1.Inhaled vasodilators such as nitric oxide and epoprostenol (prostaglandin I2) are now widely employed as supportive therapies to improve oxygenation and reduce pulmonary vascular resistance in patients with acute and chronic pulmonary hypertension. However, few data exist concerning their effects in normal individuals. The aim of this study was to characterize the response of the pulmonary circulation in normal individuals to inhaled nitric oxide and nebulized prostaglandin I2.. 2.Eight healthy volunteers were exposed to inhaled nitric oxide (0, 20 and 40 ;p.p.m.) and nebulized prostaglandin I2 (10 ;μg/ml). Changes in effective pulmonary blood flow and diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (TLCO) were measured using respiratory mass spectrometry. Bicycle ergometry was used to increase effective pulmonary blood flow as a positive control.. 3.Exercise produced significant increases in both effective pulmonary blood flow and TLCO, but neither nitric oxide nor prostaglandin I2 ...
Pulmonary capillary blood flow was measured in man during slow breathing by a modification of the body plethysmograph technique for measuring N2O uptake. In seated subjects breathing slowly, flow was significantly higher during inhalation. In supine subjects whose legs were raised, the difference between inhalation and exhalation was not significant. Flow was usually greater during tidal inhalation than exhalation, but there was considerable variation. The changes in flow were not directly related to intrathoracic pressures or lung volumes. The results suggest that it is the amount and pressure of the venous blood available for aspiration into the thorax that influences pulmonary capillary blood flow during the course of a respiratory cycle.. ...
Apparatus and methods for non-invasively determining the cardiac output or pulmonary capillary blood flow of a patient using partial re-breathing techniques. The apparatus includes a substantially instantaneously adjustable deadspace volume for accommodating differences in sizes or breathing capacities of various patients. The apparatus may be constructed of inexpensive elements, including one or more two-way valves, which render the apparatus very simple to use and inexpensive so that the unit may be employed as a disposable product. The method of the invention includes estimating the cardiac output or pulmonary capillary blood flow of a patient based on partial pressure of alveolar CO2 rather than on the partial pressure of end tidal CO2, as previously practiced. A computer program for calculating the cardiac output or pulmonary capillary blood flow of a patient is also disclosed.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of catecholamines on pulmonary circulation at elevated vascular tone. AU - Barman, Scott A. PY - 1995/1/1. Y1 - 1995/1/1. N2 - The effect of catecholamine stimulation on the longitudinal resistance and compliance distribution in the canine pulmonary vasculature was evaluated under control vascular tone and after vascular tone was elevated using the thromboxane analogue U-46619. The arterial-, venous-, and double-occlusion techniques were used to measure the segmental resistances and compliances in isolated dog lung blood perfused at constant flow. The results of this study indicate that at control vascular tone the catecholamines norepinephrine and epinephrine increase pulmonary vascular resistance and decrease pulmonary vascular compliance through α1- and α2-receptor-mediated stimulation with precapillary α1- and α2-receptors and postcapillary α2-receptors interacting with precapillary and postcapillary β2-receptors. In addition, epinephrine appears to have a ...
Looking for pulmonary circulation? Find out information about pulmonary circulation. The circulation of blood through the lungs for the purpose of oxygenation and the release of carbon dioxide. Also known as lesser circulation Explanation of pulmonary circulation
TY - CHAP. T1 - Development of the Pulmonary Endothelium in Development of the Pulmonary Circulation. T2 - Vasculogenesis and Angiogenesis. AU - Schwarz, Margaret. AU - Cleaver, Ondine B.. PY - 2009/9/11. Y1 - 2009/9/11. KW - Angiogenesis and vasculogenesis in developing lung. KW - Arterial versus venous differentiation. KW - Blood islands and hemangioblasts. KW - Endothelial-specific factors. KW - Pulmonary endothelium and pulmonary circulation. KW - Sprouting angiogenesis. KW - Tubulogenesis. KW - Vascular cell ontogeny. KW - Vasculogenesis. KW - VEGF-A and isoforms. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84889270740&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84889270740&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1002/9780470747490.ch1. DO - 10.1002/9780470747490.ch1. M3 - Chapter. AN - SCOPUS:84889270740. SN - 9780470723616. SP - 1. EP - 24. BT - The Pulmonary Endothelium: Function in health and disease. PB - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. ER - ...
In primary pulmonary hypertension, the cause is unknown, but the abnormal changes associated with blood vessels in the lungs. Secondary pulmonary hypertension is a complication of many diseases of the lungs, heart and chest cavity. Cor pulmonale is a consequence of prolonged high blood pressure in the pulmonary circulation in which the right ventricle has become enlarged. Right ventricle is relatively thin and have limited ability to appreciate, therefore, the right side of the heart could begin to fail if blood pressure in the pulmonary circulation are persistently high. It occurs when the right-sided heart failure ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of Sildenafil on the acute pulmonary vasodilator response to inhaled nitric oxide in adults with primary pulmonary hypertension. AU - Lepore, John J.. AU - Maroo, Anjli. AU - Pereira, Naveen Luke. AU - Ginns, Leo C.. AU - Dec, G. William. AU - Zapol, Warren M.. AU - Bloch, Kenneth D.. AU - Semigran, Marc J.. PY - 2002/9/15. Y1 - 2002/9/15. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0037106989&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0037106989&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1016/S0002-9149(02)02586-9. DO - 10.1016/S0002-9149(02)02586-9. M3 - Article. C2 - 12231108. AN - SCOPUS:0037106989. VL - 90. SP - 677. EP - 680. JO - American Journal of Cardiology. JF - American Journal of Cardiology. SN - 0002-9149. IS - 6. ER - ...
Pulmonary Circulations first Impact Factor will be released in June 2017. Since its launch in 2011, our journal has become established as a unique venue of communication for clinical, translational and basic research in the fields of pulmonary circulation and pulmonary vascular disease.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Relative dispersion in the Liguro-Provençal basin. T2 - From sub-mesoscale to mesoscale. AU - Schroeder, K.. AU - Haza, A. C.. AU - Griffa, A.. AU - Özgökmen, T. M.. AU - Poulain, P. M.. AU - Gerin, R.. AU - Peggion, G.. AU - Rixen, M.. PY - 2011/3/1. Y1 - 2011/3/1. N2 - Relative dispersion in the Liguro-Provençal basin (a subregion of the Mediterranean Sea) is investigated using clusters of surface drifters deployed during two Marine Rapid Environment Assessment (MREA) experiments covering different months in 2007 and 2008, respectively. The clusters have initial radii of less than 1km, or an order of magnitude below a typical deformation radius (approximately 10-20km). The data set consists of 45 original pairs and more than 50 total pairs (including chance ones) in the spatial range between 1 and 200km. Relative dispersion is estimated using the mean square separation of particle pairs and the Finite Scale Lyapunov Exponents (FSLEs). The two metrics show broadly consistent ...
The purpose of this study is to determine and compare changes in lung diffusing capacity, cardiac output, and pulmonary vascular pressures during exercise for younger versus older individuals. It is possible that the blood vessels of the lungs play a greater role in unexplained exercise intolerance and shortnesss of breath in older individuals than previously thought.. ...
Semantic Scholar extracted view of Atropine Effects upon Blood Pressure in the Pulmonary Circulation of Cats after Application of Ganglioplegic Drugs. by J H Ryzewski et al.
This is a record of the proceedings of an international group of physiologists, pathologists, and clinicians gathered to consider the pulmonary circulation in h
The third edition of The Human Pulmonary Circulation: Its Form and Function in Health and Disease by Peter Harris, MD, and Donald Heath, MD, is a classic textbo
Study Flashcards On physioreview27(Pulmonary circulation) at Cram.com. Quickly memorize the terms, phrases and much more. Cram.com makes it easy to get the grade you want!
in Critical Care Medicine (1992), 20(7), 1005-13. BACKGROUND AND METHODS: We aimed to characterize the effects of an endotoxin insult (Escherichia coli 0127:B8) on the relationships between pulmonary vascular pressure and flow in intact dogs. To achieve ... [more ▼]. BACKGROUND AND METHODS: We aimed to characterize the effects of an endotoxin insult (Escherichia coli 0127:B8) on the relationships between pulmonary vascular pressure and flow in intact dogs. To achieve this goal, multipoint plots of total pressure gradient, arterial pressure gradient, and venous pressure gradient vs. flow were generated by graded inflation of a right atrial balloon, which was used to vary flow. The partitioning of the total pressure decrease across the pulmonary vasculature (total pressure gradient = pulmonary arterial pressure-pulmonary artery occlusion pressure [PAOP]) into gradients across pulmonary arterial (arterial pressure gradient = pulmonary arterial pressure--effective capillary pressure) and pulmonary ...
To the Editor:. Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) is frequently used as the first-line technique to directly visualize pulmonary embolism (PE) with a reported sensitivity and specificity of 83% to 100% and 89% to 97%, respectively (1). However, for rapid and profound clinical decision making and prognostication, accurate detection of right ventricular (RV) dysfunction and pulmonary perfusion impairment remains pivotal because such patients are at higher risk of an adverse outcome (2).. The present study used a single-session, multicomponent cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging protocol facilitating, first, the visualization of pulmonary thrombi; second, the precise evaluation of RV volumes/function; and third, pulmonary perfusion on a parenchymal level.. Twelve patients (5 men; mean age, 63.1 ± 19.8 years) with documented PE on contrast-enhanced MDCT (Somatom Sensation 64, Siemens Medical Solutions, Forchheim, Germany) and 14 healthy controls (7 men; mean age, 39.3 ± 16.0 ...
It has been generally thought that PH predominantly resulted from hypoxia-induced structural changes in the pulmonary vasculature, which produced a fixed increase in resistance. These structural changes included remodeling of the arteriolar walls leading to encroachment into the vascular lumen, and loss of blood vessels, suggesting that interventions, which successfully ameliorated PH, would act by preventing or reversing such structural changes. The results of the present study cast doubt on this paradigm by demonstrating that chronic hypoxia did not cause a structurally based reduction of pulmonary vascular lumen diameter, nor did it cause a loss of pulmonary vessels. Moreover, we report that chronic inhibition of ROCK abrogated the development of hypoxic PH, not by preventing structural encroachment into the vascular lumen, but by inhibiting sustained pulmonary vasoconstriction. Importantly, we also found hypoxia-induced capillary angiogenesis in the adult lung that was dependent on the ...
Affiliation:千葉大学,医学部,助手, Research Field:Respiratory organ internal medicine,呼吸器内科学, Keywords:Pulmonary microcirculation,肺微小循環,Pulmonary circulation,摘出分離潅流肺,Pulmonary capillary,肺循環,肺毛細血管,生体顕微鏡,摘出分離灌流肺,低酸素性肺血管攣縮, # of Research Projects:3, # of Research Products:0
This article is provided by the Pulmonary Vascular Research Institute (PVRI). In this volume, the evolution of our current understanding of a number of areas of pulmonary function, both the physiology and the pathophysiology, are explained. The authors were specifically instructed to write in plain English and not to obfuscate the material with equations. This elite group of scientists succeeded brilliantly.
Author: Möller, Harald E. et al.; Genre: Poster; Title: Absolute quantification of pulmonary perfusion using intravenous injection of hyperpolarized 129Xe
Ellibs Ebookstore - Ebook: Pulmonary Vasculature Redox Signaling in Health and Disease - Author: Wang, Yong-Xiao (#editor) - Price: 230,65€
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a new Closed Circulation Lab The Closed Circulation Lab models the entire circulatory loop: left ventricle, peripheral circulation, right ventricle, and pulmonary circulation. Both models include numerous input parameters that can be controlled by the user. Some of these parameters are shown in Figures 1 and 2. By manipulating these physiological variables, students can design experiments to investigate a variety of questions concerning how changes affect the performance of the heart. ...
While only representative of a single individual in the trial, these data are very exciting," said Dr. June. "They demonstrate that the ZFN-modified T-cells were well tolerated by the body and persisted in the circulation at stable levels for the duration of our monitoring. In fact, we calculate that more ZFN-modified cells were present at 20 weeks than were initially infused. Total CD4+ T-cell counts were also stable during this time. Interestingly, we also observed ZFN-modified cells in the gut associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) which is a major reservoir of immune cells and a critical reservoir of HIV infection and suggests that the modified cells are functioning and trafficking normally in the body ...
How many times does this have to happen before we all stop going to KFC? Hopefully twice is the answer. Three weeks ago a teenager in the UK thought he had
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of S-nitrosation and cross-linking of hemoglobin on hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction in isolated rat lungs. AU - Deem, Steven. AU - Kim, Joung Uk. AU - Manjula, Belur N.. AU - Acharya, A. Seetharama. AU - Kerr, Mark E.. AU - Patel, Rakesh P.. AU - Gladwin, Mark T.. AU - Swenson, Erik R.. PY - 2002/10/4. Y1 - 2002/10/4. N2 - Free hemoglobin (Hb) and red blood cells augment hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) by scavenging nitric oxide (NO). S-nitrosation of Hb (SNO-Hb) may confer vasodilatory properties by allowing release of NO during deoxygenation and/or by interaction with small-molecular weight thiols. Likewise, cross-linking of free Hb may limit its vasoconstrictive effect by preventing abluminal movement of the molecule. We compared the effects of free SNO-Hb and Hb intramolecularly cross-linked at the β-cysteine 93 residue [Bis(maleidophenyl)-polyethylene glycol2000HbA (Bis-Mal-PEGHb)] to those of free oxyHb on pulmonary artery pressure (PAP), HPV, and ...
BACKGROUND: Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) is a defense mechanism to maintain adequate oxygenation. It has been reported that metabolism inhibition augments HPV. The purpose of the present study was, therefore, to determine the effect of metabolism inhibition on HPV in a rabbit model of isolated lung perfusion with exclusion of the influential factors on HPV. METHODS: In adult rabbits, lungs were isolated and perfused with a constant pulmonary perfusate flow. Acid-base status and temperature of perfusate was also constantly maintained. Thirty minutes after, the baseline hypoxic pressor response (HPR) was measured as the difference of pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) between a period of 21% normoxic gas inhalation and that of 3% hypoxic gas inhalation. After another thirty minutes, 2-deoxy-D-glucose 100 mg was mixed with the perfusate, and then HPR was measured three times. After checking metabolism inhibition effects, D-glucose 300 mg was mixed to the perfusate to reverse metabolism ...
The time course of the pulmonary vascular response to hypoxia in humans has not been fully defined. In this investigation, study A was designed to assess the form of the increase in pulmonary vascular tone at the onset of hypoxia and to determine whether a steady plateau ensues over the following approximately 20 min. Twelve volunteers were exposed twice to 5 min of isocapnic euoxia (end-tidal Po(2) = 100 Torr), 25 min of isocapnic hypoxia (end-tidal Po(2) = 50 Torr), and finally 5 min of isocapnic euoxia. Study B was designed to look for the onset of a slower pulmonary vascular response, and, if possible, to determine a latency for this process. Seven volunteers were exposed to 5 min of isocapnic euoxia, 105 min of isocapnic hypoxia, and finally 10 min of isocapnic euoxia. For both studies, control protocols consisting of isocapnic euoxia were undertaken. Doppler echocardiography was used to measure cardiac output and the maximum tricuspid pressure gradient during systole, and estimates of pulmonary
Radionuclide lung perfusion imaging was performed on 27 patients with valvular disease of the left heart. The ratio of upper to total counts for the lungs, determined by computer, was correlated against pulmonary vascular mean pressures. A close correlation (r = 0.91) was obtained against pulmonary wedge pressure. After corrective cardiac surgery upper/total ratios fell towards normal in four patients in whom pulmonary vascular pressures were measured and the correlation persisted. This simple non-invasive index can be used to follow changes in pulmonary venous hypertension. ...
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We will use a method to analyze the length-scale of perfusion heterogeneity before and after surgery for CTEPH. Briefly, this method consists of filtering the images with filters of different spatial size (length, mm) and measuring the coefficient of variation (CV) of perfusion in the imaged field. We then bin the CV into the following intervals: 12-36 mm, 36-60 mm, 60-84 mm, 84-108 mm and ,108 mm and compare the CV in each bin among subjects ...
Although electrocardiographic evidence of right ventricular hypertrophy is considered common in newborn infants with coarctation of the aorta, the reason for this finding is not well established. Investigations of the pulmonary vascular bed of these infants have resulted in variable findings, probably due to the differences in morphometric techniques, coexisting cardiac defects, and variable postnatal age at time of death. To study more carefully the pulmonary vascular bed, we produced coarctation of the aorta in fetal lambs at 103--126 days gestation. Twelve to 32 days later the fetuses were reoperated on and systemic and pulmonary arterial blood pressures, and arterial blood gas tensions were determined to be normal. At autopsy, juxtaductal coarctations extended a mean of 2.8 mm into the aortic lumen and occupied 9.5 mm of the aortic circumference. The fifth-generation pulmonary resistance vessels had increased medial width (p less than 0.01), decreased external diameter (p less than 0.001), ...
Blood flow between these two vascular beds may not always be equal. If a state occurs in which pulmonary vascular resistance increases or systemic vascular resistance decreases blood will preferentially shift to the peripheral circulation at the expense of blood flow to the lungs. This is the pathophysiology behind the hypercyanotic spell ("Tet spell") seen in children with tetralogy of Fallot and similar lesions. Increases in systemic vascular resistance or decreases in pulmonary vascular resistance will produce the opposite effect shunting blood to the pulmonary circulation at the expense of peripheral perfusion.. This may occur when a childs baseline state of hypoxic pulmonary hypertension is suddenly reversed with additional oxygen or assisted ventilations that decrease avelolar carbon dioxide concentrations.. In the patient presented, a univentricular heart distributed blood to both the pulmonary and systemic circulations. Dehydration and acidosis produced compensatory hyperventilation ...
Introduction: Severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is often associated with secondary pulmonary hypertension (PH), which worsens prognosis. PH can be lowered by oxygen, but also by inhaled nitric oxide (NO), which has the potential to improve the health status of these patients. NO is an important mediator in vascular reactions in the pulmonary circulation. Oral compounds can act through NO-mediated pathways, but delivering pulsed inhaled NO (iNO) directly to the airways and pulmonary vasculature could equally benefit patients. Therefore, a proof-of-concept study was performed to quantify pulmonary blood vessel caliber changes after iNO administration using computed tomography (CT)-based functional respiratory imaging (FRI). Methods: Six patients with secondary PH due to COPD received "pulsed" iNO in combination with oxygen for 20 minutes via a nasal cannula. Patients underwent a high-resolution CT scan with contrast before and after iNO. Using FRI, changes in volumes of blood ...
We investigated the possible contributions of reactive oxygen species and of viscosity changes to hemodilution-induced inhibition of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) in dogs. Fourteen isoflurane-anesthetized dogs were randomly assigned to receive N-acetylcysteine (NAC) 200 mg/kg IV (n = 7) or placebo (n = 7). Mean pulmonary artery pressure (Ppa) was measured with cardiac output maintained constant by a manipulation of venous return in hyperoxia (fraction of inspired oxygen, 0.4) and in hypoxia (fraction of inspired oxygen, 0.1) at baseline and after stepwise reductions in hematocrit from 40% to 20%. Measured Ppa was compared with predicted Ppa by using a viscoelastic model. HPV was expressed as hypoxic Ppa minus hyperoxic Ppa. Hemodilution was associated with a decrease in HPV from 7 ± 1 mm Hg to 3 ± 1 mm Hg (P , 0.01), and this was completely prevented by NAC (HPV was unchanged, from 8 ± 1 to 8 ± 1 mm Hg; not significant). Hemodilution in the model decreased HPV from 8 ± 1 mm Hg to ...
Definition of Pulmonary vascular resistance in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is Pulmonary vascular resistance? Meaning of Pulmonary vascular resistance as a finance term. What does Pulmonary vascular resistance mean in finance?
Regional alveolar hypoxia in the lung induces regional pulmonary vasoconstriction which diverts blood flow from the hypoxic area. However, the predominant determinant of the distribution of perfusion in the normal erect lung is gravity so that more perfusion occurs at the base than at the apex. To determine the strength of the regional alveolar hypoxic response in diverting flow with or against the gravity gradient a divided tracheal cannula was placed in anesthetized dogs and unilateral alveolar hypoxia created by venilating one lung with nitrogen while ventilating the other lung with oxygen to preserve normal systemic oxygentation. Scintigrams of the distribution of perfusion obtained with intravenous 13-N and the MGH positron camera revealed a 34 and 32 per cent decrease in perfusion to the hypoxic lung in the supine and erect positions and a 26 per cent decrease in the decubitus position with the hypoxic lung dependent (P equal to 0.94 from supine shift), indicating nearly equal vasoconstriction
Background-We compared the hemodynamic responses to inhibition or stimulation of endothelial nitric oxide (NO) release of isolated explanted lungs from transplantation recipients with pulmonary hypertension and in normotensive unallocated donor lungs.. Methods and Results-Lungs from 10 patients with severe pulmonary hypertension (SPH) and from 16 patients with severe chronic obstructive lung disease (COLD) were studied. Fourteen normotensive lungs were studied as controls. The lungs were perfused at a constant flow. In protocol 1 NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester caused a similar rise in baseline pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) that was similar in SPH (+17.1±4.2 mm Hg; n=5), COLD (+15.5±4.8 mm Hg; n=8), and control lungs (+14.5±1.5 mm Hg; n=7). Arterial occlusion demonstrated that most of the changes with NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester were precapillary. The response to sodium nitroprusside (10−8 to 10−4 mol/L) was similar in all groups. In protocol 2, the lungs were preconstricted, and ...
Very early clamping results in less than physiologic blood volume. The normal, term child routinely survives, but clamping the cord of a compromised child before ventilation is riskier. Initial aeration of the lungs causes reflex dilatation of pulmonary arterioles and a massive increase in pulmonary blood flow. Placental transfusion normally supplies this volume. Clamping the cord before the infants first breath results in blood being sacrificed from other organs to establish pulmonary perfusion. Fatality may result if the child is already hypovolemic. Because placental transfusion patterns vary widely, it is futile to attempt to give the newborn the "right" amount of blood by clamping at a set time after birth. However, it is extremely likely that the infant will have less-than-optimal blood volume if the cord is clamped before the lungs are ventilated. In clinical practice, late clamping produces a high hematocrit, high blood pressure, and vasodilatation to accommodate the large volume of ...
The normal adult pulmonary circulation is a low-pressure, high-capacity circuit. Pulmonary vascular resistance is regulated by alveolar oxygen tension, potassium channels and a variety of locally produced and circulating vasoactive factors. Perturbations of these systems may contribute to the pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension. Recently, mutations in BMPR2 and ALK-1, genes that encode members of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) receptor superfamily, have been found in patients with primary pulmonary hypertension. These observations provide a novel insight into the pathogenesis of primary pulmonary hypertension, and emphasize the importance of the integrity of the TGF-β receptor family in the maintenance of normal pulmonary vascular structure and function. This review discusses the latest developments in the field of pulmonary vascular biology and the prospects for improving the treatment of pulmonary hypertension.. ...
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The capillaries in the alveolar walls are distended by the blood pressure inside them, but simultaneously, they are Blood flow at different levels in the lung
Pulmonary artery banding is a palliative surgical procedure used to decrease excessive pulmonary blood flow. It is usually used for neonates and infants with left-to-right shunts unable to withstand complete surgical correction. Some indicatio...
There are many possible causes of pulmonary hypertension (secondary PHT), such as a pre-existing heart disease, a congenital malformation, or other primary lung disease: Blood […]. ...
Blood flows to and from the lungs via the pulmonary vessels. The pulmonary trunk divides into the left and right pulmonary arteries carrying oxygen-po...
Cardiac Stress Testing. We use cardiac stress testing to detect the presence of heart disease. Compares coronary circulation at rest with circulation during activity.. Can be induced physically or via drug. Measures plaque buildup in arteries, and can help predict heart attacks.. We offer three forms of stress testing: Nuclear, PET Scan and Stress Echo.. ...
Guglin, M.; Rajagopalan, N.; Anaya, P.; Charnigo, R. "Sildenafil in heart failure with reactive pulmonary hypertension (Sildenafil HF) clinical trial (rationale and design)." Pulmonary circulation 6, 2 (2016): 161-7. [PubMed Link] , [ Full text ] ...