BioAssay record AID 484643 submitted by ChEMBL: Increase of urinary volume in normal Sprague-Dawley rat at 10 mg/kg, po subsequently dosed orally with 50% aqueous glucose solution measured up to 24 hrs relative to control.
BioAssay record AID 628198 submitted by ChEMBL: Ratio of drug uptake in hypothalamus to cerebellum in Sprague-Dawley rat at 25 uCi, iv after 2 mins.
All experiments were performed in accordance with the guidelines established by the Canadian Council on Animal Care and were approved by the University of Calgary Animal Care Committee. Attention was paid to use only the number of animals necessary to produce reliable results.. Slice preparation. Adult male Sprague Dawley rats (150-250 gm) were decapitated under halothane anesthesia, the brain was removed, and coronal slices 300-400 μm thick containing the SON were generated at 0-2°C in a low-Ca2+, low-Na+-containing buffer solution of composition (in mm): 87 NaCl, 2.5 KCl, 1.25 NaH2PO4, 7 MgCl2, 0.5 CaCl2, 25 NaHCO3, 25 glucose, and 20 sucrose. Slices were then incubated at room temperature (22°C) for at least 1 hr in artificial CSF (ACSF) of the following composition (in mm): 126 NaCl, 2.5 KCl, 1.2 NaH2PO4, 1.2 MgCl2, 2.4 CaCl2, 18 NaHCO3, and 11 glucose. Both solutions were bubbled continuously with a mixture of 95% O2, 5% CO2.. Electrophysiological recording. A hemisected slice was ...
Animals and in vivo procedures. Adult male Sprague Dawley rats weighing 275-325 g were housed three per cage for at least 1 week before experimentation, with a 14/10 h light/dark cycle and food and water available ad libitum. To determine the time course of the changes in CREM mRNA and CRH hnRNA, rats were subjected to restraint stress by placing them into plastic restrainers (2.5 × 6 inches). Groups of four rats were killed by decapitation at 0.5, 1, 2, or 3 h after initiation of restraint. Control rats were rapidly removed from the cages and decapitated. Brains were immediately removed, frozen in isopentane at -40°C, and stored at -80°C until being sectioned in a cryostat. Trunk blood was collected in plastic tubes, and serum was separated by centrifugation and stored at -80°C for corticosterone determination. To determine the effect of stress-induced elevations in plasma glucocorticoids on the termination of the CRH transcriptional response to stress, 5 d adrenalectomized rats were ...
Acute oral toxicity: The test item was administered by oral route to a group of 6 female Sprague Dawley rats at the single dose of 2000 mg/kg body weight. No mortality occurred during the study. No clinical signs related to the administration of the test item were observed.The body weight evolution ofthe animals remained normal throughout the study. The macroscopical examination of the animals at the end of the study did not reveal treatment-related changes. In conclusion, the LD50of the test item is higher than 5000 mg/kg body weight by oral route in the rat. Acute dermal toxicity: The test item was applied onto the intact skin of 10 Sprague Dawley rats (5 males and 5 females) at the single dose of 2000 mg/kg body weight. No mortality occurred during the study. Neither cutaneous reactions nor systemic clinical signs related to the administration of the test item were observed. The body weight evolution of the animals remained normal throughout the study, similar between treated and control ...
Introduction: Our lab has identified a unique sub-strain of SD rats that is hyper-responsive (HR) to SU5416 (SU) alone and develops severe progressive PAH in response to single injection of SU, even in absence of chronic hypoxia (CH).. Hypothesis: We hypothesized that the HR phenotype in response to SU is conferred by genetic determinants that potentiate the response to VEFR2 blockade.. Methods and Results: Male and female rats were injected with SU (20mg/kg, sc) or vehicle (control). Right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP) was measured at 7 weeks after SU injection. In absence of CH, 72% (13 of 18) male SD rats demonstrated HR-phenotype and developed severe PAH in response to SU with mean RVSP of 97±18 mmHg; whereas only 27% (7 of 26) of the female rats showed HR-phenotype. Furthermore, crossing non-responsive male and female rats from the HR colony markedly decreased the proportion of rats exhibiting HR phenotype in the F1-generation (HR 15% and 0%, male vs. female, respectively), ...
Three healthy female Sprague Dawley rats were dosed orally with Solventfree Dabco TMR-2 Batch# chernil.20160628.B at 2000 mg/kg. In addition, three healthy males were dosed as a confirmatory group at 2000 mg/kg. The rats were observed at 15 minutes, 1, 2 and 4 hours post-dosing and once daily for 14 days for toxicity and pharmacological effects, and twice daily for mortality. Body weights were recorded immediately pretest, weekly and at termination. All animals were examined for gross pathology. All three female and three male rats survived following a single 2000 mg/kg oral dose. No abnormal physical signs were observed among four out of six animals. One female had chromorhinorrhea on Day 11 and one male had diarrhea and soiling of the anogenital area on Day 0. All six animals gained body weight by study termination. The gross necropsy revealed no observable abnormalities. ...
On 25 January 2018, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Tobacco Scientific Advisory Committee unanimously voted (with one abstention) that Phillip Morris International (PMI) could not claim their heated tobacco product (HTP) IQOS (I-Quit-Ordinary-Smoking) would reduce the risk of tobacco-related diseases. Regardless, IQOS is already available in over 30 countries, and thus merits scrutiny from the scientific and medical communities. The preclinical and clinical data PMI submitted to FDA indicate that IQOS exposure may be associated with unexpected liver toxicity. We reviewed preclinical studies conducted by PMI scientists1 and clinical studies of 5 and 90 days of exposure to IQOS and IQOS menthol2-5 included in PMIs Modified Risk Tobacco Product application submitted to the US FDA.. Wong and colleagues1 exposed 92 male and 92 female Sprague Dawley rats to up to 90 days of mainstream aerosol from IQOS, mainstream smoke from 3R4F research cigarettes, or room air (sham). After 90 days of ...
Thirty-two Sprague-Dawley male rats at the age of eight weeks with a mean weight of 275±35 g were included in the study. Subjects were divided into four groups with eight rats in each group: group 1: controls (C), group 2: radiation-only (RT), group 3: radiation plus royal jelly 50 mg/kg (RT+RJ50) and group 4: royal jelly 50 mg/kg-only (RJ50). Radiotherapy was applied to the head and neck area by single fraction at a dose of 22 Gy. The royal jelly was given once daily for seven days. The subjects were sacrificed on the seventh day of the study. Trace elements in blood samples were measured using ICP/MS method ...
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to demonstrate the spatial relationship between the c-Fos immunoreactive cells elicited by an acute treatment with neuroleptics including amisulpride (AMI), olanzapine (OLA), quetiapine (QUE), and aripiprazole (ARI) and enkephalinergic (ENK), substance P (SP), and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) innervation fields in the rat septum. METHODS: Male Sprague Dawley rats received a single injection of OLA (5 mg), ARI (10 mg), AMI (20 mg), QUE (15 mg/kg/b.w.). Ninety min after antipsychotics administration, the animals were transcardially perfused with a fixative and the brains cryocut into serial coronal sections of 35 µm thickness. The sections were processed for c-Fos staining using an avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex and visualized by nickel intensified diaminobenzidine to reach black endproduct. Afterwards, the sections were exposed to ENK, SP, and TH antibodies and the reaction product visualized by biotin-labeled fluorescent AlexaFluor 564 dye. The data ...
Although cardiac hypertrophy is an important condition that usually precedes heart failure (Carreno et al., 2006), there are limited reports of altered expression of P450 genes during cardiac hypertrophy. The expression of P450 has been studied in SHRs as compared with SD rats (Thum and Borlak, 2002) and the expression of sEH has been studied in spontaneously hypertensive heart failure (SHHF) rats as compared with normal strains (Monti et al., 2008). Nevertheless, there are no data about the effect of experimentally induced cardiac hypertrophy on the expression of P450 and sEH genes and their associated P450-derived metabolites of AA. To the best of our knowledge, this work demonstrates for the first time the effect of experimentally induced cardiac hypertrophy on the expression of several P450 genes and P450-dependent AA metabolism in rats. In addition, the current study demonstrates the tissue-specific expression of many P450 genes and sEH in male SD rats.. Tissue-specific expression of P450 ...
Methods: Male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into 6 groups; control, D-gal, chrysin 10, chrysin 30, D-gal + chrysin 10 and D-gal + chrysin 30 groups. D-gal (50 mg/kg) was administrated by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection. Chrysin (10 and 30 mg/kg) was administrated by oral gavage. Both of D-gal and chrysin were administrated for 8 weeks. After treatments, the body weight and locomotor activity were determined. The memories were evaluated using novel object location (NOL) and novel object recognition (NOR) tests. ...
Two reproductive/developmental screening studies were identified, one within category and the other a read-across study from isomerised olefins; alpha, internal, linear and branched - single carbon number. In key a reproductive/developmental screening study (Thorsud, 2003a), alkenes, C6 dissolved in corn oil were administered via oral gavage to F0 male and female Sprague-Dawley rats at dose levels of 100, 500 and 1000 mg/kg/day for at least 4 weeks. There was no mortality or adverse signs of toxicity observed at any dose level and F0 mating, fertility indices, mean gestation lengths, mean number of pups delivered, F1 live birth index, F1 viability index, F1 pups per litter, and F1 pup sex ratios were comparable between control and treatment groups. Gross necroscopy of F0 females revealed no significant treatment-related findings. Organ weight determinations in F0 rats did not reveal any significant difference between treatment and control animals. Based on the lack of significant adverse ...
1Department of Community Nutrition FEMA IPB and Faculty of Health Sciences URINDO, 2Department of Community Nutrition FEMA, IPB, 3Center of Aging Studies, Universitas Indonesia, 4Department of Sports Exercise and Health Sciences, Loughborough University, UK.. Abstract. Oestrogens have been found to reduce beta amyloid levels, a risk factor associated with dementia. We hypothesised that phytoestrogenic soybean products such as tempe and tofu might show similar effects. The aims of this study were to analyse the effect of tempe and tofu flour on beta amyloid1-40 serum levels in elderly rats. This research was conducted on white female Sprague Dawley strain rats, aged 12 months. Before the intervention rats underwent ovariectomy (OVx) and were grouped into 5 intervention groups which were given either: tempe flour (PTp), tofu flour (PTh), oestradiol (PE), or casein (KK) in pellets; and there was also a non OVx (KN) control group which was fed a normal diet. The intake of tempe and tofu flour ...
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , SeraLab \ Rat Whole Blood EDTA K3 Sprague Dawley, Mixed gender, pooled \ BK3SD-909-D for more molecular products just contact us
The vasculature of the eye can provide amazing insight into systemic cardiovascular health. For those studying the vasculature of the eye as an indicator of pathophysiological states, normative ground truth datasets become critically important. Recently, George Azzopardi and Nicolai Petkov have made their annotated database of ground truth imagery of vascular bifurcations and crossovers in […]. ...
Warneke, Wiebke and Klaus, Susanne and Fink, Heidrun and Langley-Evans, Simon C. and Voigt, Jörg-Peter (2014) The impact of cafeteria diet feeding on physiology and anxiety-related behaviour in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats of different ages. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, 116 . pp. 45-44. ISSN 1873-5177 ...
Red Palm Oil Attenuates Lead Acetate Induced Testicular Damage in Adult Male Sprague-Dawley Rats. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
TY - JOUR. T1 - HO-1 Overexpression Attenuates Endotoxin Effects on CAT-2 Isozymes Expression. AU - Huang, Te Yang. AU - Tsai, Pei Shan. AU - Huang, Chun Jen. PY - 2008/8. Y1 - 2008/8. N2 - Background: l-arginine transport mediated by type-2 cationic amino acid transporter (CAT-2) isozymes is one crucial mechanism that regulates nitric oxide (NO) production via inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). We sought to investigate the effects of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) overexpression on CAT-2 isozymes, e.g., CAT-2, CAT-2A, and CAT-2B. Materials and Methods: Adult male Sprague Dawley rats were allocated to receive lipopolysaccharide (LPS), normal saline, hemin (a HO-1 inducer), tin protoporphyrin (SnPP, a HO-1 inhibitor), LPS plus hemin, or LPS plus hemin plus SnPP. After maintaining for 6 h, rats were sacrificed and the expression and activity of individual enzyme was evaluated. Results: LPS increased HO activity, HO-1 concentration, NO production, l-arginine transport, and concentrations of iNOS, ...
A tumor incidence of 57 per cent was observed in 150 female rats allowed to live out their life-span as normal, control animals on standard laboratory chow. One hundred similar rats on a special fatrich diet developed an 80 per cent tumor incidence.. Ninety-five per cent of the tumors observed involved mammary gland tissue. Twelve per cent of all tumors observed were of a malignant type. Eighty-seven per cent of all tumors appeared after the rats were 540 days of age, and the mean lifespan after a tumor was first observed was 140 days.. Related studies with a smaller number of animals indicated that male rats of the same strain were 5 times less susceptible to tumor formation than females. However, three of the four tumors that were examined histologically in the males were classified as malignant.. The mean life span of normal female Sprague-Dawley rats in this laboratory was 760 ± 21 days, with individuals ranging in life span from 193 to 1100 days.. ...
Ischaemia/reperfusion (IR) injury is a key source of myocardial damage in humans following acute myocardial infarction, post-cardiac arrest, and heart transplantation (1). The beneficial effects of ischaemic preconditioning (IPC) in minimising IR-induced damage to cardiac muscle have been extensively studied, and involve activation of ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels (2). No previous studies have investigated the effects of IR injury or IPC in cardiac fibroblasts. Fibroblasts are responsible for maintaining the extracellular matrix in healthy hearts, and differentiate into the wound-healing phenotype, myofibroblasts, following cardiac injury (3). Our goals were to determine if: (a) IR injury induces cardiac fibroblasts to differentiate into myofibroblasts; and if so, (b) does IPC ameliorate the IR-induced myofibroblast differentiation? Hearts were removed from isoflurane-anaesthetised (5% induction, 2% maintenance; 1 l/min oxygen) adult female Sprague Dawley rats, and fibroblasts ...
Stem-cell therapy for ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis in rats: a comparison of three treatment modalities Mir Sadat-Ali,1 Dakheel A Al-Dakheel,1 Sulaiman A AlMousa,1 Fawaz M AlAnii,1 Waleed Y Ebrahim,1 Hussain K AlOmar,1 Hasan N AlSayed,1 Sadananda Acharya,2 Hussain AlHawaj31Department of Orthopaedic Surgery; 2College of Public Health; 3Institute of Research and Medical Consultations, Imam Abdul Rahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi ArabiaBackground: Recent studies have shown that ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis in rats can be reversed by infusion of osteoblasts cultured from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). This study compares the influence of MSCs, osteoblasts, and exosomes derived from osteoblasts for the treatment of osteoporosis.Methods: Osteoporosis was induced in 40 female Sprague Dawley rats by performing ovariectomy. After 12 weeks, bone marrow was harvested and MSCs separated from bone-marrow aspirate as described by Piao et al. After 15 days, autologous osteogenically differentiated
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is associated with increased mortality in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). The interaction between the fibrotic process and the pulmonary vasculature is incompletely understood. There is evidence in human and experimental pulmonary fibrosis that precursor cells may play a role in fibrogenesis, and that precursor cells may also be important for vascular remodeling in chronic models of pulmonary hypertension (PH). But the contribution of precursor cells to vascular remodeling and PH in pulmonary fibrosis has not been investigated yet.. This study aimed to investigate the potential contribution of precursor cells to vascular remodeling in the AdTGF-β1 model of lung fibrosis and PH.. Female Sprague Dawley rats received AdTGF-β1 or AdDL70 and were sacrificed at different time points (7, 14 and 28 days). Immunofluorescence stainings were performed on 3 μm sections of the left lung after formalin fixation.. We detected cells expressing markers of ...
Dextromethorphan (DM) is a dextro-rotatory isomer of levophanol and a major constituent of over 125 over the counter (OTC) cough syrups. In-vivo and ex-vivo studies have shown that DM has pain suppressive properties comparable to ketamine via its N-methyl-D-Aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonism. There is a wide spread abuse of Cough syrups in Nigeria particularly amongst adolescent males. NMDA receptor antagonists have been reported to have anti-fertility properties. Pure samples of DM constituted in normal saline was administered orally to twenty mature male adult Sprague-Dawley rats of weight 177.75 ± 7.68 g daily for 8 weeks. The animals were divided randomly into 4 groups; A, B, C, D (n=5). DM-HBr was administered at the following dosages: group A: Normal saline (control); group B: 0.214 mg/ kg b.w; group C: 0.571 mg/ kg b.w; group D: 4.285 mg/ kg b.w. At sacrifice; Routine histology, semen analysis, serum and intra-testicular levels of male reproductive hormones and testicular oxidative ...
Bioassay of Recombinant Human Granulocyte Colony Stimulating Factor (rhG-CSF) for Neutropenia Treatment in Male Sprague Dawley Rats
Losulazine was administered orally by gastric intubation to Sprague-Dawley rats at treatment levels of 0, 4 and 8 mg/kg/day in a neonatal development and reproductive performance study. Twenty-four females were treated at each level in three sections; Section A was treated from postpartum day 0 through postpartum day 4; Section B was treated postpartum day 0 through postpartum day 10; and, Section C was treated postpartum day 0 through postpartum day 21. There were significant decreases in maternal weight gain during treatment in a dose-related manner. Live pup weight means also decreased in a dose-related manner in all sections, persisting throughout maturation in F1 males and to about week nine in F1 females. Significant delays were recorded in the developmental milestone of eye opening. There was also a significant reduction in the copulation rate of F1 females in a dose-related trend ...
Chronic treatment with leptin regulates body weight and energy balance and reduces food intake in obese and lean mice. In 18- to 20-h fasted lean mice (C57BL/6, +/+), we examined the acute effect of a single intraperitoneal injection of recombinant mouse leptin (0.12 mg/kg) on food intake and gastric emptying. Leptin reduced food intake, with a peak inhibition at the 5th h postinjection (69 +/- 12%/h), although there was no change in food consumption at the 1st h. Leptin did not alter the 4-h rate of gastric emptying of a solid nutrient meal (free access to Purina chow for either 1-, 2-, or 4-h period). In normal Sprague-Dawley rats fasted for 18-20 h, a single intraperitoneal injection of recombinant mouse leptin (0.2 or 1.2 mg/kg) did not modify the 7-h cumulative or hourly food intake. These results show that a single intraperitoneal injection of recombinant mouse leptin reduces food intake within 5 h while not influencing gastric emptying of ingested food in lean mice. Sprague-Dawley rats are
Male Sprague Dawley rats were pretreated i.th. with vehicle (inverted triangle) or PKA-selective siRNA (circle) for 3 days. After the pretreatments, the animals received continuous saline (open symbols, error bars within the symbol) or morphine (45 nmol/μl/h) (closed symbols, error bars within the symbol) infusion for 6 days, with continued i.th. siRNA or vehicle injections on alternate days. Sustained (6 days) systemic morphine (45 nmol/μl/h) infusion caused a rightward shift in the dose-response curve, with the previous A90 dose causing only 20±1% MPE (**p , 0.01 relative to control, one-way ANOVA, n=5). Intrathecal PKAselective siRNA pre-treatment greatly attenuated sustained morphine-mediated rightward shift in the morphine dose-response curve. Thus, re-challenge with the naive A90 dose (10 μg/5μl) produced 93±2% antinociception in the PKA-selective siRNA pre-treated rat**p , 0.01 relative to vehicle pre-treated morphine-infused rats, one-way ANOVA, n=5). ...
Background: The renin angiotensin system has become the focus of recent interest in stroke research as accumulating evidence indicates that activation of the angiotensin converting enzyme 2/angiotensin-(1-7)/mas (ACE2-Ang-(1-7)-Mas) axis exerts neuroprotective benefit in animal stroke models. Pre- and post-stroke activation of this axis by intracerebroventricular infusion of Ang-(1-7) reduces infarct size and improves neurological function in rats. The recent development of an orally active formulation of Ang-(1-7) in hydroxypropylβ-cyclodextrin [HPβCD/Ang-(1-7)] provides a non-invasive avenue for testing the efficacy of systemic post-stroke administration of Ang-(1-7). We tested the hypothesis that post-stroke oral gavage of HPβCD/Ang-(1-7) exerts neuroprotection in a rat model of ischemic stroke.. Methods: Male SD rats underwent ischemic stroke by endothelin-1-induced middle cerebral artery occlusion and were randomly divided into 2 groups of 12 each that received oral gavages of dH2O or ...
Methods The male SD rats whose body weights were about 250 grams were used. Rats underwent ligation of the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery to induce acute myocardial infarction, and heart failure occurred 4 weeks later. The survival rats after operation were randomly divided into experimental group, control group and sham-operated group. Adeno-βARKct or empty virus delivery to the rats through the caudal vein. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), hemodynamic index, catecholamine and NT-ProBNP of blood plasma, and catecholamine and the expression of βARK1 of non-infarcted left ventricular tissue was measured.. ...
Introduction: HOE642, the sodium-hydrogen exchanger inhibitor, can delay the opening of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) and reduce mitochondrial-derived superoxide production. It was reported HOE642 improved neurological recovery after prolonged ischemia.. Hypothesis: We sought to find the effects of HOE642 with or without hypothermia on resuscitation in rats.. Methods: Thirty male SD rats (240-340g) were included. Cardiac arrest was induced by 8 min asphyxia. Rats were divided into 4 groups: (1) normothermia group (N group, n=9), rectal temperature (Trec) maintained at 37±0.5°C; (2) hypothermia group (H group, n=7), Trec maintained at 37±0.5°C during cardiac arrest and CPR periods, rats were cooled to 33°C in 3 min after ROSC, Trec maintained at 33±0.5°C for 1 h, rewarmed gradually to 37±0.5°C during the following 1 h; (3) HOE642 group (n=7), Trec maintained the same as the N group, HOE642 was given (1mg/kg, iv) when initiating CPR; (4) hypothermia and HOE642 group ...
The aim of the present study was to investigate the impacts of n-3 PUFA and lymph drainage (D) on intestinal ischaemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in rats. A total of forty-eight Sprague-Dawley male rats were randomly divided into three groups (n 16): normal diet (N), enteral nutrition (EN) and EN plus n-3 PUFA. Each group was further divided into lymph drainage (I/R+D) and non-drainage (I/R) sub-groups (n 8). After 5 d with different nutrition regimens, the rats were subjected to 60 min ischaemia by clamping the superior mesenteric artery, followed by 120 min reperfusion. At the same time, the rats in the I/R+D sub-groups were treated with intestinal lymph drainage for 180 min. Organs were harvested and we detected the cytokine, endotoxin, and expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 mRNA and its endogenous ligand high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1). We found that the serum levels of HMGB1, inflammatory cytokine and endotoxin in the three I/R+D sub-groups were significantly lower than those in the N ...
This study investigated the effects of magnetized water supplementation on blood glucose, DNA damage, antioxidant status, and lipid profiles in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. There were three groups of 4-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats used in the study: control group (normal control group without diabetes); diabetes group (STZ-induced diabetes control); and magnetized water group (magnetized water supplemented after the induction of diabetes using STZ). Before initiating the study, diabetes was confirmed by measuring fasting blood glucose (FBS > 200 dl), and the magnetized water group received magnetized water for 8 weeks instead of general water. After 8 weeks, rats were sacrificed to measure the fasting blood glucose, insulin concentration, glycated hemoglobin level, degree of DNA damage, antioxidant status, and lipid profiles. From the fourth week of magnetized water supplementation, blood glucose was decreased in the magnetized water group compared to the diabetes group, and ...
Two experiments were conducted to determine whether cross-sensitization/tolerance between wheel running and the drugs amphetamine and morphine is possible in male Sprague Dawley rats. Each experiment compared a non-wheel control group and a chronic wheel access group of rats. Following a 24 day period of wheel access all animals were presented with a drug and saline challenge test (counterbalanced) with either 1 mg/kg of amphetamine (Experiment 1) or 10mg/kg or morphine (Experiment 2). Prior to the challenge tests all animals were habituated to the novel testing environment in two 1 hr sessions (Experiment 1) or one 2 hr session (Experiment 2) to attenuate the acute motoric response to a novel environment. Behavioral sensitization/tolerance was measured by locomotion (cm) within long narrow activity boxes with the Ethnovision video tracking system. In the first experiment the wheel access rats were significantly more active during the 1 hr amphetamine challenge test than the non-wheel rats thus showing
OBJECTIVE: The current study was undertaken to localize and identify angiotensin II (Ang II) receptor subtypes in the microcirculation of striated muscle.. METHODS: Cremaster muscles from 7- to 8-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were excised, placed in a dissection solution maintained at 4 degrees C, and 3 branch orders of arterioles and venules, as well as capillaries and a muscle specimen, were microdissected under a stereomicroscope. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) methods were developed for purification and amplification of extremely small amounts of RNA (,5 ng/microL) from whole tissue samples. RNA was isolated from each sample, reverse transcribed, and the cDNA products were amplified by polymerase chain reactions (PCR) specifically primed with either AT(1a), AT(1b), or AT(2) receptor primers. The products were electrophoretically size-fractionated on an agarose gel, stained with ethidium bromide to visualize DNA bands, and analyzed to determine the presence or absence ...
Abstract The present study was designed to investigate protective effects of quercetin against bisphenol A (BPA) induced testicular toxicity in male Sprague Dawley rats. Twenty adult male rats were divided into four groups. The first group served as the control and was provided with normal saline. The second group of rats was treated with 50 mg/kg of BPA dissolved in alcoholic saline. The third group received oral gavage of 50 mg/kg quercetin while the fourth group was treated with quercetin (50 mg/kg) along with BPA (50 mg/kg). All of the treatments were carried out for 52 days. Testicular tissues and epididymis ...
where V is the uptake velocity of the substrate (picomoles per minute per milligram of protein), S is the substrate concentration in the medium (micromolar), Km is the Michaelis constant (micromolar concentration), Vmax is the maximum uptake velocity (picomoles per minute per milligram of protein), and Pdif is the nonsaturable uptake clearance (microliters per minute per milligram of protein). "High" and "low" in eq. 7 indicate parameters of the high- and low-affinity components, respectively. Fitting was performed with the nonlinear least-squares method (the Damping Gauss-Newton method algorithm) using the MULTI program (Yamaoka et al., 1981).. In Vivo Infusion Study in Rats. Male SD rats and EHBRs (Mrp2-deficient rats) weighing approximately 300 to 350 g were used for these experiments. Under pentobarbital anesthesia (40 mg/kg), the femoral vein was cannulated with a polyethylene catheter (PE-50) for the injection of rosuvastatin. The bile duct was cannulated with a polyethylene catheter ...
most emphasized one is the reducing of lipolysis and increasing lipogenesis via reducing parathyroid hormone levels. The present study is designed to evaluate the effects of nondairy dietary calcium on adipogenes is and adipocyte size in male Sprague dawley rats. This experimental study was done from November to September of 2005 at Tehran school of health; nutritiondepartment.48 male Spragu-Dawley rats from Damgostar Company were used in three randomly selected groups. The rats were fed low [0.2% W/W], usual [0.5% W/W] and high [1.2% W/W] dietary calcium based on AIN-93M purified diet. Rats were housed in 12 hours light-dark cycle, 22-25°C room temperature with free access to their respective diets. At the end of the experiment, rats were decapitated and carcass fat content, carcass ash content and mean adipocyte size in testis, peritoneal and subcutaneous fat pads were compared in three groups. The SPSS 11.5 was used as statistical software, running analysis of variance for comparing the ...
Oral gavage administration of delta-3-carene to pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats at dose levels of 300 or 450 mg/kg body weight/day during the organogenesis and fetal phase of gestation (Days 6-19) was generally well-tolerated maternally, with no unscheduled deaths or effect on clinical condition. Treatment at 600 mg/kg body weight/day, the highest dose tested, resulted in several post dosing signs that indicated marked toxicity in one animal (flattened swaying gait or prostrate posture, unresponsive behavior, shallow respiration and piloerection) following the second dose and the animal was humanely killed. Similar signs were evident in a second animal following the second and third doses; however the general condition of this animal remained good and the animal was retained on the study. Macroscopic examination of the decedent animal revealed no findings. Other post dosing signs were limited to isolated and sporadic incidences of salivation, with associated chin rubbing in some animals at 300, 450 ...
6221 8457627 / +6221 8458258 [email protected] ABSTRACT. Backgroud: Cognitive function impaired in the elderly is not a disease but it can be considered as a Preclinical Alzheimers Disease (AD) one of the most common dementia in the elderly. Results of research on tempe and tofu showed the effects on different cognitive functions. The aims of this study were to analized the effect of tempe and tofu flours cognitive function in ovariectomized female rats. Method: Seventy two (72) white female Sprague Dawley strain rats, aged 12 months used for this study. Before the intervention 52 rats had ovariectomy (OVx) surgical treatments and were grouped into 5 intervention groups: tempe flour, tofu flour, estradiol, casein; and non ovariectomy. Cognitive function was measured using a labyrin. Processing and data analysis, used One-Way ANOVA with Polynomial Contrass Post Hoc LSD. Results: Based on difference test between the tempe flour group (8 weeks) with baseline 2(after OVx) showed that increased ...
To test the hypothesis that gastrin releasing peptide-29 (GRP-29) combined with glucagon like peptide-1 (7-36) (GLP-1 (7-36)) reduce body weight (BW) more than each of the peptides given individually, we infused the two peptides (0.5nmol/kg each) in the aorta of free feeding, diet-induced obese (DIO) male Sprague Dawley rats once daily for 25days and measured BW. We found that GRP-29 and GLP-1 reduce BW, GRP-29 reduced it more than GLP-1 and GRP-29+GLP-1 reduce BW more than each peptide given alone. This reduction was accompanied by decrease 24-hour food intake (normal rat chow), meal size (MS), duration of first meal and number of meals, and increase latency to the first meal, intermeal interval (IMI) and satiety ratio (IMI/MS, amount of food consumed per a unit of time ...
Male SD rats (200-240 g) were supplied by Laboratory Animal Center of Ningxia Medical University (Grade II, Certificate No. SCXY 2011-0001). Animals were acclimatized in environmentally controlled breeding cages for at least 3 days before being used and were provided with standard laboratory food and water and were fasted for 12 h prior to the study. Water was freely available for rats during experiments. The experimental protocol was approved by the University Ethics Committee. All procedures involving animals were in accordance with the Regulations of the Experimental Animal Administration, State Committee of Science and Technology, Peoples Republic of China. 20 rats were randomly divided into 4 groups (n = 5). Group A was the control vehicle (ART alone) and group L, M, and H were the combination groups with CHR in three fixed ratios (1:1, 1:2, and 1:4). The suspension of CHR was continuously administered (each time per day) to rats in group L, M, and H by gavage at doses of 5, 10, 20 mg/kg ...
Neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats received saline injections (0.1 ml) of pH 4.0 or pH 7.4 in the gastrocnemius muscle on alternate days (total 6). A third group received needle prick only, while a forth group was left naive (n = 10 per group). A stimulus response function to graded colorectal distension (CRD) (10-80 mmHg) was recorded at age 8-12 weeks. Extracellular single-unit recordings from spinal neurons (L1-L4) were performed in adult pH 4.0 injected rats and compared to naive controls. Neurons were sub-classified as short latency abrupt (SL-A, n = 24) or short latency sustained (SL-S, n = 23). The spontaneous activity and response to graded CRD was recorded for each neuron. Recordings were repeated following administration of amitriptyline (6 μmol/kg, i.v.).. ...
Propofol (100 mg/kg) was given to 7-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats; in some rats, hypoxic preconditioning was administered before intraperitoneal propofol injection by subjecting rats to five cycles of 10 min of hypoxia (8% O2) and 10 min of normoxia (21% O2). Then, the rats were allowed to breathe room air for 2 h. Neuronal mitochondrial morphology was observed by transmission electron microscopy. ATP content was detected using an ATP assay kit. The expression levels of GLUT1, GLUT3, pDrp1, Drp1 and Mfn2 were detected by Western blot, and the expression levels of GLUT1 and GLUT3 were further examined by immunohistochemistry.. ...
AnavexLifeSci Anavex Life Sciences Reports Potential Normalization of Hypertension with ANAVEX®2-73 Published in The Journal of C… twitter.com/i/web/status/9… ...
... : IL-6 serum levels of TIMP-3-treated rats compared to saline-treated rats exposed to liver I/R injury. Serum samples were quantified for IL-6 by ELISA as per manufacturer s protocol. IL-6 levels on the Y-axis (pg/ml) are shown for TIMP-3-treated rats and saline-treated rats prior to ischemia/ reperfusion injury. The X-axis indicates the length of reperfusion time for TIMP-3-treated and saline-treated ...
In the high range, my own observation to date is that at or above the 98th percentile there are about twice more males than females, while at or above the 99.9th percentile there are about 15 times more males. Trying to make this fit in terms of standard deviation (variance is the square of the standard deviation by the way), I find that when the male and female mean are both IQ 100, the male standard deviation (SD) must be about 33% greater than the female SD. However, when a mean difference of 5 points in favor of males would exist, the male SD would only need to be about 11% greater. I dont know which is true (or if the truth lies in between) and will not be able to verify it myself as I only deal with high-range tests. I must say though that an SD difference of 33% seems unlikely.. Eysenck, H.J. 1981. Race, Intelligence and Education. Maurice Temple Smith Ltd. Hedges, Larry V. and Amy Nowell. 1995. "Sex differences in mental test scores, variability and numbers of high-scoring individuals." ...
OBJECTIVE: Myocardial damage induced by isoproterenol is believed to be secondary to increased oxygen demands on the heart. Our objective was to test an additional primary action of isoproterenol on tissue and mitochondrial oxidative metabolism and to compare these effects with the effects of other adrenergic agents in the presence of adrenergic inhibitors. DESIGN: Prospective, dose-response study. SETTING: Research laboratory at a university hospital. SUBJECTS: Fifty Sprague-Dawley female rats (200 to 350 g), slightly anesthetized with ether and divided into several groups. INTERVENTIONS: In 26 rats, the heart was removed, cut into fine slices (0.5-mm thickness), and placed in an ice-cold buffer. In 22 animals, the hearts were perfused in the Langendorff manner and chopped and processed for mitochondrial studies. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: We determined the following: a) the direct "in vitro" effects of isoproterenol and related catecholamines on normal oxygen uptake using myocardial ...
Yes if you want to participate in the project, but have a specific sample you want to use in your composition, then post the sample in the field recordings section for everyone as well. To do so, Just start a new topic with the subject as the title for your field recording, add as an attachment in your post. Site only supports mp3, but I post mine in 256k which is pretty decent ...
Zyagen : Rat Sprague Dawley Strain, Tissue Total Protein - Antibodies Kits, Reagents & Biochemical Tissue Sections RNA Products cDNA Products Genomic DNA Products Tissue Lysates Products Premade Northern Blots Premade Western Blots Recombinant Proteins & Peptides Tissue Microarrays
... manufacturers sprague suppliers Directory - Browse sprague products,Choose Quality sprague manufacturers, suppliers, factory at B2BAGE
First Squad detectives are investigating a serious auto accident that occurred on Thursday, February 02, 2017 at 2:45 pm in Uniondale.
LSD is a highly dangerous, lethal, and addictive drug that can cause severe damage and leave a lasting effect even after one use.
What is the power of each of the following studies, using a t test for dependent means (based on the .05 significance level)? Answer by using the examples below: Study Effect Size N Tails (a) Small 20 One (b).
Резюме: Оценката на качеството на храните е ключов въпрос и загриженост за всички правителства. Правила и наблюдение на храните в хранителната верига са приети във всички страни. Няма съмнение, че храната е тясно свързана с човешкото здраве. Един от най-често срещаните замърсители са нитрати и нитрити, които имат положително не само отрицателно влияние. В статията са представени резултати от оценка съдържанието на NO3- в различни продукти на пазара на хранителни вериги в България. Открито е по-голямо количество NO3- до 900 mg / kg в пресни картофи, със ...
خاک نقش مهمی را در چرخه بیوژئوشیمیایی به عنوان یک منبع مهم ذخیره عناصر ایفا می-کند. از عوامل مهمی که در کشاورزی حائز اهمیت است نوع ویژگی-های خاک، پراکنش و میزان تغییرات آن می-باشد. در این مطالعه 600 نمونه خاک با فواصل تقریبی 100 متر در 100 متر از عمق 30-0 سانتی-متری در 800 هکتار از اراضی شرکت کشت و صنعت شریف آباد قزوین جمع-آوری شد. آنالیز آمار توصیفی و زمین آماری داده-های جمع-آوری شده، انجام شد. نتایج نشان داد دامنه تغییرات نیتروژن کل خاک در محدوده 82/0- 02/0% با میانگین 26/0 درصد، فسفر قابل استخراج با اولسن در محدودهmg/kg 07/93-58/9 با میانگین 21/36 میلی-گرم بر کیلوگرم، پتاسیم قابل
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mechanical stress-induced apoptosis of nucleus pulposus cells. T2 - An in vitro and in vivo rat model. AU - Kuo, Yi Jie. AU - Wu, Lien Chen. AU - Sun, Jui Sheng. AU - Chen, Ming Hong. AU - Sun, Man Ger. AU - Tsuang, Yang Hwei. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - Background: Un-physiological loads play an important role in the degenerative process of inter-vertebral discs (IVD). In this study, we used an in vitro and in vivo rat model to investigate the mechanism of nucleus pulposus (NP) cells apoptosis induced by mechanical stress. Methods: Static compressive load to IVDs of rat tails was used as the in vivo model. For the in vitro model, NP cells were tested under the physiological and un-physiological loading. For histological examination, apoptotic index study, and apoptotic gene expression, we also selected cytokines [bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2/7, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)] to be analyzed. Results: Under mechanical loading, ...
Temporomandibular joint disorder is characterized by peripheral and central sensitization of trigeminal nociceptive neurons. Although CGRP is implicated in the development of central sensitization by stimulating glial activation via its receptor, the mechanism by which CGRP promotes and maintains sensitization of trigeminal nociceptive neurons is not well understood. The goal of my study was to investigate the role of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) on the initiation and maintenance of a nocifensive withdrawal response to mechanical stimulation following activation of primary trigeminal sensory neurons. For my studies, I used adult male Sprague Dawley rats that were injected with CGRP alone or co-injected with inhibitors and determined changes in nocifensive behavior and inflammatory proteins. Intrathecal injection of CGRP increased nocifensive responses to mechanical stimulation up to 48 hours and this stimulatory effect was blocked by the antagonist peptide CGRP8-37 and a protein kinase A
This study was conducted on pre-pubertal female Sprague Dawley rats. Animals were divided into four groups (n = 8 in each group). Group I was administered with vehicle 0.2 ml of corn oil (Sigma-Aldrich, USA) using oral gavage daily for six weeks; these animals served as negative control (CO group), Group II was administered with BPA suspended in corn oil at 10 mg/kg body weight and served as positive control (PC group), Group III was administered with 200 mg/kg body weight of Tualang honey 30 min before the administration of BPA at 10 mg/kg (TH group) while Group IV was administered with 200 mg/kg body weight of Tualang honey 30 min before the administration of corn oil (THC group). Body weight of all animals were monitored weekly ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Factors influencing energy intake of rats fed either a high-fat or a fat mimetic diet. AU - Harris, R. B.S.. PY - 1994/1/1. Y1 - 1994/1/1. N2 - The aim of this study was to compare the effects of chronic feeding of a high-fat diet and a diet containing a fat mimetic on energy intake, body composition and tissue metabolism of mature female Sprague Dawley rats. Rats were fed a control, 25% kJ fat, diet for 10 days. Preference for this diet compared with a high-fat, 45% kJ fat, or fat mimetic, 25% kJ fat, diet was determined by offering rats two diets, in random order, for a period of 13.5 hours on three different occasions at two day intervals. Animals were then divided into three groups, receiving one of the three diets for 42 days. Dietary preference was tested again. Hepatic and muscle glucose and fatty acid utilization were measured in vitro and body composition was determined. Most of the rats preferred the mimetic diet over either control or high-fat diet, but there was no ...
Long-term consequences of traumatic brain injury (TBI) are closely associated with the development of severe psychiatric disorders, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), yet preclinical studies on pathological changes after combined TBI with PTSD are lacking. In the present in vivo study, we assessed chronic neuroinflammation, neuronal cell loss, cell proliferation and neuronal differentiation in specific brain regions of adult Sprague-Dawley male rats following controlled cortical impact model of moderate TBI with or without exposure to PTSD. Eight weeks post-TBI, stereology-based histological analyses revealed no significant differences between sham and PTSD alone treatment across all brain regions examined, whereas significant exacerbation of OX6-positive activated microglial cells in the striatum, thalamus, and cerebral peduncle, but not cerebellum, in animals that received TBI alone and combined TBI-PTSD compared with PTSD alone and sham treatment. Additional immunohistochemical ...
This study evaluated how different approaches to limiting energy availability (LEA) by 15% affected mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-related signaling in mammary carcinomas. Female Sprague Dawley rats, injected with 50mg 1-methyl-1-nitrosourea per kilogram body weight, were randomized to a control or three LEA interventions: (i) sedentary and restricted rats fed to 85% of energy available to the control or motorized wheel running (37 m/min) for an average of (ii) 1621±55 (WRL) or (iii) 3094±126 (WRH) meters/day with food intake adjusted to provide the same net amount of available energy across LEA interventions. Under these conditions, LEA reduced overall cancer burden by 28% (P = 0.04) and down-regulated mTOR-related signaling (Hotelling multivariate, P = 0.002). Among the regulatory nodes assessed, reduced levels of activated protein kinase B (pAkt) and induction of sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) were the most influential factors in distinguishing between sham control and LEA carcinomas. P-Akt was ...
Besides its vasoconstrictor role, Ang II acts as a growth-promoting agent. It induces growth (hypertrophy and/or hyperplasia) in many cultured cell types and in vivo.1,2,11-13⇓⇓⇓⇓ Like most of the known physiological effects of Ang II, evidence up to the present has suggested that these trophic effects are mediated by AT1 receptors. Indeed, until recently, it was believed that vascular Ang II receptors were exclusively of the AT1 subtype. However, the adult rat aorta expresses a small but significant amount of AT2 receptors as well.14 In aorta of fetal and young rats, the proportion of AT2 receptors is higher; this predominance of AT2 receptors is reversed during development.14,15⇓ In 2-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats, 81% of angiotensin receptors in the aorta are of the AT2 subtype; in 8-week-old rats, this is reduced to 28%, with a predominance of AT1 (71%).14 In 6-to 8-week-old SHR and WKY rats, renal resistance vessels display 20% of Ang II binding sites with affinity to PD123319.16 ...
Previous research has found that adolescent ethanol (EtOH) exposure alters drug seeking behaviors, cognition and neuroplasticity. Using male Sprague Dawley rats, differences in spatial working memory, non-spatial discrimination learning and behavioral flexibility were explored as a function of age at the onset (mid-adolescent vs. adult) of chronic EtOH exposure (CET). Concentrations of mature brain-derived neurotrophic factor (mBDNF) and betanerve growth factor (beta-NGF) in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus were also assessed at different time-points: during CET, following acute abstinence (48-hrs), and after protracted abstinence (6-8 wks). Our results revealed that an adolescent onset of CET leads to increased EtOH consumption that persisted into adulthood. In both adult and adolescent onset CET groups, there were significant long-term reductions in prefrontal cortical mBDNF and beta-NGF levels. However, only adult onset CET rats displayed decreased hippocampal BDNF levels. Spatial memory,
Care of the rats used in this study met the guidelines set forth by the National Institutes of Health (National Academy Press 1996). The National Science Council (Taiwan, Republic of China), and Animal Review Committee of the National Defense Medical Center approved the study protocol. The isolated rat lungs were prepared using previously described methods.8,9 In brief, Sprague-Dawley male rats weighing 350 ± 20 g were anesthetized using intraperitoneal sodium pentobarbital (50 mg/kg). After a cannula had been inserted into the rats trachea, the lungs were ventilated with humidified air containing 5% CO2. The ventilator settings included a tidal volume of 3 ml, an end-expiratory pressure of 1 cm H2O, and a frequency of 60 cycles per minute. After a median sternotomy, the right ventricle was injected with heparin (1 U/g of body weight [BW]), and 10 ml of intracardiac blood were withdrawn. The pulmonary artery was cannulated and perfused with a physiological salt solution consisting of 119 mM ...
Background. Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in rats with acute alcohol intoxication (AAI) induces greater brain injury and neurological impairment than those without AAI. It is not clear whether chronic alcohol consumption (CAC) may cause similar outcomes in ICH rats. Methods. Sixteen Sprague-Dawley male rats were divided into two groups: CAC group (n = 8) fed with 10% alcohol in drinking water for 4 weeks, and Control group (n = 8) fed with water only. ICH was induced by collagenase infusion into the striata. Coronal T1-weighted imaging, T2-weighted imaging, T2*-weighted imaging, and diffusion-weighted imaging were generated with a 3.0T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner to investigate the changes of hemorrhagic volume and edema throughout the injury and recovery stages of ICH. Results. The hematoma volume was larger in the CAC group than in the control group (P , 0.001). These findings, however, cannot explain the findings that at post-ICH, progressive edema formation and neurological ...
Background. Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in rats with acute alcohol intoxication (AAI) induces greater brain injury and neurological impairment than those without AAI. It is not clear whether chronic alcohol consumption (CAC) may cause similar outcomes in ICH rats. Methods. Sixteen Sprague-Dawley male rats were divided into two groups: CAC group (n = 8) fed with 10% alcohol in drinking water for 4 weeks, and Control group (n = 8) fed with water only. ICH was induced by collagenase infusion into the striata. Coronal T1-weighted imaging, T2-weighted imaging, T2*-weighted imaging, and diffusion-weighted imaging were generated with a 3.0T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner to investigate the changes of hemorrhagic volume and edema throughout the injury and recovery stages of ICH. Results. The hematoma volume was larger in the CAC group than in the control group (P , 0.001). These findings, however, cannot explain the findings that at post-ICH, progressive edema formation and neurological ...
About one third of patients with type 1 diabetes develops kidney disease. The mechanism is largely unknown, but intrarenal hypoxia has been proposed as a unifying mechanism for chronic kidney disease including diabetic nephropathy. The endothelin system has recently been demonstrated to regulate oxygen availability in the diabetic kidney via a pathway involving endothelin type A receptors (ETA-R). These receptors mainly mediate vasoconstriction and tubular sodium retention, and inhibition of ETA-R improves intrarenal oxygenation in the diabetic kidney. Endothelin type B receptors (ETB-R) can induce vasodilation of the renal vasculature and also regulate tubular sodium handling. However, the role of ETB-R in kidney oxygen homeostasis is unknown. The effects of acute intrarenal ETB-R activation (Sarafotoxin 6c for 30-40 min; 0.78 pmol h-1 directly into the renal artery) on kidney function and oxygen metabolism were investigated in normoglycemic controls and insulinopenic male Sprague Dawley rats ...
Lipid peroxidation (LPO) has been identified as an important component of atherosclerosis. In this study, the effects of supplementation with cholesterol (0.5%), olive oil (5%) and vitamin E (0.05%) on erythrocyte glutathione (GSH), plasma malondialdehyde (MDA), total cholesterol, HDL-LDL cholesterol and triacylglycerol, brain and liver MDA and GSH concentrations of rats were investigated. A total of 50 Sprague-Dawley male rats aged 6 months, and of equal body weight were used and fed a standard ration ad libitum. Animals were housed in the University of Selcuk, Veterinary Faculty Experimental Animals Unit. The experiment lasted 60 days and there were five experimental groups as follows: 1. Control, 2. Cholesterol (0.5%), 3. Olive oil (5%), 4. Cholesterol plus vitamin E (0.05%), 5. Olive oil plus vitamin E (0.05%). At the end of the experiment, blood samples were taken by cardiac puncture and erythrocyte GSH, plasma MDA, cholesterol, HDL-LDL cholesterol, triacylglycerol and also GSH and MDA ...
Catechin is an active ingredient of green tea. It is reported to inhibit corticosteroid‑induced anxiety and depression‑like symptoms. Considering the complex nature of depression, effects of catechin need to be studied in a clinically relevant depression model. The present study was designed to explore the antidepressant effect of catechin in Sprague Dawley rats subjected to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS). Animals were subjected to CUMS and treated with (+)‑catechin (50 mg/kg) or escitalopram (10 mg/kg) orally; a CUMS control and a vehicle control that was not exposed to CUMS were also established. Various stressors were applied daily in an unpredictable manner for 8 weeks achieve CUMS. Sucrose preference test were performed after 4 and 8 weeks and forced swim tests (FSTs) were conducted at weeks 4, 6 and 8. At the end of week 8, animals were sacrificed and the brain homogenate was studied for antioxidant parameters. Compared with the vehicle control, animals of the CUMS control ...
OBJECTIVE Novel treatment strategies are needed in the treatment of endometriosis due to limited success rates with the currently available options. As inflammatory and immunological mechanisms have been shown to be involved in the mechanism of the disease, new modalities are likely to emerge. We investigated the effects of infliximab (INF), etanercept (ETA) and letrozole on the regression of experimental endometriosis. STUDY DESIGN In this experimental randomized trial, endometriosis was induced surgically in 44 adult female Sprague-Dawley rats. Establishment of implants was confirmed in 41 animals by a second operation on the 21st day. The rats were then randomly divided into four groups. Group I (n = 10) served as controls. Group II (n = 11) received letrozole (0.18 mg/kg, i.p.), group III (n = 10, i.p.) ETA (2.016 mg/kg, i.p.), and group IV (n = 10) INF (15.12 mg/kg, i.p.) for a second 21-day period. Endometriotic implant size along with peritoneal fluid VEGF level and immunoreactivity were
Hepatic steatosis is common in obesity and insulin resistance and results from a net retention of lipids in the liver. A key mechanism to prevent steatosis is to increase secretion of triglycerides (TG) packaged as very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL). Insulin controls nutrient partitioning via signaling through its cognate receptor in peripheral target organs such as liver, muscle and adipose tissue and via signaling in the CNS to orchestrate organ cross talk. While hepatic insulin signaling is known to suppress VLDL production from the liver, it is unknown whether brain insulin signaling independently regulates hepatic VLDL secretion. Here we show that in conscious, unrestrained male Sprague Dawley rats the infusion of insulin into the 3rd ventricle acutely increased hepatic TG secretion. Chronic infusion of insulin into the CNS via osmotic minipumps reduced the hepatic lipid content as assessed by non-invasive 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy and lipid profiling independent of changes in ...
Cerebral vasospasm (CVS) after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a serious and significant health problem in the worldwide. There are still no effective therapies for treatment of CVS in patients suffering from SAH. Our early studies have demonstrated that the expression of connexin43 (Cx43, a member of gap junctional proteins) in cerebral spastic vessel is significantly up-regulated, and knocking down Cx43 with specific siRNA interference can significantly alleviate CVS after SAH. Therefore, Cx43 in cerebral vessel is a potential target in the treatment of CVS. However, Cx43 is widely distributed in many organs, particularly in the heart, and plays an important role in the physiological function. This study is aimed at identify whether OPN, TNC or E-selectin can be used as a target protein to be recognized in spastic cerebral vessels, then we can produce a carrier containing Cx43 siRNA or other inhibitors as a new potential treatment for CVS. Twenty eight male Sprague Dawley rats (weighing 300-350 g)
Explant Preparation. Hippocampal slices were prepared from 6- to 9-day-old Sprague-Dawley rat pups of both sexes using previously described techniques (Thomas et al., 1998; Thomas and Morrisett, 2000) and in accordance with National Institutes of Health and University of Texas Institutional Animal Use and Care Committee guidelines. In brief, brains were rapidly removed, cooled to 0 to 4°C for at least 3 min, and then 500-μm transverse sections were prepared and transferred to a holding chamber containing equilibration ACSF bubbled with 95% O2/5% CO2 and maintained at 32°C for 60 min before explanting. Equilibration ACSF consisted of 120 mM NaCl, 25 mM NaHCO3, 3.3 mM KCl, 1.2 mM NaH2PO4, 1.8 mM CaCl2, 2.4 mM MgSO4, and 10 mM dextrose. After equilibration, slices were transferred under sterile conditions onto Millicell-CM organotypic membrane inserts (generally, one to three slices per insert; Millipore, Bedford, MA) with media consisting of 75% minimal essential medium and 25% heat-inactivated ...
Objective: To study the protective effect of lipoic acid (LA) on the spermatogenic function of the male rats with oligoasthenozoospermia induced by ornidazole (ORN). METHODS: Seventy male SD rats were equally randomized into groups A (solvent control: 1 ml 0.5% CMC-Na + 1 ml olive oil), B (low-dose ORN model: 400 mg/kg ORN suspension + 1 ml olive oil), C (low-dose ORN + low-dose LA treatment: 400 mg/kg ORN + 50 mg/kg LA), D (low-dose ORN + high-dose LA treatment: 400 mg/kg ORN + 100 mg/kg LA), E (high-dose ORN model: 800 mg/kg ORN suspension + 1 ml olive oil), F (high-dose ORN + low-dose LA treatment: 800 mg/kg ORN + 50 mg/kg LA), and G (high-dose ORN + high-dose LA treatment: 800 mg/kg ORN + 100 mg/kg LA), and treated respectively for 20 successive days. Then all the rats were sacrificed and the weights of the body, testis, epididymis and seminal vesicle obtained, followed by calculation of the organ index, determination of epididymal sperm concentration and motility, and observation of the ...
purpose. Compelling evidence suggests that α2 agonists, such as brimonidine, protect retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) from injury in a wide range of animal models. However, the mechanism of action for this protection and the physiological role of the α2 adrenergic system in the retina is not well understood. A major goal of this work was to explore the role of the α2 adrenergic system in the modulation of cytosolic Ca2+ signaling at retinal synaptic layers, particularly the inner plexiform layer (IPL), where communication between RGCs and their presynaptic cells takes place.. methods. Functional Ca2+ imaging at the inner plexiform layer (IPL) and outer plexiform layer (OPL) of living rat retinal slices was conducted with a high-speed confocal system. The relative changes of cytosolic free Ca2+ were monitored with the fluorescent Ca2+ dye fluo-4. The Ca2+ signal was elicited by membrane depolarization produced by a high K+ (40 mM) Ringer solution that was delivered rapidly and briefly to the test ...
Loram LC, Taylor FR, Strand KA, Maier SF, Speake JD, Jordan KG, James JW, Wene SP, Pritchard RC, Green H, Van Dyke K, Mazarov A, Letchworth SR, Watkins LR. Systemic administration of an alpha-7 nicotinic acetylcholine agonist reverses neuropathic pain in male Sprague Dawley rats. J Pain. 2012 Dec; 13(12):1162-71 ...
Objective: Intracerebroventricular administration of orphanin FQ/nociceptin (OFQ/N), the endogenous agonist ligand of the opioid receptor-like (ORL-1) receptor, decreases extracellular levels of dopamine and suppresses motor activity. The presence of the ORL-1 receptor on mesoaccumbal and nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons raises the possibility that an action along these
BACKGROUND: Diuron is widely used in agriculture but its deleterious effects on the reproductive system and mammary gland are still poorly understood. This study evaluated whether early-life-stage exposure to Diuron alters puberty onset or susceptibility to mammary carcinogenesis in female Sprague-Dawley rats. METHODS AND RESULTS: Pregnant rats received basal diet or diet containing Diuron at 500, 750, and 1,250 ppm, from gestational day 12 to the end of lactation (postnatal day 21 [PND21]). After weaning, female offspring continued receiving basal diet or diet containing Diuron until PND 51. At PND 51, female Sprague-Dawley offspring received a single dose of 50 mg/kg b.w. of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a) anthracene (DMBA) for initiation of mammary carcinogenesis. The animals were sacrificed on PND 51, 75, and 226 to 233 (week 25) for mammary gland morphology, reproductive organs and tumor analysis, respectively. There were no significant differences among groups on vaginal opening, estrous cycle, ...
This study examined the role played by the catecholaminergic A2 neurons of the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) of adult male Sprague- Dawley rats in the increased mean arterial pressure (MAP) noticed following exposure to chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH), a rodent model to simulate arterial hypoxemic conditions occurring in humans suffering from sleep apnea. In one study, we tested the hypothesis that tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) knockdown in NTS reduces the sustained elevation in MAP noticed in the rats exposed to CIH. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with radiotelemetry transmitters and adeno-associated viral constructs with a GFP reporter having either short hairpin RNA for TH (shRNA) or scrambled virus (scrambled) were injected into caudal NTS. shRNA through formation of RNA-induced silencing complex reduced the amount of TH levels in the NTS. Virus injected rats were exposed to 7 days CIH (alternating 6 min periods of 10% O2 and 4 min of 21% O2 from 8am to 4pm; from 4pm to 8am rats
Background: We hypothesized that preconditioning (PC) with a short exposure to isoflurane (ISO) would reduce neurodegeneration induced by prolonged exposure to ISO in neonatal rats, as previously shown in neuronal cell culture.. Methods: We randomly divided 7-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats into 3 groups: control, 1.5% ISO, and PC + 1.5% ISO. The control group was exposed to carrier gas (30% oxygen balanced in nitrogen) for 30 minutes and then to carrier gas again for 6 hours the following day. The 1.5% ISO group was exposed to carrier gas for 30 minutes and then to 1.5% ISO for 6 hours the following day. The PC + 1.5% ISO group was preconditioned with a 30-minute 1.5% ISO exposure and then exposed to 1.5% ISO for 6 hours the following day. Blood and brain samples were collected 2 hours after the exposures for determination of neurodegenerative biomarkers, including caspase-3, S100[beta], caspase-12, and an autophagy biomarker Beclin-1.. Results: Prolonged exposure to ISO significantly increased ...
Dexamethasone (Dex) pretreatment significantly increased cardiac contractile force ex vivo in Langendorff-perfused Sprague-Dawley rat hearts (2 mg/kg BW i.p. Dex 24 h prior to experiment). Moreover, Ca transient amplitude as well as fractional shortening were significantly enhanced in Fura-2-loaded isolated rat ventricular myocytes exposed to Dex (1 mg/mL Dex, 24 h). Interestingly, these Dex-dependent effects could be abolished in the presence of SOCE-inhibitors SKF-96356 (SKF, 2 μM) and BTP2 (5 μM). Ca transient kinetics (time to peak, decay time) were not affected by SOCE stimulation. Direct SOCE measurements revealed a negligible magnitude in untreated myocytes but a dramatic increase in SOCE upon Dex-pretreatment. Importantly, the Dex-dependent stimulation of SOCE could be blocked by inhibition of serum and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase 1 (SGK1) using EMD638683 (EMD, 50 μM). Dex preincubation also resulted in increased mRNA expression of proteins involved in SOCE (stromal interaction ...
Rationale: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized by constriction and remodeling of the pulmonary vasculature. Changes in serotonin synthesis, receptor activation and uptake via the serotonin transporter (SERT) have been reported in experimental and clinical PAH. Acute vascular constriction by chronic exposure to high levels of serotonin (5-HT) can be mediated by 5-HT1B and 5-HT2A receptors and thickening of cardiac valves through 5-HT2B receptor. RP5063 is a novel multimodal modulator of dopamine and serotonin receptors with high affinity for 5-HT2B (Ki=0.19 nM),5-HT2A (Ki=2.5 nM),5-HT1A, 5-HT6 and 5-HT7 receptors. In this study, the possibility that RP5063 could bind to these serotonin receptors to alleviate the symptoms of experimental PAH in rats was quantified by hemodynamic monitoring and histological examination.Methods: Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were given a single s.c. injection of 50 mg/kg monocrotaline on Day 0. The animals were monitored for 28 days while PAH ...
Increasing evidence suggests that interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) is a key mediator of the inflammatory response following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Recently, we showed that intracerebroventricular administration of an IL-1 beta-neutralizing antibody was neuroprotective following TBI in mice. In the present study, an anti-IL-1 beta antibody or control antibody was administered intraperitoneally following controlled cortical injury (CCI) TBI or sham injury in 105 mice and we extended our histological, immunological and behavioral analysis. First, we demonstrated that the treatment antibody reached target brain regions of brain-injured animals in high concentrations (, 11 nm) remaining up to 8 days post-TBI. At 48 h post-injury, the anti-IL-1b treatment attenuated the TBI-induced hemispheric edema (P , 0.05) but not the memory deficits evaluated using the Morris water maze (MWM). Neutralization of IL-1 beta did not influence the TBI-induced increases (P , 0.05) in the gene expression of the ...
City Ordinance 12-13-19 addresses Parking Consecutively Over Forty-Eight Hours. It is unlawful for anyone to park or leave standing on any public street or highway in the city any vehicle for a period longer than forty-eight hours consecutively.. 12-13-19. Parking Consecutively Over Forty-Eight Hours.. Any person violating this section is subject to a fine of Fifteen Dollars ($15.00) per each day of violation. A vehicle left parked or standing on any public street or highway for a consecutive period longer than forty-eight hours shall be considered abandoned for purposes of Section 12-13-23(k).. City Ordinance 12-13-19.1 addresses Parking of Campers and Trailers Limited. It is unlawful for anyone to park or leave standing on any public street or highway in the city any boat, snowmobile, bumper pull travel trailer, fifth wheel trailer,pull type camper, pickup camper, motor home, house car, bus, mini motor home, or trailer for a period longer than forty-eight hours consecutively. Any person ...
Intermittent hypoxia-induced changes in tumor-associated macrophages and tumor malignancy in a mouse model of sleep apnea.: Our findings support the notion that
p,A sustained release system for interleukin-2 (IL-2), and IL-2 mini-pellet (IL-2 mp), was developed by fusing IL-2 into a needle shaped collagen. Serum concentration of IL-2 after a single subcutaneous injection of the IL-2 mp into C57BL/6 mice remained elevated longer than after an injection of aqueous IL-2. IL-2 in the serum became undetectable by 6h after a subcutaneous injection of 1 x 10(6) unit of IL-2 in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). In contrast, after a single subcutaneous injection of IL-2 mp containing the same amount of IL-2, the concentration of IL-2 increased to its maximum at 6h after injection, then began to decrease gradually. IL-2 was detected even on the third day after a single subcutaneous injection of one IL-2 mp. Augmentation of NK activity and generation of IL-2 activated killer cells were observed in the spleen from day 1--day 3 after a single subcutaneous injection of IL-2 mp into C57BL/6 mice. This activation was not observed following a single subcutaneous ...
Liu, A.,Chen, Y.,Yang, Z.,et al. New Metabolites Of Fenofibrate In Sprague-dawley Rats By Uplc-esi-qtof-ms-based Metabolomics Coupled With Lc-ms/ms[J]. Xenobiotica,2009,39(4):345-354 ...
A screening test for reproductive/developmental toxicity (OECD 422) was performed on Fyrolflex Sol-DPto provide information on the potential systemic, reproductive, developmental and neuro-toxicity of the product.The test material was orally administeredby gavageto 4 groups of ten male and ten female rats at concentrations of 0, 50, 250, 1000mg/kg/day.The control and high dose groups each contained 5 additional rats/ sex for the same duration but were not mated. These rats were designated as recovery animals and were held for at least 14 days after treatment termination to evaluate the recovery potential from any adverse treatment related effects. The parental rats were administered with the test material for 14 days prior to mating. Then, one male was housed with one female from the same concentration group. Each couple was allowed to mate for up to 2 weeks while the administration of the test substance continued. During the mating period, daily vaginal smears were taken from each of the female ...
I just thought I would update everyone with how all my ratties are doing. They are all doing great and everyone seems to have recovered from the illness. No additional rats got sick so I think the problem has been contained. I have a vet appointment for next Monday (the 11th) to get some blood drawn from one of my rats. I will send the blood into Radil, which is a lab that tests for infectious diseases. Then I will know for sure what they had, and will adjust my quarantine procedures from there.. I spoke to one of the doctors there, and based on their symptoms, he suspects that the rats were affected by myco, which is something that most rats bred outside of sterile conditions in labs have. But it is likely that I brought home a different strain of myco which affected a few of the rats, but now everyone has adjusted and they should be fine. I will still keep Iriss litter an extra few weeks just to be sure they dont come down with anything. I dont expect that they will, but I dont want to ...
This study tested the hypothesis that exendin-4 (Ex4) protects kidneys against ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury mainly through upregulation of nuclear-factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling and downregulation of oxidative stress. Male-adult Sprague-Dawley rats (n=24) were equally divided into group 1 (sham-operated control), group 2 [IR only, ischemia (1 h)/reperfusion (72 h)] and group 3 (IR-Ex4, 10 μg/kg at 30 min, 24 h, 48 h after IR procedure). The in vitro study demonstrated that the protein expressions of phosphorylated (p)-Akt and Nrf2 were significantly progressively increased at time points of 0/0 ...
The detection of even subtle metabolic alterations in the ischemic myocardium by metabolic imaging was first shown in a canine model of partial coronary artery occlusion and rapid atrial pacing (47). In subsequent occlusion-reperfusion studies, prolonged metabolic alterations were observed after 30 min of occlusion. These metabolic changes persisted for several weeks thereafter (48-51). The studies served as the experimental basis of subsequent clinical studies in which persistent reductions in fatty acid metabolism could be detected long after the resolution of the perfusion abnormality and ischemia (52-58). Thus, the application of a metabolic radiotracer for imaging, as opposed to a perfusion tracer, potentially extends the scope for noninvasive imaging of an ischemic event beyond the resolution of symptoms and allows monitoring long-term effects. The concept applies to tracers or tracer analogs of both long-chain fatty acids and glucose. Their uptake by previously ischemic heart muscle is ...
The effect of the presence either of a familiar or non-familiar conspecific animal on serum corticosterone and some behavioral responses in the open field was studied in male Sprague-Dawley rats....
9780205385850 Our cheapest price for Improving Schools Through Action Research : A Comprehensive Guide for is $0.01. Free shipping on all orders over $35.00.
Combine solutions A and B in a 1:1 ratio. Equal volumes of each solution are required to end up with a multivalent physiological ion solution of aCSF.. Recomended Storage Conditions: The aCSF solution may be stored at 4 degrees Celsius for up to 4 weeks. If the solution becomes cloudy, or there is indication of precipitation, discard and make a fresh batch. To preserve the pH and quality of the aCSF solution, we recommend making a fresh batch of the mixed solution (A and B) as needed. Solution A is a mixture of salts, and solution B is a mixture of buffers. When separate, solutions A and B may be stored at 4 degrees Celsius for longer periods. When mixed together, the solution is more prone to microbiological growth, thus it is recommended to store solutions A and B separately, and mix as needed.. ...
This is a strategic area of research for Michigan. One of our professors demonstrated a deep neural network trained to pick individual human pedestrians out from 10-20 fps video taken as a car navigates the MSU campus. If youve ever tried to drive across our campus in the middle of the day, with students trying to get to class or lab or dorm, youll understand what a difficult computational task this is ...
... : Mean pharmacokinetic parameters of 5-LIO(Me-3,2-HOPO) and four salt forms after a single 100 mmol/kg iv and po administration in male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 3). ...
Aim of the study is to ascertain whether a different strategy of fluids administration can be responsible of differences in terms of acid/base disorders (Stewart approach), pro-inflammatory and inflammatory mediators. Hence two groups of patients will be treated either with not-balanced solutions (Normal Saline) or balanced ...
After years of research and gene mutation, scientists started to establish and set the basic requirements of what a domesticated rat should look like. To date, the approved types of genetically mutated rats which can be kept as pets are the Albinos, the black-eyed white rats, the white-pawed black rats and the Agouti. These rats can be cross-bred by their owners if they want -- this actually produced rats that have very different appearances. One of the most popular ones are the Siamese rats which are also known as the pointed rats. These rats have white underside with pink paws and tail; their bodies are spotted and their heads are white. There are so many other rat breeds now, some have furry tails; some have developed hairy paws (which is very uncommon), while many of these rats actually do not have hair ...
An apparatus is provided for diagnosing the state of health of a vehicle and for providing the operator of the vehicle with a substantially real-time indication of the efficiency of the vehicle in performing an assigned task with respect to a predetermined goal. A processor on-board the vehicle monitors sensors that provide information regarding the state of health of the vehicle and the amount of work the vehicle has done. In response to anomalies in the data from the sensors, the processor records information that describes events leading up to the occurrence of the anomaly for later analysis that can be used to diagnose the cause of the anomaly. The sensors are also used to prompt the operator of the vehicle to operate the vehicle at optimum efficiency.