The polyamines spermine, spermidine, putrescine, cadaverine, etc. have been implicated in a variety of cellular functions. However, details of their mode of interaction with other ubiquitous biomolecules is not known. We have solved a few structures of polyamine-amino acid complexes to understand the nature and mode of their interactions. Here we report the structure of a complex of putrescine with DL-glutamic acid. Comparison of the structure with the structure of putrescine-L-glutamic acid complex reveals the high degree of similarity in the mode of interaction in the two complexes. Despite the presence of a centre of symmetry in the present case, the arrangement of molecules is strikingly similar to the L-glutamic acid complex.. ...
The first synthesis and elucidation of the cocaine molecule was by Richard Willstätter in 1898. Willstätters synthesis derived cocaine from tropinone. Since then, Robert Robinson and Edward Leete have made significant contributions to the mechanism of the synthesis. The biosynthesis begins with L-Glutamine, which is derived from L-ornithine in plants. The major contribution of L-ornithine and L-arginine as a precursor to the tropane ring was confirmed by Edward Leete. Ornithine then undergoes a PLP-dependent decarboxylation to form putrescine. In animals, however, the urea cycle derives putrescine from ornithine. L-ornithine is converted to L-arginine, which is then decarboxylated via PLP to form agmatine. Hydrolysis of the imine derives N-carbamoylputrescine followed with hydrolysis of the urea to form putrescine. The separate pathways of converting ornithine to putrescine in plants and animals have converged. A SAM-dependent N-methylation of putrescine gives the N-methylputrescine product, ...
Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
Increased polyamine biosynthesis activity and an active polyamine transport system are characteristics of many cancer cell lines and polyamine depletion has been shown to be a viable anticancer strategy. Polyamine levels can be depleted by difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), an inhibitor of the key polyamine biosynthesis enzyme ornithine decarboxylase (ODC). However, malignant cells frequently circumvent DFMO therapy by up-regulating polyamine import. Therefore, there is a need to develop compounds that inhibit polyamine transport. Collectively, DFMO and a polyamine transport inhibitor (PTI) provide the basis for a combination therapy leading to effective intracellular polyamine depletion. We have previously shown that the pattern of uptake of a series of polyamine analogues in a Drosophila model epithelium shares many characteristics with mammalian cells, indicating a high degree of similarity between the mammalian and Drosophila polyamine transport systems. In this report, we focused on the utility of the
Inhibition of polyamine biosynthesis and/or the perturbation of polyamine functionality have been exploited with success against parasitic diseases such as Trypanosoma infections. However, when the classical polyamine biosynthesis inhibitor, α-difluoromethylornithine, is used against the human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, it results in only a cytostatic growth arrest. Polyamine metabolism in this parasite has unique properties not shared by any other organism. These include the bifunctional arrangement of the catalytic decarboxylases and an apparent absence of the typical polyamine interconversion pathways implying different mechanisms for the regulation of polyamine homeostasis that includes the uptake of exogenous polyamines at least in vitro. These properties make polyamine metabolism an enticing drug target in P. falciparum provided that the physiological and functional consequences of polyamine metabolism perturbation are understood. This review highlights our current ...
Concentrations of spermidine, spermine and putrescine have been measured in rat diaphragm muscle after unilateral nerve section. The concentration of putrescine increased approx. 10-fold 2 days after nerve section, that of spermidine about 3-fold by day 3, whereas an increase in the concentration of spermine was only observed after 7-10 days. It was not possible to show enhanced uptake of either exogenous putrescine or spermidine by the isolated tissue during the hypertrophy. Consistent with the accumulation of putrescine, activity of ornithine decarboxylase increased within 1 day of nerve section, was maximally elevated by the second day and then declined. Synthesis of spermidine from [14C]putrescine and either methionine or S-adenosylmethionine bt diaphragm cytosol rose within 1 day of nerve section, but by day 3 had returned to normal or below normal values. Activity of adenosylmethionine decarboxylase similarly increased within 1 day of nerve section, but by day 3 had declined to below ...
Putrescine oxidase from Rhodococcus erythropolis (PuO) is a flavin-containing amine oxidase from the monoamine oxidase family that performs oxidative deamination of aliphatic diamines. In this study we report pre-steady-state kinetic analyses of the enzyme with the use of single- and double-mixing stopped-flow spectroscopy and putrescine as a substrate. During the fast and irreversible reductive half-reaction no radical intermediates were observed, suggesting a direct hydride transfer from the substrate to the FAD. The rate constant of flavin reoxidation depends on the ligand binding; when the imine product was bound to the enzyme the rate constant was higher than with free enzyme species. Similar results were obtained with product-mimicking ligands and this indicates that a ternary complex is formed during catalysis. The obtained kinetic data were used together with steady-state rate equations derived for ping-pong, ordered sequential and bifurcated mechanisms to explore which mechanism is operative.
The effects of inhibitors of polyamine synthesis on the invasive capacity of rat ascites hepatoma (LC-AH) cells were examined by in vitro assay of penetration of the LC-AH cells through a monolayer of calf pulmonary arterial endothelial (CPAE) cells. Pretreatment of LC-AH cells with α-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), an inhibitor of ornithine decarboxylase, before seeding them onto a CPAE cell monolayer and culturing them for 24 h in the absence of DFMO decreased the number of penetrating tumor cells time and dose dependently (about 35% of the maximal inhibition) without affecting their viability or proliferative activity. DFMO treatment caused a marked decrease in the intracellular level of putrescine but not of spermidine or spermine. The DFMO-induced decreases in invasive capacity and putrescine level were almost completely reversed by the addition of putrescine to the medium during pretreatment with DFMO or invasion assay but were not affected by exogenous spermidine or spermine. No change ...
I just found out that my semen has cadaverine and putrescine . Cadaverine is a foul-smelling compound produced during putrefaction of animal tissue. The two compounds are largely responsible for the foul odor of putrefying flesh . The two compounds are also responsible for the smell and flavor of semen.. Please move to the appropriate section. Whichever that may be ...
Putrescine is a foul-smelling[1] organic chemical compound NH2(CH2)4NH2 (1,4-diaminobutane or butanediamine) that is related to cadaverine; both are produced by the breakdown of amino acids in living and dead organisms and both are toxic in large doses.[2][3] The two compounds are largely responsible for the foul odor of putrefying flesh, but also contribute to the odor of such processes as bad breath and bacterial vaginosis.[4] They are also found in semen and some microalgae, together with related molecules like spermine and spermidine. ...
2) carboxyspermidine + H2O + NADP+ = L-aspartate 4-semialdehyde + putrescine + NADPH + H+. Other name(s): carboxynorspermidine dehydrogenase; carboxyspermidine dehydrogenase; CASDH; CANSDH; VC1624 (gene name). Systematic name: carboxynorspermidine:NADP+ oxidoreductase. Comments: The reaction takes place in the opposite direction. Part of a bacterial polyamine biosynthesis pathway. L-aspartate 4-semialdehyde and propane-1,3-diamine/putrescine form a Schiff base that is reduced to form carboxynorspermidine/carboxyspermidine, respectively [1]. The enzyme from the bacterium Vibrio cholerae is essential for biofilm formation [2]. The enzyme from Campylobacter jejuni only produces carboxyspermidine in vivo even though it also can produce carboxynorspermidine in vitro [3].. Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, Metacyc, CAS registry number: References:. 1. Nakao, H., Shinoda, S. and Yamamoto, S. Purification and some properties of carboxynorspermidine synthase participating in a novel ...
MICROORGANISMS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF 1,4-BUTANEDIOL, 4-HYDROXYBUTANAL, 4-HYDROXYBUTYRYL-COA, PUTRESCINE AND RELATED COMPOUNDS, AND METHODS RELATED THERETO - diagram, schematic, and image 46 ...
MICROORGANISMS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF 1,4-BUTANEDIOL, 4-HYDROXYBUTANAL, 4-HYDROXYBUTYRYL-COA, PUTRESCINE AND RELATED COMPOUNDS, AND METHODS RELATED THERETO - diagram, schematic, and image 236 ...
In this study, patients were randomized into one of 2 study groups described below. They agreed to being treated on the right side or the left with active agent, while the other side was to receive inactive cream. The active molecule is called Fibrostat or 1,4 diaminobutane and is a naturally occurring inhibitor of scar formation. The inactive jar contains the vehicle alone without Fibrostat.. The patients received both cream types to be applied to the appropriate side assigned by the randomization process, one numbered jar each per breast in the order and amount as explained in detail by the patient educator. The cream was applied daily and in the same order, one jar for the right and the other jar for the left consistently. The randomization was performed at the factory with an assigned number recorded on each jar and the jar contents listed and recorded with its assigned number. Each jar of active cream is randomly assigned with another jar of inactive cream to form a pair which were both ...
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The Golm Metabolome Database (GMD) facilitates the search for and dissemination of mass spectra from biologically active metabolites quantified using GC-MS.
Mono-trityl 1,4-diaminobutane acetic acid salt/AFI189341615 can be provided in Alfa Chemistry. We are dedicated to provide our customers the best products and services.
Principal Investigator:IGARASHI Kazuei, Project Period (FY):1997 - 1998, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B), Section:一般, Research Field:Biological pharmacy
(1982) Thomasset et al. FEBS Letters. Cellular ornithine biosynthesis could be expected to play a significant role in putrescine formation and hence in growth. Two enzymes are involved in ornithine biosynthesis: arginase and transamidinase. These enzyme activities were studied in two human melano...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Polyamines are needed for the differentiation of 3T3-L1 fibroblasts into adipose cells. AU - Bethell, Delia R.. AU - Pegg, Anthony E.. PY - 1981/9/16. Y1 - 1981/9/16. N2 - When non-proliferating 3T3-L1 fibroblasts were stimulated to differentiate into adipose cells, there was a dramatic increase in the intracellular level of the polyamine, spermidine. Addition of α-difluoromethylornithine, an inhibitor of polyamine biosynthesis, depleted the cellular polyamines and prevented triglyceride accumulation and differentiation. The inhibitory effect of α-difluoromethylorinithine was completely abolished by provision of spermidine or putrescine. This suggests that polyamines are needed in the processes of differentiation as well as their established requirement for cell growth.. AB - When non-proliferating 3T3-L1 fibroblasts were stimulated to differentiate into adipose cells, there was a dramatic increase in the intracellular level of the polyamine, spermidine. Addition of ...
The anti-senescence biogenic polyamines (PAs) putrescine (Put), spermidine (Spd) and spermine (Spm) are involved in plant growth processes and responses to stress. The physiological mechanism of exogenous Put to affect the senescence of cut lisianthus flowers during vase life was investigated. Fresh cut lisianthus flowers were treated with distilled water (control), 0.5, 1 and 2 mM Put and then held at 25 ◦C up to 12 days. Exogenous Put supply at 2 mM extended vase life, which was associated with reduced electrolyte leakage and MDA content. Put treatment also reduced activity of lipoxygenase (LOX), is responsible for membrane lipid peroxidation. Put treatment also enhanced activities of catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and decreased H2O2 accumulation during vase life. Thus, exogenous Put supplycould maintain membrane integrity by increasing antioxidant system activity, thereby retarding the senescence of cut lisianthus flower during vase life.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Crystal structure of human ornithine decarboxylase at 2.1 Å resolution. T2 - Structural insights to antizyme binding. AU - Almrud, Jeffrey J.. AU - Oliveira, Marcos A.. AU - Kern, Andrew D.. AU - Grishin, Nick V.. AU - Phillips, Margaret A.. AU - Hackert, Marvin L.. PY - 2000/1/7. Y1 - 2000/1/7. N2 - The polyamines spermidine and spermine are ubiquitous and required for cell growth and differentiation in eukaryotes. Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC, EC 4.1.1.17) performs the first step in polyamine biosynthesis, the decarboxylation of omithine to putrescine. Elevated polyamine levels can lead to down-regulation of ODC activity by enhancing the translation of antizyme mRNA, resulting in subsequent binding of antizyme to ODC monomers which targets ODC for proteolysis by the 26S proteasome. The crystal structure of ornithine decarboxylase from human liver has been determined to 2.1 Å resolution by molecular replacement using truncated mouse ODC (Δ425-461) as the search model and ...
Polyamines stimulate DNA transcription and mRNA translation for protein synthesis in trophectoderm cells, as well as proliferation and migration of cells; therefore, they are essential for development and survival of conceptuses (embryo/fetus and placenta). The ovine conceptus produces polyamines via classical and non-classical pathways. In the classical pathway, arginine (Arg) is transformed into ornithine, which is then decarboxylated by ornithine decarboxylase (ODC1) to produce putrescine which is the substrate for the production of spermidine and spermine. In the non-classical pathway, Arg is converted to agmatine (Agm) by arginine decarboxylase (ADC), and Agm is converted to putrescine by agmatinase (AGMAT). Morpholino antisense oligonucleotides (MAOs) were designed and synthesized to inhibit translational initiation of the mRNAs for ODC1 and ADC, in ovine conceptuses. The morphologies of MAO control, MAO-ODC1, and MAO-ADC conceptuses were normal. Double knockdown of ODC1 and ADC (MAO-ODC1:ADC)
cansSAR 3D Structure of 1F3T_A | CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF TRYPANOSOMA BRUCEI ORNITHINE DECARBOXYLASE (ODC) COMPLEXED WITH PUTRESCINE, ODCS REACTION PRODUCT. | 1F3T
The current study shows that topically applied dl-α- tocopherol reduced polyamine content in the skin of patients with large numbers of established AKs on the forearms. Elevated polyamine levels are characteristically seen in many types of neoplastic cells and tissues. OBrien and colleagues (29) and Peralta Soler and colleagues (30) have shown that in transgenic mice, overexpression of ornithine decarboxylase in skin leads to changes in tissue polyamine levels, particularly putrescine, and can modulate the development and maintenance of the neoplastic phenotype. Joshi (31) further hypothesized that polyamine synthesis is expected to promote endothelial cell proliferation and therefore angiogenesis. This reinforces the known role of polyamine biosynthesis in mediating skin tumor initiation and promotion (29-33).. The main findings of the present study can be summarized by the following statements. Daily topical application resulted in substantial uptake of free dl-α-tocopherol into the forearm ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Stage-specific polyamine metabolism in Trypanosoma cruzi. AU - Bacchi, Cyrus J.. AU - Braunstein, Vicki L.. AU - Rattendi, Donna. AU - Yarlett, Nigel. AU - Wittner, Murray. AU - Tanowitz, Herbert B.. PY - 2001. Y1 - 2001. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0035544896&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0035544896&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1111/j.1550-7408.2001.tb00519.x. DO - 10.1111/j.1550-7408.2001.tb00519.x. M3 - Article. C2 - 11906064. AN - SCOPUS:0035544896. VL - 48. SP - 201S-202S. JO - Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology. JF - Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology. SN - 1066-5234. IS - SUPPL.. ER - ...
ODC1 [ENSP00000234111]. Ornithine decarboxylase 1; Catalyzes the first and rate-limiting step of polyamine biosynthesis that converts ornithine into putrescine, which is the precursor for the polyamines, spermidine and spermine. Polyamines are essential for cell proliferation and are implicated in cellular processes, ranging from DNA replication to apoptosis; Belongs to the Orn/Lys/Arg decarboxylase class-II family.. Synonyms: ODC1, ODC1p, hODC1, C9JG30, P11926 .... Linkouts: STRING Pharos UniProt OMIM ...
ODC1 [ENSP00000234111]. Ornithine decarboxylase 1; Catalyzes the first and rate-limiting step of polyamine biosynthesis that converts ornithine into putrescine, which is the precursor for the polyamines, spermidine and spermine. Polyamines are essential for cell proliferation and are implicated in cellular processes, ranging from DNA replication to apoptosis; Belongs to the Orn/Lys/Arg decarboxylase class-II family.. Synonyms: ODC1, ODC1p, hODC1, C9JG30, P11926 .... Linkouts: STRING Pharos UniProt OMIM ...
Polyamines are small cationic molecules that in adult brain are connected to neuronal signaling by regulating inward-rectifier K+-channels and different glutamate receptors. Antizyme inhibitors (AZINs) regulate the cellular uptake of polyamines and activate ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), the rate-limiting enzyme of polyamine synthesis. Elevated levels of ODC activity and polyamines are detected in various brain disorders including stroke and Alzheimers disease (AD).. We originally reported a novel brain- and testis-specific AZIN, called AZIN2, the distribution of which we have now studied in normal and diseased human brain by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. We found the highest accumulation of AZIN2 in a pearl-on-the-string-like distribution along the axons in both the white and gray matter. AZIN2 was also detected in a vesicle-like distribution in the somas of selected cortical pyramidal neurons. Double-immunofluorescence staining revealed co-localization of AZIN2 and N-methyl ...
Several computationally predicted activating metabolic substrates are well established to be critical for macrophage activation (Figure 2). Oxygen, glucose, and glutamine have all been previously shown to be of great importance in macrophage metabolism and activation as they are key for cellular respiration, energy production, and respiratory burst (Newsholme et al, 1996). High consumption of glutamine is particularly important for enhancing immunity (Newsholme et al, 1999), as it is required for arginine biosynthesis and nitrite/urea production (Murphy and Newsholme, 1998). The uptake of arginine and the branched chain amino acids (BCAAs) valine and isoleucine were also identified to be important for ATP, NADH, proline, and putrescine production; however, it was not found to be critical for NO production. Arginine is among the most critical amino acid as it is a direct precursor metabolite for NO (Baydoun et al, 1993) and its transport increases up to five‐fold during activation and ...
Polyamines in stress tolerance. Polyamines are small aliphatic compounds present in all living organisms. Polyamine biosynthesis is an evolutionary conserved pathway under an apparent purifying selection. Even though their essential role in stress tolerance is genetically demonstrated, molecular and signalling mechanisms underlying cell protection are relatively obscure. I am interested in gaining insight into the role of polyamines in stress tolerance and signalling (including developmental pathways) using advanced genetic approaches in plant science and exploring direct applications of polyamine content regulation (by means of natural variation) in crop breeding ...
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ODC1 Full-Length MS Protein Standard (NP_002530), Labeled with [U- 13C6, 15N4]-L-Arginine and [U- 13C6, 15N2]-L-Lysine, was produced in human 293 cells (HEK293) with fully chemically defined cell culture medium to obtain incorporation efficiency at Creative-Proteomics. This gene encodes the rate-limiting enzyme of the polyamine biosynthesis pathway which catalyzes ornithine to putrescine. The activity level for the enzyme varies in response to growth-promoting stimuli and exhibits a high turnover rate in comparison to other mammalian proteins. Originally localized to both chromosomes 2 and 7, the gene encoding this enzyme has been determined to be located on 2p25, with a pseudogene located on 7q31-qter. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified.
Most people try not to associate themselves with bad breath, let alone the smells of purifying flesh. But that doesnt deny the fact that your body naturally contains the same chemical underlying both of these smells-and in the future, people may even pay good money for that chemical, as new research shows that it helps (amphibian) victims of epileptic seizures.. The chemical is called putrescine (1,4 diaminobutane), a malodorous organic compound within the polyamine family-a group of molecules already known to play a crucial role in important functions like cell division. In large doses, it is quite toxic, and scientists werent so sure why this rotten-smelling compound shows up in the brains of seizure-stricken patients. Until now.. Read More. ...
METHODS OF ADMINISTERING AMANTADINE COMPOSITIONS | SOLUBILIZED FORMULATION OF COQ10 FOR USE IN TREATMENT OF PARKINSONS DISEASE | Pharmaceutical Formulation | PURIFIED CBD AND CBDA, AND METHODS, COMPOSITIONS AND PRODUCTS EMPLOYING CBD OR CBDA | EMULSION CONTAINING TWO OILS AND STABILIZERS |
In vitro tests using mice found that piperidine formed from cadaverine in the large intestine; it was assumed to be created from cadaverine by intestinal bacteria.[2] No formation of piperidine from cadaverine was detected in the brain.[2]. ...
13Diaminopropane also known as trimethylenediamine is a simple diamine with the formula CH23NH22 A colourless liquid with a fishy odor it is soluble
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1-Oxoelemicin-putrescine is a completely theoretical adduct of 1-oxoelemicin and the endogenous polyamine putrescine. Because of its very low lipid solubility it is unlikely to produce psychoactivity.. ...
However, in the animal kingdom, scent is fundamental to survival and various studies have shown that putrescine acts as a powerful chemosensory signal that triggers animals to leave or avoid an area. Humans similarly respond to obvious threats, which generally increase our vigilance and sharpen our reactions, preparing us for "fight-or-flight," the researchers explained. Despite the popular belief that "fight" is the more common reaction to a threat, the co-authors said "flight" is actually the preferred human response in most cases. To underline their point, the researchers cited a study where people confronted by a threatening stranger chose to distance themselves and only became aggressive (and this included verbal as well as physical aggression), if the get-away option did not exist ...
J:147318 Lopez-Garcia C, Lopez-Contreras AJ, Cremades A, Castells MT, Marin F, Schreiber F, Penafiel R, Molecular and morphological changes in placenta and embryo development associated with the inhibition of polyamine synthesis during midpregnancy in mice. Endocrinology. 2008 Oct;149(10):5012-23 ...
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Vzorec genetskega vtisnjenja se spreminja skozi življenje organizma. Vzpostavljen je med gametogenezo, tj. med nastajanjem gamet oz. spolnih celic. Metilacija v oogenezi (nastajanje ženskih spolnih celic) poteče med rastjo celic v prvi mejotični delitvi, metilacija v spermatogenezi (nastajanje moških spolnih celic) pa pred mejotičnimi delitvami. Verjetno so za metilacijo genov odgovorni encimi DNA metiltransferaze. Po oploditvi poteče večje število demetilacij in metilacij, katerim se morajo encimi zoperstaviti za ohranitev vzorca. Pri moški garnituri kromosomov poteče v glavnem demetilacija še pred združitvijo obeh jeder preko aktivnih mehanizmov, pri ženski garnituri pa zaradi neuspešnega vzdrževanja vzorca. Šele po nekaj dnevih v embrionalnem razvoju se vzorec znova vzpostavi, tj. vtisnjeni geni, ki so bili demetilirani, so znova metilirani. Zaščita pred demetilacijo je pozneje verjetno osnovana na posebni ureditvi kromatina, razlike v ureditvi pa bi lahko pojasnile večje ...
Alright starting another log. I was lucky enough to be chosen by BPS to log some EndoSurge and then AI chose me to log Stoked and Agmatine. Pretty
Bacterial growth was measurably slowed by a combination of drugs which inhibit polyamine-biosynthetic enzymes. Addition of DL-alpha-monofluoromethylornithine, which was shown to inactivate irreversibly ornithine decarboxylase extracted from Escherichia coli (Ki = 0.36 mM) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Ki = 0.30 mM), DL-alpha-difluoromethylarginine and dicyclohexylammonium sulphate to cultures of E. coli or P. aeruginosa resulted in a 40 and 70% increase in generation times (decreased growth rates) respectively, which was completely reversed by the addition of 0.1 mM-putrescine plus 0.1 mM-spermidine to the medium. Decreased intracellular polyamine concentrations correlated with increased generation times; putrescine concentration was decreased by 70% in E. coli and 80% in P. aeruginosa, while spermidine concentration was decreased by 50% in E. coli and 95% in P. aeruginosa. Subsequent investigation of the inactivation of the ornithine decarboxylase by monofluoromethylornithine indicated that it ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Polyamine oxidase5 regulates arabidopsis growth through thermospermine oxidase activity. AU - Kim, Dong Wook. AU - Watanabe, Kanako. AU - Murayama, Chihiro. AU - Izawa, Sho. AU - Niitsu, Masaru. AU - Michael, Anthony J.. AU - Berberich, Thomas. AU - Kusano, Tomonobu. PY - 2014/8. Y1 - 2014/8. N2 - The major plant polyamines (PAs) are the tetraamines spermine (Spm) and thermospermine (T-Spm), the triamine spermidine, and the diamine putrescine. PA homeostasis is governed by the balance between biosynthesis and catabolism; the latter is catalyzed by polyamine oxidase (PAO). Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) has five PAO genes, AtPAO1 to AtPAO5, and all encoded proteins have been biochemically characterized. All AtPAO enzymes function in the back-conversion of tetraamine to triamine and/or triamine to diamine, albeit with different PA specificities. Here, we demonstrate that AtPAO5 loss-of-function mutants (pao5) contain 2-fold higher T-Spm levels and exhibit delayed transition ...
Polyamines are small, ubiquitous organic polycations that have been implicated in a wide variety of physiological functions including protein translation, membrane stabilization and cell proliferation (reviewed in Tabor and Tabor, 1984). As one might expect, biosynthesis of polyamines is essential for viability of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. The most common polyamines are putrescine, spermidine and spermine, which contain two, three or four charged amine groups, respectively. Eukaryotic organisms contain all three of these amines at abundant levels (high micromolar to millimolar). Much attention has focused on the roles of polyamines in various disease processes. For instance, polyamines have been implicated in autoimmune disorders such as systemic lupus erythematosus (Brooks, 1994). Polyamines also accumulate in cancer cells, and high levels of polyamines are found in the urine from cancer patients (reviewed in Russel and Duri, 1978; Chanda and Ganguly, 1988). Increased levels of ...
The role of polyamines in macromolecular synthesis has been studied using the synthesis of Semliki-Forest virus (SF virus) in normal and alpha-difluoromethylornithine-treated baby-hamster kidney (BHK21) cells as a model system. The activities of ornithine decarboxylase and S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase, the rate-limiting enzymes in polyamine biosynthesis, decreased rapidly in mock- and SF-virus-infected cells, indicating that virus production in BHK21 cells was not dependent on polyamines formed after infection. A prolonged treatment of BHK21 cells with alpha-difluoro-methylornithine, a specific inhibitor of polyamine synthesis, resulted in a marked inhibition of the initial rate of virus production, which appeared 72 h after the beginning of the treatment. This inhibition was reversed by putrescine, spermidine and spermine, and at last partially by several other diamines and polyamine homologues. Polyamine-depletion also markedly reduced viral RNA polymerase activity in SF-virus infected ...
Part of the ABC transporter complex PotABCD involved in spermidine/putrescine import. Responsible for energy coupling to the transport system.