... definition. Explain quaternary ammonium compound. What is quaternary ammonium compound? quaternary ammonium compound meaning. quaternary ammonium compound sense. quaternary ammonium compound FAQ. quaternary ammonium compound synonyms.
A synergistic cleaning composition has been discovered comprising an aqueous solution a quaternary ammonium compound component; a nonionic surfactant component; and a glycol ether solvent. Surprisingly, the combination of the quaternary ammonium compound component, the nonionic surfactant component, and glycol ether solvent provides a synergistic effect where the cleaning composition functions with a low level of quaternary ammonium compound component while still maintaining at least one of the following desirable properties, as follows: an acceptable cleaning efficacy; a low level irritation or toxicity profile; and/or a broad spectrum antimicrobial activity.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Diffusion limitation in the block by symmetric tetraalkylammonium ions of anthrax toxin channels in planar phospholipid bilayer membranes. AU - Blaustein, Robert O.. AU - Finkelstein, Alan. PY - 1990/11. Y1 - 1990/11. N2 - Current flow through the channel formed in planar phospholipid bilayer membranes by the PA65 fragment of anthrax toxin is blocked, in a voltage-dependent manner, by tetraalkylammonium ions (at micromolar concentrations), which bind to a blocking site within the channel lumen. We have presented evidence that diffusion plays a significant role in the kinetics of blocking by tetrabutylammonium ion (Bu4N+) from the cis (toxin-containing) side of the membrane (Blaustein, R. O., E. J. A. Lea, and A. Finkelstein. 1990. J. Gen. Physiol. 96:921-942); in this paper we examine the implications and consequences of diffusion control for binding kinetics. As expected for a diffusion-affected reaction, both the entry rate constant (k1cis) of Bu4N+ from the cis solution to the ...
Define quaternary ammonium compound: any of numerous strong bases and their salts derived from ammonium by replacement of the hydrogen atoms with…
The large-scale use of quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) in medicines or disinfectants can lead to their release into the environment, posing a potential risk to organisms. This study examined the effects of three typical QACs, dodecyltrimethylammonium chloride (DTAC), dodecyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride (DBAC), and didodecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC), on hydroponically cultured wheat seedlings. After 14 days of exposure, both hormesis and phytotoxicity were observed in the wheat seedlings. The shoot and root fresh weight gradually increased as QAC concentrations rose from 0.05 to 0.8 mg L-1. However, higher QAC concentrations severely inhibited plant growth by decreasing shoot and root fresh weight, total root length, and photosynthetic pigment content. Moreover, the increase in malondialdehyde and O-2(.-) contents, as well as root membrane permeability, reflected an oxidative burst and membrane lipid peroxidation caused by QACs. However, the effects of QACs on the levels of these oxidative
Tetramethylammonium chloride is one of the simplest quaternary ammonium salts, with four methyl groups tetrahedrally attached to the central N. The chemical formula (CH3)4N+Cl− is often abbreviated further as Me4N+Cl−. It is a hygroscopic colourless solid that is soluble in water and polar organic solvents. Tetramethylammonium chloride is a major industrial chemical,[1] being used in such processes as hydrofracking.[2] In the laboratory, it has fewer synthetic chemical applications than quaternary ammonium salts containing longer N-alkyl substituents, which are used extensively as phase-transfer catalysts. ...
Fibrous cellulose materials useful in the manufacture of soft, absorbent paper products such as paper towels, facial tissues, and toilet tissue are disclosed. The paper products contain a vegetable oil based quaternary ammonium chemical softening compound. Examples of preferred vegetable oil based quaternary ammonium chemical softening compounds include diester di(oleyl)dimethyl ammonium chloride (DEDODMAC) (i.e., di(octadec-z-9-eneoyloxyethyl)dimethyl ammonium chloride) derived from canola oil and/or high oleic safflower oil. Variables that need to be adjusted to maximize the fluidity of vegetable oil based acyl groups include the cis/trans isomer ratio or the Iodine Value (IV) of the fatty acyl groups. The tissue softness is further enhanced by controlling the purity of the fatty acyl groups and the di-substituted versus mono-substituted long chain hydrocarbyl substituent ratio in the quaternary ammonium compounds.
This invention relates to the use of alkyl amido quaternary ammonium salts, and formulations thereof, as thickening agents in aqueous based fluids, especially those used in oil field applications. The quaternary ammonium salts of the present invention exhibit improved gelling characteristics.
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Biocides, primarily those containing quaternary ammonium compounds (QAC), are heavily used in hospital environments and various industries (e.g., food, water, cosmetic). To date, little attention has been paid to potential implications of QAC use in the emergence of antibiotic resistance, especially fluoroquinolone-resistant bacteria in patients and in the environment. QAC-induced overexpression of efflux pumps can lead to: cross resistance with fluoroquinolones mediated by multidrug efflux pumps; stress response facilitating mutation in the Quinolone Resistance Determining Region; and biofilm formation increasing the risk of transfer of mobile genetic elements carrying fluoroquinolone or QAC resistance determinants. By following the European Biocidal Product Regulation, manufacturers of QAC are required to ensure that their QAC-based biocidal products are safe and will not contribute to emerging bacterial resistance.. ...
99035-72-0 - Quaternary ammonium compounds, benzyl-C10-16-alkylbis(hydroxyethyl), chlorides - Searchable synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
91721-91-4 - Quaternary ammonium compounds, di-C10-18-alkyldimethyl, chlorides - Searchable synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
Are there hydrogen bonds in supercritical methanol and ethanol? Temperature and length scale dependence of tetraalkylammonium ion-amide interaction
New quaternary ammonium salts have been prepared from an amino amide and an amino ester and found to be useful in hair cream rinse formulations.
ABSTRACTThe present study aimed to investigate the role of quaternary ammonium salt of U50,488H (Q-U50,488H) in hypoxic pulmonary hypertension (HPH) and underlying mechanisms involved. A HPH animal model was established in rats under hypoxia and the mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP) and right
Quaternary ammonium compounds are molecules which contain a nitrogen atom with four other atoms bonded to it. Most quaternary ammonium compounds are organic compounds and have biological activity. These compounds often work well as disinfectants, offering bactericidal and bacteriostatic effects. Modified Letheen Agar is used as a quaternary ammonium compound neutralizer for the sampling of environmental surfaces. Quaternary ammonia compounds are neutralized by lecithin while phenolic disinfectants and hexacholorphene are neutralized by Tween® 80. Together, lecithin and Tween® 80 neutralize ethanol.. Modified Letheen Agar is formulated as described in the 7th edition of the U.S. FDA Bacteriological Analytical Manual.(1) Modified Letheen Agar is recommended by the FDA for use in the microbiological testing of cosmetics.(2) The medium contains beef extract and peptone to provide a nutrient rich medium supporting the growth of a variety of microorganisms. The tryptone level was increased in the ...
Page contains details about TUSC2 expression vector in N-[1-(2,3-dioleoyloxy)propyl]-N,N,N-trimethylammonium chloride : cholesterol liposome nanoparticles . It has composition images, properties, Characterization methods, synthesis, applications and reference articles : nano.nature.com
We have investigated the interaction of dodecyltrimethylammonium chloride (DoTA) micelle with weak polyelectrolytes, poly(acrylic acid) and poly(methacrylic acid). Anionic as well as un-ionized forms of the polyelectrolytes were studied. Polyelectrolyte-surfactant complexes were formed within 5-11 ns of the simulation time and were found to be stable. Association is driven purely by electrostatic interactions for anionic chains whereas dispersion interactions also play a dominant role in the case of un-ionized chains. Surfactant headgroup nitrogen atoms are in close contact with the carboxylic oxygens of the polyelectrolyte chain at a distance of 0.35 nm. In the complexes, the polyelectrolyte chains are adsorbed on to the hydrophilic micellar surface and do not penetrate into the hydrophobic core of the micelle. Polyacrylate chain shows higher affinity for complex formation with DoTA as compared to polymethacrylate chain. Anionic polyelectrolyte chains show higher interaction strength as compared to
Sigma-Aldrich offers Sigma-Aldrich-44239, Dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide for your research needs. Find product specific information including CAS, MSDS, protocols and references.
Avhandlingar om DODECYLTRIMETHYLAMMONIUM CHLORIDE. Sök bland 78317 avhandlingar från svenska högskolor och universitet på Avhandlingar.se.
Read "Solid-Phase Synthesis of Triethylammonium Salt of 4-Oxothiazolidine-2-thione, Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
For surface active substances the critical micelle concentration (CMC) method is used as an alternative to the water solubility. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) is determined by measuring the surface tension of test substance solutions at different test substance concentration. For surface active substances which form micelles in solution, the surface tension decreases with increasing concentration until the CMC is reached. At concentrations above the CMC, the surface tension remains constant. The CMC is determined from a plot of the surface tension versus the logarithm of the test substance concentration ...
In vitro An in vitro study was conducted to investigate the potential of the read across substance, C16 TMAC (25% purity), to induce gene mutations Salmonella typhimurium strains, according to OECD Guideline 471, in compliance with GLP. Salmonella typhimurium strains TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98 and TA 100 and Escherichia coli strain WP2 uvrA were treated with the test substance using the Ames plate incorporation (pre-experiment and experiment I) and pre-incubation methods (experiment II). The assay was performed in three independent experiments both with and without metabolic activation (S9 mix). All positive control showed a distinct increase in the number of revertant colonies. Strong cytotoxic effects, evidenced by a reduction in the number of revertants, occurred in the test groups with and without S9 mix. No substantial increase in revertant colony numbers in any of the five tester strains was observed following treatment with the test substance either in the presence or absence of S9 mix. ...
Oral: Study 1: A study was conducted to determine the oral repeated dose toxicity of the read across substance, C16 TMAC (24 -26% active in water), according to a method similar to OECD Guideline 407, in compliance with GLP. Groups of 10 male and female rats were administered 0, 30, 100 and 300 mg/kg bw/day of read across substance by oral gavage for 28 days. The read across substance used was a 24-26% aqueous solution but it is not clear if the doses mentioned were corrected. There were no treatment-related changes at the 30 and 100 mg/kg bw/day. In the high-dose group there was an increase in water consumption, changes in the absolute and relative weights of the adrenals and spleens (in males) without corresponding effects on haematology, clinical chemistry and histology. The forestomach of the high-dose group showed few microscopic changes, however animals in the high-dose recovery group showed a complete and regular regeneration of the forestomach mucosa. Hence, the forestomach effects were ...
The public activities coordination tool (PACT) provides an overview of the substance-specific activities that authorities are working on under REACH and the CLP Regulation. These activities are being carried out in line with ECHAs Integrated Regulatory Strategy.. PACT provides up-to-date information on the activities planned, ongoing or completed by ECHA and/or MSCAs for a given substance in the following areas:. ...
[65 Pages Report] Check for Discount on tetrapentylammonium chloride Global Market and Forecast Research report by ChemReport. DescriptionWe provide independent and unbiased information on manufacturers, prices, production...
TY - JOUR. T1 - New tetrapropylammonium bromide-based deep eutectic solvents. T2 - Synthesis and characterizations. AU - Jibril, Baba. AU - Mjalli, Farouq. AU - Naser, Jamil. AU - Gano, Zaharaddeen. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - Deep eutectic solvents are analogues of ionic liquids that are environmentally benign, have a range of desirable liquid properties and are easy to prepare. In this study, new tetrapropylammonium bromide (TPAB)-based deep eutectic solvents (DESs) are introduced. Different hydrogen bond donors (HBDs) - ethylene glycol, triethylene glycol and glycerol were used at different molar ratios of TPAB:HBD (1:2.5-1:5). Effects of temperature and the TPAB:HBD ratios on the DESs were investigated. Solvents of different physicochemical properties andwide liquid rangeswithminimummelting point temperatures of 249.75, 253.95 and 257.05 Kwere obtained for TPAB:ethylene glycol (1:4), TPAB:triethylene glycol (1:3) and TPAB/glycerol (1:3) respectively. The samples were further characterized in ...
Co-exposure of multiple quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) is widely present in the aquatic environment. The knowledge about their toxicities to microorganism at low concentration is lacking. This study aims to test the toxic response of Vibrio qinghaiensis Q67 (12-h exposure) to individual and mixtures of QACs by the long-term microplate toxicity analysis method (L-MTA). Hormetic effects were observed for five individual QACs at 12-h exposure of Vibrio qinghaiensis Q67. The maximum stimulation effect of − 339.66% was present in the 0.00561 mol/L tetraethylammonium bromide solution. A stimulation effect (− 23.55%) was detected when each of QACs in the five-component mixture was present at 50% effect concentration (
This research emphasized fundamental physical and electrochemical studies of systems based on the room temperature fused salt, triethyl-ammonium dichlorocuprate(I). Such systems, which must be maintained under a protective atmosphere, were also used in some preliminary battery studies. Spectra of dark green solutions of copper (II) chloride in triethylammonium dichlorocuprate(I) obey Beers law, with an absorption maximum at 402 nm, ε 2.02x10³ lit /mol cm. This behavior is typical of chlorocuprate(II) complexes. No special behavior due to intervalence transfer absorption is observed. Densities of solutions of various salts in triethylammotium dichlorocuprate(I) were determined dilatometrically in the range 25-50°C, permitting concentrations to be expressed both on weight and molarity bases. The endothermic formation of liquid triethylammonium dichlorocuprate( I) involved a 10.9% increase in molar volume. The specific conductance of triethylammonium dichlorocuprate(I) increases from ...
Quaternary ammonium compounds are any of a group of ammonium salts in which organic radicals have been substituted for all four hydrogens of the original ammonium cation. They has a central nitrogen atom which is joined to four organic radicals and one acid radical. The organic radicals may be alkyl, aryl, or aralkyl, and the nitrogen can be part of a ring system. They are prepared by treatment of an amine with an alkylating agent. They show a variety of physical, chemical, and biological properties and most compounds are soluble in water and strong electrolytes. Such compounds include ...
0031]Disclosed herein are ophthalmic solutions and methods for their use, which comprise a complex of at least one cationic compound and at least one an anionic polymer. In one embodiment, the complex can comprise a first and second cationic compound. In one embodiment, the first and second cationic compounds are antimicrobial agents. In one embodiment, the first cationic compound can be a polymeric quaternary ammonium compound. In one embodiment, the complex is formed of a first cationic component, a second cationic component and an anionic polymer. The complex can be used as an antimicrobial agent or as an antimicrobial component. The antimicrobial complexes disclosed herein can provide enhanced biocidal activity over other antimicrobial agents, without significantly contributing to ocular irritation or user discomfort. Typically, when mixing hydrophilic anionic polymers with cationic polymeric antimicrobial agents, formation of precipitates occurs and the antimicrobial activity is lost. This ...
NR20R21 (where R20 and R21 are each independently a hydrogen atom or a C1 to C4 alkyl group), a nitro group, a carbamoyl group, an N--(C1 to C4 alkyl)carbamoyl group, an N,N-di(C1 to C4 alkyl)carbamoyl group, or --NHCOR9 (where R9 is a C1 to C4 alkyl group that may be branched), a cyano group, --NR20R21 (where R20 and R21 are each independently a hydrogen atom or a C1 to C4 alkyl group), a nitro group, a carbamoyl group, an N--(C1 to C4 alkyl)carbamoyl group, an N,N-di(C1 to C4 alkyl)carbamoyl group, --NHCOR9 (where R9 is a C1 to C4 alkyl group that may be branched), and a halogen atom; and n is an integer from 1 to 12); (ix) --(CH2)nNR12COR13 (where R12 and R13 are groups independently selected from the group consisting of: (1) a hydrogen atom; (2) a C1 to C4 alkyl group that may be branched; (3) an aryl group, wherein the aryl group may be substituted with at least one group selected from the group consisting of: a C1 to C4 alkyl group that may be branched, a C1 to C5 alkoxy group that may be ...
Molecular Cloning, also known as Maniatis, has served as the foundation of technical expertise in labs worldwide for 30 years. No other manual has been so popular, or so influential.
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Abstract: UV-visible (UV-Vis) absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy (FL), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) were used to study the interactions between bovine serum albumin (BSA) and the three quaternary ammonium surfactants N-dodecyl-N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-N, Ndimethyl ammonium bromide (DHDAB), N-tetradecyl-N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-N, N-dimethyl ammonium bromide (THDAB) and N-cetyl-N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-N, N-dimethyl ammonium bromide (CHDAB). These surfactants quenched the intrinsic fluorescence of BSA, with longer alkyl chains resulting in more significant quenching. This was attributed to static quenching. Further evidence of static quenching was provided by UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy. The particle size of BSA was found to initially increase and then decrease with increasing surfactant concentration. The concentration of surfactant changed the type of interaction mode. This work revealed the mechanism and binding characteristics between surfactants ...
Quaternary ammonium compounds are any of a group of ammonium salts in which organic radicals have been substituted for all four hydrogens of the original ammonium cation. They has a central nitrogen atom which is joined to four organic radicals and one acid radical. The organic radicals may be alkyl, aryl, or aralkyl, and the nitrogen can be part of a ring system. They are prepared by treatment of an amine with an alkylating agent. They show a variety of physical, chemical, and biological properties and most compounds are soluble in water and strong electrolytes. Such compounds include ...
The effects of added ammonium ion (10-1000 μM) on photosynthetic 14CO2 fixation by tissues slices from the mantle of tridacnid clams, by coral tips, and by isolated zooxanthellae from clam mantle were examined. Ammonium ions stimulated photosynthesis in tissue slices but not in freshly isolated zooxanthellae. When ammonium stimulated 14CO2 fixation by coral tips an increase in water-soluble labelled compounds, especially amino acids, was observed. Even though ammonium ions did not stimulate photosynthesis in isolated zooxanthellae from clam mantle, light stimulated ammonium uptake in these cells. Studies with 15NH+4 confirmed earlier observations (in zooxanthellae isolated from Hippopus) of light-stimulated transfer of ammonium from the amido-N of glutamine to the amino-N of glutamate, glutamine and other amino acids. This observation, in isolated zooxanthellae and tissue slices, suggests that the glutamine synthase-glutamate synthetase pathway of ammonium incorporation is light-driven in these ...
Cationic compounds are promising candidates for development of antimicrobial agents. Positive charges attached to surfaces, particles, polymers, peptides or bilayers have been used as antimicrobial agents by themselves or in sophisticated formulations. The main positively charged moieties in these natural or synthetic structures are quaternary ammonium groups, resulting in quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs). The advantage of amphiphilic cationic polymers when compared to small amphiphilic molecules is their enhanced microbicidal activity. Besides, many of these polymeric structures also show low toxicity to human cells; a major requirement for biomedical applications. Determination of the specific elements in polymers, which affect their antimicrobial activity, has been previously difficult due to broad molecular weight distributions and random sequences characteristic of radical polymerization. With the advances in polymerization control, selection of well defined polymers and structures are allowing
Cationic compounds are promising candidates for development of antimicrobial agents. Positive charges attached to surfaces, particles, polymers, peptides or bilayers have been used as antimicrobial agents by themselves or in sophisticated formulations. The main positively charged moieties in these natural or synthetic structures are quaternary ammonium groups, resulting in quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs). The advantage of amphiphilic cationic polymers when compared to small amphiphilic molecules is their enhanced microbicidal activity. Besides, many of these polymeric structures also show low toxicity to human cells; a major requirement for biomedical applications. Determination of the specific elements in polymers, which affect their antimicrobial activity, has been previously difficult due to broad molecular weight distributions and random sequences characteristic of radical polymerization. With the advances in polymerization control, selection of well defined polymers and structures are allowing
The results of the studies on the influence of the phase transfer catalyst on the epoxidation of (Z,E,E)-1,5,9-cyclododecatriene (CDT) to 1,2-epoxy-5,9-cyclododecadiene (ECDD) in the H2O2/H3PW12O40 system by a method of phase transfer catalysis (PTC) were presented. The following quaternary ammonium salts were used as phase transfer catalysts: methyltributylammonium chloride, (cetyl)pyridinium bromide, methyltrioctylammonium chloride, (cetyl)pyridinium chloride, dimethyl[dioctadecyl(76%)+dihexadecyl(24%)] ammonium chloride, tetrabutylammonium hydrogensulfate, didodecyldimethylammonium bromide and methyltrioctylammonium bromide. Their catalytic activity was evaluated on the basis of the degree of CDT and hydrogen peroxide conversion and the selectivities of transformation to ECDD in relation to consumed CDT and hydrogen peroxide. The most effective PT catalysts were selected based on the obtained results. Among the onium salts under study, the epoxidation of CDT with hydrogen peroxide proceeds ...
The invention relates to quaternary ammonium amide and/or ester salts and their use as additives, including their use in fuels, such as diesel fuel. The invention particularly relates to the use of quaternary ammonium amide and/or ester salts as detergents in diesel fuels.
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Of the total number of soak buckets containing disinfectant, 67% contained viable bacteria, including spore-forming bacteria (causes botulism and tetanus) and coliform bacteria. A second, separate companion study: Decreased activity of commercially available disinfectants containing quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) when exposed to cotton towels, also conducted by the team, found laundered cotton towels can reduce the strength of the hospital-grade disinfectants (QACs) by up to 85.3%. "It is very concerning to think that the very process by which hospitals are trying to prevent the spread of bacteria, may actually be causing it," says Dr. Gerba. "Whether alone or in combination, the presence of bacteria on the towels and the inactivation of the cleaning agent may increase the risk for transmission of pathogens in hospitals. These observations indicate the need to critically re-evaluate current hospital cleaning practices associated with reuse of cloth towels.". Proper cleaning practices in ...
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With a different antimicrobial, a very different pattern is seen (Video 2). In this 1 h time-lapse video, a staphylococcal biofilm is being treated with 50 mg per liter of a quaternary ammonium compound (QAC). This type of disinfectant is commonly used in industry and in consumer products. With the QAC there is no removal of biomass or change in the biofilm structure. Flow is from left to right. The biofilm does wiggle in the flow some, a reminder that biofilms are viscoelastic structures that can deform and move. The spatial and temporal patterns of loss of green fluorescence is complex (Figure 4). There appear to be three phases. In the first phase, the rate of green fluorescence loss is controlled by penetration into the biofilm. Once the QAC penetrates to a particular depth, it acts quickly on about half the cells. The remaining cells lose color more slowly. This is suggestive of a subpopulation that is less susceptible.. Chlorine and QAC have quite different effects on the biofilm. This ...
A set of broad-range PCR primers for the 16S rRNA gene in bacteria were tested, along with three series of oligonucleotide probes… Expand ...
* found in: QAC Reagent 2 Powder Pillows, QAC Reagent 1 Powder Pillows, For determination of Quaternary Ammonium Compounds (QAC) by the Direct Binary..
Tristel Solo for Ultrasound disinfectant wipes are designed specifically for the simple and effective disinfection of skin surface probes and ultrasound station monitors, keyboards, probe holders and cables. Tristel Solo for Ultrasound disinfectant wipes are based on a Quaternary Ammonium Compound (QAC) in the form of didecyl dimethyl ammonium chloride. To aid cleaning and soil removal, the formulation incorporates two non-ionic surfactants and one chelating agent.
Tetrabutylammonium bisulfate for ion pair chromatography, LiChropur™, ≥99.0%; CAS Number: 32503-27-8; EC Number: 251-068-5; Synonym: Tetrabutylammonium hydrogen sulfate; Linear Formula: C16H37NO4S; find Supelco-86853 MSDS, related peer-reviewed papers, technical documents, similar products & more at Sigma-Aldrich.
Acetic acid, ammonium salt, 98+%, for analysis, ACROS Organics™ 5kg; Plastic bucket Acetic acid, ammonium salt, 98+%, for analysis, ACROS Organics™ Acetic...