Our observations that BCE suppressed not only radiation-induced MN and gene mutations but also radiation-induced intracellular ROS indicate that BCE has radioprotective activity.. Radiation induces DSBs in DNA, which result in chromosomal aberrations and cell death, generating a wide variety of ROS that induce gene mutations following the occurrence of oxidative bases in DNA [10]. The production of DSBs in DNA activates DNA damage checkpoint signaling and DNA repair pathways, which employ nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) and homologous recombination (HR) [11]. In contrast, ionizing radiation induces ROS including superoxide anions, hydrogen peroxide, and hydroxyl radicals [12]. These ROS damage several kinds of biomolecules including DNA, proteins, and lipids [13]. ROS is scavenged by superoxide dismutase and catalase [13, 14]. Oxidative nucleotides such as 8-hydroxyguanosine (8-oxodG, 8OHdG, and 8OHG) are mutagenic lesions that are formed by ROS in the nucleotide pool as well as in DNA ...
Watch Cell Phone Radiation Protector Biomeridian Stress Test video online on Rediff Videos. More videos of Cell, Phone, Radiation, Protector, Biomeridian, Stress, Test are available. Watch and share videos and updates by Davis.
group (table 9).. 4. Discussion. Ionizing radiation causes harmful effects through the generation of free radicals. When water, the most abundant intra and extracellular material, is exposed to ionizing radiation, decomposition occurs through which a variety of ROS, such as the superoxide radical, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and the hydroxyl radical (OH-) are generated. These ROS formed in cells contribute to radiation injury in cells. Although all respiring cells are equipped with protective enzymes such as SOD and CAT or GPX, increased oxidative stress in cells that stem from ionizing radiation may overwhelm the protective systems, leading to cell injury. SOD converts super-oxide anion radical to H2O2, thus decreasing the amount of and the formation of peroxynitrite anion (ONOO-), a highly destructive product of the interaction between O2 and nitric oxide [25].. The present study was carried out to demonstrate the protective the role of the novel pyrimido-quinoline compound (PIQSA) against the ...
Link to Pubmed [PMID] - 9301528. Immunology 1997 Jul;91(3):391-8. Although lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced overproduction of cytokines, involved in the pathogenesis of septic shock, occupies the spotlight of endotoxin research, another LPS effect, the differentiation of various cell types including haematopoietic bone marrow cells (BMC), which is probably related to its radioprotective activity, deserves equal attention. We have previously established that nanomolar concentrations of LPS trigger in human BMC the expression of CD14 by an induction mechanism independent of CD14 or any other molecule anchored to the cell membrane by a glycosyl phosphatidylinositol glycolipid. We now show that this LPS-induced stimulation is triggered by the binding of a small number of LPS molecules (13,000 molecules/cell) to constitutive LPS receptors of low affinity (Kd = 480 nM). This interaction, which was inhibited by a synthetic LPS antagonist, appeared specific, reversible, saturable, time- and ...
Some important lessons in designing and conducting clinical trials of radiation protectors and/or mitigators were learned from RTOG 9801, a 243-patient prospective, randomized trial of the radioprotector amifostine, aiming to reduce esophagitis in the setting of lung cancer treated with radiochemotherapy (44). Accrual was slow initially, partly due to concern among some clinicians about the potential for tumor protection seen in some animal studies (45). Ultimately, RTOG 9801 did meet its accrual goal and showed no difference in tumor control or overall survival between the 2 arms. Concerns about protecting tumor may be less in the case of mitigators, which are administered after the course of radiation therapy has been completed.. Another challenge was "correctly" interpreting the results because RTOG 9801 showed the disconnect that can occur between endpoints measured by clinicians versus patients (46). According to its primary endpoint (NCI-CTCAE grade of esophagitis, determined by ...
Polyammoniumcations have been used as DNA targeting ligands for a variety of DNA active reagents, for example radioprotectors and anti-tumour antibiotics, which do not rely on sequence specific binding for their activity. It is proposed that these ligands have a high affinity for DNA but exhibit an external (or loose) electrostatic binding interaction which enables them to remain mobile along DNA without dissociation of the drug: DNA complex. Polyammoniumcations based on the polytetraalkylammonium and polyprotonated ammonium salts of the naturally occurring polyamines spermine and spermidine were prepared. The synthesis of drug-ligand conjugates requires either selective mono-protection or mono-derivatisation of polyamines. These syntheses are problematic because of the combination of primary and secondary amine centres encountered and difficulties in handling the polyamines. Two strategies for achieving selective derivatisation were explored: the total synthesis of protected polyamines and ...
LInstitut de Radioprotection et de Sureté Nucléaire détient les références nationales pour la fluence et les grandeurs dosimétriques neutroniques. Ces références, maintenues et exploitées depuis plus de dix ans sont le fruit dune volonté de développer des installations neutroniques de qualité permettant, de caractériser des instruments de radioprotection et de dosimétrie de manière fiable. En effet, que ce soit pour ces propres besoins, du fait de ses activités de recherche et de développement dappareils de mesures en radioprotection ou pour des utilisateurs externes, lIRSN a développé un ensemble de dispositifs et dinstallations, sur le site de Cadarache, permettant de répondre aux recommandations des instances internationales normatives quant aux procédures et aux moyens dirradiation nécessaires pour caractériser les instruments de radioprotection ...
This report consists of accounts of efforts to identify improved antiradiation agents. The primary goal remains to find modifications fo S-2-(3-aminopropyl-amino)ethyl dihydrogen phosphorothioate (WR-2721) and related radioprotective compounds that will be less toxic, longer lasting, and effective when administered orally. The work done during this report period dealt with compounds from two broad areas, phosphorothioates and thiazolidines, each of which may be regarded as latentiated derivatives of aminothiols. Seven potential radioprotectants of the phosphorothioate class whose syntheses were completed represented a continuation of structure-activity-relationship studies on carboxy- and also hydroxy-substituted analogues of WR-2721 and additional S-omega-aminoalkylamino) alkyl dihydrogen phosphorothioates. Thiazolidine derivatives were prepared from four selected diaminothiols and two carbonyl compounds, formaldehyde and D-glucose. The diaminothiols used were prepared via their phosphorothioates,
xHypoxia and repopulation of tumour clonogens are two important determinants of treatment outcome in radiotherapy. In general clinical evidence indicates that loco-regional control may be reduced with long overall treatment times and for tumours with low pre-treatment levels of oxygen. Experimental studies with normobaric carbogen and oxygen showed a two-fold enhancement of the efficacy of radiation in a mouse tumour model when combining oxygen with treatment acceleration. It was then demonstrated that substituting carbogen for oxygen and adding high-dose nicotinamide (NAM) further increased the effect. These findings became the basis for a multi-factorial approach designed to overcome the radioprotective effect of tumour repopulation and that of perfusion-limited and diffusion-limited hypoxia. The strategy, named ARCON, combines Accelerated Radiotherapy with CarbOgen and Nicotinamide.. Experimental evaluation of ARCON. The therapeutic potential of carbogen combined with NAM (CON) focusing on ...
While the cause of SIDS is yet unknown, several risk factors and preventative measures have been identified. One of the most important risk reduction factors is placing a baby on his or her back to sleep.
Science. 2008 Apr 11;320(5873):226-30. doi: 10.1126/science.1154986. Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt; Research Support, U.S. Govt, Non-P.H.S.
TY - JOUR. T1 - In vivo effects of IL-4, IL-10, and amifostine on cytokine production in patients with acute myelogenous leukemia. AU - Tao, M.. AU - Li, Biaoru. AU - Nayini, J.. AU - Sivaraman, S.. AU - Song, S.. AU - Larson, A.. AU - Toofanfard, M.. AU - Chen, H.. AU - Venugopal, P.. AU - Preisler, H. D.. PY - 2001/1/1. Y1 - 2001/1/1. N2 - Both IL-4 and IL-10 have been shown in vitro to inhibit leukemia cell secretion of IL-1β, GM-CSF, and TNFα, and increase leukemia cell release of IL-1ra. In this study, we have investigated the in vivo effects of IL-4, IL-10, and amifostine on cytokine production in patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). Serum IL-1ra, IL-1β, TNFα, GM-CSF, and SCF levels were measured in AML patients who received IL-4, IL-10, or amifostine. No significant changes in the serum levels of IL-1ra, IL-1β, TNFα, GM-CSF, and SCF were found in AML patients who received amifostine. Both IL-4 and IL-10 were found to increase serum IL-1ra. This data is in accord with the ...
Vijayan, Kalyani and Vedavathi, BM and Mani, A (1993) Structural evidence for the radical scavenging mechanism of some aminothiol group of radioprotectants. Chemical Sciences, 92 (4 amp;). pp. 457-462. Vedavathi, BM and Mani, A and Vijayan, Kalyani (1982) Crystal data on L-epinephrine bydrochloride monohydrate. Current Science, 51 (9). p. 466. Mani, A and Vedavathi, BM and Vijayan, Kalyani (1982) Crystal data on the radioprotectants,N-(2-Mercaptoprofionyl13; ) cycline and N.N.N,N,-Tetramethyl-1,4-Phenylene diamine-dihydrochloride. Current Science, 51 (4). p. 192. Vedavathi, BM and Vijayan, Kalyani (1979) The crystal and structure of the radioprotectant cystamine dhydrochloride. Current science, 48 (23). pp. 1028-1030. Vedavathi, BM and Vijayan, Kalyani (1979) 2-Amino-1,3-thiazoline hydrochloride. Acta Crystallography (B37). pp. 477-480. ISSN 0567.7408 Vedavathi, BM and Vijayan, Kalyani (1976) Radioprotectant Sodium Fluoroacetate. Acta Crystallography. pp. 946-948. ...
This study was carried out to evaluate the radioprotective potential of aqueous extract of seeds of Aframomum melegueta (A.M.) against gamma radiation-induced (6Gy) liver damage in male Wistar rats. Thirty male rats were randomly distributed into six groups of five animals each and aqueous extract of A.M. was administered at a dose of 200 or 400 mg/kg b. wt., orally for 2 weeks prior to irradiation and 4 weeks after irradiation, when they were sacrificed. The hepatic antioxidant status; reduced glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) as well as the extent of lipid peroxidation (LPO) were estimated. The activities of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were determined and histological examination was carried out. Exposure of animals to irradiation significantly increased LPO levels in comparison with the normal control group, reduced the level of GSH as well as CAT and GPx activity. On the other hand, there was a significant ...
IN PRESS Mil. Med. Sci. Lett. (Voj. Zdrav. Listy) 2013, vol. 82, p. 1-7, On-line first ISSN 0372-7025 ORIGINAL ARTICLE PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF AQUEOUS EXTRACTS OF AFRAMOMUM MELEGUETA ON γ-RADIATION-INDUCED LIVER DAMAGE IN MALE WISTAR RATS Nwozo S. O.1 , Yakubu O. F.1 , Oyinloye B. E.1,2 Nutritional and Industrial Research Laboratories, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Basic Medical Science, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria 2 Department of Biochemistry, College of Science, Afe Babalola University, Ado Ekiti, Nigeria 1 Received 2nd February 2013. Revised 20th August 2013. On-line 1st September 2013. Summary This study was carried out to evaluate the radioprotective potential of aqueous extract of seeds of Aframomum melegueta (A.M.) against gamma radiation-induced (6Gy) liver damage in male Wistar rats. Thirty male rats were randomly distributed into six groups of five animals each and aqueous extract of A.M. was administered at a dose of 200 or 400 mg/kg b. wt., ...
Cancertame Ayurvedic formulation contains concentrated extracts of selected anticancer herbs having antimutagenic, DNA repairing, proapoptotic, antitumourangiogenetic, immunomodulatory, chemoprotective and radioprotective properties. Cancertame Ayurvedic executes its therapeutic effect by complex synergistic interactions among phytoconstituents of these anticancer herbs.. Cancertame Ayurvedic formulation helps to fight cancer at every step (genesis, growth & spread of cancer), without side effects.. Cancertame Ayurvedic formulation promotes DNA repairing mechanism and helps to repair chromosomal abnormalities. Cancertame Ayurvedic formulation tames aggressive cancer cells by inhibiting further mutations in the genes (oncogenes & tumour suppressor genes) and pathways.. Cancertame Ayurvedic formulation reinduces the process of apoptosis (programmed cell death) in cancer cells and inhibits tumourangiogenesis (ability of cancerous growth to create new blood vessels).. Cancertame Ayurvedic ...
It evaluated the impact of amifostine on reducing GI toxicities among multiple myeloma patients undergoing transplant.. Amifostine is used to reduce the side effects of certain chemotherapy agents and radiation treatment. It is known as a cytoprotective agent, protecting the body from some of the potentially serious side effects of treatment. One hundred and seven patients participated in this study. Amifostine 740?mg was administered at 24?hours and 15?min before high-dose melphalan. The study concluded that amifostine therapy decreased GI toxicity without any significant adverse effects while preserving the anti-myeloma efficacy of high-dose melphalan and auto-HTC. About Ethyol® (amifostine). Ethyol is indicated to reduce the cumulative renal toxicity associated with repeated administration of cisplatin in patients with advanced ovarian cancer. It is indicated to reduce the incidence of moderate to severe xerostomia in patients undergoing post-operative radiation treatment for head and neck ...
Apple pectin is a great radioprotective agent. In one study, the pectin was so effective, it reduced the caesium-137 load by up to 62 percent in one month.
Administration of probiotic Lactobacillus spp. before irradiation results in decreased epithelial apoptosis and increased crypt survival in the mouse small intestine. In this study, the greatest protection was offered by administration of LGG, although gavage with other Lactobacillus spp. or LGG-CM also showed significant benefit. Administration of a Bifidobacterium sp. was not radioprotective in this model. The radioprotective effects mediated by LGG required intact signalling of TLR-2, MyD88 and COX-2. LGG was protective when given before, but not after, radiation, suggesting that LGG acts by preventing radiation-induced injury rather than enhancing repair.. Peptidoglycan and lipoteichoic acid, components of the cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria including LGG, are TLR-2 ligands. The finding that LGG-CM is also radioprotective suggests that LGG peptidoglycan or lipoteichoic acid is released into the medium and is capable of binding TLR-2. This is the first demonstration that a probiotic-based ...
Ionizing irradiation induces acute and chronic injury to tissues and organs. Applications of antioxidant therapies for the management of ionizing irradiation injury fall into three categories: (1) radiation counter measures against total or partial body irradiation; (2) normal tissue protection against acute organ specific ionizing irradiation injury; and (3) prevention of chronic/late radiation tissue and organ injury. The development of antioxidant therapies to ameliorate ionizing irradiation injury began with initial studies on gene therapy using Manganese Superoxide Dismutase (MnSOD) transgene approaches and evolved into applications of small molecule radiation protectors and mitigators. The understanding of the multiple steps in ionizing radiation-induced cellular, tissue, and organ injury, as well as total body effects is required to optimize the use of antioxidant therapies, and to sequence such approaches with targeted therapies for the multiple steps in the irradiation damage response.
Purpose: Discovery of agents that protect or mitigate normal tissue from radiation injury during radiotherapy, accidents, or terrorist attacks is of importance. Specifically, bone marrow insufficiency, with possible infection due to immunosuppression, can occur after total body irradiation (TBI) or regional irradiation and is a major component of the acute radiation syndrome. The purpose of this study was to identify novel radioprotectors and mitigators of the hematopoietic system.. Experimental Design: High-throughput screening of small-molecule libraries was done using viability of a murine lymphocyte line as a readout with further validation in human lymphoblastoid cells. The selected compounds were then tested for their ability to counter TBI lethality in mice.. Results: All of two major classes of antibiotics, tetracyclines and fluoroquinolones, which share a common planar ring moiety, were radioprotective. Furthermore, tetracycline protected murine hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell ...
Amifostine Hydrate was originally developed by the military as a radioprotectant during the event of a nuclear attack. It is basically a prodrug that is dephosphorylated in the tissues by alkaline phosphatase into a free thiol metabolite which is critical in reducing the toxic effects of chemo and radiation therapy on healthy cells.. According to the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO), head and neck cancer has a global incidence rate of 3.9 and 2.3% per 100,000 people worldwide. Xerostomia is an adverse event associated with radiation therapy which is recommended in patients suffering from head and neck cancer. The recommended dose for xerostomia treatment is 200 mg/m2 once every day as a 3-minute infusion usually 15 minutes before radiation therapy. Nephrotoxicity or cumulative renal toxicity is associated with patients receiving cisplatin chemotherapy. The recommended dose for nephrotoxicity treatment is 910 mg/m2 once every day as a 15 minutes infusion, it needs to be given 30 ...
The radioprotective effects of ethanolic extract of propolis (EEP) and quercetin on the white blood cells of the whole-body irradiated CBA mice were investigated. Irradiation was performed using a gamma-ray source ((60)Co), and absorbed dose was 9Gy ...
All other PELs are based upon 8-hour time weighted average (TWA), a short term exposure limit (STEL), or a ceiling limit (C).. The lead PEL of 50 micrograms per cubic meter (ug/m3) is adjusted in accordance with the following formula:. New PEL = 400/hours worked during shift. e.g. If an employee works a 10 hour shift, the PEL is reduced from 50 ug/m3 to 40 ug/m3. Additionally, as discussed in OHShub.coms post PEL Adjustments for Extended Work Shifts - Noise, the Action Level for noise must be reduced for extended work shifts based on the following formula:. New AL (dBA) = 90 + 16.61 x log (50 / (12.5 x number of hours worked)). e.g. If an employee works a 10 hour shift, the PEL is reduced to 83 dBA. From a recommended practice standpoint, the Brief and Scala model provides a easy method of reducing exposure limits and is noted ACGIHs TLVs and BEIs documentation. The Brief and Scala model provides a reduction factor via the following formula:. Reduction Factor = (8 x hours worked in shift) x ...
Appropriate models are essential for making the transition from scientific discoveries to meaningful applications of the knowledge for human use. Acute as well as delayed effects of ionising radiation to the biological systems develop hierarchically starting from damage to the vital macromolecules up to the disturbances caused at the whole organism level. In vitro models like bacteria, yeast, various mammalian cells cultured as monolayers (2-D) and spheroids (3-D) as well as cells with specific genetic alterations have provided insight into the complex relationships between damage induction and various signal transduction pathways, allowing identification of molecular and sub-cellular targets vital to the fate of irradiated cells. On the other hand, in vivo models (multicellular whole organisms), ranging from simple worms to non-human primates, have been gainfully employed to evaluate efficacy as well as toxicity of potential countermeasure agents (molecules, combinations and formulated ...
Dry mouth occurs very often in patients who receive radiation treatment. Amifostine is a drug approved to reduce the short and long-term occurrence of
On Tue, 3 Feb 2004 16:04:59 +0800 (SGT) Didier Casse ,[email protected], babbled: , , Hello dear raster et al, , I have a small question to ask concerning the Epeg , program:, , , In epeg_main.c, theres this line: , , -, epeg_quality_set (im, 75); , , Just let me know if i understand it correctly! This 75, does it mean , that the new image/thumbmail would have a quality of 75% as compared , to its original image? Is it some kind of reduction factor? no. its the jpeg encoding quality. ie 75 = 75% 100=100% 25=25% etc. its the quality of thew jpeg encoding itself - it more jpeg artifacts will occur the lower the quality level. this is completely separate from the scaling. remember epeg gives up some quality on the scaling front to achieve speed. if u want quality bar none, use imlib2. it will still beat imagemagick by a long shot in speed, but keep quality too for the scaling pipeline. , I notice that when I thumbnail, I get an image quality which is a bit , poor as compared to when I ...
Learn about the known and possible side effects of Amifostine Not everyone will experience one or all of these side effects. In case of any doubt please consult your doctor or pharmacist
Researchers at MIT and elsewhere have found a new way to measure radiation damage in materials, quickly, cheaply and continuously, using transient grating spectroscopy.
Nigella sativa oil is a promising natural radioprotective agent against immunosuppressive and oxidative effects of ionizing radiation.
ConsumerLab.com reviews radioprotective Iodine pills in response to terrorist threats - Quality of products is high, but local access is poor
Pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis are predominant consequences of radiation exposure, whether planned or accidental. The present study, demonstrates radioprotective potential of a formulation, prepared by combining podophyllotoxin and rutin (G-003M), in mice exposed to 11Gy thoracic gamma radiation (TGR). Treated mice were observed for survival and other symptomatic features. Formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS)/nitric oxide (NO) was measured in bronchoalveolar lavage cells. DNA damage and cell death was assessed in alveolar cells by TUNEL assay. Total protein (TP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were measured in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF)/serum of mice to assess lung vascular permeability. Interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)], CD45 (cluster of differentiation 45), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and nitrotyrosine were also estimated in lungs/BALF of differentially treated mice. Our
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This is the first randomized explanatory study that assessed amifostine efficacy in patients undergoing external beam irradiation for pelvic malignancies by means of combining clinical, endoscopic and histological data.. Patients on prophylactic subcutaneous amifostine developed less acute RC compared to patients who did not receive amifostine prophylaxis, yet the small size of this study did not allow us to reach to statistically significant findings. However, acute RC and grade IV radiation colitis did not occur in the amifostine arm but only in four patients (17.4%) who did not receive amifostine prophylaxis (arm R). In parallel with our data a study with one hundred patients with inoperable, unresectable, or recurrent adenocarcinoma of the rectum were stratified and randomized to amifostine plus radiation therapy (A) or radiation therapy (R) only treatment arms. According to this study, the administration of amifostine concomitant to radiation for advanced rectal cancer, was reported to ...
This new model of radiation toxicity shifts the emphasis away from DNA damage toward protein damage, where DNA repair-related proteins in sensitive cells are devastated by radiation long before DNA is significantly damaged. In contrast, repair enzymes in extremely resistant cells survive and function with great efficiency after irradiation because they are protected, specifically by a chemical mechanism involving manganese (II) ions. The new model of extreme radiation resistance reconciles many seemingly conflicting results published over the last two decades, and points directly at the existence of potent manganese-based radioprotectors that prevent protein damage. Daly expects that delivery of purified radioprotective Mn-complexes into sensitive cell-types will make them temporarily radiation resistant. This possibility opens up new avenues for radioprotection, including approaches to facilitate recovery from short- or long-term exposures to radiation such as cancer therapies, accident- or ...
Radioprotection, theoretical calculation of doses - radioactive fallout - biological effects of ionising radiation or radiobiology - experimental studies (dosimetry, reactor physics, radiochemistry), radiobiological risk management
Radioprotection, theoretical calculation of doses - radioactive fallout - biological effects of ionising radiation or radiobiology - experimental studies (dosimetry, reactor physics, radiochemistry), radiobiological risk management
N-(Aryl)-2-arylethenesulfonamides and pharmaceutically acceptable salts and compositions thereof are useful as antiproliferative agents, including, for example, anticancer agents. They are also useful as radioprotective agents.
Sea cucumbers are cucumber-shaped echinoderms of the genus Cucumaria (Latin designation for vegetable cucumber sounds similar - Cucumis) having a flexible body with tentacles surrounding the mouth. Very recently, the Russian researchers from Far East have discovered that certain substances produced by Cucumaria are similar to plant glycosides by the chemical structure and can inhibit the growth of roots of cucumber sprouts. The biochemists analyzed published data on the properties of cucumariosides (glycosides produced by Cucumaria) and concluded that their effects on animal and plant cells have similar chemical mechanism. These substances actively interact with the cell membrane, which accounts for their ability to act as antifungal and antitumour agents and also for their toxic effects on some fishes (destruction of blood cells). Besides, the group of cucumariosides includes some immunostimulating and radioprotective agents. Techniques for the extraction of glycosides from the body of sea ...
Polymer retention is one of the most important factors to govern polymer propagation through porous media, determining whether successful or not. The focus of previous studies has been limited to polymer concentration loss caused by the retention; not only change in polymer concentration, but also reduction in reservoir permeability is the main issue for theoretical transport study. Due to the lack of accuracy of Langmuir isotherm describing the polymer retention mechanisms, this study proposes a new type of matching interpretation method to correlate the permeability reduction factors from experiments to permeability. In order to solve the problem of poorly matching results between estimation and observation, use of nonadsorptive constant conditionally selected in matching process was made. Based on the threshold permeability reduction factors, approximate critical permeability can be calculated to which nonadsorptive constant would be applied. Results showed significant improvements in the ...
The study assessed the safety and efficacy of Pluristem Therapeutics PLX-R18 following intramuscular injection into irradiated and non-irradiated NHPs.
RATIONALE: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is a kind of malignant tumor which is treated primarily by radiation therapy. This therapeutic strategy often causes adverse effects such as dysfunction of salivary gland and lesion of oral mucosa. With concurrent chemotherapy, it may also cause toxicity to kidney, bone marrow, and other organs or tissues. When administered prior to chemoradiotherapy, Amifostine has been proved to has the ability of protecting the normal from these adverse effects so as to improve the patient tolerance. However, there are also some side effects of Amifostine itself, such as nausea, vomiting and hypotension, especially when high dose is applied.. PURPOSE: This phase II randomized controlled trial is to study the protecting effect and its safety of Amifostine every-other-day regimen compared with standard everyday regimen on adverse effects such as myelosuppression, xerostomia and mucositis, in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma Stage T1-T4, N0-N3, M0 and undergoing ...
Treating brain tumors with whole brain radiation therapy can damage healthy brain tissue, but a new study in mice reveals that limiting the oxygen supply, or hypoxia, can alleviate some of the cognitive impairment caused ...
Authors: (S.V. Paston, O.A. Dommes, A.E. Tarasov, Saint Petersburg State University, Faculty of Physics, St. Petersburg, Russia ...
DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Hematologic toxicity is a principal cause of morbidity and mortality after exposure to ionizing radiation (IR). G-Zero Therapeutics, with operations in the Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, has developed a novel approach to mitigating the hematologic toxicity of total body irradiation (TBI). This approach relies on the administration of novel, orally bioavailable small molecule kinase inhibitors around the time of exposure to TBI. These compounds in turn induce pharmacological quiescence (PQ) of the early hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPC) through the inhibition of cyclin dependent kinases (CDKs) which govern the G1-S transition of the cell cycle. As quiescent cells are resistant to IR, PQ enhances the per cell survival of HSPC by augmenting the repair of DNA damage post-TBI. This enhanced survival of HSPC in turn translates into markedly reduced acute hematologic toxicity. G-Zero has shown in mice that the PQ approach can significantly ...
Our results show that 6 of 6 pharmacologic inhibitors with different chemical structures and mode of actions inhibit the canonical pathway of NF-κB activation (consisting of IKKβ/IκB/NF-κBp65) and provide protection against radiation-induced overall lethality and damage to multiple organ systems of the developing zebrafish. By contrast, 3 of 3 proteasome inhibitors did not afford radiation protection, but radiosensitized zebrafish embryos to the lethal effects of ionizing radiation. Taking into account that each of the pharmacologic agents used in this study is likely to affect targets other than NF-κB, it is remarkable that radioprotection cosegregated with interference with activation of the canonical pathway to NF-κB. This observation suggests that NF-κB may be the relevant target for radiation protection by pharmacologic IKK/NF-κB inhibition.. Currently, there is no consensus about the functional contribution of NF-κB activation to the radiation response (44). Abundant reports of ...
Dr. Esther M. Zimmer Lederberg worked with A. Hollaender at the NIH, moving to Yale after getting an M.A. at Stanford University (acknowledging the guidance of G. W. Beadle and E. L. Tatum). During summers, she worked on radiation-induced reverse mutation in at Cold Spring Harbor with A. Hollaender and M. Demerec. At the Osborn Botanical Laboratory at Yale, she did further research on radiation-induced reverse mutation in Neurospora with N. Giles. Her thesis advisor for her Ph.D. was the chairman of the Genetics Department, R. A. Brink. (See "The Emergence of Bacterial Genetics", by T. Brock, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 1990, p. 88). ...
The distribution and the chemical nature of the protective agent in the various tissues of C57BL/6J male tumor-bearing mice given a protective dose of either of two forms of the radiation-protective agent S-(2-aminoethyl)thiuronium bromide hydrobromide (AET) were studied. The mice carried a subcutaneously transplanted mammary adenocarcinoma. Results at 20 minutes after an I.P. injection of 140 or 280 mg/kg 2-mercaptoethylguanidine (MEG) and at 20 or 120 minutes after an I.P. injection of 140 mg/kg bis(2-guanidoethyl) disulfide (GED) were obtained. At 20 minutes the tumor took up less protective agent than did most of the vital organs except brain. The tumor contained the same S35-labeled chemical compounds that normal tissues contained. The concentration of GED in the tumor was the only form which correlated with protection of the tumor against the effects of local irradiation. As compared with normal animals, tumor-bearing animals appeared to have difficulty excreting the protective agent. It ...
Due to the design of the double-edge cutting ring in the central region as well as in the shoulder area, a larger tube support surface with a high surface pressure is achieved without jamming the cutting ring. This ensures uniform distribution of force. The outer support surfaces of the cutting ring are smoothed, thus minimising friction losses during assembly and guaranteeing the maximum degree of safety during use. STAUFF Connect 24° Tube Fittings with Cutting Ring even exceed the ISO requirements in pressure: They can be used in applications with nominal pressures up to 500 bar / 7250 PSI in the Light Series and up to 800 bar / 11600 PSI in the Heavy Series (depending on series, type and size of the components - pressure reduction factors to be considered ...
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four separate DWI scans were obtained at 1.5T in 48 patients with independent variation of in-plane spatial resolution (1.88 mm2 versus 1.25 mm2) and/or reduction factor (R = 1 versus R = 3). A neuroradiologist with access to clinical history and additional imaging sequences provided a reference standard diagnosis for each case. Three blinded neuroradiologists assessed scans for abnormalities and also evaluated multiple imaging-quality metrics by using a 5-point ordinal scale. Logistic regression was used to determine the impact of each factor on subjective image quality and confidence. ...