetic odorants have been shown to agonize Orco/Or complexes, only a single direct Orco modulator, VUAA1, has been described. In an effort to identify additional Orco modulators, we have investigated the structure/activity relationships around VUAA1.. ...
In mammals, the olfactory epithelium secretes odorant-binding proteins (OBPs), which are lipocalins found freely dissolved in the mucus layer protecting the olfactory neurons. OBPs may act as passive transporters of predominantly hydrophobic odorant molecules across the aqueous mucus layer, or they may play a more active role in which the olfactory neuronal receptor recognizes the OBP-ligand complex. To better understand the molecular events accompanying the initial steps in the olfaction process, we have performed molecular dynamics studies of rat and pig OBPs with the odorant molecule thymol. These calculations provide an atomic level description of conformational changes and pathway intermediates that remain difficult to study directly. A series of eight independent molecular dynamics trajectories of rat OBP permitted the observation of a consensus pathway for ligand unbinding and the calculation of the potential of mean force (PMF) along this path. Titration microcalorimetry confirmed the ...
Gene targeting. The mouse I7 andM71 targeting vectors were derived from genomic fragments isolated from a mouse (129/Sv) λ FixII library (Stratagene, La Jolla, CA). A fragment of the M71 OR gene (Ressler et al., 1993; Xie et al., 2000) was isolated by PCR and used as a probe. A 9.2 kb fragment containing M71 was subcloned in pBS-SK, and aPacI site was engineered three nucleotides downstream of the stop codon by recombinant PCR, creating the plasmid M71/Pac. A cassette containing IRES-tauGFP-LTNL (Rodriguez et al., 1999) was inserted into the PacI site of M71/Pac, yielding the M71-IRES-tauGFP-LTNL targeting vector.. For OR swaps, the M71 coding sequence was replaced exactly from the start codon to the stop codon with the rat and mouseI7 coding sequences without the insertion of linker sequences or extraneous nucleotides. The coding sequence of the ratI7 OR gene (Buck and Axel, 1991) was isolated by PCR from an adenovirus vector (Ad-I7) (Zhao et al., 1998), cloned, and sequenced. For the ...
Chemical communication is mediated by signal production and signal perception and in house mice (Mus musculus), both processes involve lipocalin proteins (OBP, MUP, LCN) that transport volatiles and protect them in tissues where they are produced. However, potential roles of lacrimal, nasal, and salivary lipocalins are still not well known. We aimed to determine the expression of the recently described family of odorant binding proteins (Obp), along with major urinary proteins (Mup) across different tissues in wild mice (Mus musculus) to assess the importance of these proteins based on their quantity in particular expression sites. We performed qPCR analysis of selected Mup, Lcn, Obp genes, and predicted Obp members to study their expression in selected tissues. We identified new members of the mouse odorant binding protein gene family in two subspecies, M. m. musculus and M. m. domesticus. We show that Mup4 and Mup5 from the phylogenetically older group-A are co-expressed with Obps in orofacial tissues
Most animals use olfaction to obtain important information from the environment, including the presence of food or mates. Insects detect odorants through receptors that are expressed in the sensory neurons of the olfactory sensilla, which cover the surface of the antennae. The olfactory capacities of an insect thus depend largely on the repertoire of the odorant receptors. Here, we study the repertoire of olfactory proteins in the stick insect Timema cristinae. We first generate transcriptomes from the antennae of adult males and females and identify, via homology searches, putative olfactory proteins of three different families: odorant binding proteins, odorant receptors, and chemosensory proteins (CSPs). We then attempt to categorize olfactory proteins likely involved in sexual communication by comparing gene expression between adults and juveniles, as well as between males and females. Notably, the olfactory proteins involved in the perception of food or abiotic environmental components, should be
Abstract 【Aim】 This study aims to reveal the tissue expression patterns of the odorant binding protein (OBP) gene HarmOBP16 in the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, and the binding properties of its recombinant protein with plant volatiles. 【Methods】 According to the antenna transcriptome data, the OBP gene was cloned from the antennae of H. armigera adults and subjected to bioinformatical and phylogenetic analysis. The tissue expression patterns of the gene in adult head (without antennae and probosis), thorax, abdomen, legs, wings, antennae and proboscis were assayed by qPCR. The recombinant protein was expressed and purified with prokaryotic expression system. The binding characteristics of this recombinant protein to 85 candidate plant volatiles were measured by fluorescence competitive binding assay. 【Results】 An atypical OBP gene, HarmOBP16 (GenBank accession no.: JQ753074), was identified and cloned from the antennae of H. armigera adults by PCR. It contains a 441 bp open ...
New research from the Max Planck Institute shows that mice can sense oxygen levels in the environment using specialized neurons in their noses that are present in the olfactory mucosa.. The genome of mice harbors more than 1000 odorant receptor genes, which enable them to smell myriad odors in their surroundings. Researchers at the Max Planck Research Unit for Neurogenetics in Frankfurt, the University of Saarland in Homburg, the University of Cambridge and the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm have discovered that mice can also sense the oxygen level of the inhaled air using neurons in their nose. For this newly discovered sensory property, mice rely on two genes termed Gucy1b2 and Trpc2, but apparently not on odorant receptor genes.. The research team discovered that a specific type of chemosensory neuron in the mouse olfactory mucosa responds to oxygen decreases in the environment. Chemosensory cells typically detect an increase in the concentration of a substance. In mammals, a lack of ...
J Cell Biol. 2010 Nov 1;191(3):443-52. DeMaria S, Ngai J. Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA. Abstract The olfactory system detects and discriminates myriad chemical structures across a wide range of concentrations. To meet this task, the system utilizes a large family of G protein-coupled receptors-the odorant receptors-which are the chemical sensors underlying the perception of smell. Interestingly, the odorant receptors are also involved in a number of developmental decisions, including the regulation of their own expression and the patterning of the olfactory sensory neurons synaptic connections in the brain. This review will focus on the diverse roles of the odorant receptor in the function and development of the olfactory system. PMID: 21041441 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21041441 http://jcb.rupress.org/content/191/3/443.long ...
The olfactory system is able to recognize thousands of odorants thus maintaining food consumption in humans. The ability to identify odors by humans is dependen...
A bi-functional IL-6-HaloTag® as a tool to measure the cell-surface expression of recombinant odorant receptors and to facilitate their activity quantification
Monell researchers have found that as much as 30 percent of the large array of human olfactory receptor differs between any two individuals.
Plants detect a class of odor molecules known as volatile organic compounds, which are essential for many plant survival strategies, including attracting birds and bees, deterring pests, and reacting to disease in nearby plants. These compounds also give essential oils their distinctive scents.. Touharas team exposed tobacco cells and 4-week-old tobacco plants to different volatile organic compounds. They discovered that odor molecules change gene expression by binding to other molecules called transcriptional co-repressors that can turn genes on or off.. In plants, the odor molecules must move into the cell and accumulate before they affect plant behavior. In animals, odor molecules are recognized by receptors on the outside of cells in the nose and immediately trigger a signaling pathway to recognize the odor and change behavior.. "Plants cant run away, so of course they react to odors more slowly than animals. If plants can prepare for environmental change within the same day, that is ...
A new study of the sense of smell lends support to a controversial theory of olfaction: Our noses can distinguish both the shape and the vibrational characteristics of odorant molecules.. The study, in the journal Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, demonstrates the feasibility of the theory - first proposed decades ago - that the vibration of an odorant molecule´s chemical bonds - the wagging, stretching and rocking of the links between atoms - contributes to our ability to distinguish one smelly thing from another.. "The theory goes that when the right odorant binds to its receptor, the odorant´s molecular vibration allows electrons to transfer from one part of the receptor to another," said University of Illinois physics and Beckman Institute professor Klaus Schulten, who conducted the analysis with postdoctoral researcher Ilia Solov´yov and graduate student Po-Yao Chang. "This electron transfer appears to fine-tune the signal the receptor receives.". (Watch a video about the ...
The second revolution began in April, 1991 when Linda Buck and Richard Axel published their discovery of 1,500 olfactory receptor genes. Each gene is the blueprint for a unique receptor, expressed on the surface of a sensory cell in the nose and activated by odor molecules of specific size, shape and electrical charge. This was the long sought after mechanism by which the nose transforms chemical signals (odor molecules) into electrical ones (nerve impulses). Immediately, new scientists jumped into the field bringing with them the techniques of molecular biology and genetics. We are now able to study the genetic architecture of odor perception in any species ...
Manjegowda, D. S. and Karunakar, P. and Ramachandra, N. B. (2015) Effect of structural changes in proteins derived from GATA4 nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms in congenital heart disease. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 77 (6). pp. 735-741. Avinash, M. V. and Megha, N. Murthy and Sangeetha, V. and Kusuma, L. and Suresh, R. V. and Nachappa, S. A. and Prashali, Nelchi and Sangeetha, N. Y. and Manjula, A. S. and Manjegowda, D. S. and Seshachalam, K. B. and Ramachandra, N. B. (2014) Copy Number Variations Burden on miRNA Genes Reveals Layers of Complexities Involved in the Regulation of Pathways and Phenotypic Expression. Plosone, 9 (2). Veerappa, Avinash M. and Vishweswaraiah, S. and Kusuma, L. and Megha, N. Murthy and Manjegowda, D. S. and Radhika Nayaka, and Ramachandra, N. B. (2013) Unravelling the Complexity of Human Olfactory Receptor Repertoire by Copy Number Analysis across Population Using High Resolution Arrays. PLOS ONE, 8 (7). pp. 1-14. ...
OR52L1 - OR52L1 (GFP-tagged) - Human olfactory receptor, family 52, subfamily L, member 1 (OR52L1) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
OR5AS1 - OR5AS1 (untagged)-Human olfactory receptor, family 5, subfamily AS, member 1 (OR5AS1) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
In insects, each olfactory sensory neuron expresses between one and three ligand-binding members of the olfactory receptor (OR) gene family, along with the highly conserved and broadly expressed Or83b co-receptor. The functional insect OR consists of a heteromeric complex of unknown stoichiometry but comprising at least one variable odorant-binding subunit and one constant Or83b family subunit. Insect ORs lack homology to G-protein-coupled chemosensory receptors in vertebrates and possess a distinct seven-transmembrane topology with the amino terminus located intracellularly. Here we provide evidence that heteromeric insect ORs comprise a new class of ligand-activated non-selective cation channels. Heterologous cells expressing silkmoth, fruitfly or mosquito heteromeric OR complexes showed extracellular Ca2+ influx and cation-non-selective ion conductance on stimulation with odorant. Odour-evoked OR currents are independent of known G-protein-coupled second messenger pathways. The fast response ...
Recombinant Bovine Odorant-binding protein von Cusabio bei SZABO-SCANDIC erhältlich. Weiteres zu Proteine & Peptide finden Sie hier.
Olfactory receptors interact with odorant molecules in the nose, to initiate a neuronal response that triggers the perception of a smell. The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from sing…
Olfactory receptors interact with odorant molecules in the nose, to initiate a neuronal response that triggers the perception of a smell. The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from sing…
Odorant (Helional) binding residues of OR pair 2.(a): The odorant binding residues of human OR1A1. (b): The odorant binding residues of mouse OR18480066. The re
In mammals olfaction starts in the nasal cavity, just beyond the nostrils. Here, a plethora of volatile molecules (the odorants) are detected by the olfactory epithelium. This structure is as fascinating as it is complex. It is enervated by thousands of nerve cells, called neurons. These neurons end in fine structures called cilia, lining the olfactory epithelium, where the odorant molecules can be picked up. Now, there are specific proteins called odorant receptors. These are large proteins found in these neurons, and these proteins can bind odorants. The fascinating theory (and theory in science does not mean an idea or hypothesis, but something that has a lot of scientific evidence to back it up. Gravity, relativity and evolution are theories) is that each one of these neurons has only one type of odorant receptor ...
The olfactory sensitivity of five male CD-1 mice (Mus musculus) for six amino acids was determined using an operant conditioning paradigm. All animals significantly distinguished dilutions as low as 0.01 mM L-cysteine, 3.3 mM L-methionine, 10 mM L-proline, 0.03 mM D-cysteine, 0.3 mM D-methionine and 10 mM D-proline from the odorless solvent, with individual animals displaying even lower detection thresholds. Among the three different L-forms of the amino acids the mice were most sensitive for cysteine and least sensitive for proline, and among the three D-forms the animals displayed a lower sensitivity for D-proline compared to D-cysteine and D-methionine. A comparison between the present data and results obtained with other species showed that the CD-1 mice displayed a higher sensitivity than human subjects and spider monkeys with three (L-Cysteine, D-cysteine and L-proline) of the six amino acids. Results from this report support the idea that the number of functional olfactory receptor genes ...
Exclusive gene expression, where only one member of a gene or gene cassette family is selected for expression, plays an important role in the establishment of cell identity in several biological systems. Here, we compare four such systems: mating-type switching in fission and budding yeast, where cells choose between expressing one of the two different mating-type cassettes, and immunoglobulin and odorant receptor gene expression in mammals, where the number of gene choices is substantially higher. The underlying mechanisms that establish this selective expression pattern in each system differ in almost every detail. In all four systems, once a successful gene activation event has taken place, a feedback mechanism affects the fate of the cell. In the mammalian systems, feedback is mediated by the expressed cell surface receptor to ensure monoallelic gene expression, whereas in the yeasts, the expressed gene cassette at the mating-type locus affects donor choice during the subsequent switching ...
The olfactory system is a highly-specialised chemical recognition system that, like the immune system, is capable of discriminating with tremendous sensitivity between numerous foreign molecules in the environment. Olfactory transduction is believed to be initiated by the binding of odorants to specific receptor proteins in the cilia of olfactory receptor cells. Although little is known about the precise mechanism by which odorant binding might initiate membrane depolarisation, it is believed that cyclic AMP may serve as an intracellular messenger for olfactory transduction [(PUBMED:15335857)].. Olfactory receptors are integral membrane proteins that belong to the seven transmembrane (TM), rhodopsin-like G-protein coupled receptor family. Although the sequences of these proteins are very diverse, reflecting to some extent their broad range of activating ligands, nevertheless, motifs have been identified in the TM regions that are characteristic of virtually the entire superfamily ...
The olfactory system is a highly-specialised chemical recognition system that, like the immune system, is capable of discriminating with tremendous sensitivity between numerous foreign molecules in the environment. Olfactory transduction is believed to be initiated by the binding of odorants to specific receptor proteins in the cilia of olfactory receptor cells. Although little is known about the precise mechanism by which odorant binding might initiate membrane depolarisation, it is believed that cyclic AMP may serve as an intracellular messenger for olfactory transduction [(PUBMED:15335857)].. Olfactory receptors are integral membrane proteins that belong to the seven transmembrane (TM), rhodopsin-like G-protein coupled receptor family. Although the sequences of these proteins are very diverse, reflecting to some extent their broad range of activating ligands, nevertheless, motifs have been identified in the TM regions that are characteristic of virtually the entire superfamily ...
Compared to vision and audition, the sense of smell is an exceptionally ancient one. And you might be surprised but the ability to detect odorous particles (also known as chemosensation) even predates the development of olfactory organs. Our distant cousin, the lancelet, the marine animal which bridges the gap between invertebrates and vertebrates, even shares…
Chuang CF, Bargmann CI. A Toll-interleukin 1 repeat protein at the synapse specifies asymmetric odorant receptor expression via ASK1 MAPKKK signaling ...
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I recently completed a post-doc as Detector Layer team leader for the MIT RealNose project, a DARPA-funded effort to engineer a biologically-based smell sensor utilizing olfactory receptor proteins. Our work at MIT stemmed from my Ph.D. research project on the large-scale purification and characterization of olfactory receptors. ...
a, b, Representative examples of plethysmographic recordings (breathing frequency) during exposure to hypoxia (10% O2) and hypercapnia (5% CO2) in a wild-type FRA mouse and in a Olfr78−/− FRA mouse. c, Plethysmographic recordings (breathing frequency as a measure of time) of the ventilatory response to hypercapnia (5% CO2) performed on wild-type (n = 10) and Olfr78−/− (n = 10) FRA mice. Each data point represents the mean ± s.e.m. of the values for the group of 10 mice. CO2 (percentage CO2) tensions are indicated at the bottom. d, Breathing frequency during exposure to hypercapnia (5% CO2) in Olfr78−/− FRA mice (n = 10) compared to their wild-type littermates (n = 10). e, Breathing frequency during exposure to hypoxia (10% O2) in Olfr78−/− LEX mice compared to wild-type LEX mice (n = 10 for each genotype, 7 pairs in a C57BL/6 background, 3 pairs in a C57BL/6:129S5 mixed background, 9 out of 10 pairs are sex-matched littermates). f, Breathing frequency during exposure to hypoxia ...
Mosquito sperm have a sense of smell - a surprising finding that could one day help control disease-carrying mosquitoes, researchers say.. Mosquitoes use scent-detecting molecules known as odorant receptors in their antennae. These sensors help mosquitoes "sniff out" sources of blood as part of their sense of smell, technically known as olfaction.. Now, researchers have discovered mosquitoes have these same molecules in their sperm. Scientists analyzed the mosquito species Anopheles gambiae, one of the most common carriers of malaria. They found odorant receptors on the whip like tails of the mosquitoes sperm. These molecules help to spur the beating of the tails, and thus help control the movement of the sperm, the researchers said. read more. ...
Olfaction is a complex process and flies use very similar mechanisms as we do. There are a group of olfactory receptor (OR) genes, that are expressed on the cell membranes of olfactory organs (smell-cells, so to speak). Part of the OR protein (coded by a single OR gene) sticks out of the cell and can detect the presence of odorant molecules that pass by and are attracted to the binding-pocket of the OR. There is high variability in the binding pockets of each of a given flys set of about 60 different OR genes. The binding of the odorant molecules to an OR protein triggers a neural signal to the flys brain. The combination of such signals is used by the fly to identify (and remember) what the odorant is. This is very similar to the way our own olfactory systems work (though we have many hundreds of different OR genes ...