Two-dimensional suprasternal notch echocardiograms of the right pulmonary artery were obtained in 50 normal infants and children to determine the right pulmonary artery diameter. An excellent nonlinear correlation between the right pulmonary artery diameter (RPA) in cm and body surface area (BSA) in m2was observed: RPA (systole) = 1.41 (BSA)051, r = 0.94 and RPA (diastole) = 1.28 (BSA)0.52, r = 0.93. These data were utilized to calculate the normal range (3rd and 97th percentiles) of right pulmonary artery diameter as a function of body surface area. The right pulmonary artery diameter was also measured in 37 patients with tetralogy of Fallot, 30 patients with a secundum atrial septal defect and 12 patients with pulmonary valve insufficiency of various causes. Pulmonary artery diameter was less than the 3rd percentile for body surface area in 16 of the 37 patients with tetralogy of Fallot, but it exceeded the 97th percentile in 17 of the 30 patients with an atrial septal defect and 8 of the 12 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - MicroRNA expression profile of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells and the effect of let-7d in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. AU - Wang, Lei. AU - Guo, Li Juan. AU - Liu, Jie. AU - Wang, Wang. AU - Yuan, Jason X.J.. AU - Zhao, Lan. AU - Wang, Jun. AU - Wang, Chen. PY - 2013/9. Y1 - 2013/9. N2 - Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is a life-threatening condition characterized by single or recurrent pulmonary thromboemboli, which promote pulmonary vascular remodeling. MicroRNA (miRNA), is a small, noncoding RNA that is involved in multiple cell processes and functions and may participate in the pathogenesis of CTEPH. Our aims were to identify the miRNA expression signature in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) of CTEPH patients and to study the role of let-7d in CTEPH pathogenesis. The miRNA expression profile was analyzed by microarray in PASMCs of CTEPH and control patients. Differentially expressed miRNAs were selectively validated ...
Atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease (CHD) are significant contributors to morbidity and mortality in developed countries. A noted exception is the low mortality of CHD in France, particularly the southwest region. This phenomenon, commonly referred to as the French paradox, may be associated with high consumption of red wine. We investigate whether the cardioprotective activity of red wine may involve the grape skin-derived polyphenol, resveratrol. We further test the possibility that resveratrol acts by modulating structural and functional changes in endothelial cells lining the blood vessel wall. Bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cells (BPAEC) were incubated with resveratrol, with and without concurrent exposure to simulated arterial shear stress. Resveratrol significantly affected proliferation and shape of BPAEC; growth was suppressed and cells became elongated, based on morphologic analysis of rhodamine-conjugated phalloidin stained F-actin by confocal microscopy. Using selective signaling
Nitric oxide (NO), which is known to inhibit systemic vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation, is used in the management of neonatal pulmonary hypertension. Our objectives were to determine: (1) if endogenous NO production by neonatal porcine pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) varied with oxygen tension in vitro, and (2) the effect of exogenous NO and inducible NO synthase (iNOS) stimulators and inhibitors on PASMC proliferation and apoptosis. PASMCs were exposed to different conditions (varying PO2, NO donors and scavengers, iNOS stimulators and inhibitors) and proliferation, apoptosis, and cyclic guanosine 5-monophosphate (cGMP) assessed. PASMCs proliferated best between 5 and 10% O2 but cGMP levels were similar at all oxygen levels. NO donors (S-nitroso-N-acetyl-penicillamine, NOC-12, NOC-18) inhibited PASMC proliferation in a dose-dependent manner with associated cGMP increases, while NO scavengers (carboxy-PTIO), iNOS stimulators (interleukin-1β, lipopolysaccharide), and iNOS ...
The results of this study demonstrate that in unoperated infants with TOF/PA, transthoracic echocardiography can be used to differentiate between patients with and without APCs. Specifically, branch pulmonary artery diameter Z score ≤−2.5, PDA diameter ≤2 mm, and evidence of APCs by color Doppler flow mapping were each sensitive and specific tests with an area under the ROC curve ranging from 0.92 to 0.97. The test performance of transthoracic echocardiography further improved when a branch pulmonary artery diameter Z score ≤−2.5 or PDA diameter ≤2 mm were combined, yielding 97% sensitivity and 100% specificity.. The concept that branch pulmonary artery diameter is inversely related to the extent of APCs in TOF/PA has been previously demonstrated in an autopsy study (12). Acherman et al. (11)demonstrated that patients having a PDA had larger branch pulmonary arteries than patients having no PDA and that the main sources of pulmonary blood flow in this disease can be determined by ...
1. The mechanical and pharmacological properties of small pulmonary arteries (100-300 μm normalized lumen diameter) were directly compared with those of the left main pulmonary artery (1-2 mm) from the rat. The active and passive length-tension characteristics and responses to a variety of agonists and antagonists were dependent on arterial diameter.. 2. Maximum contractile function was obtained in both groups of vessels when stretched so as to give an equivalent transmural pressure of 30 mmHg. This is substantially lower than that found for systemic vessels, and reflects the normal low pulmonary arterial pressure.. 3. Noradrenaline was a powerful vasoconstrictor in large but not small pulmonary arteries (P, 0.001). In contrast, bradykinin produced a significantly greater response in the small arteries (P , 0.001). In comparison with large pulmonary arteries, small arteries were more sensitive to noradrenaline (P,0.05) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (P , 0.001), less sensitive to endothelin-1 (P, ...
Exposure to perinatal hypoxia results in alteration of the adult pulmonary circulation, which is linked among others to alterations in K(+) channels in pulmonary artery (PA) smooth muscle cells. In particular, large conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (BK(Ca)) channels protein expression and activity were increased in adult PA from mice born in hypoxia compared with controls. We evaluated long-term effects of perinatal hypoxia on the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)/protein kinase A (PKA) pathway-mediated activation of BK(Ca) channels, using isoproterenol, forskolin, and dibutyryl-cAMP. Whole-cell outward current was higher in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells from mice born in hypoxia compared with controls. Spontaneous transient outward currents, representative of BK(Ca) activity, were present in a greater proportion in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells of mice born in hypoxia than in controls. Agonists induced a greater relaxation in PA of mice born in hypoxia compared with controls, and BK
Our previous studies suggested that enhanced pulmonary artery contractions to arachidonic acid in females compared with males were mediated by an LO metabolite.6 The purpose of the current study was to systematically characterize the LO pathways in female and male pulmonary arteries. First, it was shown that the protein expression of both 15- and 5-LO was greater in females compared with males. Although pulmonary arteries from both male and females produced the corresponding LO metabolites, 15- and 5-HETE, only the synthesis of 15-HETE was enhanced in females. The increase in 15-HETE was correlated with an increased 15-HETE-mediated pulmonary artery vasoconstriction in females compared with males. These findings are significant because it is the first report that the 15-LO pathway is regulated in a sex-specific way. These results may impact what is known about the sex differences in the incidence of PAH.. The enhanced vasoconstriction in females compared with males could be because of increased ...
In open-chest dogs, the greater and lesser circulations were perfused by a system of pumps and oxygenator. All blood was drained from the right heart and from the left atrium. in most experiments, there was no dissection around the pulmonary hila, the aorta, or the pulmonary artery. A 30-ml. balloon (Foley catheter) was inserted into the pulmonary artery through a stab wound in the wall of the right ventricle. Pressures were recorded in the pulmonary-artery balloon and in a femoral artery. In other experiments, the main pulmonary artery was distended with blood at known pressures after hydraulic isolation with ligatures and snares.. When the main pulmonary artery was distended proximal to its bifurcation, constriction of the systemic arteries occurred. This phenomenon was abolished by local anesthesia of the wall of the main pulmonary artery, by interrupting conduction in the vagi, by a sympatholytic drug, and by reflex systemic hypotension elicited by multiple small pulmonary emboli. The ...
Human pulmonary artery endothelial cells cryopreserved at passage 3. The endothelial cells express von Willebrand factor and are negative for alpha smooth muscle actin. Axol pulmonary artery endothelial cells can be passaged more than 4 times in Artery Endothelial Cell Culture Medium (ax3810). ...
Doppler echocardiography was used to evaluate blood flow in the pulmonary artery in 14 patients 2 to 42 months (mean (SD) 17 (12) months) after a modified Fontan operation incorporating a direct atriopulmonary anastomosis. Preoperatively six patients had tricuspid atresia, six had a double inlet left ventricle, and two had pulmonary atresia with an intact ventricular septum. The postoperative rhythm was sinus in 11 patients, junctional in one, ventricular pacing in one, and atrioventricular sequential pacing in one. In one patient the Doppler trace was unsatisfactory for analysis. In all patients forward flow in the pulmonary artery had biphasic peaks related to both atrial and ventricular contraction. The mean (SD) peak flow velocity that was synchronous with atrial contraction was 80 (30) cm/s and that synchronous with ventricular contraction was 74 (23) cm/s. The atrial contribution to total pulmonary artery flow, assessed by velocity-time integrals, varied between 22% and 73% (mean (SD) 45 ...
20-HETE is pro-proliferative, -inflammatory, and -migratory (49, 66), all of which contribute to the pathogenesis of systemic and pulmonary hypertension. Although the increase in 20-HETE by hypoxia inhibited acute hypoxia-induced pulmonary artery constriction (2, 69), it time and dose dependently increased superoxide production from NADPH oxidases in the cultured pulmonary artery endothelial cells (37). Also, studies have reported that 20-HETE-induced superoxide mediated flow-induced constriction of cerebral arteries (58). Our current results further demonstrated that inhibition of 20-HETE biosynthesis by DDMS decreased mitochondrial superoxide generation and conversely application of 20-HETE to endothelium denuded pulmonary arteries for 12 h elicited superoxide generation from mitochondria but not from extra-mitochondrial sources. This led us to the question of how does 20-HETE increase mitochondrial superoxide generation? One potential explanation was 20-HETE passed through the gap junctions ...
The clinical entity of unilateral pulmonary artery absence or hypoplasia can be readily diagnosed on the basis of routine clinical evaluation. This report is based upon 5 patients in whom the diagnosis was suspected and eventually confirmed with the aid of special studies. Characteristic hemodynamic findings were demonstrated by means of cardiac catheterization and contrast visualization of the cardiopulmonary system.. ...
Culture of Pulmonary Arterial Endothelial Cells from Pulmonary Artery Catheter Balloon Tips: Considerations for Use in Pulmonary Vascular Disease The authors cultured pulmonary artery endothelial cells (PAECs) from pulmonary artery catheter balloons used during right heart catheterization, to characterize successful culture attempts and to describe PAEC behavior. [Eur Respir J] Abstract Lymphatic Endothelial Cells Prime Naïve CD8+ T Cells into Memory Cells under Steady-State Conditions Researchers showed that while many proliferating lymphatic endothelial cell-educated T cells entered early apoptosis, the remainders comprised a long-lived memory subset, with transcriptional, metabolic, and phenotypic features of central memory and stem cell-like memory T cells. [Nat Commun] Full Article Endothelial ZEB1 Promotes Angiogenesis-Dependent Bone Formation and Reverses Osteoporosis Investigators showed that the zinc-finger transcription factor ZEB1 was predominantly expressed in CD31hiendomucinhi ...
A complete solution to propagate pulmonary artery endothelial cells in low serum conditions with or without the addition of human recombinant VEGF.
In this study we have shown that patients with COPD receiving LTOT tolerate invasive haemodynamic assessment, including ambulatory PAP monitoring, and can safely perform cardiopulmonary exercise testing at a low workload. The number of patients presented is small because of difficulties encountered in recruiting frail patients in respiratory failure for invasive haemodynamic monitoring but, nevertheless, we found significant changes in haemodynamics.. Previous studies of PAP in patients with COPD have shown that values are modestly increased and progression slow.8 However, most of these measurements have been of resting pressure which has been shown to be of relatively poor prognostic value.9 Furthermore, it has also been shown that even routine daily activities in patients with mild COPD and normal resting oxygen saturations are associated with reductions in oxygen saturation.5. In this study we have measured PAP in a variety of situations in patients with respiratory failure receiving LTOT and ...
Continuous or intermittent hypobaric hypoxia can lead to long-term contraction of the pulmonary artery and structural changes in the pulmonary vascular wall known as hypoxic pulmonary vessel remodelling (HPVR) [20]. HPVR is characterised by thickening of small pulmonary artery wall and muscularizing of pulmonary arteriole, which can result in sustained high pulmonary artery pressure and right ventricular hypertrophy [21]. It has become clear that pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) are closely related to the development of pulmonary hypertension, which are regulated by intracellular Ca2+ concentrations and calmodulin (CaM) [1]. The intracellular Ca2+ concentration has also been suggested to regulate gene expression and cellular proliferation [2, 6, 22-25]. Intracellular calcium levels in PASMCs are mainly regulated by extracellular calcium influx and the release of intracellular calcium stores. Chelation of extracellular calcium in human PASMCs can significantly inhibit serum or ...
Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) is associated with the development of adult-onset diseases, including pulmonary hypertension. However, the underlying mechanism of the early nutritional insult that results in pulmonary vascular dysfunction later in life is not fully understood. Here, we investigated the role of tyrosine phosphorylation of voltage-gated potassium channel 1.5 (Kv1.5) in this prenatal event that results in exaggerated adult vascular dysfunction. A rat model of chronic hypoxia (2 weeks of hypoxia at 12 weeks old) following IUGR was used to investigate the physiological and structural effect of intrauterine malnutrition on the pulmonary artery by evaluating pulmonary artery systolic pressure and vascular diameter in male rats. Kv1.5 expression and tyrosine phosphorylation in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) were determined. We found that IUGR increased mean pulmonary artery pressure and resulted in thicker pulmonary artery smooth muscle layer in 14-week-old rats ...
Mouse Pulmonary Vein Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells from Creative Bioarray are isolated from tissue of pathogen-free laboratory mice. Mouse Pulmonary Vein Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells are grown in T25 tissue culture flasks pre-coated with gelatin-based solution for 0.5 hour and incubated in Creative Bioarrays Cell Culture Medium generally for 3-7 days. Cultures are then expanded. Prior to shipping, cells are detached from flasks and immediately cryo-preserved in vials. Each vial contains at least 1x10^6 cells per ml and is delivered frozen ...
Figure 1: Relaxation of bovine pulmonary arteries under basal conditions. A: Representative tracing. Endothelium deprived artery strip (detector) was precontracted with 10-5 M histamine (HA). In the upper panel significant relaxation was induced by perfusing the detector with effluent of an endothelium intact pulmonary artery (generator) which was collected and stored prior to perfusion for five minutes (CE). Following direct superfusion (G), additional relaxation was induced. In control experiments (lower panel) only direct superfusion (G) was performed; W = wash. B: Average relaxation. Data shown as mean +/- SEM ...
A complete solution to propagate pulmonary artery endothelial cells in low serum conditions with or without the addition of human recombinant VEGF.
A term infant, born by caesarean section for fetal distress, developed grunting and cyanosis by 15 minutes of age. Ventilation at low pressures was achieved without difficulty but did not improve blood gas levels, and he died at 26 hours. Necropsy examination showed large heart and small lungs; histologically the lungs showed multiple obstructive lesions at medium size pulmonary artery level.. ...
Browsing Research Articles (Cardiothoracic Surgery) by Title "Aneurysm of a peripheral pulmonary artery : case report and brief review of the literature ...
The pulmonary vasculature comprises a complex network of branching arteries and veins all functioning to reoxygenate the blood for circulation around the body. The cell types of the pulmonary artery are able to respond to changes in oxygen tension in order to match ventilation to perfusion. Stem and progenitor cells in the pulmonary vasculature are also involved, be it in angiogenesis, endothelial dysfunction or formation of vascular lesions. Stem and progenitor cells may be circulating around the body, residing in the pulmonary artery wall or stimulated for release from a central niche like the bone marrow and home to the pulmonary vasculature along a chemotactic gradient. There may currently be some controversy over the pathogenic versus therapeutic roles of stem and progenitor cells and, indeed, it is likely both chains of evidence are correct due to the specific influence of the immediate environmental niche a progenitor cell may be in. Due to their great plasticity and a lack of specific markers
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The early phases of PAH are considered to be histologically nonspecific, with medial pulmonary arterial and adventitial thickening and the appearance of muscle in the walls of normally nonmuscular arteries being the only abnormalities.20 Many current screening modalities depend on detecting an increase in pulmonary arterial pressure, and thus the early stages of pulmonary vascular disease are likely to be overlooked.21 One mechanism of vascular remodeling is VSMC proliferation.20 We previously reported that sLR11 is a biomarker of VSMC proliferation in atherosclerosis.11,13,15 That prospective study of a small cohort of naive patients uncovered a relationship between sLR11 and mean pulmonary arterial pressure or pulmonary vascular resistance. Levels of sLR11 were significantly increased in patients with, rather than without, PAH. Serum sLR11 levels were 7.8±1.6 ng/mL in 56 healthy volunteers (data not shown). These levels significantly differed between healthy volunteers and patients with PAH ...
Gross Appearance The right ventricle and pulmonary arteries are opened to show a fresh, coiled thromboembolus in the ventricle and in the main, left, and right pulmonary arteries. No infarcts were found in the lungs.. Because this cause of death is usually not suspected, standard autopsy procedure includes exploring the proximal pulmonary arteries for emboli immediately after the chest is opened so as not to displace possible emboli. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Original Research. T2 - Role of phosphodiesterases in modulation of BK Ca channels in hypertensive pulmonary arterial smooth muscle. AU - Zhu, Shu. AU - White, Richard E.. AU - Barman, Scott A. PY - 2008/1/1. Y1 - 2008/1/1. N2 - BK Ca channels regulate pulmonary arterial pressure, and protein kinase C (PKC) inhibits BK Ca channels, but little is known about PKC-mediated modulation of BK Ca channel activity in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle. Studies were carried out to determine mechanisms of PKC modulation of BK Ca channel activity in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMC) of the fawn-hooded rat (FHR), an animal model of pulmonary hypertension. Forskolin opened BK Ca channels in FHR PASMC, which was blocked by PKC activation, and reversed by the phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors IBMX, milrinone, and zaprinast. PDE inhibition also blocked the vasoconstrictor response to PKC activation in FHR pulmonary arteries. These results indicate that PKC inhibits cAMP-induced ...
Imatinib is an anti-proliferative agent that was originally designed to inhibit the oncogenic Bcr-abl tyrosine kinase in patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia [41]. Imatinib also has an inhibitory effect on platelet-derived growth factor and c-KIT signalling. These compounds are both important in vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and hyperplasia and have been implicated in the development of PH [42-44].. Imatinib has been shown to reverse pulmonary vascular disease in animal models of PAH [45], and has been shown to have in vitro anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects on pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells taken from patients with PAH [46].. An initial case study reported the effects of imatinib in a patient with PAH classified as New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class IV, whose condition was deteriorating despite receiving combination therapy with oral bosentan, inhaled iloprost and sildenafil (but who refused intravenous prostacyclin therapy) [47]. Treatment with ...
Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is an essential cofactor for eNOS. Sepiapterin (Sep) is converted into BH4 by the salvage pathway. BH4 is labile at physiological pH and easily oxidized to BH3 or BH2, making it useless as a cofactor for eNOS dependent •NO generation. Loss of BH4, whether through increased oxidation or impaired synthesis, has been linked to pulmonary hypertension. Previously we showed that NADPH oxidase derived superoxide (O2•−) impaired angiogenesis of Pulmonary Artery Endothelial Cells (PAEC) isolated from in utero pulmonary hypertension fetal lambs (HTFL). As increased NADPH oxidase activity has been linked to oxidation of BH4 and in turn, impaired eNOS activity, we hypothesized that restoring BH4 with Sep might improve PAEC function isolated from HTFL. To test this hypothesis we supplemented PAEC isolated from normotensive fetal lambs and HTFL with Sep (30 μM) and then examined its effects on angiogenesis. Angiogenesis was quantified with respect to tube length, cell ...
Discontinuity of central intrapericardial pulmonary arteries requires reconstruction of a pulmonary artery confluence before cavopulmonary connection, whether this connection be by bidirectional Glenn or Fontan procedure. Reconstruction of the centra
Endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF) is supposed to be identical to nitric oxide (NO). A characteristic of NO is its half-life of 6-50 seconds. We report here bioassay experiments suggesting the presence of a long-acting EDRF. An endothelium intact segment of the main bovine pulmonary artery (generator) and an endothelium deprived artery strip (detector) were seperately perfused with Krebs-Henseleit solution. The effluent of the generator was collected and permitted to stand in an open beaker at 37 °C for periods exceeding five minutes. Following this the collected effluent (CE) perfused the histamine precontracted detector, causing significant relaxation. The same degree of relaxation could be observed after storing CE for 80-120 minutes. After reaching steady state generator effluent (G) was directly superfused over the detector (time delay about two seconds) resulting in a more pronounced relaxation. Addition of pharmacological stimuli of EDRF mediated relaxation augmented, addition of ...
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Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a disease which manifests itself in the lungs of both adults and children. Vascular proliferation and remodeling are the hallmarks of PH and are found mainly in the pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMC). The cause of PASMC proliferation and vascular remodeling in PH is poorly understood. Hypoxia, or low oxygen content, underlies many forms of PH. Hypoxia results in alterations in the redox balance of the PASMC. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the role of the thioredoxin system, an antioxidant system in the cell, in hypoxia-induced proliferation in PASMC. Protein was isolated from human PASMC which were exposed to either hypoxia (1% O2, 5% CO2, balance N2) or normoxia (21% O2, 5% CO2 and balance N2) to determine the protein levels of thioredoxin 1 and 2 (Trx1 and Trx2), thioredoxin reductase (TrxR), and thioredoxin interacting protein (Txnip), by Western blotting. Proliferation studies were also done by seeding 6 well plates with 10,000 PASMC
Results (1) PAH specimens showed co-localisation of p65 within CD68+ macrophages in 75.4 (64.8-84.6)% of samples. Airway epithelium, neutrophils and lymphocytes were also positive for p65. (2) Pulmonary arterial medial thickness was increased in PAH compared to controls, at 33.7 (18.8-67.9)% in vessels 100-250 mm external diameter (E.D.) and 27.2 (14.8-44.2)% in vessels 250-500 mm ED, vs 17.7 (11.2-30.3)% and 14.9 (11.8-17.8)% in controls (p,0.0001 between groups). (3) Nuclear p65 was present in pulmonary artery endothelial cells (EC) but not other vascular cells including pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells in PAH: 53.9 (0-100)% of vessels 100-250 mm E.D. and 53.1 (0-100)% of those 250-500 mm E.D. scored EC p65 positivity in PAH compared to 7.5 (0-25.0)% in 100-250 mm ED and 4.7 (0-21.1)% in 250-500 mm ED in controls (p,0.0001 between groups) (Abstract P29 Figure 1). ...
Sudden death due to massive pulmonary embolism is a relatively common autopsy finding, and the medical literature is replete with studies of cases in this category. However, chronic thrombosis of the main pulmonary artery or of the right or left main branches is, in contrast, a rare finding and reported cases are limited in number. As one descends the pulmonary arterial tree, thrombosis becomes more common, depending upon the diligence with which prosection is done. Certainly lobular thrombosis is seen more frequently than lobar and, in turn, arteriolar thrombosis is far more common than either.. A total of 11,511 consecutive ...
NIH Rare Diseases : 50 unilateral absence of the pulmonary artery (uapa) is a heart defect that is present from birth. the pulmonary artery takes blood from the heart to the lungs. in the absence of a pulmonary artery, other blood vessels compensate by supplying blood to the lungs. pressure can build inside these vessels and lead to heart and lung complications. uapa can be left sided or right sided. it most often occurs alone, but can occur with other heart anomalies and birth defects. signs and symptoms include repeat lung infections, lower exercise tolerance, shortness of breath, chest pain, and fluid in the lungs. risk for these symptoms increase with age. complications of uapa include, hemoptysis (coughing up blood), respiratory hemorrhage, and high blood pressure in the arteries to the lung (pulmonary hypertension). serious complications may be triggered by stress on the body, such as pregnancy and altitude sickness. last updated: 2/26/2014 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Pulmonary vascular effects of prostaglandin D2, but not its systemic vascular or airway effects, are mediated through thromboxane receptor activation. AU - King, L. S.. AU - Fukushima, M.. AU - Banerjee, M.. AU - Kang, Kyung Ho. AU - Newman, J. H.. AU - Biaggioni, I.. PY - 1991/1/1. Y1 - 1991/1/1. N2 - Prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) can cause pulmonary vasoconstriction or vasodilation depending on animal species and age. Because the constrictor effects of PGD2 in some vascular beds may be mediated through thromboxane receptors, the purpose of this study was to determine whether the vascular or bronchial effects of PGD2 are mediated through thromboxane/endoperoxide (TX/E) receptor activation. In chronically instrumented awake sheep, PGD2 (5-25 μg/kg i.v.) produced a dose-dependent increase in pulmonary arterial pressure and in systemic arterial blood pressure. These changes were due to increases in resistance, because cardiac output remained unchanged. PGD2 also decreased dynamic ...
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a rare, progressive disorder characterized by high blood pressure (hypertension) in the arteries of the lungs (pulmonary artery) for no apparent reason. The pulmonary arteries are the blood vessels that carry bloo
The extraction and analysis of the pulmonary artery in computed tomography (CT) of the chest can be an important, but time-consuming step for the diagnosis and treatment of lung disease, in particular in non-contrast data, where the pulmonary artery has low contrast and frequently merges with adjacent tissue of similar intensity. We here present a new method for the automatic segmentation of the pulmonary artery based on an adaptive model, Hough and Euclidean distance transforms, and spline fitting, which works equally well on non-contrast and contrast enhanced data. An evaluation on 40 patient data sets and a comparison to manual segmentations in terms of Jaccard index, sensitivity, specificity, and minimum mean distance shows its overall robustness ...
Intraoperative Course. I. Selection of monitoring. 1. How will you assess the adequacy of renal perfusion during surgery? Explain.. 2. Is a pulmonary artery catheter necessary? Explain.. 3. After placement of a pulmonary artery catheter, pulmonary artery pressure is 55/32 mmHg, and the pulmonary artery occlusion pressure is 28 mmHg. What is your interpretation?. 4. Would you want additional information? Explain.. 5. What is your treatment?. II. Choice of anesthetic agents. 1. Is ketamine appropriate for induction? Explain.. 2. What is your choice for induction? Explain.. 3. What is your choice for maintenance? Give reasons.. 4. How do you control hypertension at the time of clamping?. 5. Does heart failure or renal insufficiency affect your selection of agents? Explain.. III. Management of muscle relaxation. 1. Is atracurium an appropriate muscle relaxant in this patient? Explain.. No. Atracurium is intermediate-acting, and is not significantly metabolized by the kidneys or the liver, as it is ...
The culture of bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cells appearing in this section was stained with MitoTracker Red CMXRos, vividly labeling the intracellular mitochondrial network.
Thromboxane is a vasoactive omega-6-derived lipid implicated in hypertension. Omega-3 fatty acid derivatives including resolvin (Rv) E1 have important roles in the resolution of inflammation, but their ability to mediate vasomotor activity is unknown. We assessed whether RvE1 modulates contraction of rat thoracic aorta and human pulmonary artery (HPA) in vitro.. Rats were culled by CO2 inhalation and cervical dislocation, and the thoracic aorta was removed. HPA were obtained with informed consent from lung tissue of surgical patients at Southampton General Hospital. Segments of aorta or HPA were incubated in DMEM-F12 with or without RvE1 (10 nM, 100 nM or 300 nM) for 1 or 24 hours, and then mounted on a wire myograph. Mounted segments were bathed at 37[[Unable to Display Character: ]]C in Krebs buffer, gassed (95%/5% O2/CO2) and set to 1.5 g of baseline tension. Functional integrity was confirmed by a contractile response to 125 mM KPSS. After washing to restore baseline tension, a ...
Guy A Richards. It should be remembered that hemodynamic monitoring is not itself diagnostic of an underlying disease process unless the patient is merely hypovolemic. The following discussion does not therefore consider what further might be wrong with this patient, but this obviously warrants further attention. It is, however, necessary to support the patient until the primary disease responds and invasive monitoring would be useful to guide the use of vasoactive agents and fluid replacement. Clinical parameters alone are relatively inaccurate with regard to hemodynamic status in critically ill patients [11].. Parameters that are of particular value are cardiac output, pulmonary artery occlusion pressure, mixed venous oxygen saturation, right ventricular end diastolic volume, and systemic vascular resistance. Whereas some parameters may be obtainable with less invasive techniques, such as Doppler esophageal monitoring, only the PAC can easily and continuously or repetitively monitor them all. ...
This is the corrective surgery in which the condition is treated in most of the children within their first year of life. The procedure involves placing a patch on the ventricular septal defect to close the hole between the two ventricles along with widening the pulmonary valve and pulmonary arteries, which results in an increased blood flow to the lungs. Upon completion of the procedure, the symptoms are diminished due to oxygen level increase in the blood. In some cases, when babies are born prematurely or their pulmonary arteries are not yet fully developed (hypoplastic), there might be a need for a temporary surgery before the main one. This temporary surgery involves creating a bypass between the aorta and the pulmonary arteries to increase blood flow to the lungs. When the time comes for the intercardiac repair, the bypass is removed.. ...
Pentose phosphate pathway. While the Warburg effect focuses on glycolysis, the PPP, which yields reductive NADPH and ribose-5-phosphate for nucleotide synthesis, is often augmented in parallel with glycolysis. PPP flux is upregulated in pulmonary vascular cells in multiple PH models (16, 32-34). Increased activity of the rate-limiting enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) was observed in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) of chronically hypoxic rats (32), suggesting that G6PD deficiency may protect against PH development (35). Increased PPP flux provides defense against oxidative stress and the substrates necessary for rapid growth; therefore, G6PD may represent an enticing target for curbing PASMC hyperproliferation. However, G6PD loss also prevents production of NADPH, a reducing equivalent and critical substrate for NO synthesis (36), suggesting that G6PD inhibition might be detrimental to vasomotor tone in PH. Separately, patients with sickle cell disease, who are at ...
Pentose phosphate pathway. While the Warburg effect focuses on glycolysis, the PPP, which yields reductive NADPH and ribose-5-phosphate for nucleotide synthesis, is often augmented in parallel with glycolysis. PPP flux is upregulated in pulmonary vascular cells in multiple PH models (16, 32-34). Increased activity of the rate-limiting enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) was observed in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) of chronically hypoxic rats (32), suggesting that G6PD deficiency may protect against PH development (35). Increased PPP flux provides defense against oxidative stress and the substrates necessary for rapid growth; therefore, G6PD may represent an enticing target for curbing PASMC hyperproliferation. However, G6PD loss also prevents production of NADPH, a reducing equivalent and critical substrate for NO synthesis (36), suggesting that G6PD inhibition might be detrimental to vasomotor tone in PH. Separately, patients with sickle cell disease, who are at ...
Pentose phosphate pathway. While the Warburg effect focuses on glycolysis, the PPP, which yields reductive NADPH and ribose-5-phosphate for nucleotide synthesis, is often augmented in parallel with glycolysis. PPP flux is upregulated in pulmonary vascular cells in multiple PH models (16, 32-34). Increased activity of the rate-limiting enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) was observed in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) of chronically hypoxic rats (32), suggesting that G6PD deficiency may protect against PH development (35). Increased PPP flux provides defense against oxidative stress and the substrates necessary for rapid growth; therefore, G6PD may represent an enticing target for curbing PASMC hyperproliferation. However, G6PD loss also prevents production of NADPH, a reducing equivalent and critical substrate for NO synthesis (36), suggesting that G6PD inhibition might be detrimental to vasomotor tone in PH. Separately, patients with sickle cell disease, who are at ...
I did the ultrasound at 20wk and 3d, here is the result: Structurally normal heart except for a prominent main pulmonary artery at the level of the origin of the ductus arteriosus. The ductus appear...
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