BioAssay record AID 484643 submitted by ChEMBL: Increase of urinary volume in normal Sprague-Dawley rat at 10 mg/kg, po subsequently dosed orally with 50% aqueous glucose solution measured up to 24 hrs relative to control.
Stress Induces the Danger-Associated Molecular Pattern HMGB-1 in the Hippocampus of Male Sprague Dawley Rats: A Priming Stimulus of Microglia and the NLRP3 Inflammasome Journal Article ...
BioAssay record AID 628198 submitted by ChEMBL: Ratio of drug uptake in hypothalamus to cerebellum in Sprague-Dawley rat at 25 uCi, iv after 2 mins.
All experiments were performed in accordance with the guidelines established by the Canadian Council on Animal Care and were approved by the University of Calgary Animal Care Committee. Attention was paid to use only the number of animals necessary to produce reliable results.. Slice preparation. Adult male Sprague Dawley rats (150-250 gm) were decapitated under halothane anesthesia, the brain was removed, and coronal slices 300-400 μm thick containing the SON were generated at 0-2°C in a low-Ca2+, low-Na+-containing buffer solution of composition (in mm): 87 NaCl, 2.5 KCl, 1.25 NaH2PO4, 7 MgCl2, 0.5 CaCl2, 25 NaHCO3, 25 glucose, and 20 sucrose. Slices were then incubated at room temperature (22°C) for at least 1 hr in artificial CSF (ACSF) of the following composition (in mm): 126 NaCl, 2.5 KCl, 1.2 NaH2PO4, 1.2 MgCl2, 2.4 CaCl2, 18 NaHCO3, and 11 glucose. Both solutions were bubbled continuously with a mixture of 95% O2, 5% CO2.. Electrophysiological recording. A hemisected slice was ...
Animals and in vivo procedures. Adult male Sprague Dawley rats weighing 275-325 g were housed three per cage for at least 1 week before experimentation, with a 14/10 h light/dark cycle and food and water available ad libitum. To determine the time course of the changes in CREM mRNA and CRH hnRNA, rats were subjected to restraint stress by placing them into plastic restrainers (2.5 × 6 inches). Groups of four rats were killed by decapitation at 0.5, 1, 2, or 3 h after initiation of restraint. Control rats were rapidly removed from the cages and decapitated. Brains were immediately removed, frozen in isopentane at -40°C, and stored at -80°C until being sectioned in a cryostat. Trunk blood was collected in plastic tubes, and serum was separated by centrifugation and stored at -80°C for corticosterone determination. To determine the effect of stress-induced elevations in plasma glucocorticoids on the termination of the CRH transcriptional response to stress, 5 d adrenalectomized rats were ...
Methodology: Thirty-five male Sprague-Dawley rats (180-200 g) were randomly divided into seven groups of five rats each. GroupAwas the control group, animals in group B received 75mg/kg ofAlCl3,animals ingroup C received 75mg/kg ofAlCl3for 40 days followed by 75mg/kg of RibCys for 21 days, animals in group D received 150mg/kg of AlCl3, animals in group E received 150mg/kg of AlCl3 for 40 days followed by 75mg/kg of RibCys for 21 days, animals in group F received 300mg/kg of AlCl3 while animals in group G received 300mg/kg of AlCl3 for 40 days followed by 75mg/kg of RibCys for 21 days. The treated groups received varied doses ofAlCl3 for 40 days, while the administration of RibCys lasted for the following 3 weeks. BothAlCl3 and RibCys were administered orally ...
Acute oral toxicity: The test item was administered by oral route to a group of 6 female Sprague Dawley rats at the single dose of 2000 mg/kg body weight. No mortality occurred during the study. No clinical signs related to the administration of the test item were observed.The body weight evolution ofthe animals remained normal throughout the study. The macroscopical examination of the animals at the end of the study did not reveal treatment-related changes. In conclusion, the LD50of the test item is higher than 5000 mg/kg body weight by oral route in the rat. Acute dermal toxicity: The test item was applied onto the intact skin of 10 Sprague Dawley rats (5 males and 5 females) at the single dose of 2000 mg/kg body weight. No mortality occurred during the study. Neither cutaneous reactions nor systemic clinical signs related to the administration of the test item were observed. The body weight evolution of the animals remained normal throughout the study, similar between treated and control ...
Introduction: Our lab has identified a unique sub-strain of SD rats that is hyper-responsive (HR) to SU5416 (SU) alone and develops severe progressive PAH in response to single injection of SU, even in absence of chronic hypoxia (CH).. Hypothesis: We hypothesized that the HR phenotype in response to SU is conferred by genetic determinants that potentiate the response to VEFR2 blockade.. Methods and Results: Male and female rats were injected with SU (20mg/kg, sc) or vehicle (control). Right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP) was measured at 7 weeks after SU injection. In absence of CH, 72% (13 of 18) male SD rats demonstrated HR-phenotype and developed severe PAH in response to SU with mean RVSP of 97±18 mmHg; whereas only 27% (7 of 26) of the female rats showed HR-phenotype. Furthermore, crossing non-responsive male and female rats from the HR colony markedly decreased the proportion of rats exhibiting HR phenotype in the F1-generation (HR 15% and 0%, male vs. female, respectively), ...
Surgical treatment Intact female Sprague Dawley rats at 6, 26 or 52 weeks of age, weighing 154 eleven g, 281 25 g, and 330 thirty g respectively, were anaes thetized with an intraperitoneal injection of ketamine and xylazine as described earlier. The left knee was shaved, scrubbed with Betadine Solution, and draped with sterile sheets. A medial incision was made with the knee, the patella was deflected laterally as well as a Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries one. 0 mm hole was drilled in to the inter condylar notch. An intramedullary rod was placed retrograde to the left femur. The incision was closed with wound clips. A closed simple transverse mid diaphyseal femoral fracture was induced using a Bonnarens and Einhorn gadget. Ran domly selected rats from amongst those scheduled for sur gery have been used for 0 time no fracture sham controls. Rats had been euthanized at 0, 0.. four, 1, 2, four, and 6 weeks right after frac ture for a complete of six time points at just about every of the 3 ages. ...
The objective of the test was to determine the potential for oral toxicity using the Acute Toxic Class Determination. This study was designed to comply with the standards set forth in the current OECD Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals, Guideline 423. Guideline 423 is referred to in OPPTS 870.1000 as an acceptable method to assess lethality within a dose range. Initially, three healthy female Sprague Dawley rats were dosed orally with Benzylated Polyamine at 2000 mg/kg. Since the animals died, an additional three healthy females were dosed at 300 mg/kg. There was one death at this level, so an additional three males were dosed as a confirmatory group at 300 mg/kg. The rats were observed at 15 minutes, 1, 2 and 4 hours postdose and once daily for 14 days for toxicity and pharmacological effects, and twice daily for mortality. Body weights were recorded immediately pretest, weekly, at death and at termination in the survivors. All animals were examined for gross pathology. The test article ...
On 25 January 2018, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Tobacco Scientific Advisory Committee unanimously voted (with one abstention) that Phillip Morris International (PMI) could not claim their heated tobacco product (HTP) IQOS (I-Quit-Ordinary-Smoking) would reduce the risk of tobacco-related diseases. Regardless, IQOS is already available in over 30 countries, and thus merits scrutiny from the scientific and medical communities. The preclinical and clinical data PMI submitted to FDA indicate that IQOS exposure may be associated with unexpected liver toxicity. We reviewed preclinical studies conducted by PMI scientists1 and clinical studies of 5 and 90 days of exposure to IQOS and IQOS menthol2-5 included in PMIs Modified Risk Tobacco Product application submitted to the US FDA.. Wong and colleagues1 exposed 92 male and 92 female Sprague Dawley rats to up to 90 days of mainstream aerosol from IQOS, mainstream smoke from 3R4F research cigarettes, or room air (sham). After 90 days of ...
Thirty-two Sprague-Dawley male rats at the age of eight weeks with a mean weight of 275±35 g were included in the study. Subjects were divided into four groups with eight rats in each group: group 1: controls (C), group 2: radiation-only (RT), group 3: radiation plus royal jelly 50 mg/kg (RT+RJ50) and group 4: royal jelly 50 mg/kg-only (RJ50). Radiotherapy was applied to the head and neck area by single fraction at a dose of 22 Gy. The royal jelly was given once daily for seven days. The subjects were sacrificed on the seventh day of the study. Trace elements in blood samples were measured using ICP/MS method ...
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to demonstrate the spatial relationship between the c-Fos immunoreactive cells elicited by an acute treatment with neuroleptics including amisulpride (AMI), olanzapine (OLA), quetiapine (QUE), and aripiprazole (ARI) and enkephalinergic (ENK), substance P (SP), and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) innervation fields in the rat septum. METHODS: Male Sprague Dawley rats received a single injection of OLA (5 mg), ARI (10 mg), AMI (20 mg), QUE (15 mg/kg/b.w.). Ninety min after antipsychotics administration, the animals were transcardially perfused with a fixative and the brains cryocut into serial coronal sections of 35 µm thickness. The sections were processed for c-Fos staining using an avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex and visualized by nickel intensified diaminobenzidine to reach black endproduct. Afterwards, the sections were exposed to ENK, SP, and TH antibodies and the reaction product visualized by biotin-labeled fluorescent AlexaFluor 564 dye. The data ...
Although cardiac hypertrophy is an important condition that usually precedes heart failure (Carreno et al., 2006), there are limited reports of altered expression of P450 genes during cardiac hypertrophy. The expression of P450 has been studied in SHRs as compared with SD rats (Thum and Borlak, 2002) and the expression of sEH has been studied in spontaneously hypertensive heart failure (SHHF) rats as compared with normal strains (Monti et al., 2008). Nevertheless, there are no data about the effect of experimentally induced cardiac hypertrophy on the expression of P450 and sEH genes and their associated P450-derived metabolites of AA. To the best of our knowledge, this work demonstrates for the first time the effect of experimentally induced cardiac hypertrophy on the expression of several P450 genes and P450-dependent AA metabolism in rats. In addition, the current study demonstrates the tissue-specific expression of many P450 genes and sEH in male SD rats.. Tissue-specific expression of P450 ...
Methods: Male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into 6 groups; control, D-gal, chrysin 10, chrysin 30, D-gal + chrysin 10 and D-gal + chrysin 30 groups. D-gal (50 mg/kg) was administrated by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection. Chrysin (10 and 30 mg/kg) was administrated by oral gavage. Both of D-gal and chrysin were administrated for 8 weeks. After treatments, the body weight and locomotor activity were determined. The memories were evaluated using novel object location (NOL) and novel object recognition (NOR) tests. ...
This study reports that cocaethylene undergoes an esterase-mediated ethyl ester exchange with ethanol, resulting in an increase in the apparent in vitro t½, compared with control conditions. Homogenized liver from male Sprague Dawley rats in pH 7.4 phosphate buffer was centrifuged at 9000g, and the resulting supernatant (S9) fraction was collected. Tubes containing the rat S9 fraction and 50 μM cocaethylene plus aqueous buffer (control), 50 mM ethanol, or 51.3 mM2H6-ethanol were incubated at 37°C for 4 hr. Samples were collected from the incubation tubes at various times, extracted with a solid-phase extraction system, and assayed for cocaethylene and2H5-cocaethylene by GC/MS. Concentration-time profiles were constructed and kinetic parameters were determined. The experiment was repeated in the presence of specific and nonspecific esterase inhibitors. Enzyme kinetic parameters were also determined. Cocaethylene underwent ethyl ester exchange, being converted to2H5-cocaethylene in the presence ...
Dimyrcetol was administered in corn oil by gavage to groups of pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats at dosages of 0, 250, 500 or 1000 mg/kg bwt/day on gestational days 7 to 17. Viability, clinical signs, body weights and feed consumption were observed or measured for all animals. Animals were sacrificed on gestational day 21 and Caesarean sectioning performed. Fetuses were weighed and examined for sex, gross changes, and soft tissue or skeletal alterations. No clinical signs attributable to dimyrcetol administration were observed. At the 1000 mg/kg bwt/day dose level, mean maternal body weight gains were reduced 5% versus controls. Absolute and relative feed consumption were also reduced at this dose level. The minimal maternal effects noted were associated with minimal (approx. 3%) reductions in fetal body weights, reversible variations in ossification and increases in supernumerary thoracic ribs with associated increases or decreases in thoracic and lumbar vertebrae, respectively. Findings of delayed ...
Two reproductive/developmental screening studies were identified, one within category and the other a read-across study from isomerised olefins; alpha, internal, linear and branched - single carbon number. In key a reproductive/developmental screening study (Thorsud, 2003a), alkenes, C6 dissolved in corn oil were administered via oral gavage to F0 male and female Sprague-Dawley rats at dose levels of 100, 500 and 1000 mg/kg/day for at least 4 weeks. There was no mortality or adverse signs of toxicity observed at any dose level and F0 mating, fertility indices, mean gestation lengths, mean number of pups delivered, F1 live birth index, F1 viability index, F1 pups per litter, and F1 pup sex ratios were comparable between control and treatment groups. Gross necroscopy of F0 females revealed no significant treatment-related findings. Organ weight determinations in F0 rats did not reveal any significant difference between treatment and control animals. Based on the lack of significant adverse ...
1Department of Community Nutrition FEMA IPB and Faculty of Health Sciences URINDO, 2Department of Community Nutrition FEMA, IPB, 3Center of Aging Studies, Universitas Indonesia, 4Department of Sports Exercise and Health Sciences, Loughborough University, UK.. Abstract. Oestrogens have been found to reduce beta amyloid levels, a risk factor associated with dementia. We hypothesised that phytoestrogenic soybean products such as tempe and tofu might show similar effects. The aims of this study were to analyse the effect of tempe and tofu flour on beta amyloid1-40 serum levels in elderly rats. This research was conducted on white female Sprague Dawley strain rats, aged 12 months. Before the intervention rats underwent ovariectomy (OVx) and were grouped into 5 intervention groups which were given either: tempe flour (PTp), tofu flour (PTh), oestradiol (PE), or casein (KK) in pellets; and there was also a non OVx (KN) control group which was fed a normal diet. The intake of tempe and tofu flour ...
BACKGROUND: Vascular hyporeactivity contributes to hemodynamic alterations and circulatory failure in severe sepsis. Among the identified mechanisms, inflammation and oxidative stress are the most crucial ones in mediating the development of vascular hyporeactivity induced by sepsis. Platonin, a photosensitive dye and an antioxidant, possesses potent antiinflammation effects. We elucidated whether platonin could mitigate vascular hyporeactivity of thoracic aorta in septic rats. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to receive sham operation (Sham), Sham plus platonin (100 g/kg), cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), or CLP plus platonin (10, 50, or 100 g/kg) and designated as the Sham, P, CLP, CLP + P(10), CLP + P(50), and CLP + P(100) group, respectively (n = 6 in each group). After maintaining for 12 hours, surviving rats were euthanized and thoracic aorta was isolated and vascular reactivity of aortic rings was determined. RESULTS: Vascular reactivity induced by ...
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The vasculature of the eye can provide amazing insight into systemic cardiovascular health. For those studying the vasculature of the eye as an indicator of pathophysiological states, normative ground truth datasets become critically important. Recently, George Azzopardi and Nicolai Petkov have made their annotated database of ground truth imagery of vascular bifurcations and crossovers in […]. ...
Warneke, Wiebke and Klaus, Susanne and Fink, Heidrun and Langley-Evans, Simon C. and Voigt, Jörg-Peter (2014) The impact of cafeteria diet feeding on physiology and anxiety-related behaviour in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats of different ages. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, 116 . pp. 45-44. ISSN 1873-5177 ...
The principal objective of this study was to develop an alternative non-genetic rat model for type 2 diabetes (T2D). Six-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats (190.56 ± 23.60g) were randomly divided into six groups namely ...
Red Palm Oil Attenuates Lead Acetate Induced Testicular Damage in Adult Male Sprague-Dawley Rats. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
TY - JOUR. T1 - HO-1 Overexpression Attenuates Endotoxin Effects on CAT-2 Isozymes Expression. AU - Huang, Te Yang. AU - Tsai, Pei Shan. AU - Huang, Chun Jen. PY - 2008/8. Y1 - 2008/8. N2 - Background: l-arginine transport mediated by type-2 cationic amino acid transporter (CAT-2) isozymes is one crucial mechanism that regulates nitric oxide (NO) production via inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). We sought to investigate the effects of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) overexpression on CAT-2 isozymes, e.g., CAT-2, CAT-2A, and CAT-2B. Materials and Methods: Adult male Sprague Dawley rats were allocated to receive lipopolysaccharide (LPS), normal saline, hemin (a HO-1 inducer), tin protoporphyrin (SnPP, a HO-1 inhibitor), LPS plus hemin, or LPS plus hemin plus SnPP. After maintaining for 6 h, rats were sacrificed and the expression and activity of individual enzyme was evaluated. Results: LPS increased HO activity, HO-1 concentration, NO production, l-arginine transport, and concentrations of iNOS, ...
A tumor incidence of 57 per cent was observed in 150 female rats allowed to live out their life-span as normal, control animals on standard laboratory chow. One hundred similar rats on a special fatrich diet developed an 80 per cent tumor incidence.. Ninety-five per cent of the tumors observed involved mammary gland tissue. Twelve per cent of all tumors observed were of a malignant type. Eighty-seven per cent of all tumors appeared after the rats were 540 days of age, and the mean lifespan after a tumor was first observed was 140 days.. Related studies with a smaller number of animals indicated that male rats of the same strain were 5 times less susceptible to tumor formation than females. However, three of the four tumors that were examined histologically in the males were classified as malignant.. The mean life span of normal female Sprague-Dawley rats in this laboratory was 760 ± 21 days, with individuals ranging in life span from 193 to 1100 days.. ...
The pathogenesis of hypertension is distinct between men and women. Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a potential contributor to sex differences in the pathophysiology of hypertension. ET-1 participates in blood pressure regulation through activation of endothelin A (ETA) and endothelin B (ETB) receptors including those in the vasculature. Previous studies demonstrated that sex and sex hormones evoke discrepancies in ET-1-mediated control of vascular tone in different vascular beds. However, little is known about sex- and sex hormone-related differences in ET-1-dependent renal microvascular reactivity. Accordingly, we hypothesized that loss of sex hormones impairs afferent arteriole reactivity to ET-1. Male and female Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to gonadectomy or sham surgery (n = 6/group). After 3 weeks, kidneys from those rats were prepared for assessment of renal microvascular responses to ET-1 (ETA and ETB agonist, 10−12 to 10−8 M) and sarafotoxin 6c (S6c, ETB agonist, 10−12 to 10−8 M) using the
Ischaemia/reperfusion (IR) injury is a key source of myocardial damage in humans following acute myocardial infarction, post-cardiac arrest, and heart transplantation (1). The beneficial effects of ischaemic preconditioning (IPC) in minimising IR-induced damage to cardiac muscle have been extensively studied, and involve activation of ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels (2). No previous studies have investigated the effects of IR injury or IPC in cardiac fibroblasts. Fibroblasts are responsible for maintaining the extracellular matrix in healthy hearts, and differentiate into the wound-healing phenotype, myofibroblasts, following cardiac injury (3). Our goals were to determine if: (a) IR injury induces cardiac fibroblasts to differentiate into myofibroblasts; and if so, (b) does IPC ameliorate the IR-induced myofibroblast differentiation? Hearts were removed from isoflurane-anaesthetised (5% induction, 2% maintenance; 1 l/min oxygen) adult female Sprague Dawley rats, and fibroblasts ...
Sexual difference has been shown in the pathogenesis of chronic kidney disease induced by hypertension. Females are protected from hypertension and related end-organ damage. Augmentation of renal proximal tubular angiotensinogen (AGT) expression can promote intrarenal angiotensin formation and the development of associated hypertension and kidney injury. Female rodents exhibit lower intrarenal AGT levels than males under normal conditions, suggesting that the suppressed intrarenal AGT production by programmed mechanisms in females may provide protection from these diseases. This study was performed to examine whether epigenetic mechanisms serve as repressors of AGT. Male and female Sprague Dawley rats were used to investigate sex differences of systemic, hepatic, and intrarenal AGT levels. All histone deacetylase (HDAC) mRNA levels in the kidneys were determined using a PCR array. HDAC9 protein expression in the kidneys and cultured renal proximal tubular cells (PTC) was analyzed by Western blot
Stem-cell therapy for ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis in rats: a comparison of three treatment modalities Mir Sadat-Ali,1 Dakheel A Al-Dakheel,1 Sulaiman A AlMousa,1 Fawaz M AlAnii,1 Waleed Y Ebrahim,1 Hussain K AlOmar,1 Hasan N AlSayed,1 Sadananda Acharya,2 Hussain AlHawaj31Department of Orthopaedic Surgery; 2College of Public Health; 3Institute of Research and Medical Consultations, Imam Abdul Rahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi ArabiaBackground: Recent studies have shown that ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis in rats can be reversed by infusion of osteoblasts cultured from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). This study compares the influence of MSCs, osteoblasts, and exosomes derived from osteoblasts for the treatment of osteoporosis.Methods: Osteoporosis was induced in 40 female Sprague Dawley rats by performing ovariectomy. After 12 weeks, bone marrow was harvested and MSCs separated from bone-marrow aspirate as described by Piao et al. After 15 days, autologous osteogenically differentiated
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is associated with increased mortality in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). The interaction between the fibrotic process and the pulmonary vasculature is incompletely understood. There is evidence in human and experimental pulmonary fibrosis that precursor cells may play a role in fibrogenesis, and that precursor cells may also be important for vascular remodeling in chronic models of pulmonary hypertension (PH). But the contribution of precursor cells to vascular remodeling and PH in pulmonary fibrosis has not been investigated yet.. This study aimed to investigate the potential contribution of precursor cells to vascular remodeling in the AdTGF-β1 model of lung fibrosis and PH.. Female Sprague Dawley rats received AdTGF-β1 or AdDL70 and were sacrificed at different time points (7, 14 and 28 days). Immunofluorescence stainings were performed on 3 μm sections of the left lung after formalin fixation.. We detected cells expressing markers of ...
Dextromethorphan (DM) is a dextro-rotatory isomer of levophanol and a major constituent of over 125 over the counter (OTC) cough syrups. In-vivo and ex-vivo studies have shown that DM has pain suppressive properties comparable to ketamine via its N-methyl-D-Aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonism. There is a wide spread abuse of Cough syrups in Nigeria particularly amongst adolescent males. NMDA receptor antagonists have been reported to have anti-fertility properties. Pure samples of DM constituted in normal saline was administered orally to twenty mature male adult Sprague-Dawley rats of weight 177.75 ± 7.68 g daily for 8 weeks. The animals were divided randomly into 4 groups; A, B, C, D (n=5). DM-HBr was administered at the following dosages: group A: Normal saline (control); group B: 0.214 mg/ kg b.w; group C: 0.571 mg/ kg b.w; group D: 4.285 mg/ kg b.w. At sacrifice; Routine histology, semen analysis, serum and intra-testicular levels of male reproductive hormones and testicular oxidative ...
This study was undertaken to characterize the toxicokinetics of p-tert-octylphenol (OP), a weak estrogenic compound, in male and female rats. Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were given a single dose of OP either by oral gavage (50, 125 or 250 mg/kg), by intravenous (iv) injection (2, 4, or 8 mg/kg), or by subcutaneous (sc) injection (125 mg/kg). In a repeated dosing experiment, rats were given OP (oral) daily (25, 50, or 125 mg/kg) for 35 d (female) or 60 d (male). Blood and tissue samples were collected and analyzed for OP content using gas chromatography with detection by mass spectrometry. Blood OP concentrations were generally higher in female than male rats following a single oral or sc administration but were similar following a single iv injection. Tissue OP concentrations were also higher in female than male rats following oral exposure, consistent with the faster metabolism of OP observed in male rat liver microsomes. After subchronic administration, blood OP concentrations were higher at
Bioassay of Recombinant Human Granulocyte Colony Stimulating Factor (rhG-CSF) for Neutropenia Treatment in Male Sprague Dawley Rats
Losulazine was administered orally by gastric intubation to Sprague-Dawley rats at treatment levels of 0, 4 and 8 mg/kg/day in a neonatal development and reproductive performance study. Twenty-four females were treated at each level in three sections; Section A was treated from postpartum day 0 through postpartum day 4; Section B was treated postpartum day 0 through postpartum day 10; and, Section C was treated postpartum day 0 through postpartum day 21. There were significant decreases in maternal weight gain during treatment in a dose-related manner. Live pup weight means also decreased in a dose-related manner in all sections, persisting throughout maturation in F1 males and to about week nine in F1 females. Significant delays were recorded in the developmental milestone of eye opening. There was also a significant reduction in the copulation rate of F1 females in a dose-related trend ...
Chronic treatment with leptin regulates body weight and energy balance and reduces food intake in obese and lean mice. In 18- to 20-h fasted lean mice (C57BL/6, +/+), we examined the acute effect of a single intraperitoneal injection of recombinant mouse leptin (0.12 mg/kg) on food intake and gastric emptying. Leptin reduced food intake, with a peak inhibition at the 5th h postinjection (69 +/- 12%/h), although there was no change in food consumption at the 1st h. Leptin did not alter the 4-h rate of gastric emptying of a solid nutrient meal (free access to Purina chow for either 1-, 2-, or 4-h period). In normal Sprague-Dawley rats fasted for 18-20 h, a single intraperitoneal injection of recombinant mouse leptin (0.2 or 1.2 mg/kg) did not modify the 7-h cumulative or hourly food intake. These results show that a single intraperitoneal injection of recombinant mouse leptin reduces food intake within 5 h while not influencing gastric emptying of ingested food in lean mice. Sprague-Dawley rats are
Male Sprague Dawley rats were pretreated i.th. with vehicle (inverted triangle) or PKA-selective siRNA (circle) for 3 days. After the pretreatments, the animals received continuous saline (open symbols, error bars within the symbol) or morphine (45 nmol/μl/h) (closed symbols, error bars within the symbol) infusion for 6 days, with continued i.th. siRNA or vehicle injections on alternate days. Sustained (6 days) systemic morphine (45 nmol/μl/h) infusion caused a rightward shift in the dose-response curve, with the previous A90 dose causing only 20±1% MPE (**p , 0.01 relative to control, one-way ANOVA, n=5). Intrathecal PKAselective siRNA pre-treatment greatly attenuated sustained morphine-mediated rightward shift in the morphine dose-response curve. Thus, re-challenge with the naive A90 dose (10 μg/5μl) produced 93±2% antinociception in the PKA-selective siRNA pre-treated rat**p , 0.01 relative to vehicle pre-treated morphine-infused rats, one-way ANOVA, n=5). ...
Background: The renin angiotensin system has become the focus of recent interest in stroke research as accumulating evidence indicates that activation of the angiotensin converting enzyme 2/angiotensin-(1-7)/mas (ACE2-Ang-(1-7)-Mas) axis exerts neuroprotective benefit in animal stroke models. Pre- and post-stroke activation of this axis by intracerebroventricular infusion of Ang-(1-7) reduces infarct size and improves neurological function in rats. The recent development of an orally active formulation of Ang-(1-7) in hydroxypropylβ-cyclodextrin [HPβCD/Ang-(1-7)] provides a non-invasive avenue for testing the efficacy of systemic post-stroke administration of Ang-(1-7). We tested the hypothesis that post-stroke oral gavage of HPβCD/Ang-(1-7) exerts neuroprotection in a rat model of ischemic stroke.. Methods: Male SD rats underwent ischemic stroke by endothelin-1-induced middle cerebral artery occlusion and were randomly divided into 2 groups of 12 each that received oral gavages of dH2O or ...
Cardiac remodelling is a key risk factor for the development of heart failure in the chronic phase following myocardial infarction. Our previous studies have shown an anti-remodelling role of ACE2 (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2) in vivo during hypertension and that these protective effects are mediated through increased circulating levels of Ang-(1-7) [angiotensin-(1-7)]. In the present study, we have demonstrated that cardiac myocytes have modest ACE2 activity, whereas cardiac fibroblasts do not exhibit any endogenous activity. As fibroblasts are the major cell type found in an infarct zone following a myocardial infarction, we examined the effects of ACE2 gene delivery to cultured cardiac fibroblasts after acute hypoxic exposure. Cardiac fibroblasts from 5-day-old Sprague-Dawley rat hearts were grown to confluence and transduced with a lentiviral vector containing murine ACE2 cDNA under transcriptional control by the EF1α (elongation factor 1α) promoter (lenti-ACE2). Transduction of ...
Methods The male SD rats whose body weights were about 250 grams were used. Rats underwent ligation of the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery to induce acute myocardial infarction, and heart failure occurred 4 weeks later. The survival rats after operation were randomly divided into experimental group, control group and sham-operated group. Adeno-βARKct or empty virus delivery to the rats through the caudal vein. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), hemodynamic index, catecholamine and NT-ProBNP of blood plasma, and catecholamine and the expression of βARK1 of non-infarcted left ventricular tissue was measured.. ...
Introduction: HOE642, the sodium-hydrogen exchanger inhibitor, can delay the opening of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) and reduce mitochondrial-derived superoxide production. It was reported HOE642 improved neurological recovery after prolonged ischemia.. Hypothesis: We sought to find the effects of HOE642 with or without hypothermia on resuscitation in rats.. Methods: Thirty male SD rats (240-340g) were included. Cardiac arrest was induced by 8 min asphyxia. Rats were divided into 4 groups: (1) normothermia group (N group, n=9), rectal temperature (Trec) maintained at 37±0.5°C; (2) hypothermia group (H group, n=7), Trec maintained at 37±0.5°C during cardiac arrest and CPR periods, rats were cooled to 33°C in 3 min after ROSC, Trec maintained at 33±0.5°C for 1 h, rewarmed gradually to 37±0.5°C during the following 1 h; (3) HOE642 group (n=7), Trec maintained the same as the N group, HOE642 was given (1mg/kg, iv) when initiating CPR; (4) hypothermia and HOE642 group ...
The aim of the present study was to investigate the impacts of n-3 PUFA and lymph drainage (D) on intestinal ischaemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in rats. A total of forty-eight Sprague-Dawley male rats were randomly divided into three groups (n 16): normal diet (N), enteral nutrition (EN) and EN plus n-3 PUFA. Each group was further divided into lymph drainage (I/R+D) and non-drainage (I/R) sub-groups (n 8). After 5 d with different nutrition regimens, the rats were subjected to 60 min ischaemia by clamping the superior mesenteric artery, followed by 120 min reperfusion. At the same time, the rats in the I/R+D sub-groups were treated with intestinal lymph drainage for 180 min. Organs were harvested and we detected the cytokine, endotoxin, and expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 mRNA and its endogenous ligand high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1). We found that the serum levels of HMGB1, inflammatory cytokine and endotoxin in the three I/R+D sub-groups were significantly lower than those in the N ...
This study investigated the effects of magnetized water supplementation on blood glucose, DNA damage, antioxidant status, and lipid profiles in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. There were three groups of 4-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats used in the study: control group (normal control group without diabetes); diabetes group (STZ-induced diabetes control); and magnetized water group (magnetized water supplemented after the induction of diabetes using STZ). Before initiating the study, diabetes was confirmed by measuring fasting blood glucose (FBS > 200 dl), and the magnetized water group received magnetized water for 8 weeks instead of general water. After 8 weeks, rats were sacrificed to measure the fasting blood glucose, insulin concentration, glycated hemoglobin level, degree of DNA damage, antioxidant status, and lipid profiles. From the fourth week of magnetized water supplementation, blood glucose was decreased in the magnetized water group compared to the diabetes group, and ...
Two experiments were conducted to determine whether cross-sensitization/tolerance between wheel running and the drugs amphetamine and morphine is possible in male Sprague Dawley rats. Each experiment compared a non-wheel control group and a chronic wheel access group of rats. Following a 24 day period of wheel access all animals were presented with a drug and saline challenge test (counterbalanced) with either 1 mg/kg of amphetamine (Experiment 1) or 10mg/kg or morphine (Experiment 2). Prior to the challenge tests all animals were habituated to the novel testing environment in two 1 hr sessions (Experiment 1) or one 2 hr session (Experiment 2) to attenuate the acute motoric response to a novel environment. Behavioral sensitization/tolerance was measured by locomotion (cm) within long narrow activity boxes with the Ethnovision video tracking system. In the first experiment the wheel access rats were significantly more active during the 1 hr amphetamine challenge test than the non-wheel rats thus showing
OBJECTIVE: The current study was undertaken to localize and identify angiotensin II (Ang II) receptor subtypes in the microcirculation of striated muscle.. METHODS: Cremaster muscles from 7- to 8-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were excised, placed in a dissection solution maintained at 4 degrees C, and 3 branch orders of arterioles and venules, as well as capillaries and a muscle specimen, were microdissected under a stereomicroscope. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) methods were developed for purification and amplification of extremely small amounts of RNA (,5 ng/microL) from whole tissue samples. RNA was isolated from each sample, reverse transcribed, and the cDNA products were amplified by polymerase chain reactions (PCR) specifically primed with either AT(1a), AT(1b), or AT(2) receptor primers. The products were electrophoretically size-fractionated on an agarose gel, stained with ethidium bromide to visualize DNA bands, and analyzed to determine the presence or absence ...
Abstract The present study was designed to investigate protective effects of quercetin against bisphenol A (BPA) induced testicular toxicity in male Sprague Dawley rats. Twenty adult male rats were divided into four groups. The first group served as the control and was provided with normal saline. The second group of rats was treated with 50 mg/kg of BPA dissolved in alcoholic saline. The third group received oral gavage of 50 mg/kg quercetin while the fourth group was treated with quercetin (50 mg/kg) along with BPA (50 mg/kg). All of the treatments were carried out for 52 days. Testicular tissues and epididymis ...
most emphasized one is the reducing of lipolysis and increasing lipogenesis via reducing parathyroid hormone levels. The present study is designed to evaluate the effects of nondairy dietary calcium on adipogenes is and adipocyte size in male Sprague dawley rats. This experimental study was done from November to September of 2005 at Tehran school of health; nutritiondepartment.48 male Spragu-Dawley rats from Damgostar Company were used in three randomly selected groups. The rats were fed low [0.2% W/W], usual [0.5% W/W] and high [1.2% W/W] dietary calcium based on AIN-93M purified diet. Rats were housed in 12 hours light-dark cycle, 22-25°C room temperature with free access to their respective diets. At the end of the experiment, rats were decapitated and carcass fat content, carcass ash content and mean adipocyte size in testis, peritoneal and subcutaneous fat pads were compared in three groups. The SPSS 11.5 was used as statistical software, running analysis of variance for comparing the ...
Oral gavage administration of delta-3-carene to pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats at dose levels of 300 or 450 mg/kg body weight/day during the organogenesis and fetal phase of gestation (Days 6-19) was generally well-tolerated maternally, with no unscheduled deaths or effect on clinical condition. Treatment at 600 mg/kg body weight/day, the highest dose tested, resulted in several post dosing signs that indicated marked toxicity in one animal (flattened swaying gait or prostrate posture, unresponsive behavior, shallow respiration and piloerection) following the second dose and the animal was humanely killed. Similar signs were evident in a second animal following the second and third doses; however the general condition of this animal remained good and the animal was retained on the study. Macroscopic examination of the decedent animal revealed no findings. Other post dosing signs were limited to isolated and sporadic incidences of salivation, with associated chin rubbing in some animals at 300, 450 ...
6221 8457627 / +6221 8458258 [email protected] ABSTRACT. Backgroud: Cognitive function impaired in the elderly is not a disease but it can be considered as a Preclinical Alzheimers Disease (AD) one of the most common dementia in the elderly. Results of research on tempe and tofu showed the effects on different cognitive functions. The aims of this study were to analized the effect of tempe and tofu flours cognitive function in ovariectomized female rats. Method: Seventy two (72) white female Sprague Dawley strain rats, aged 12 months used for this study. Before the intervention 52 rats had ovariectomy (OVx) surgical treatments and were grouped into 5 intervention groups: tempe flour, tofu flour, estradiol, casein; and non ovariectomy. Cognitive function was measured using a labyrin. Processing and data analysis, used One-Way ANOVA with Polynomial Contrass Post Hoc LSD. Results: Based on difference test between the tempe flour group (8 weeks) with baseline 2(after OVx) showed that increased ...
To test the hypothesis that gastrin releasing peptide-29 (GRP-29) combined with glucagon like peptide-1 (7-36) (GLP-1 (7-36)) reduce body weight (BW) more than each of the peptides given individually, we infused the two peptides (0.5nmol/kg each) in the aorta of free feeding, diet-induced obese (DIO) male Sprague Dawley rats once daily for 25days and measured BW. We found that GRP-29 and GLP-1 reduce BW, GRP-29 reduced it more than GLP-1 and GRP-29+GLP-1 reduce BW more than each peptide given alone. This reduction was accompanied by decrease 24-hour food intake (normal rat chow), meal size (MS), duration of first meal and number of meals, and increase latency to the first meal, intermeal interval (IMI) and satiety ratio (IMI/MS, amount of food consumed per a unit of time ...
Male SD rats (200-240 g) were supplied by Laboratory Animal Center of Ningxia Medical University (Grade II, Certificate No. SCXY 2011-0001). Animals were acclimatized in environmentally controlled breeding cages for at least 3 days before being used and were provided with standard laboratory food and water and were fasted for 12 h prior to the study. Water was freely available for rats during experiments. The experimental protocol was approved by the University Ethics Committee. All procedures involving animals were in accordance with the Regulations of the Experimental Animal Administration, State Committee of Science and Technology, Peoples Republic of China. 20 rats were randomly divided into 4 groups (n = 5). Group A was the control vehicle (ART alone) and group L, M, and H were the combination groups with CHR in three fixed ratios (1:1, 1:2, and 1:4). The suspension of CHR was continuously administered (each time per day) to rats in group L, M, and H by gavage at doses of 5, 10, 20 mg/kg ...
Neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats received saline injections (0.1 ml) of pH 4.0 or pH 7.4 in the gastrocnemius muscle on alternate days (total 6). A third group received needle prick only, while a forth group was left naive (n = 10 per group). A stimulus response function to graded colorectal distension (CRD) (10-80 mmHg) was recorded at age 8-12 weeks. Extracellular single-unit recordings from spinal neurons (L1-L4) were performed in adult pH 4.0 injected rats and compared to naive controls. Neurons were sub-classified as short latency abrupt (SL-A, n = 24) or short latency sustained (SL-S, n = 23). The spontaneous activity and response to graded CRD was recorded for each neuron. Recordings were repeated following administration of amitriptyline (6 μmol/kg, i.v.).. ...
In order to test the safety of multiple-dose intramuscular Shinbaro Pharmacopuncture we used 40 healthy male and female 6-week old SD rats(male weight 171.79~196.37 g, female weight 127.93~146.43 g). Shinbaro Pharmacopuncture was administered intramuscularly to male and female SD rats at doses of 4.6 (low dose group, n=10), 9.2 (moderate dose group, n=10), and 18.5mg/kg(high dose group, n=10), respectively. General symptoms, body weight changes, blood tests, biochemical testing, necropsy, organ weight and histopathogical findings were examined over a 4-week period ...
Propofol (100 mg/kg) was given to 7-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats; in some rats, hypoxic preconditioning was administered before intraperitoneal propofol injection by subjecting rats to five cycles of 10 min of hypoxia (8% O2) and 10 min of normoxia (21% O2). Then, the rats were allowed to breathe room air for 2 h. Neuronal mitochondrial morphology was observed by transmission electron microscopy. ATP content was detected using an ATP assay kit. The expression levels of GLUT1, GLUT3, pDrp1, Drp1 and Mfn2 were detected by Western blot, and the expression levels of GLUT1 and GLUT3 were further examined by immunohistochemistry.. ...
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Figure 3: IL-6 serum levels of TIMP-3-treated rats compared to saline-treated rats exposed to liver I/R injury. Serum samples were quantified for IL-6 by ELISA as per manufacturer s protocol. IL-6 levels on the Y-axis (pg/ml) are shown for TIMP-3-treated rats and saline-treated rats prior to ischemia/ reperfusion injury. The X-axis indicates the length of reperfusion time for TIMP-3-treated and saline-treated ...
Dive into the research topics of Subregional differences in GABA,sub,A,/sub, receptor subunit expression in the rostral ventrolateral medulla of sedentary versus physically active rats. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
In the high range, my own observation to date is that at or above the 98th percentile there are about twice more males than females, while at or above the 99.9th percentile there are about 15 times more males. Trying to make this fit in terms of standard deviation (variance is the square of the standard deviation by the way), I find that when the male and female mean are both IQ 100, the male standard deviation (SD) must be about 33% greater than the female SD. However, when a mean difference of 5 points in favor of males would exist, the male SD would only need to be about 11% greater. I dont know which is true (or if the truth lies in between) and will not be able to verify it myself as I only deal with high-range tests. I must say though that an SD difference of 33% seems unlikely.. Eysenck, H.J. 1981. Race, Intelligence and Education. Maurice Temple Smith Ltd. Hedges, Larry V. and Amy Nowell. 1995. Sex differences in mental test scores, variability and numbers of high-scoring individuals. ...
OBJECTIVE: Myocardial damage induced by isoproterenol is believed to be secondary to increased oxygen demands on the heart. Our objective was to test an additional primary action of isoproterenol on tissue and mitochondrial oxidative metabolism and to compare these effects with the effects of other adrenergic agents in the presence of adrenergic inhibitors. DESIGN: Prospective, dose-response study. SETTING: Research laboratory at a university hospital. SUBJECTS: Fifty Sprague-Dawley female rats (200 to 350 g), slightly anesthetized with ether and divided into several groups. INTERVENTIONS: In 26 rats, the heart was removed, cut into fine slices (0.5-mm thickness), and placed in an ice-cold buffer. In 22 animals, the hearts were perfused in the Langendorff manner and chopped and processed for mitochondrial studies. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: We determined the following: a) the direct in vitro effects of isoproterenol and related catecholamines on normal oxygen uptake using myocardial ...