In all populations, we observed a reduction in the narrow-sense heritability of all evaluated traits when dominance effects were accounted for (e.g., using MAD instead of MA). The smallest decrease in narrow-sense heritability was observed for number of teats (4.2%) and the highest for lifetime daily gain (21.3%), both in the Landrace population (Table 3). The broad-sense heritability (sum of the heritabilities due to all genetic effects used in the model) of all evaluated traits increased in all three populations when dominance and imprinting effects were added to the model. The broad-sense heritability of lifetime daily gain was ,30% greater when using MADI compared to using MA (Table 3, Table 4, and Table 5). A reduction of additive genetic variance and an increase in the broad-sense heritability was previously reported (Su et al. 2012) when nonadditive genetic effects were included in the model to evaluate daily gain in pigs. For height in trees, the narrow-sense heritability was found to ...
R = h2 S. R is the response to selection, S is the selection differential, and h2 is the narrow-sense heritability. This is the workhorse equation for quantitative genetics. The selective differential S, is the difference between the population mean and the mean of the parental population (some subset of the total population). For example,…
Just as there are people who are rare in the world of human beings, there are dogs that stand out in the dog world because of something unusual about them. Basenji Did you know there is a dog who cannot bark? He is called a Basenji. No one knows why he does not bark like other dogs, but this fellow gives sharp little cries that sound like a Swiss yodel. Because he did not bark to frighten the game away, and because be had such a very keen sense of smell that he could scent as far as eighty yards, he was used long ago in Africa to hunt rats, to retrieve, and to drive small wild game into nets.
Treatable traits" have been proposed as a new paradigm for the management of airway diseases, particularly complex disease, which aims to apply personalised medicine to each individual to improve outcomes. Moving new treatment approaches from concepts to practice is challenging, but necessary. In an effort to accelerate progress in research and practice relating to the treatable traits approach, the Treatable Traits Down Under International Workshop was convened in Melbourne, Australia in May 2018. Here, we report the key concepts and research questions that emerged in discussions during the meeting. We propose a programme of research that involves gaining international consensus on candidate traits, recognising the prevalence of traits, and identifying a potential hierarchy of traits based on their clinical impact and responsiveness to treatment. We also reflect on research methods and designs that can generate new knowledge related to efficacy of the treatable traits approach and consider ...
In the mainstream press, "heritability of a trait" is interpreted as "percentage of that trait inherited and dictated by genes." To begin with, this is a profound misunderstanding of the scientific meaning of heritability, which applies at the level of population variance only, and is irrelevant to the level of a trait in any particular individual. When combined with the fact that the use of heritability in science is beset with the problems stated above, were left with a public that is ill-informed about overly simplistic scientific applications and interpretations. This is not to suggest that heritability studies are useless. But it does suggest that much communication about them is , at present, a significant hindrance to the popular understanding of genes and their influence on the formation of traits ...
Maps traits with correction for kinship among samples using a linear mixed model method, and also allows users to fit multiple covariates such as sex, age, treatment, and genetic markers (PMID: 2453419, and GitHub code). GEMMA incorporates the Leave One Chromosome Out (LOCO) method to ensure that the correction for kinship does not remove useful genetic variance near each marker. Markers can be filtered to include only those with minor allele frequencies (MAF) above a threshold. The default MAF is 0.05 ...
Maps traits with correction for kinship among samples using a linear mixed model method, and also allows users to fit multiple covariates such as sex, age, treatment, and genetic markers (PMID: 2453419, and GitHub code). GEMMA incorporates the Leave One Chromosome Out (LOCO) method to ensure that the correction for kinship does not remove useful genetic variance near each marker. Markers can be filtered to include only those with minor allele frequencies (MAF) above a threshold. The default MAF is 0.05 ...
DNA makes this? Proteins, Proteins, which are made of amino acids. How many amino acids are known? Where is DNA found in your cell? Nucleus Nucleus - inside chromosomes Chromosomes DNA Genes  Traits *Most traits are effected by many genes and most genes are involved in the development of several traits.
Life history traits such as fecundity are important to evolution because they make up components of lifetime fitness. Due to their polygenic architectures, such traits are difficult to investigate with genetic mapping. Therefore, little is known about their molecular basis. One possible way toward finding the underlying genes is to map intermediary molecular phenotypes, such as gene expression traits. We set out to map candidate quantitative trait genes for egg fecundity in the chicken by combining quantitative trait locus mapping in an advanced intercross of wild by domestic chickens with expression quantitative trait locus mapping in the same birds. We measured individual egg fecundity in 232 intercross chickens in two consecutive trials, the second one aimed at measuring brooding. We found 12 loci for different aspects of egg fecundity. We then combined the genomic confidence intervals of these loci with expression quantitative trait loci from bone and hypothalamus in the same intercross. ...
REGULARIZATION or shrinkage methods are gaining increasing recognition as a valuable alternative to variable selection techniques in dealing with oversaturated or otherwise ill-defined regression problems in both the classical and Bayesian frameworks (e.g., Ohara and Sillanpää 2009). Many studies (e.g., Xu 2003; Wang et al. 2005; Zhang and Xu 2005; De los Campos et al. 2009; Usai et al. 2009; Wu et al. 2009; Xu et al. 2009) have documented the potential of shrinkage methods for quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping and genomic breeding value (GBV) estimation using genome-wide dense sets of markers. Lee et al. (2008) make a clear connection between phenotype prediction and GBV estimation, suggesting that methods developed for one are also applicable to the other. We thus use the two concepts interchangeably throughout this article.. Regularized regression methods, such as ridge regression (Hoerl and Kennard 1970) or the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) (Tibshirani ...
PANELS of recombinant inbred (RI) lines, generated by either recurrent sib mating or selfing, constitute a valuable resource for the genetic dissection of quantitative traits and particularly for the mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL) (Bailey 1971; Swank and Bailey 1973; Watson et al. 1977; Plomin et al. 1991b). With RI panels, as with other true-breeding populations such as panels of doubled haploid (DH) lines, marker genotypes need be measured only once and the trait value for a given genotype can be measured in replicated individuals. The same panel can be used by different investigators and at different times, permitting the dissection of multiple correlated traits even when such traits are measured under different environmental conditions (Plomin et al. 1991a).. In a limited number of systems (e.g., maize, Drosophila), replicable mapping populations that contain hundreds of lines exist (Johnson and Wood 1982; Burr et al. 1988; Reiter et al. 1992; Fry et al. 1998). In other systems, ...
Genetic architecture of the quantitative traits is an important aspect for understanding the sustained response of selection and also for predicting the disease risk. In regards to the distribution of effect of variants underlying the quantitative traits, Fisher (1918) proposed a simple explanation, termed as the infinitesimal model, where the quantitative traits are composed by…
Type 2 diabetes is a genetically heterogeneous disease involving insulin resistance, β-cell dysfunction, and increased glucose production by the liver. Identification of multiple QTLs suggests that there is a high degree of genetic heterogeneity of type 2 diabetes. To circumvent this limitation, we focused on a single large family, because those individuals likely share the same polymorphisms, thus minimizing genetic heterogeneity. Although environmental factors, such as physical activity and diet, also influence the development of type 2 diabetes and may interact with genetic effects, these measures were not collected, therefore future studies should further examine these effects.. Our results suggest that a gene located near D5S428 is responsible for variability in affection status. As we focused on a single family, the applicability of these findings to the general population is a concern. However, Lindsay et al. (29) identified tentative evidence of linkage (LOD = 1.5) ∼15 cM from our ...
OBJECTIVES: In sib pair studies, quantitative trait loci (QTL) identification may be adversely affected by non-normality in the phenotypic distribution, particularly when subjects falling in the tails of the distribution bias the trait mean or varian
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Di Nicolantonio, R., Kostka, V., Kwitek, A., Jacob, H., Thomas, W.G. and Harrap, S.B. 2006, Fine mapping of Lvm1: a quantitative trait locus controlling heart size independently of blood pressure, Pulmonary pharmacology & therapeutics, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 70-73, doi: 10.1016/j.pupt.2005.02.010. ...
Michaud, Amy Marie, "Identifying quantitative trait loci for hip axis geometry phenotypes in C57BL/6J X CAST/EiJ inbred mice." (2009). Summer and Academic Year Student Reports. 2279 ...
Additional file 1, Table S1 shows the posterior means (standard deviations) of direct and maternal heritabilities of GL and liabilities to CD and SB for each model. Posterior distributions of direct and maternal heritabilities for the three calving traits were similar across categories of GL and between models (RMM1, RMM2 and RMM3) and were also similar to their counterparts from the SMM. The posterior mean of direct heritability of GL was higher than that for maternal heritability (0.39 vs. 0.08-0.07); corresponding estimates for CD (0.08-0.10 vs. 0.07-0.08) and SB (0.05-0.08 vs. 0.08-0.11) were smaller than those for direct heritability and similar between them. Heritability estimates were within the range of values reported in previous studies [15-17]; estimates for CD and SB were higher than those used in routine genetic evaluations of CD and SB in US Holsteins, except for the direct heritability of CD [18, 19].. Features of the posterior distributions of genetic correlations in the four ...
Medicine) and Michael Nothnagel (University of Cologne).. Application Deadline January 5, 2017. For additional information, the schedule and application form - ...
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The fourth annual course on Complex Trait Analysis of Next Generation Sequence Data will be held at the MDC in Berlin from June 18-22, 2018. The goal of the course is to teach both the theory and application of methods to analyze next generation sequence (NGS) data for human complex traits. Attendees will learn how to design studies, call variants from NGS data, analysis of population-, trio- and family-based sequence data and evaluation of variant functionality. Analyses will include performing complex trait rare variant association analysis for population and trio data. Exercises will be carried out using a variety of computer programs (GATK, IGV, Polyphen2, PSEQ, SEQPower, SEQSpark and Variant Association Tools (VAT)). TOPICS will be include: sequence alignment, calling variants from NGS data, quality control of NGS data, association testing framework for quantitative and qualitative traits (fixed effects, random effects and mixed models), rare variant association methods, estimating power ...
In recent yers several traits were improved in different animal species. The development was forced by traditional breeding methods based on phenotypic assessment ie production, reproduction and viability. The estimates of such complex phenotypes are the result of a combined action of numerous genes and environmental factors.. ...
The comparison of the genetic differentiation of quantitative traits (QST) and molecular markers (FST) can inform on the strength and spatial heterogeneity of selection in natural populations, provided that markers behave neutrally. However, selection may influence the behaviour of markers in selfin …
Virology Highlights features highlighted articles published in Virology, with posts summarizing the research in the authors words.
Trait" is a ubiquitous term in biology, but its precise meaning and theoretical foundations remain opaque. After distinguishing between "trait" and "character," I argue for the value of adopting Theodosius Dobzhanskys 1956 definition and framework for understanding "trait," which holds that traits are just "semantic devices" that artificially impose order on continuous biological phenomena. I elaborate on this definition to distinguish between trait validity (compliance with Dobzhanskys trait definition) and trait utility (usefulness of a trait). As a consequence of this elaboration of the meaning of "trait," it becomes clear that considerations of adaptation, function, homogeneity and natural kinds have clouded discussions of the meaning of "trait" per se. Combining this account with work by David Hull and examples from contemporary biology, I demonstrate that even broad or heterogeneous traits (including multiple sub-traits) can qualify as valid and useful. As a test case for this ...
BREEDING BY PHENOTYPE Many breeders plan matings solely on the appearance (phenotype) of a dog and not on its pedigree or the relatedness of the prospective parents. Matings based on appearance are called assortative matings. There are positive assortative matings (like-to-like) and negative assortative matings (like-to-unlike) for individual traits. Breeders use positive assortative matings when they wish to fix traits, and negative assortative matings when they wish to correct traits or bring in traits the breeding stock may lack. Some individuals may share desirable characteristics, but they inherit them differently. This is especially true of polygenetic traits, such as ear set, bite or length of forearm. Breeding two phenotypically similar but geno-typically unrelated dogs together would not necessarily reproduce these traits. Conversely, each individual with the same pedigree will not necessarily look or breed alike. Therefore, breedings should not be planned solely on the basis of the ...
Novel insights into seed fatty acid synthesis and modification pathways from genetic diversity and quantitative trait Loci analysis of the Brassica C genome ...
MATCH (page:Page), (page)-[:trait]-,(trait:Trait), (trait)-[:predicate]-,(predicate:Term)-[:parent_term,:synonym_of*0..]-,(tp:Term), (trait)-[:object_term]-,(object_term:Term)-[:parent_term,:synonym_of*0..]-,(to:Term) WHERE (tp.uri = http://eol.org/schema/terms/FossilFirst AND to.uri = http://resource.geosciml.org/classifier/ics/ischart/Rhyacian) WITH DISTINCT page, trait, predicate LIMIT 50 OPTIONAL MATCH (trait)-[:object_term]-,(object_term:Term) OPTIONAL MATCH (trait)-[:units_term]-,(units:Term) OPTIONAL MATCH (trait)-[:normal_units_term]-,(normal_units:Term) OPTIONAL MATCH (trait)-[:sex_term]-,(sex_term:Term) OPTIONAL MATCH (trait)-[:lifestage_term]-,(lifestage_term:Term) OPTIONAL MATCH (trait)-[:statistical_method_term]-,(statistical_method_term:Term) OPTIONAL MATCH (trait)-[:supplier]-,(resource:Resource) RETURN page.page_id, trait.eol_pk, trait.measurement, trait.object_page_id, trait.sample_size, trait.citation, trait.source, trait.remarks, trait.method, object_term.uri, ...
The joint analysis of multiple traits has recently become popular since it can increase statistical power to detect genetic variants and there is increasing evidence showing that pleiotropy is a widespread phenomenon in complex diseases. Currently, most of existing methods use all of the traits for testing the association between multiple traits and a single variant. However, those methods for association studies may lose power in the presence of a large number of noise traits. In this paper, we propose an
The strength of natural selection is directly related to the degree of differential mortality in the population. If the probability of survival for an individual is a function of the value of a particular trait, then that trait is subject to selection pressures (assuming, of course, that the trait is heritable). Selection will not occur if the probability of mortality is the same for all individuals.. The relationship between mortality and a traits value need not be a linear one for selection to occur. The probability of mortality may increase with the trait value, decrease with the trait value, increase with extreme trait values, increase for intermediate trait values or density dependent; an infinite array of possibilities exist. ...
This paper deals with the linear model y = X θ + U ε, E ε = 0, [equation]. It is investigated when a best quadratic unbiased estimator of certain linear parametric functions of the σi2. exists. This...
For structured populations in equilibrium with everybody born equal, ln(R0) is a useful fitness proxy for evolutionarily steady strategy (ESS) and most adaptive dynamics calculations, with R0 the average lifetime number of offspring in the clonal and haploid cases, and half the average lifetime number of offspring fathered or mothered for Mendelian diploids. When individuals have variable birth states, as is, for example, the case in spatial models, R0 is itself an eigenvalue, which usually cannot be expressed explicitly in the trait vectors under consideration. In that case, Q(Y, X):=-det (I-L(Y, X)) can often be used as fitness proxy, with L the next-generation matrix for a potential mutant characterized by the trait vector Y in the (constant) environment engendered by a resident characterized by X. If the trait space is connected, global uninvadability can be determined from it. Moreover, it can be used in all the usual local calculations like the determination of evolutionarily singular ...
There are two novel findings from this study. First, rs12255372 in TCF7L2 was significantly associated with GDM under a dominant genetic model. This is the first evidence that TCF7L2 is associated with forms of pre-diabetes. We did not genotype ancestrally informative markers, so it is possible that population substructure may confound our results. However, given that the identical marker also shows association with type 2 diabetes-related quantitative traits, it is likely that this is a true association with GDM.. Second, rs12255372 was associated with 30′ Δinsulin in an interaction with percentage of body fat. This finding could explain some of the inconsistencies in association between TCF7L2 and quantitative traits among studies. It may also explain the increased OR for association with type 2 diabetes (1.89 vs. 1.69) reported by Cauchi et al. (8) when their analysis was restricted to lean subjects (BMI ,30 kg/m2). The lack of association between this interaction and AIR from the IVGTT is ...
triticum aestivum; electrophorese; caractere agronomique; heterozygotes; plant breeding; heterozygote; temps; fitomejoramiento; wheats; dna; height; epi; largura; genes; gene; tige; genetic variation; variedades de alto rendimiento; adn; locus des caracteres quantitatifs; tallos; quality; genotype; spikes; altura; variation genetique; agronomic characters; floracion; qualite; genetic markers; espigas; stems; longueur; caracteristicas agronomicas; marcadores geneticos; carte genetique; floraison; variete a haut rendement; epiaison; genotipos; flowering; stade de developpement vegetal; trigo; variacion genetica; quantitative trait loci; electrophoresis; mapas geneticos; electroforesis; ble; pcr; marqueur genetique; hauteur; genetic maps; phenotype; heterocigotos; heading; espigueo; genotypes; length; high yielding varieties; plant developmental stages; phenotypes; tiempo; fenotipos; loci de rasgos cuantitativos; etapas de desarrollo de la planta; time; amelioration des plantes; calidad ...
Despite widespread interest in the genetics of complex traits (including common human diseases), basic principles of complex trait genetics are still poorly understood. We attack the problem from three directions. First, we develop theoretical models of evolution and maintenance of complex trait variation under various allelic architectures. Second, we are involved in a large zebrafish screen aiming at identification of key parameters of allelic architecture of complex traits. Third, we work on statistical methods for the analysis of available genomic data in phenotyped human populations. This includes methods for predicting complex phenotypes from genotypes ...
Despite widespread interest in the genetics of complex traits (including common human diseases), basic principles of complex trait genetics are still poorly understood. We attack the problem from three directions. First, we develop theoretical models of evolution and maintenance of complex trait variation under various allelic architectures. Second, we are involved in a large zebrafish screen aiming at identification of key parameters of allelic architecture of complex traits. Third, we work on statistical methods for the analysis of available genomic data in phenotyped human populations. This includes methods for predicting complex phenotypes from genotypes ...
8/24/20: Redesigned and UPDATED to included DIGITAL GOOGLE CLASSROOM LINKS!Looking for a great way to teach character traits? This unit provides additional practice in identifying character traits and backing them up with evidence from the text. Heres whats included in this unit:-10 passages, feat...
Hello people. I recently decided to design new racials. Like many players, I find the racial traits a bit awkward and outdated. Some people even think they should totally be removed. If I think this solution is too extreme, I wish some change to bring a more fair balancing between races. I am not naive, it would be impossible to have 100% balanced racial traits, but today the balance is in fact non-existent. Today if you want create a horde druid and want to play it in HL PVE, you have the
Japanese scientists have produced the first genetically modified monkeys that can pass on their new traits to offspring, a research breakthrough mired in ethical quandaries. The technique is meant to... Health News Summaries. | Newser
Having just found 'traits' - see http://www.daniweb.com/web-development/php/threads/468928/php-trait-method-conflicts-trait-inheritance#post2043565 ...
An inherited trait is an element of an organisms makeup that is passed down to it by one or both of its parents. In most cases...
Conversion optimization isnt necessarily something you can major in during college, so how can you tell who will be a world-class optimizer and who will j
Read "Genetic structure of the LXS panel of recombinant inbred mouse strains: a powerful resource for complex trait analysis, Mammalian Genome" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Deerhake, Marion Elizabeth, "Quantitative trait loci analysis of blood pressure in an eight intercross mouse study" (2008). Summer and Academic Year Student Reports. 2234 ...
Shirali M., Miraei‐Ashtiani S.R., Pakdel A., Haley C., Navarro P. and Pong‐Wong R, 2015, A Comparison of the Sensitivity of the BayesC and Genomic Best Linear Unbiased Prediction (GBLUP) Methods of Estimating Genomic Breeding Values under Different Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) Model Assumptions, Iranian Journal of Applied Animal Science, 5(1), 41-46 Shirali M., Miraei‐Ashtiani S.R., Pakdel A., Haley C., Navarro P. and Pong‐Wong R, 2015, A Comparison of the Sensitivity of the BayesC and Genomic Best Linear Unbiased Prediction (GBLUP) Methods of Estimating Genomic Breeding Values under Different Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) Model Assumptions, Iranian Journal of Applied Animal Science, 5(1), 41-46
MalaCards based summary : Bone Mineral Density Quantitative Trait Locus 11, also known as bmnd11, is related to osteoporosis. An important gene associated with Bone Mineral Density Quantitative Trait Locus 11 is BMND11 (Bone Mineral Density QTL 11). Affiliated tissues include bone ...
The objective of this study was to identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms using a bovine chromosome 14 high-density SNP panel after accounting for the effect of DGAT1. Linkage disequilibrium information and sire heterozygosity were used to select m
In this study, we evaluated conformation traits describing leg and feet condition, osteochondrosis score and bone mineral density, which are important in selection to reduce the risk of leg weakness in pigs. However, the genetics of LW-related traits is complex [12, 31]. A number of factors are known to influence the development of LW, such as nutrition imbalance, high body weight, rapid growth rate, bone and joint diseases, bad body and leg structure, and mechanical stress [11, 13]. Moreover, it has been reported that the degree of LW and OC may be related to the breed and sex of animals [32]. However, in our study there was no effect of gender on LW-related traits, which implies that frequencies of LW and OC vary and depend on the genetic background of the animals [33]. It has been reported that the Duroc pure breed shows the highest incidence of OC compared to other European pig breeds (Pietrain, Landrace and Yorkshire) [32]. Our data suggest that the unfavourable QTL allele for OC originates ...
The genetics of sexual isolation, behavioral differences between species that prevent mating, is understood poorly. Pheromonal differences between species can influence sexual isolation in many animals and in some cases a single locus can cause large functional changes in pheromonal mating signals. Drosophila cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) can function as pheromones and consequently affect mate recognition. In a previous study of the two major CHCs in females that affect mating discrimination between Drosophila simulans and D. sechellia, quantitative trait loci (QTL) were identified on the X and third chromosome, and a few candidate genes were potentially implicated. Here we specifically test candidate genes for CHC biosynthesis and determine the genetic architecture of four additional CHCs that differ in abundance between D. simulans and D. sechellia females. The same QTL, and new ones, were found for additional CHCs. By examining all these CHCs and exploring their covariance, we were able to ascribe
The study was conducted to investigate genetic variability among 113 aromatic and fine local rice genotypes of which five were exotic in origin. The test genotypes were evaluated for 19 growth traits, yield components, and yield. All the quantitative traits varied significantly among the test genotypes. High heritability along with high genetic advance was observed for flag leaf area, secondary branches per panicle, filled grains per panicle, grain length, grain breadth, grain length breadth ratio, and 1000 grain weight. Such findings suggested preponderance of additive gene action in gene expression for these characters. Grain yield was significantly and positively correlated with days to flowering, days to maturity, panicle length, filled grains per panicle, and 1000 grain weight. According to D2 cluster analysis, 113 test genotypes formed 10 clusters. Selection of parents from the clusters V and X followed by hybridization would possibly result in desirable heterosis for the development of ...