View Notes - class+3+lecture_posted from PSYCHOLOGY 830:301 at Rutgers. Sensation and Perception Class III: Psychophysics (cont.) & Elementary Neuroscience Theory of Signal Detection Figure 1.14
The UCLA neurobiologist uses computational modeling, in vitro electrophysiology, and human psychophysics experiments to explore how neurons and the brain as a whole perceive and respond to time.. 0 Comments. ...
The UCLA neurobiologist uses computational modeling, in vitro electrophysiology, and human psychophysics experiments to explore how neurons and the brain as a whole perceive and respond to time.. 0 Comments. ...
We examined the effects of negative delays on the perception of causality using a variation of the paradigm originated by Michotte (1954) and as an extension to similar work conducted by Kanizsa and Vicario (1968). In our ...
Download The Psych-Toolbox-Wrapper for free. The major aim of the Psychtoolbox 3 wrapper is to provide a set of basic tools that allow programming novices the use of the Psychophysics Toolbox without limiting the power and flexibility of the Psychophysics Toolbox and MATLAB.
1. Vision Research is a journal devoted to the functional aspects of human, vertebrate and invertebrate vision and publishes experimental and...
In 2010 scientists at the University of Iowa Wynn Institute for Vision Research discovered an RP-causing gene known as MAK. They have now embarked upon an ambitious project to cure this disease, which has three major goals ...
This meeting is not currently runing. The idea of these lunch sessions is to create a forum, perhaps primarily for PhD students, but really for everybody who is interested, to discuss ongoing work, get feedback, and exchange ideas related to machine learning. The sessions are very informal, no slides required! In most cases it involves a brief presentation (max 30 min) and a subsequent discussion. A session can deliver a high-level overview of a project that the speaker is currently working on, or it can be about specific results, or about a particular problem with which other people might be able to help, about a new idea, or... i.e. anything that seems interesting enough to tell others and to discuss (well - almost anything ;)). The hope is that these sessions will lead to more interactions - and facilitate our work. Lunches are generally held every Friday at 1 pm in room IF1.16 in the Informatics Forum. Announcements are made through the PIGS mailing list. ...
Catie Travers, Community Liaison will be accompanied by clinicians from the Adolescent and the Adult Programs. They will provide a brief presentation and will be available to answer any questions you might have about treatment and programming at High Focus ...
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Purpose: : To evaluate human achromatic spatial contrast sensitivity (CSF) with transient visual evoked cortical potential (tVECP). To compare electrophysiological and psychophysical measurements. Methods: : Six healthy subjects (21 ± 2 years-old) were monocularly tested. The stimuli were black and white horizontal sinusoidal gratings, 40 cd/m2 mean luminance, presented in a 5º circular patch. Six spatial frequencies were used: 0.4, 0.8, 2, 4, 8, and 10 cycles per degree (cpd), in 1 Hz squarewave reversal mode. Electrophysiological contrast thresholds were estimated by linear regressions fitted to data point representing P100 tVECP amplitude as a function of log contrast, extrapolated to zero amplitude. Psychophysics measurements were performed in the same spatial frequencies plus 1 and 6 cpd, using identical spatio-temporal configuration as used in tVECP experiments (dynamic presentation) and using stationary stimuli (static presentation). Psychophysical contrast sensitivity was obtained ...
A new directionally sensitive motion detection system is proposed that is capable of detecting local motion without any significant preprocessing. It has a delay-and-compare structure like that of the Reichardt detector but uses as its basic building block the shunting inhibition neural model. It is therefore called the local inhibitory motion detector. Furthermore, an array of such detectors exhibits adaptive responses akin to those observed in motion-sensitive biological neurons.. © 1999 Optical Society of America. Full Article , PDF Article ...
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Lamb, M.R., Pond, H.M., & Zahir, G. (2000). Contributions of Automatic and Controlled Processes to the Analysis of Hierarchical Structure. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 26, 234-245.. Lamb, M.R. & Yund, E.W. (2000). The Role of Spatial Frequency in Cued Shifts of Attention between Global and Local Forms. Perception & Psychophysics, 62, 753-761.. Lamb, M.R., Yund, E.W., & Pond, H.M. (1999). Is attentional selection to different levels of hierarchical structure based on spatial frequency? Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 128, 88-94.. Lamb, M.R. (1998). Review of The Two Sides of Perception by Ivry, R.B. & Robertson, L.C., The MIT Press. Trends in Cognitive Science, 2, 200-201.. Lamb, M.R., London, B., Pond, H.M. & Whitt, K.A. (1998). Automatic and controlled processes in the analysis of hierarchical structure. Psychological Science, 9, 14-19.. Lamb, M.R. & Yund, E. W. (1996). Spatial frequency and interference between global and local levels of ...
Fechner, along with Wilhelm Wundt and Hermann von Helmholtz, is recognized as one of the founders of modern experimental psychology. His clearest contribution was the demonstration that because the mind was susceptible to measurement and mathematical treatment, psychology had the potential to become a quantified science. Theorists such as Immanuel Kant had long stated that this was impossible, and that therefore, a science of psychology was also impossible.. Though he had a vast influence on psychophysics, the actual disciples of his general philosophy were few. Ernst Mach was inspired by his work on psychophysics.[16] William James also admired his work: in 1904, he wrote an admiring introduction to the English translation of Fechners Büchlein vom Leben nach dem Tode (Little Book of Life After Death).. Fechners world concept was highly animistic. He felt the thrill of life everywhere, in plants, earth, stars, the total universe. Man stands midway between the souls of plants and the souls of ...
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An olfactometer basically consists of an air compressor, tubing, valves, and odor reservoirs. It injects short bursts of odor into an airstream delivered to the individual nostrils via plastic nose pieces, or via a nose mask. The Monell device is compact-it fits in a 25-inch tall cabinet with a 20 x 20 inch footprint. The cabinet, which can be purchased, is the most expensive item on the parts list at $1,000. A custom three-way valve manifold also costs $1,000. The are twelve other parts, some required in multiples. Total cost of the unit: $5,284. Which is a bargain, I might add ...
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Closter, NJ (PRWEB) September 30, 2012 -- When designing motion systems that require rollers or cam followers, many engineers still believe that only all-metal
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By Louis Narens. This book is designed to be an introduction to the theories of measurement and meaningfulness, and not a comprehensive study of those topics. A major theme of this book is the psychophysical measurement of subjective intensity. This has been a subject of intense interest in psychology from the very…. Paperback - 2013-10-31 ...
Psychophysics experiments and EEG recordings reveal that peoples performance in detecting unexpected changes in complex auditory scenes can be modeled as a process of sensory evidence accumulation.
J. Anthony Movshon & William Newsome. This years Vision Award recognises the work of both Dr. Movshon and Dr. Newsome over the last 30 years. Working at times together and at other times separately, these outstanding researchers have had a major impact on scientists understanding of how the brain reconstructs images, so that human beings can perceive, interpret and act in the world. By building a bridge between psychophysics and human behaviour on the one hand and the physiology of individual neurons and what they compute on the other, these two neuroscientists have shed ground-breaking light upon how the brain reconstructs visual images.. ...
Published in the journal Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, Wus study showed one way in which we can become more efficient in our attention abilities - by using newly acquired knowledge of individual items to group them into categories. Wus previous studies show that it takes 200 milliseconds to find one object (among others on a computer screen). Interestingly, when many items are grouped into one category, people can find any of the items from that category within the same amount of time. In this new study, Wu found the same signature of attention in the brain waves of participants who had just learned that novel objects could be grouped into categories ...
On a second-order schedule, a subject responds according to one schedule (the unit schedule) for a brief presentation of a stimulus such as a light. Responding ...
Introduction There are two characteristics about Stephen K. Sanderson (b. 1945) and his evolutionary materialism that I wish to emphasize in this brief presentation.
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PURPOSE. We extracted spatial channels underlying scotopic contrast sensitivity functions (CSFs) of normal adult observers, and compared them to channels underlying photopic contrast sensitivity functions. METHODS. Scotopic CSFs were measured on 50 observers between the ages of 20 and 88 years (Schefrin et al. 1999). These CSFs were measured psychophysically using 2AFC at 7 spatial frequencies ranging from 0.2 to 3.0 c/deg, with mean retinal illuminance equated for observers at −0.85 log scotopic Trolands. RESULTS. A covariance analysis of individual differences was applied to the data. We computed statistical sources of individual variability, used them to define "covariance channels," and determined the number and frequency tuning of these channels. We found evidence for 3 discrete channels operating below 3 c/deg. Two covariance channels operated primarily above 1 c/deg, and were predicted and well fit by a computational model of photopic vision (Wilson & Gelb, 1984; mechanisms "A" and ...
Anderson, Roger (2006) The psychophysics of glaucoma: improving the structure/function relationship. Progress in Retinal and Eye Research, 25 . pp. 79-97. [Journal article] ...
All stimuli were generated using the MATLAB (The MathWorks, MA) programming environment with Psychtoolbox (Brainard, 1997; Pelli, 1997) routines. The test stimulus whose orientation was to be judged was a sinusoidal grating with a hard-edged circular window (3° diameter). It was embedded at the center of a larger disk filled with a sinusoidal grating (8° diameter, the surround). Both grayscale gratings had a spatial frequency of 2 c/° and a luminance contrast of 100%. The test grating was always vertical (=0° hereafter). To aid the visibility of the test grating, the relative spatial phase difference between the test grating and the surrounding grating was always fixed at 1/4 pi (45°) although the absolute spatial phase was chosen randomly for each trial. Orientations of the surround were varied from 3° to 19° with a 2° step, both clockwise and counterclockwise, resulting in 18 conditions. The comparison grating was identical to the test grating except that its orientation was ...
A presentation apparatus which can automatically adjust the total presentation time and presentation time intervals of a video material according to users desired total presentation time so that the video material necessary for presentation can be screened within the desired total presentation time. The user inputs the desired total presentation time to the presentation apparatus. In the apparatus, the desired total presentation time is compared with a standard total presentation time to find a difference therebetween as an adjustment time. One of adjusting methods is selected on the basis of the found adjustment time. A data indicative of the selected adjusting method is stored in an adjustment memory.
70-slide presentation on the psychology and neuroscience of sensations, including touch, taste, smell, and hearing Numerous charts, graphs, research results, vocabulary, and cartoons are provided. All vocabulary is indicated in bold. Presentation prepared by a former
NAEVR RELEASES FY2017 FUNDING REQUESTS FOR NIH/NEI AND THE DOD VISION RESEARCH PROGRAM (Washington, D.C.) Today, the National Alliance for Eye and Vision Research (NAEVR) released its Fiscal Year (FY) 2017 funding requests that it will use in Congressional advocacy.. National Institutes of Health (NIH)/National Eye Institute (NEI):. The vision community thanks Congress for the strong bipartisan support for FY 2016 NIH funding of $32.1 billion, a $2 billion increase, and for an NEI operating budget of $708 million, which for the first time in four years (after the devastating impact of the $36 million sequester cut) grows the NEI budget above the pre-sequester funding level of $702 million, albeit minimally (0.8 percent). NAEVR urges Congress to appropriate at least $34.5 billion for NIH and $770 million for the NEI in FY2017, a 7.5 percent increase over FY2016 for each that reflects five percent real growth above the projected 2.5 percent rate for biomedical inflation. Sustained and predictable ...
This study is the first to combine materials science and psychophysics to understand how humans perceive touch. "Receptors processing sensations from our skin are phylogenetically the most ancient, but far from being primitive they have had time to evolve extraordinarily subtle strategies for discerning surfaces-whether a lovers caress or a tickle or the raw tactile feel of metal, wood, paper, etc. This study is one of the first to demonstrate the range of sophistication and exquisite sensitivity of tactile sensations. It paves the way, perhaps, for a whole new approach to tactile psychophysics, Ramachandran said.. Super-sensitive touch. In a paper published in Materials Horizons, UC San Diego researchers tested whether human subjects could distinguish-by dragging or tapping a finger across the surface-between smooth silicon wafers that differed only in their single topmost layer of molecules. One surface was a single oxidized layer made mostly of oxygen atoms. The other was a single ...
Things to think about before you take action about discrimination at work, covering employment status, time limits, possible outcomes and checking whether incidents count as discrimination.
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Director, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, U.S. Food and Drug... Closing Discussion with Session Chairs, Panelists, and Audience Led by Workshop Chair. ...
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NIH Funding Opportunities and Notices in the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts: NEI Collaborative Clinical Vision Research Project: Coordinating Center Grant (UG1 Clinical Trial Required) PAR-18-521. NEI
Two back-EMF-based position observers are compared for motion-sensorless synchronous reluctance motor drives. The reduced-order observer is of the second order, and the adaptive full-order observer is of the fourth order. The proposed design rules guarantee the stability of the adaptive full-order observer, if the parameter estimates are accurate. The observers are experimentally evaluated using a 6.7-kW synchronous reluctance motor drive in low-speed operation and under parameter errors. The gain selection of the second-order observer is easier, but the adaptive full-order observer is more robust against parameter variations and spatial harmonics ...
Estimation, lag selection, diagnostic testing, forecasting, causality analysis, forecast error variance decomposition and impulse response functions of VAR models and estimation of SVAR and SVEC models.. ...
py.psy.exp is a user-friendly library for developing psychology experiments using Python, Pygame and NumPy. While (currently) not as full featured as something like VisionEgg or the Psychophysics toolbox, we may be exactly what you are looking for if you need a simple way to design a higher-level cognition experiment ...
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IN a pedagogical method which is experimental the education of the senses must undoubtedly assume the greatest importance. Experimental psychology also takes note of movements by means of sense measurements. Pedagogy, however, although it may profit by psychometry is not designed to measure the sensations, but educate the senses. This is a point easily understood, yet one which is often confused. While the proceedings of esthesiometry are not to any great extent applicable to little children, the education of the senses is entirely possible. We do not start from the conclusions of experimental psychology. That is, it is not the knowledge of the average sense conditions according to the age of the child which leads us to determine the educational applications we shall make. We start essentially from a method, and it is probable that psychology will be able to draw its conclusions from pedagogy so understood, and not vice versa. The method used by me is that of making a pedagogical experiment with ...
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The distinction between the natural and the miraculous is only one of human perception. Everything that occurs is really a miracle.
Contrast discrimination is an important type of information for establishing image quality metrics based on human vision. We used a dual-masking paradigm to study how contrast discrimination can be influenced by the presence of adjacent stimuli. In a dual masking paradigm, the observers task is to detect a target superimposed on a pedestal in the presence of flankers. The flankers (1) reduce the target threshold at zero pedestal contrast; (2) reduce the size of pedestal facilitation at low pedestal contrasts; and (3) shift the TvC (Target threshold vs. pedestal contrast) function horizontally to the left on a log-log plot at high pedestal contrasts. The horizontal shift at high pedestal contrasts suggests that the flanker effect is a multiplicative factor that cannot be explained by previous models of contrast discrimination. We extended a divisive inhibition model of contrast discrimination by implementing the flanker effect as a multiplicative sensitivity modulation factor that account for ...
Our ability to perceive visual motion is critically dependent on the human motion complex (hMT+) in the dorsal visual stream. Extensive electrophysiological research in the monkey equivalent of this region has demonstrated how neuronal populations code for properties such as speed and direction, and that neurometric functions relate to psychometric functions within the individual monkey. In humans, the physiological correlates of inter-individual perceptual differences are still largely unknown. To address this question, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while participants viewed translational motion in different directions, and we measured thresholds for direction discrimination of moving stimuli in a separate psychophysics experiment. After determining hMT+ in each participant with a functional localizer, we were able to decode the different directions of visual motion from it using pattern classification (PC). We also characterized the variability of fMRI signal in hMT+ during
We recorded the responses of single neurons in extrastriate area MST while rhesus monkeys discriminated the direction of motion in a set of stochastic visual displays. By varying systematically the strength of a coherent motion signal within the visual display, we were able to measure simultaneously the monkeys psychophysical thresholds for direction discrimination and the responses of single neurons to the same motion signals. Neuronal thresholds for reliably signaling the direction of motion in the visual display were calculated from the measured responses using a method based in signal detection theory. Neurons in MST were exquisitely sensitive to motion signals in the display, having thresholds for discriminating the direction of coherent motion that were, on average, equal to the psychophysical thresholds of the monkeys. For many MST neurons, the intensity of the response was correlated with the monkeys psychophysical judgements for repeated presentations of a given near-threshold ...
To date no systematic method has been used for characterising the residual capacity of blindsight subjects that would allow comparison and generalisation across all subjects. The detection of isoluminant gratings of varying spatial and temporal frequencies commends itself for detailed between-subject comparison, and for mapping results onto physiological properties in relation to neuronal circuitry. We report the ability of a blindsight subject (CS) to detect suprathreshold sine-wave gratings over a range of spatial and temporal frequencies using psychophysical techniques. A band-pass spatial channel with an upper cutoff below 3.5 cycles/deg is specified. The data also have been analysed to compare differences between two types of blindsight performances, type I and type II. Spatial gratings were also used to elicit a pupillary grating response, offering an objective method that is free of verbal nuances and response bias, and the resulting band-pass channel can be used both for clinical screening and
Table 4: SI units and non SI units and conversion factors. A convenient measure of retinal illuminance is based on the unit of the troland. One troland (Td) of retinal illuminance is produced by an extended source of 1 cd/m2 seen through a pupil of 1 mm2. Thus retinal illuminance E in trolands is given by Equation 9.. Equation 9: E = LA. where L is the luminance in cd/m2 and A is pupil area in mm2. Thus the unit for troland is cd/m2.mm2. If scotopic units are used, luminance is defined as scotopic cd/m2, and the troland is called a scotopic troland.. Inverse Square Law. The illuminance (E) of a surface due to a point source of light is proportional to the luminous intensity (I) of the source in the direction of that surface and inversely proportional to the square of the distance (d) between the surface and the source. The angle θ is the angle of incidence.. Equation 10: E = I/d2. cos θ. Remember, the rule of thumb for all laws dealing with light measurement is that radiation is derived from a ...
Adaptation is a mechanism by which cortical neurons adjust their responses according to recently viewed stimuli. Visual information is processed in a circuit formed by feedforward (FF) and feedback (FB) synaptic connections of neurons in different cortical layers. Here, the functional role of FF-FB streams and their synaptic dynamics in adaptation to natural stimuli is assessed in psychophysics and neural model. We propose a cortical model which predicts psychophysically observed motion adaptation aftereffects (MAE) after exposure to geometrically distorted natural image sequences. The model comprises direction selective neurons in V1 and MT connected by recurrent FF and FB dynamic synapses. Psychophysically plausible model MAEs were obtained from synaptic changes within neurons tuned to salient direction signals of the broadband natural input. It is conceived that, motion disambiguation by FF-FB interactions is critical to encode this salient information. Moreover, only FF-FB dynamic synapses operating
The Handbook of Research Methods in Experimental Psychology presents a comprehensive and contemporary treatment of research methodologies used in experimental psychology.
Sharon Y. L. Chua; Anthony P. Khawaja; Andrew D. Dick; James Morgan; Baljean Dhillon; Andrew J. Lotery; Nicholas G. Strouthidis; Charles Reisman; Tunde Peto; Peng T. Khaw; Paul J. Foster; Praveen J. Patel; on behalf of The UK Biobank Eye and Vision ...
We have investigated background and bleaching adaptation in vertebrate rods by intracellular recording in the retina of Bufo marinus. Backgrounds and bleaching produce adaptation in photoreceptors and lead to a shift and a compression of the response operating range. Threshold elevation due to backgrounds follows the Rose-DeVries rule at low intensities and the Weber-Fechner rule at high intensities. Threshold elevation due to bleaching is linear almost up to 17% bleached pigment and exponential thereafter. An equivalence can be established between bleaching and backgrounds with respect to threshold elevation, on the one hand, and with respect to response compression, on the other. These equivalences are the same within experimental error. The equivalence, moreover, appears to extend to the complete response curve. These results have implications for psychophysics as well as for photoreceptor transduction.. ...
I worked through a bunch of issues and glitches the last couple of weeks so that tonight I was finally able to play SkyRim in FriiSpace. I barely know the SkyRim controls and the FriiSpace motion system is not precise enough yet to handle fast paced combat situations, so I stayed up in the mountains and avoided people the best I could. But it still made for an amazing experience. Free walking is just such an intuitive interface - I would go for 10 minutes at a time without even having to hit a button. You get so used to the normal sensations of locomotion that I found myself trying (and failing) to crouch and duck around stuff. At one point I was up on a ledge and saw a deer down below me, and I just naturally went to one knee and tried to crane my neck to see through some foliage. Sucks that the game interface is not flexible enough to support that granularity of motion. Also, redirected motion works really great! Before - when I was specifically testing it, I could sense it. But when you trust ...
An apparatus is disclosed for making unchirped holographic diffraction gratings that are formed from curved lines in a thin film. The gratings so made focus as well as reflect light that is confined to the film incorporating the grating. SU BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION Gratings have been incorporated in integrated optics devices for several purposes, including the fabrication of distributed feedback lasers, light-wave couplers, and band-rejection filters. Integrated-optics gratings known to the prior art were composed at straight lines, and therefore could not focus the light being processed. Gratings that combine focusing and diffraction were known to be desirable, but the prior art was unable to produce them. The closest prior art that has come to our attention is a method and apparatus for producing curved-line holographic gratings that have unequally spaced, or chirped, lines (U.S. Pat. No. 3,578,845, issued on May 18, 1971 to K. E. Brooks et al). This reference teaches the production of gratings
The Brain and Mind Institute has immediate openings for national or international post-doctoral fellows. We are currently undertaking collaborative, multi-disciplinary research into the neural mechanisms for visual-motor transformations and object perception, with the use of state-of-the-art techniques including functional MRI in our 4T research scanner, visual psychophysics, and 3-D motion analysis in normal subjects and patients, computational modeling, single-unit recordings in behaving primates and perceptual studies. Candidates will be encouraged to pursue projects that combine several such approaches to answer fundamental questions in systems, behavioral, cognitive, and computational neuroscience. Candidates must have a PhD (or equivalent) in a relevant neuroscience-related field and have a promising research record. Positions will include a competitive salary, start-up packages and access to the Groups core facilities. For further information on group membership, aims, and individual ...
Our bedside pressure mats and motion detectors help increase the safety level for seniors, and can give family members a sense of security.
(KudoZ) German to English translation of Bewegungsmelder am Fahrwerk eines Kranes: motion detector [Engineering: Industrial (Tech/Engineering)].
How you can specify texture units greater than GL_TEXTURE31 ? In specification GL_MAX_COMBINED_TEXTURE_IMAGE_UNITS is: MINIMUM 48 for OpenGL 3.x ( http://www.opengl.org/sdk/docs/man3/xhtml/glActiveTexture.xml ) MINIMUM 80 for OpenGL 4.x ( http://www.opengl.org/sdk/docs/man4/xhtml/glActiveTexture.xml ) The number of texture units is implementation dependent, but must be at least 48. texture must be one of GL_TEXTUREi, where i ranges from 0 (GL_MAX_COMBINED_TEXTURE_IMAGE_UNITS - 1).
With the support of a large and enthusiastic group of families our research has changed eye care practice across the UK and abroad.
Christine A. Curcio, Ph.D., professor of ophthalmology at the University of Alabama at Birmingham, is the recipient of the 2014 Ludwig von Sallma...
Here is a page to introduce「Single bandpass filter,Optical Filters(Bandpass Filter, Edge Filter etc.)」- Tokyo Instruments, Inc.
Supervised passive infrared motion sensor with built-in transmitter, pet immunity, supervised for low battery and sends hourly status signals
Texture: Guinea Pig Texture Set #2 - A set of 17 textures for the free guinea pig model by Steve Shanks (available at PlanIt3D). The textures were created from photos of my own guinea pigs (most of whom were rescued) and some of the
Four experiments are reported in which the subjects had to respond to a target that masked a preceding prime via metacontrast masking. In one part of Experiment l, the subjects discriminated the...
Hi, Hopefully a quick question! I am writing a large-ish number of quads to the screen (say 10000) from a pool of about 15 different textures. As the code loops across the screen it binds and then displays the appropriate texture, each in turn. My question is -| Would there be any performance benefit to writing all of one type of texture first before writing a second? The cost would be in the numerous (*15) passes of the display loop and if statements, but the benefit (?) would be in
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Monochromators with optical gratings for spectral dispersion are every day tools in spectroscopy from UV to IR. The common Czerny-Turner set up has been ...
misc{71171638-c472-49a9-84cf-124384b2c492, author = {Hellman, Johan and Sikström, Sverker}, keyword = {Memory,Signal Detection Theory,ROC curve,Attention}, language = {eng}, title = {The Generalized Signal Detection Theory}, year = {2012 ...
where p and q are unit fractional amounts, such that p + q = 1. Additivity as defined by Equation 1 significantly restricts the relevance of Vλ for representing the spectral sensitivity of the human visual system to a small handful of visual task conditions [16]. Because of additivity, however, Vλ has become the universal "visual response function" for commerce and for government regulations [11].. Despite its assumed universality, the psychophysical techniques used to develop Vλ only functionally characterize the spectral sensitivity of the achromatic (luminance) channel for the human fovea which is dominated by input from only two of the three cone types. The fovea constitutes only about 2% of the retina and provides humans with high spatial resolution. Only densely packed long-wavelength (L) and middle-wavelength (M) sensitive cones are found in the center of the fovea; although all three cone types are found throughout the remainder of the retina, the short-wavelength (S) sensitive cones ...
Short presentation of a large moving pattern elicits an Ocular Following Response (OFR) that exhibits many of the properties attributed to low-level motion processing such as spatial and temporal integration, contrast gain control and divisive interaction between competing motions. Similar mechanisms have been demonstrated in V1 cortical activity in response to center-surround gratings patterns measured with real-time optical imaging in awake monkeys. More recent experiments of OFR have used disk gratings and bipartite stimuli which are optimized to study the dynamics of center-surround integration. We quantified two main characteristics of the global spatial integration of motion from an intermediate map of possible local translation velocities: (i) a finite optimal stimulus size for driving OFR, surrounded by an antagonistic modulation and (ii) a direction selective suppressive effect of the surround on the contrast gain control of the central stimuli [Barthelemy06,Barthelemy07].In fact, the ...
Liz earned a BS in Chemistry/Biochemistry at Utah State University (1998) and a PhD in Biology at the University of Oregon (2006). As a doctoral student, she examined audiovisual integration in the barn owl head saccade behavior, and she measured single cell responses to visual and auditory stimuli in the optic tectum and external nucleus of the inferior colliculus of anesthetized barn owls. From 2007-2010, Liz stayed on at the University of Oregon as an adjunct instructor (BIO 353 - Sensory Physiology) and as a postdoctoral researcher. Her research time was split between the labs of Terry Takahashi and Bill Roberts. As a postdoc in the Takahashi Lab, Liz mentored various undergraduate researchers on projects ranging from human psychophysics to barn owl awake-behaving tetrode measurements. Her project in the Roberts Lab involved confocal imaging and scanning electron microscopy of the frog saccule, looking for morphologically and physiologically distinct subpopulations of hair cells in this ...
Obter este item de uma biblioteca Journal of experimental psychology: Human perception and performance.. [American Psychological Association.;]
This brings us to the second, and seemingly more plausible mechanism for our observations. The seminal work of Kuffler,46 and several subsequent investigations,47 have characterized the anatomic and neurophysiologic basis for CS lateral inhibition. In short, lateral inhibition is the result of retinal circuitry that is wired in such a way as to produce many thousands of overlapping, roughly concentric, subtractive regions called receptive fields.48 Light differentially affects the center versus surround regions of the receptive field and, ultimately, the perceived difference between the two yields the visual systems ability to detect edges (i.e., contrast). The arrangement of the receptive fields is such that a difference in CS is a function of spatial frequency, and this phenomenon is known as the contrast sensitivity function (CSF), and, when tested with sinusoidal gratings, its peak generally is found to be approximately 4 cycles/deg (although the function is fairly broadly tuned).49 Based ...
We assessed the accuracy of contrast-defined shape detection of stimuli of constant aspect ratio, namely, circular bandpass stimuli whose radii were sinusoidally varied about a mean radius. Performance for these contrast-defined shapes, which we show is determined by the global rather than the local attributes of the stimulus, is 2-8 times worse than that for their luminance-defined counterparts, suggesting separate processing limitations. By spatially and orientationally filtering the two-dimensional fractal-noise carriers of which these stimuli were composed, we determined whether there are specific rules concerning the spatial and orientational input to shape detectors from mechanisms sensitive to the carrier structure. The results suggest that second-order circularity detectors receive mixed input from spatial-frequency-tuned and orientationally tuned cells.. © 2001 Optical Society of America. Full Article , PDF Article ...
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View Notes - Motion from PSYC 225 at UNC. predators motion information • Sex and emotional state • 3d shape from 2d motion o Events thats elicit motion perception Real motion Illusory motion
The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice talks about cough frequency patterns differ between patients with and without asthma.
PSY 31000 -- Sensory and Perceptual Processes. (Credit Hours: 3.00). A survey of the study of psychological experiences caused by stimulation to the senses. Topics include theory and research in seeing, hearing, touching, smelling, and tasting as experienced by humans and other animals. Typically offered Falland Spring.. PSY 62700 -- Advanced Topics in Visual Perception. (Credit Hours: 3.00). All important aspects of visual perception are covered: neurophysiology and neuroanatomy, psychophysics, color, perceptual organization, size, shape, depth, motion, and binocular disparity. Emphasis is on mathematical and computational models and on experimental verification of the models. Course work in Mathematics; including matrix algebra, calculus, probability, and elementary geometry. Typically offered Fall and Spring.. ...
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A deferred graphics pipeline processor comprising a texture unit and a texture memory associated with the texture unit. The texture unit applies texture maps stored in the texture memory, to pixel fragments. The textures are MIP-mapped and comprise a series of texture maps at different levels of detail, each map representing the appearance of the texture at a given distance from an eye point. The texture unit performs tri-linear interpolation from the texture maps to produce a texture value for a given pixel fragment that approximates the correct level of detail. The texture memory has texture data stored and accessed in a manner which reduces memory access conflicts and thus improves throughput of said texture unit.
Info concerning Rockford University experimental psychology. There are a variety of accredited college programs that may appeal to you. Advertising, business administration, or medical services are just a few career options.
On Friday last, Minister of State Paudie Coffey officially opened two new laboratories at Waterford Institute of Technologys (WIT) €4 million Vision Research Centre which houses the Macular Pigment Research Group (MPRG). The new labs will support the MPRGs ambition to generate viable industry for the south east by developing more efficient methods of harvesting lutein,
The aim of my research is to understand how we use our senses of vision and touch to gather information about the world and how we use that information to make decisions that are critical for our personal survival and well-being. In the visual domain, I study how humans perceive the colour, form, and motion of visual objects and make decisions based on those perceptions. In the somatosensory system, I am mostly interested how the sensory sheet of the body surface is topographically mapped onto cortical (and subcortical) areas and how other basic stimulus properties are encoded in the brain.. I use a combination of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), psychophysics, and computational modeling. Most recently, I have conducted MRI experiments at very high field (7 T) in collaboration with colleagues at the Sir Peter Mansfield MR Centre at the University to explore the use of functional and anatomical imaging at very high spatial resolution.. ...
Witton, Caroline; Talcott, Joel B. and Henning, G. Bruce (2017). Psychophysical measurements in children:challenges, pitfalls, and considerations. PeerJ, 2017 (5), Shore, Robert; Covill, Laura; Pettigrew, Kerry A.; Brandler, William M.; Diaz, Rebeca; Xu, Yiwang; Tello, Javier A.; Talcott, Joel B.; Newbury, Dianne F.; Stein, John; Monaco, Anthony P. and Paracchini, Silvia (2016). The handedness-associated PCSK6 locus spans an intronic promoter regulating novel transcripts. Human Molecular Genetics, 25 (9), pp. 1771-1779. Ivanova, Masha Y.; Achenbach, Thomas M.; Rescorla, Leslie A.; Turner, Lori V.; Árnadóttir, Hervör Alma; Au, Alma; Caldas, J. Carlos; Chaalal, Nebia; Chen, Yi Chuen; da Rocha, Marina M.; Decoster, Jeroen; Fontaine, Johnny R.J.; Funabiki, Yasuko; Guðmundsson, Halldór S.; Kim, Young Ah; Leung, Patrick; Liu, Jianghong; Malykh, Sergey; Marković, Jasminka; Oh, Kyung Ja; Petot, Jean-Michel; Samaniego, Virginia C.; Ferreira de Mattos Silvares, Edwiges; Šimulionienė, Roma; Šobot, ...
Downloadable (with restrictions)! Abstract The integration of emerging economies with developed economies has changed the behaviour of interest rates and exchange rate fluctuation. The current study tries to analyse the implication of expectation hypothesis (EH) and term structures of interest rates between India and US. Using vector auto regressive estimates, the study tries to test the dynamic interdependence of interest rates on exchange rate fluctuation. Further, the study estimates Granger causality tests and Impulse Response Functions to test the behaviour of interest rate movements for a period of nineteen years ranging from June 1996 to June 2015.The empirical results of the study show evidence in line with the existence of EH in the case of emerging market. Nevertheless, in the case of advanced economies we do not find any evidence for EH. The findings revealed that the spread between long and short rate of India is influenced by short-term interest rates and past values of Indian spread. This
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This system use a back and forth motion case UHING, mechanism which transforms the continuous rotation motion of a smooth shaft in a linear back and forth motion. Cinematically, it is like a screw-nut system. However two supplementary functionalities can be achieved : the setting of the thread of the screw-nut system and the change of the thread direction (helix on the left or on the right). This last functionality allows to change the displacement direction of the case. Otherwise, thanks to a special feature, the inversion of the translation direction of the case is almost instantaneous.. These mechanisms are used a lot in the winding techniques. They are used to distribute correctly the wires or the cables on a bobbin. Technically, for this operation, it is important to check:. ...
The Echo Locations project is a series of site-specific installations utilizing motion sensing to invite observers to slow down, give the site their attention, and be still long enough for ghostly images to form of how people have moved through the site in the past. The project builds on motion capture, particle systems, and slow interaction techniques developed for Will.0.w1sp. However, whereas the Will.0.w1sp characters move through motion sequences captured in a studio, Echo Locations makes a stronger link to specific locations by capturing motion in real life. The characters recreated by the particle software become similar to ghosts repeating movements that once occurred in the location. Only when visitors to the site are still and quiet do the projections reform and return to their movements.. The intention of the piece is to use interaction to make visitors reflect on their personal impact on an environment as they move through a location, and to hint at its history. The installation uses ...
Showing this optical illusion to monkeys reveals it works by tricking the neurons that perceive global motion into overriding those that track local motions
Caldercraft Grating Set 33x33mm C86050, Model Ship Fittings. hese grating sets assemble to give a grating measuring 33mm wide, 33mm long and 3mm hig