Mono- and Stereopictres of 5.0 Angstrom coordination sphere of Sodium atom in PDB 2amf: Crystal Structure of 1-Pyrroline-5-Carboxylate Reductase From Human Pathogen Streptococcus Pyogenes
Δ,sup,1,/sup,-pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C) reductase (P5CR) catalyses the final step of proline synthesis in plants. In Arabidopsis thaliana, protein levels are correlated neither to the corresponding mRNA copy numbers, nor to intracellular proline concentrations. The occurrence of post-translational regulatory mechanisms has therefore been hypothesized, but never assessed.,br /,,br /,The purification of A. thaliana P5CR was achieved through either a six-step protocol from cultured cells, or heterologous expression of AtP5CR in Escherichia coli. The protein was characterized with respect to structural, kinetic, and biochemical properties.,br /,,br /,P5CR was able to use either NADPH or NADH as the electron donor, with contrasting affinities and maximum reaction rates. The presence of equimolar concentrations of NADP+ completely suppressed the NADH-dependent activity, whereas the NADPH-dependent reaction was mildly affected. Proline inhibited only the NADH-dependent reaction. At physiological ...
1-Pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid is an enamine or an imino acid that forms on spontaneous dehydration of L-glutamate γ-semialdehyde in aqueous solutions. The stereoisomer (S)-1-Pyrroline-5-carboxylate is an intermediate in glutamate metabolism, in arginine degradation and in proline biosynthesis and degradation and it can be converted to or be formed from the three amino acids L-glutamate, L-ornithine and L-proline. In particular, it is synthesized with the oxidation of proline by pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase 1 (EC 1.5.1.2, PYCR1) or by proline dehydrogenase (EC 1.5.99.8, PRODH) and it is hydrolyzed to L-glutamate by delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase (EC 1.5.1.12, ALDH4A1). It is also one of the few metabolites that can be a precursor to other metabolites of both the urea cycle and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle ...
Amino Acids and DerivativesProline and 4-hydroxyprolineA Hypothetical Protein Related to Proline Metabolism Pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase (EC 1.5.1.2) ...
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casSAR Dugability of A2RD38 | proA | Gamma-glutamyl phosphate reductase - Also known as PROA_STRPG, proA. Catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reduction of L-glutamate 5-phosphate into L-glutamate 5-semialdehyde and phosphate. The product spontaneously undergoes cyclization to form 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate.
Catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reduction of L-glutamate 5-phosphate into L-glutamate 5-semialdehyde and phosphate. The product spontaneously undergoes cyclization to form 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate.
Protein C is a vitamin K-dependent serine protease that regulates blood coagulation by inactivating factors Va and VIIIa in the presence of calcium ions and phospholipids. Exerts a protective effect on the endothelial cell barrier function.
The largest differences among strains were observed in the reactions mediated by the malic enzymes and the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, the TCA cycle, and the fluxes related to proline metabolism and hydroxylation. As the ΔputA_pET strain was not able to catabolize proline, proline addition did not have an impact on the flux distribution, which resembled that of the wt_pET strain grown on glucose only. However, the ΔputA_pET strain virtually substituted endogenous proline biosynthesis with the uptake of extracellular proline. In contrast, proline addition increased the acetate secretion rate by almost 25%, in the wt_pET strain, reversed the flux between α-KG and glutamate towards α-KG synthesis, increased the TCA flux from α-KG to succinate by almost 40%, and activated the conversion of malate to pyruvate. In all other cases, independently of proline addition, this gluconeogenetic reaction was not active. The oxidative decarboxylation of malate catalyzed by the malic enzymes ScfA ...
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... Systematic (IUPAC) name Ethyl 4-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-1-methyl-piperidine-4-carboxylate Identifiers CAS number 468-56-4 ATC code
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A heterozygous T--,C transition was detected in the putative promoter region of the protein C (PROC) gene in a patient with type I protein C deficiency and a history of recurrent venous thrombosis. This mutation occurred 14 bp upstream of the transcription initiation site and within a sequence strongly homologous to the consensus binding site for the liver-enriched transcription factor, hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 (HNF-1). Transfection experiments demonstrated that a CAT reporter gene construct containing 626 bp of the putative PROC gene promoter was capable of driving CAT expression in HepG2 hepatoma cells. Levels of CAT expression from constructs bearing the mutation were found to be drastically reduced by comparison with the wild-type, consistent with the reduced plasma protein C antigen levels observed in the patient. Gel retardation and cotransfection experiments demonstrated that the mutation abolished both the binding and the transactivating ability of HNF-1 observed with the wild-type ...
SWISS-MODEL Repository entry for A1KLC0 (PROA_MYCBP), Gamma-glutamyl phosphate reductase. Mycobacterium bovis (strain BCG / Pasteur 1173P2)
Staphylococcus aureus has the ability to adhere and cause infections in a wide variety of niches within a human host. The overall hypothesis of this project is...
The protein encoded by this gene is similar to proline dehydrogenase (oxidase) 1, a mitochondrial enzyme which catalyzes the first step in proline catabolism. The function of this protein has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
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Product Name: 1H-Pyrazole-4-carboxylic acid, 5-(aminosulfonyl)-3-chloro-1-methyl-, methyl ester. CAS RN: 100784-27-8. Spec.: colorless fine flaky crystal ...
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Read "Characterization of the gene for Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase and correlation between the expression of the gene and salt tolerance in Oryza sativa L., Plant Molecular Biology" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
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Protein C, also known as autoprothrombin IIA and blood coagulation factor XIV, is a zymogen, the activated form of which plays an important role in regulating anticoagulation, inflammation, cell death, and maintaining the permeability of blood vessel walls in humans and other animals. Activated protein C (APC) performs these operations primarily by proteolytically inactivating proteins Factor Va and Factor VIIIa. APC is classified as a serine protease as it contains a residue of serine in its active site. In humans, protein C is encoded by the PROC gene, which is found on chromosome 2. The zymogenic form of protein C is a vitamin K-dependent glycoprotein that circulates in blood plasma. Its structure is that of a two-chain polypeptide consisting of a light chain and a heavy chain connected by a disulfide bond. The protein C zymogen is activated when it binds to thrombin, another protein heavily involved in coagulation, and protein Cs activation is greatly promoted by the presence of ...
Amino Acids and DerivativesProline and 4-hydroxyprolineProline, 4-hydroxyproline uptake and utilization Proline dehydrogenase (EC 1.5.99.8) (Proline oxidase) ...
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Inverse metabolic engineering (IME) is a combinatorial approach for identifying genotypes associated with a particular phenotype of interest. In this study, gene disruptions that increase the biosynthesis of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) in the photosynthetic bacterium Synechocystis PCC6803 were identified. A Synechocystis mutant library was constructed by homologous recombination between the Synechocystis genome and a mutagenized genomic plasmid library generated through transposon insertion. Using a fluorescence-activated cell sorting-based high throughput screen, high PHB accumulating mutants from the library grown in different nutrient conditions were isolated and characterized. While several mutants isolated from the screen had increased PHB accumulation, transposon insertions in only two ORFs could be linked to increased PHB production. Disruptions of sll0461, coding for gamma-glutamyl phosphate reductase (proA), and sll0565, a hypothetical protein, resulted in increased accumulation in ...
Glutamic gamma-semialdehyde is the metabolic precursor for proline biosynthesis. The conversion from L-Glutamate, an ATP- and NADPH-dependent reaction, is catalyzed by the enzyme Delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CS) (OMIM 138250 ). L-Glutamic-gamma-semialdehyde can also be converted to or be formed from the amino acids L-ornithine (EC 2.6.1.13) and L-proline (EC 1.5.99.8 and EC 1.5.1.2). It is also one of the few metabolites that can be a precursor to other metabolites of both the urea cycle and the citric acid cycle (BioCyc ...