Looking for delta T lymphocyte? Find out information about delta T lymphocyte. a deposit of clay, silt, and sand formed at the mouth of a river where the stream loses velocity and drops part of its sediment load. No delta is formed if... Explanation of delta T lymphocyte
Gammadelta T cells are found largely within the epithelium and recognize antigens differently than their alphabeta T cell counterparts. TCR delta-/- knock out mice exhibit a rapid tumor onset, along with increased tumor incidence. Although limited, research demonstrates that nutrients and bioactive food components can influence gammadelta T cell cytotoxicity, cytokine secretion, and proliferative capacity, and the results are nonetheless intriguing. Among other functions, gammadelta T cells play a role in immunosurveillance against malignant cells, as shown by the T cell receptor (TCR)delta-/- knock out mice that exhibit a rapid tumor onset and increased tumor incidence. Some common dietary modifiers of gammadelta T cell numbers or activity are apple condensed tannins, dietary nucleotides, fatty acids, and dietary alkylamines. A recent clinical study demonstrated that ingesting a fruit and vegetable juice concentrate increased the number of circulating gammadelta T cells. Clinical studies also document
Gamma delta T cells (γδ T cells) are T cells that have a distinctive T-cell receptor (TCR) on their surface. Most T cells are αβ (alpha beta) T cells with TCR composed of two glycoprotein chains called α (alpha) and β (beta) TCR chains. In contrast, gamma delta (γδ) T cells have a TCR that is made up of one γ (gamma) chain and one δ (delta) chain. This group of T cells is usually much less common than αβ T cells, but are at their highest abundance in the gut mucosa, within a population of lymphocytes known as intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs). The antigenic molecules that activate gamma delta T cells are still largely unknown. However, γδ T cells are peculiar in that they do not seem to require antigen processing and major-histocompatibility-complex (MHC) presentation of peptide epitopes, although some recognize MHC class Ib molecules. Furthermore, γδ T cells are believed to have a prominent role in recognition of lipid antigens. They are of an invariant nature and may be ...
CD3gamma and CD3delta are two highly related components of the T cell receptor (TCR)-CD3 complex which is essential for the assembly and signal transduction of the T cell receptor on mature T cells. In gene knockout mice deficient in either CD3delta or CD3gamma, early thymic development mediated by pre-TCR was either undisturbed or severely blocked, respectively, and small numbers of TCR-alphabeta+ T cells were detected in the periphery of both mice. gammadelta T cell development was either normal in CD3delta-/- mice or partially blocked in CD3gamma-/- mice. To examine the collective role of CD3gamma and CD3delta in the assembly and function of pre-TCR and in the development of gammadelta T cells, we generated a mouse strain with a disruption in both CD3gamma and CD3delta genes (CD3gammadelta-/-). In contrast to mice deficient in either CD3gamma or CD3delta chains, early thymic development mediated by pre-TCR is completely blocked, and TCR-alphabeta+ or TCR-gammadelta+ T cells were absent in the
NK and gammadelta T cells can eliminate tumor cells in many experimental models, but their effect on the development of tumors caused by virus infections in vivo is not known. Polyomavirus (PyV) induces tumors in neonatally infected mice of susceptible strains and in adult mice with certain immune deficiencies, and CD8+ alphabeta T cells are regarded as the main effectors in anti-tumor immunity. Here we report that adult TCRbeta knockout (KO) mice that lack alphabeta but have gammadelta T cells remain tumor-free after PyV infection, whereas TCRbeta x delta KO mice that lack all T cells develop tumors. In addition, E26 mice, which lack NK and T cells, develop the tumors earlier than TCRbeta x delta KO mice. These observations implicate gammadelta T and NK cells in the resistance to PyV-induced tumors. Cell lines established from PyV-induced tumors activate NK and gammadelta T cells both in culture and in vivo and express Rae-1, an NKG2D ligand. Moreover, these PyV tumor cells are killed by NK cells in
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Wendy Havran, who was promoted to associate professor with tenure in the Department of Immunology. Havran ( B.S., Duke University; Ph.D., University of Chicago) joined TSRI in 1991. Her laboratory studies a unique subset of T lymphocytes, called "gamma-delta" T cells. These reside in epithelial tissues, which cover most of the internal and external surfaces of the body, and express a tissue-specific, invariant antigen receptor. Gamma-delta T cells are involved in tissue repair as well as epithelial inflammatory diseases, such as asthma and ulcerative colitis ...
Bukowski said L-theanine is broken down in the liver to ethylamine, a molecule that primes the response of an immune system element called the gamma-delta T cell. "We know from other studies that these gamma-delta T cells in the blood are the first line of defense against many types of bacteria, viral, fungal and parasitic infections," he said. "They even have some anti-tumor activity." The T cells prompt the secretion of interferon, a key part of the bodys chemical defense against infection, Bukowski said. "We know from mouse studies that if you boost this part of the immune system it can protect against infection," he said. To further test the finding, the researchers had 11 volunteers drink five cups a day of tea, and 10 others drink coffee. Before the test began, they drew blood samples from all 21 test subjects. After four weeks, they took more blood from the tea drinkers and then exposed that blood to the bacteria called E-coli. Bukowski said the immune cells in the specimens secreted ...
DI-fusion, le Dépôt institutionnel numérique de lULB, est loutil de référencementde la production scientifique de lULB.Linterface de recherche DI-fusion permet de consulter les publications des chercheurs de lULB et les thèses qui y ont été défendues.
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Citation: N/A Interpretive Summary: Technical Abstract: In order to identify cytokines with immunoregulatory functions in chickens, CD4+ hybridoma designated as P34 which spontaneously secretes various cytokines was developed. Rabbit antibody was developed against a P34 culture supernatant fraction with T-cell promoting activity and used to screen the P34 cDNA library. A cDNA encoding a 12kDa protein was identified and cloned into pBluescript vector. The amino acid sequence deduced from the cloned cDNA indicated a 143-amino acid precursor peptide. This 12kDa protein was expressed in many tissues including spleen, intestine and muscle using a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT- PCR). Activation of spleen cells with concanavalin A enhanced the expression of this protein in a time dependent manner in Northern blot. Stable transfection of this gene in CHO and SF9 cells produced a biologically active protein which supported the growth of gamma delta T lymphocytes. In summary, a ...
American Gene Technologies International Inc. (AGT) announced the issuance of a US patent covering methods of treating cancer with AGTs proprietary viral vector technology.. "The patent recognizes AGTs unique approach to program a patients own tumors against cancer, by activating specialized cells of the immune system known as gamma delta T cells," said AGT.. "Our pioneering development is a new therapeutic approach to cancer that exploits the capacity of natural tumor immunity," said C. David Pauza, AGTs Chief Science Officer.. "We believe this patent is an important step toward clinical studies of this new form of immunotherapy.. "Programming tumors to stimulate gamma delta T cells has great promise for treating a variety of cancers.. "Unlike CAR-T, which is a permanent genetic modification of the bodys T cells and highly specific for a single cancer, AGTs technology focuses on programming tumors for activation of a patients natural gamma delta T cells to potently attack the cancer ...
Immune cells act as TSA screeners in the intestine-tolerating commensal microbes and food antigens but remaining vigilant against attack. However, it has remained unclear how T cell precursors differentiate into the different cell types required to perform this balancing act. Now, Bilate et al. report that the T cell receptor (TCR) itself does not limit T cell fate to a single identity. The authors found that cells expressing a single TCR derived from a peripheral regulatory T cell (Treg) developed into either Tregs or CD4+CD8αα+ intraepithelial lymphocytes (CD4IELs) in the gut. This differentiation depended on cues from both the microbiota and the surrounding environment. ...
Unconventional T cells Introduction T lymphocytes are characterized by the expression of the CD3 molecule and the associated T cell receptor for antigen
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [M Lahn, H Kalataradi, P Mittelstadt, E Pflum, M Vollmer, C Cady, A Mukasa, A T Vella, D Ikle, R Harbeck, R OBrien, W Born].
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The human TCR-gamma delta occurs in three biochemically distinct forms (forms 1, 2bc, and 2abc). A 40-kDa TCR gamma-chain is disulfide-linked to the TCR delta-chain in form 1, whereas 40-kDa or 55-kDa TCR-gamma polypeptides are noncovalently associated with the TCR delta-chain in forms 2bc and 2abc, respectively. Sequence analysis of TCR-gamma cDNA clones indicates that form 1 utilizes the C gamma 1 gene segment, whereas forms 2bc and 2abc appear to use allelic C gamma 2 gene segments containing either two copies (b and c) or three copies (a, b, and c) of the CII exon, respectively. We transfected TCR-gamma cDNA encoding form 1 or form 2abc into the MOLT-13 cell line that expresses form 2bc. The transfected TCR gamma-chains associate with the resident MOLT-13 TCR-delta, normally part of form 2bc, to yield CD3-associated TCR-gamma delta heterodimers identical to those seen on the donor cell lines (form 1 or 2abc). These transfection experiments show directly that, 1) when a single TCR-delta ...
There is a resident population of T cells found in murine skin that expresses an invariant V?3V?1 TCR. These dendritic epidermal T cells (DETC) are in constant...
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A blog post discussing research suggesting an association between maternal use of antiepileptics during pregnancy and offspring scores on developmental and behavioural measures pertinent to autism
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Although gammadelta cells are commonly hypothesized to provide a first line of defence, gammadelta-cell-deficient mice are generally only marginally more susceptible to pathogens. Because gammadelta cells are enriched within epithelia, it is important to resolve whether immunoprotective capacity towards epithelial-tropic pathogens is absent from the gammadelta-cell compartment, or whether such activity is present but simply redundant with that of alphabeta T cells. In this work, following infection of the intestinal epithelium of alphabeta T-cell-deficient mice with the coccidian parasite, Eimeria vermiformis, gammadelta cells were shown to support the rapid activation of other lymphoid cells and to confer a transferable antipathogen effect that could be eradicated by neutralization of interferon-gamma. However, unlike alphabeta T cells, these effects of gammadelta cells showed no evidence of functional immunological memory. These results are directly relevant to coccidiosis, an economically
0003]γδ T cells are a distinct subset of CD3+ T cells featuring TCRs that are encoded by Vγ- and Vδ-gene segments (Morita et al., 2000; Carding and Egan, 2002). They are further divided according to their primary residence in blood or tissues, the protein chain composition of their VγVδ-TCRs and their antigen selectivity. In humans, Vδ1+-TCR chain expressing γδ T cells (Vδ1+ T cells) predominate in epithelial or epithelia-associated/mucosal tissues of the skin, airways, digestive and urogenital tracts, and several internal organs, and constitute a minor fraction (,20%) of γδ T cells in peripheral blood. The TCRs of Vδ1+ T cells recognize lipid antigens presented by MHC-related CD1 molecules. Further, Vδ1+ T cells respond to stress-associated proteins, including MHC-related molecules MICA and MICB, and heat-shock proteins. They are thought to provide a first-line defense against tumors and otherwise stressed cells and, in addition, are thought to contribute to wound healing, tissue ...
T cells belong to either the alpha beta+ or gamma delta+ lineage as defined by their antigen receptor. Although both T-cell subsets have been shown to be involved in the immune response to the parasite Leishmania major, very little is known about possible interactions between these two populations. In this study, using a mouse model of infection with L. major, we showed that expansion of a subset of gamma delta+ T cells in vivo is dependent upon the presence of alpha beta+ CD4+ T cells. Moreover, this effect appears to be mediated via the secretion of lymphokines by CD4+ cells with a T-helper 2 (Th2) functional phenotype. Results showing that activation of Th2-type cells in mice treated with anti-immunoglobulin D antibodies or infected with Nippostrongylus brasiliensis also results in gamma delta+ T-cell expansion suggest that this effect of the Th2-type CD4+ cells is a general phenomenon not restricted to infection with L. major. Rosat, J. P.; Conceicao-Silva, F.; Waanders, G. A.; Beermann, F.; Wilson,
Whereas most T cells express surface CD4 or CD8 molecules, a minority lacks both. CD4-8- cells usually express the gamma delta T-cell receptor, but here we describe a population of CD4-8- T cells from the peripheral blood that express the alpha beta heterodimer. These cells have different surface antigens than gamma delta+ T cells, expressing CD5 but lacking CD16, and differ in function from gamma delta+ T cells. CD4-8- alpha beta+ cells lack non-major histocompatibility complex-restricted cytolytic function but can be induced to lyse their target cells after activation of their T-cell receptors. A peculiar characteristic of these cells is their responsiveness to interleukin 3. Since these cells have not altered their phenotype or function over a 12-month period in culture, they appear to be mature T cells. The results indicate that normal human peripheral blood contains two subsets of CD4-8- T cells, expressing either gamma delta or alpha beta receptors, that differ in function, phenotype, and growth
Gamma-delta resolvase is the prototype of a large family of site-specific recombinases that use a specific serine residue as the nucleophile for cutting and rejoining defined DNA segments. The serine recombinases make concerted double strand breaks in the two recombination sites before any exchange and resealing of DNA strands occurs. Phosphodiester bond energy is conserved by formation of a covalent resolvase-DNA (phospho-serine) linkage to the 5 ends of the transiently broken DNA strands. Gamma-delta resolvase performs site-specific recombination in an elaborate synaptic complex containing 12 resolvase subunits and two 114 base pair DNA segments (called res) each with three specific dimer binding sites. We recently proposed a new model for the synaptic complex, using a combination of structural information and a detailed analysis of the various interactions between resolvase protomers that are responsible for the assembly and function of the active complex. A strong implication of the model ...
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CD4-CD8- (double negative [DN]) alpha/beta T cells are a largely uncharacterized subpopulation of unknown function. To investigate whether these cells are selected to recognize particular antigens or antigen-presenting molecules, DN alpha/beta T cells were purified from the peripheral blood of five normal donors and their T cell receptor (TCR) alpha and beta chains were examined. Random cloning of TCR alpha chains by single-sided polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification identified an invariant rearrangement between V alpha 24 and J alpha Q, with no N region diversity, which was expressed preferentially by DN alpha/beta T cells from all donors. Random cloning also identified a precise V alpha 7.2-J alpha (IGRJa14) rearrangement, with two variable amino acids encoded in the V-J junction, which was enriched in the DN alpha/beta T cell preparations from some, but not all, donors. Analysis of TCR beta chains by quantitative PCR amplification demonstrated that the expression of four V beta gene ...
CD4-CD8- (double negative [DN]) alpha/beta T cells are a largely uncharacterized subpopulation of unknown function. To investigate whether these cells are selected to recognize particular antigens or antigen-presenting molecules, DN alpha/beta T cells were purified from the peripheral blood of five normal donors and their T cell receptor (TCR) alpha and beta chains were examined. Random cloning of TCR alpha chains by single-sided polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification identified an invariant rearrangement between V alpha 24 and J alpha Q, with no N region diversity, which was expressed preferentially by DN alpha/beta T cells from all donors. Random cloning also identified a precise V alpha 7.2-J alpha (IGRJa14) rearrangement, with two variable amino acids encoded in the V-J junction, which was enriched in the DN alpha/beta T cell preparations from some, but not all, donors. Analysis of TCR beta chains by quantitative PCR amplification demonstrated that the expression of four V beta gene ...
T-Cell Receptors composed of CD3-associated gamma and delta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4-/CD8- T-Cells. The receptors appear to be preferentially located in epithelial sites and probably play a Role in the recognition of Bacterial Antigens. The T-Cell Receptor gamma/delta chains are separate and not related to the gamma and delta chains which are subunits of CD3 (see Antigens, CD3 ...
Interleukin-17A is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IL17A gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a proinflammatory cytokine produced by activated T cells. This cytokine regulates the activities of NF-kappaB and mitogen-activated protein kinases. This cytokine can stimulate the expression of IL6 and cyclooxygenase-2 (PTGS2/COX-2), as well as enhance the production of nitric oxide (NO). IL-17A, often referred to as IL-17, was originally discovered at transcriptional level by Rouvier et al. in 1993 from a rodent T-cell hybridoma, derived from the fusion of a mouse cytotoxic T cell clone and a rat T cell lymphoma. Human and mouse IL-17A were cloned a few years later by Yao and Kennedy. Lymphocytes including CD4+, CD8+, gamma-delta T (γδ-T), invariant NKT and innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are primary sources of IL-17A. Non-T cells, such as neutrophils, have also been reported to produce IL-17A under certain circumstances. IL-17A producing T helper cells (Th17 cells) are a distinct ...
Abstract The murine epidermis contains resident T cells that express a canonical gammadelta TCR. These cells arise from fetal thymic precursors and use a TCR that is restricted to ..
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Interleukin 7 (IL-7) is a stromal cell-derived cytokine that stands out as being the only cytokine identified to date on which development of B and T lymphocytes is absolutely dependent. IL-7 functions primarily as a growth and antiapoptosis factor for B- and T-cell (alphabeta and gammadelta TCR+ cells) precursors, and is essential for differentiation of gammadelta TCR+ cells. IL-7 can function as a cofactor during myelopoiesis, and is capable of activating monocytes/macrophages and natural killer (NK) cells. Its receptor (IL-7R) is a heterodimer of an alpha chain that specifically binds IL-7 and the common gamma chain gammac that is also a component of the receptors for IL-2, IL-4, IL-9 and IL-15. The functions of IL-7 in normal lymphocyte development and activation have led to the demonstration of the ability of IL-7 to stimulate lymphopoiesis in lymphopenic mice, suggesting a possible clinical application of IL-7 in accelerating lymphoid reconstitution in lymphopenic patients. There have also ...
Highly purified CD1-3-4-8- human thymocytes were obtained by panning techniques combined with cell depletion with antibody-coated magnetic beads. Most of these cells expressed cytoplasmic CD3 antigen, as assessed by mAbs known to react with the CD3 epsilon chain. After culture with low doses of PMA (0.5 ng/ml) and subsequent addition (at 24 h) of recombinant interleukin 2 (rIL-2; 100 U/ml) cells underwent extensive proliferation (40-60-fold of the initial cell input after 2 wk). The majority of the proliferating cells were CD3-TCR-. The remaining cells (5-40%) were represented by CD3+ TCR gamma/delta+ (BB3- A13+) cells. Further removal of CD3+ TCR-gamma/delta+ cells resulted in highly purified CD3- populations that further proliferated in culture with no substantial phenotypic changes. When CD3+ thymocytes were cultured under the same experimental conditions, only CD3+ TCR-alpha/beta+ cells could be detected, thus indicating that PMA did not affect the surface expression of the CD3/TCR complex, ...
It is not yet clear which are the activation signals underpinning this large expansion of polyclonal γδ T cells in this process. Proliferation was dependent on CD137L, IL2, and IL21, but the involvement of TCR signaling has not been tested. Although it is hard to conceive that aAPCs express the full array of TCR ligands for all expanded γδ T cells, engagement of TCR is suggested by the low TCR expression on generated Vδ2pos T cells and by the importance of CD137L for the expansion despite the absence of CD137 expression by γδ T cells prior expansion. Fisher and colleagues who coated B1 anti-γδTCR antibody on aAPCs showed it did not have a major role in γδ T-cell expansion even if this led to a better representation of Vδ2neg subsets. Gamma delta T cells have been shown to express HLA-I inhibitory receptors (7), so the absence of HLA-I expression by K562 as well as expression of activatory molecules such as NKG2D ligands may also play critical role in γδ T-cell activation.. Most ...
RefSeq Summary (NM_005931): This gene encodes a heavily glycosylated protein which is a ligand for the NKG2D type II receptor. Binding of the ligand activates the cytolytic response of natural killer (NK) cells, CD8 alphabeta T cells, and gammadelta T cells which express the receptor. This protein is stress-induced and is similar to MHC class I molecules; however, it does not associate with beta-2-microglobulin or bind peptides. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2014 ...
RefSeq Summary (NM_005931): This gene encodes a heavily glycosylated protein which is a ligand for the NKG2D type II receptor. Binding of the ligand activates the cytolytic response of natural killer (NK) cells, CD8 alphabeta T cells, and gammadelta T cells which express the receptor. This protein is stress-induced and is similar to MHC class I molecules; however, it does not associate with beta-2-microglobulin or bind peptides. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2014 ...
American Gene Technologies International Inc., a leading gene and cell therapy company, today announced receipt of a second immuno-oncology patent on the stimulation of gamma delta T cells for treating solid tumors in epithelial cancers.
Blog on TCR gamma delta secondary antibody product: The TCR gamma delta n/a (Catalog #MBS673501) is an Antibody produced from Armenian Hamster and is intende...
vanDongen JJL, Langerak AW, Bruggemann M, et al. Design and standardization of PCR primers and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) amplification of conserved regions within the T Cell Receptor Gamma protocols for detection of clonal immunoglobulin and t-cell receptor gene recombinations in suspect lymphoproliferations: report of the BIOMED-2 concerted Action BMH4-CT98-3936. Leukemia 2003;17:2257-2317.. ...
Lampreys have cells that resemble the gamma delta T cells found in mammals, birds and fish. Implications for the evolution of the immune system.
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Genomic organization of the sheep [email protected] locus and comparative analyses of Bovidae and human variable genes.: gammadelta T cells commonly account for 0.5%-5% of
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We have investigated the role of common gamma chain (gamma c)-signaling pathways for the development of T cell receptor for antigen (TCR)-gamma/delta T cells. TCR-gamma/delta-bearing cells were absent from the adult thymus, spleen, and skin of gamma c-deficient (gamma c-) mice, whereas small numbers of thymocytes expressing low levels of TCR-gamma/delta were detected during fetal life. Recent reports have suggested that signaling via interleukin (IL)-7 plays a major role in facilitating TCR-gamma/delta development through induction of V-J (variable-joining) rearrangements at the TCR-gamma locus. In contrast, we detected clearly TCR-gamma rearrangements in fetal thymi from gamma c- mice (which fail to signal in response to IL-7) and reduced TCR-gamma rearrangements in adult gamma c thymi. No gross defects in TCR-delta or TCR-beta rearrangements were observed in gamma c- mice of any age. Introduction of productively rearranged TCR V gamma 1 or TCR V gamma 1/V delta 6 transgenes onto mice bearing ...
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Tea is the dried plant Camelia sinensis. True tea includes black, green, white and oolong teas. Drinking two or more cups of tea a day can provide many health benefits. What is in tea that makes it so special? EGCG Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a powerful antioxidant, has shown remarkable health-promoting properties in laboratory studies. Included are anti-viral actions, which offer more cold protection than either vitamin C or Echinacea. It is thought that the chemicals in tea stimulate gamma-delta T-cells that boost the bodies own natural immunity against both bacteria and viruses. Tooth decay or gingivitis causing bacteria are also killed. EGCG is very effective at destroying free radicals, which cause cell-mutations that can lead to cancer. It even fights existing cancer by preventing the tumors from developing their own blood supply. Flavonoids Flavonoids, more antioxidants, lower LDL cholesterol levels benefiting the heart and circulatory system. These powerful antioxidants protect ...