Objective To test psychometrics of the Short Form 36 Health Survey version 2 (SF-36v2) and the Quality of Life Scale for Drug Addicts (QOL-DAv2.0) in Chinese mainland patients with methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). Methods A total of 1,212 patients were recruited from two MMT clinics in Xian, China. Reliability was estimated with Cronbachs α and intra-class correlation (ICC). Convergent and discriminant validity was assessed using multitrait-multimethod correlation matrix. Sensitivity was measured with ANOVA and relative efficiency. Responsiveness was evaluated by pre-post paired-samples t-test and standardized response mean based on the patients health status changes following 6-month period. Results Cronbachs α of the SF-36v2 physical and mental summary components were 0.80 and 0.86 (eight scales range 0.73-0.92) and the QOL-DAv2.0 was 0.96 (four scales range: 0.80-0.93). ICC of the SF-36v2 two components were 0.86 and 0.85 (eight scales range: 0.72-0.87) and the QOL-DAv2.0 was 0.94 (four
Evidence-based assessment of the psychometric properties of available paediatric sleep instruments is needed (Lewandowski et al., 2011; Spruyt and Gozal, 2011). The current study examined the factor structure, internal consistency reliability and concurrent validity of the ASHS using a community-based urban sample of 16-19-year-old adolescents. The empirical factor structure of the revised 24-item scale (ASHSr) is largely consistent with the theoretically based structure proposed initially (LeBourgeois et al., 2005), with the exceptions that the cognitive and emotional domains were combined into one factor and a new behavioural arousal construct was identified. Internal consistency reliability of the ASHSr as well as concurrent validity with objective measures of sleep and convergent validity with behavioural outcomes indicate that the ASHSr has satisfactory psychometric properties for a research instrument to assess adolescent sleep hygiene.. Sleep hygiene was correlated modestly with objective ...
I just finished reading some recent articles from Denny Borsboom. Two of them deal with diagnostic and the international classification of diseases from a measurement and conceptual perspectives. These are actually really excellent papers as they bring psychometrics in the field of health measurement and diagnostic.. ...
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This study investigated psychometric properties of an instrument for assessing perceived occupational value, the 26-item OVal-pd. Data from 225 Swedish subjects with and without known mental illness were analysed regarding fit to the Rasch measurement model (partial credit model), differential item functioning (DIF), and functioning of the OVal-pd four-category response scale. The reliability (index of person separation, analogous to Cronbachs alpha) was good (0.92) but there were signs of overall and item level (six items) misfit. There was DIF between people with and without mental illness for three items. Iterative deletion of misfitting items resulted in a new 18-item DIF-free scale with good overall and individual item fit and maintained reliability (0.91). There were no disordered response category thresholds. These observations also held true in separate analyses among people with and without mental illness. Thus, the first steps of ensuring that occupational value can be measured in a ...
Key concepts in classical test theory are reliability and validity. A reliable measure is one that measures a construct consistently across time, individuals, and situations. A valid measure is one that measures what it is intended to measure. Reliability is necessary, but not sufficient, for validity. Both reliability and validity can be assessed statistically. Consistency over repeated measures of the same test can be assessed with the Pearson correlation coefficient, and is often called test-retest reliability.[14] Similarly, the equivalence of different versions of the same measure can be indexed by a Pearson correlation, and is called equivalent forms reliability or a similar term.[14] Internal consistency, which addresses the homogeneity of a single test form, may be assessed by correlating performance on two halves of a test, which is termed split-half reliability; the value of this Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient for two half-tests is adjusted with the Spearman-Brown ...
Procedures for Estimating Internal Consistency Reliability Prepared by the Iowa Technical Adequacy Project (ITAP) July, 003 Table of Contents: Part Page Introduction...1 Description of Coefficient Alpha...3
This large national survey of patients with RA or axSpA generated two principal results. First, almost one-fifth (17.2%) of evaluated patients had high fear scores, despite both diseases being typically well managed, and these scores were associated with psychological distress. Thus, the fears identified in this study may reflect psychological distress, and need to be addressed even in patients who have moderate to low disease activity. Second, we have developed the FAIR questionnaire: a disease-specific, psychometrically validated PRO to measure disease and treatment-related fears in patients with RA or axSpA. This instrument demonstrated acceptable psychometric properties: notably unidimensionality, high internal coherence, good discriminant validity and adequate test-retest stability. The FAIR is short (10 items), simple to score and may be a useful tool both in routine practice and clinical trials.. The strengths of this study include the size of the study population, the high level of ...
Using emerging international guidelines, stringent procedures were used to develop and evaluate Canadian-French, German and UK translations/adaptions of the 50 item, parent-completed Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ-PF50). Multitrait analysis was used to evaluate the convergent and discriminant validity of the hypothesized item sets across countries relative to the results obtained for a representative sample of children in the US. Cronbachs alpha coefficient was used to estimate the internal consistency reliability for each of the health scales. Floor and ceiling effects were also examined. Seventy-nine percent of all the item-scale correlations achieved acceptable internal consistency (0.40 or higher). The tests of the item convergent and discriminant validity were successful at least 87% of the time across all scales and countries. Equal item variance was observed 90% of the time across all countries. The reliability coefficients ranged from a low of 0.43 (parental time impact, Canadian English) to a
Psychometric Tests - Free download as Powerpoint Presentation (.ppt), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or view presentation slides online. Psychometric Tests
Reviews the book, Psychometrics and Psychology by Paul Kline (1979). The author believes that human variation should be studied by analyzing data from "psychometric tests" usually written multiple-choice tests. Test validity is to be established by the factor structure of tests batteries. Tests are thus validated by their correlation with other tests. Criterion-referenced evaluations, such as studies of contrasts between the scores of reference groups, are seen as suspect. Criterion-referenced tests may provide a description, but because of factor impurity, criterion-referenced tests are not valid scientific instruments. Experimental studies of cognition and personality may complement information gathered from psychometric investigations, but because of their necessarily small sample sizes, such studies are to be regarded as secondary psychometrics. Having thus set the ground rules, Kline presents a cursory discussion of standard test theory. The brevity is unfortunate, because undefined terms ...
Lori McLeod, PhD, is Head of Psychometrics and Executive Director, Patient-Centered Outcomes Assessment at RTI Health Solutions. Dr. McLeod is a psychometrician with more than 20 years of measurement experience, including expertise in instrument development and validation, as well as experience developing appropriate health outcome strategies. In her Psychometrics role, she has conducted many psychometric evaluations of both paper-and-pencil and computer-administered instruments. These investigations have included the assessment of scale reliability, validity, responsiveness, and work to identify PRO responders. In addition, Dr. McLeod has experience conducting and analyzing data from clinical trials and observational studies, including data to document burden of disease and treatment benefit. Dr. McLeod has published numerous related manuscripts in Quality of Life Research, Value in Health, Pharmacoeconomics, Mayo Clinic Proceedings, and Psychometrika. She has experience in a wide variety of ...
This study examined the psychometric properties of the eight-item Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PACES) in Hong Kong older adults. Study 1 assessed the scales factor validity and test-retest reliability, whereas Study 2 examined its convergent validity in Hong Kong older adults. A total of 168 (Study 1) older adults completed the PACES twice over a 2-week interval, and 57 (Study 2) older adults completed both the eight-item PACES and a measure of quality of life. The results of both studies showed that the eight-item PACES had a high degree of internal consistency. Both the composite reliability and average variance extracted from Study 1 were high, suggesting that as a set, the eight items of the PACES reliably measured the construct. The observed test-retest reliability was satisfactory over a 2-week interval. This eight-item PACES is an expedited and reliable instrument for assessing physical activity enjoyment in Chinese older adults. ...
Results: Findings from the exploratory factor analysis of the MLHFQ revealed three factors (physical, emotional and social) that explained 72 % of the total variance. Mokken analysis confirmed the MLHFQ total scale, and the three subscales, as valid ordinal scales: the total MLHFQ scale [overall Loevinger coefficient (H) = 0.61], physical scale (H = 0.75), emotional scale (H = 0.79) and social scale (H = 0.552). Rasch analysis confirmed the physical scale as a unidimensional scale, but this was not consistent for the total MLHFQ scale which showed poor fit to the Rasch model (χ 2 = 162), df = 42, p , 0.0001). Six items of the total scale were misfitting (7, 8, 10, 14-16) and removing them improved the fit of the total scale. The physical subscale showed fit to the Rasch model (χ 2 = 20.24, df = 16, p = 0.21), and there was evidence of unidimensionality (t tests = 0.09, lower bound 95 % CI 0.04). There was evidence of disordered thresholds for the MLHFQ total and physical scale, and targeting ...
This thesis compromise four studies, three regarding psychometrics and norms of parent rating scales, and one study regarding effectiveness of two different interventions. A normative sample consisting of 1443 parents with children aged 10 to 13 years old, was used in the Study I, II and III. In Study IV, 231 self-referred parents with children aged 10-13 years old with externalizing behavior problem (EBP) were randomized to either Family Check-Up (FCU) or iComet.. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) used in Study I proved to be a reliable and valid instrument with high internal consistency, clear factor structure and high correlation with other similar instruments. In addition, the results support the online use of SDQ as well as using norms obtained through traditional administration even when the SDQ has been administrated online. The Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ) investigated in Study II was shown to have adequate reliability and construct validity. The specific use ...
Organisations should embrace the use of psychometric assessment to improve their health and safety cultures, according to practitioners in the field.
Comparisons of competing models using confirmatory factor analyses indicated that the four-factor model (somatic symptoms, depressed affect, positive affect, and interpersonal difficulties) possessed the best model fit (CFI=0.98; TLI= 0.98; RMSEA=0.05). CTT analyses showed that the CES-D had satisfactory internal consistency (α=0.74-0.87). Rasch analyses supported the unidimensionality of each CES-D subscale with no misfit item. Rating scale analyses indicated the need to collapse response categories 2 and 3 of the somatic symptoms subscale. Reliability analyses indicated satisfactory item reliability but poor person separation of all subscales. A floor effect for persons and an uneven spread of items across the spectrum were observed. A total of 3 differential item functioning (DIF) items (depressed affect: 1; somatic symptoms: 2) across gender, and 1 DIF item (depressed affect: 1) across the time course of recovery were found but none of them reached practical relevance. All items of the ...
A brief measure is needed to examine the role of hopelessness on mental and physical health outcomes in large population studies. We examined the validity and reliability of two brief measures of hopelessness in a large non-clinical sample, one negatively valenced (Brief-H-Neg) and one positively valenced (Brief-H-Pos). Both were shown to correlate strongly with the longer BHS and mirror the positive correlation seen between the BHS and a measure of depression, providing evidence of concurrent validity, with adequate internal consistency and test-retest reliability.. The sizes of the 2-week retest correlations for the brief measures reported in our non-clinical sample (0.67 and 0.72) are similar to those reported for the BHS in a sample of university undergraduates over a 3-week retest interval (0.67, female students) or a 10-week interval (0.75).25 ,26 Studies assessing the retest reliability of hopelessness instruments have reported varying retest intervals. Hopelessness may be conceptualised ...
Background and Objectives: The aim of the present research is to study the questions used in the 2018 MIR exam (a test that allows access to specialized medical training in Spain), describe their psychometric properties, and evaluate their quality. Materials and Methods: This analysis is performed with the help of classical test theory (CTT) and item response theory (IRT). The answers given to the test questions by a total of 3868 physicians are analyzed. Results: According to CTT, the average difficulty index for all of the test questions was 0.629, which falls into the acceptable category. The average difficulty index with correction for random effects was 0.515, which corresponds to a value within the optimal range. The mean discrimination index was 0.277, which is in the good category, while the mean point biserial correlation coefficient, with a value of 0.275 fits in the regular category. The values of difficulty and discrimination calculated according to the model of two parameters of the IRT
Preface to the first edition. Preface to the second edition. List of abbreviations. Part A. Introduction. 1. Introduction. 1.1 Patient-reported outcomes? 1.2 What is quality of life? 1.3 Historical development. 1.4 Why measure quality of life? 1.5 Which clinical trials should assess quality of life? 1.6 How to measure quality of life. 1.7 Instruments. 1.8 Conclusions. 2. Principles of measurement scales. 2.1 Introduction. 2.2 Scales and items. 2.3 Constructs and latent variables. 2.4 Indicator variables and causal variables. 2.5 Single global questions versus multi-item scales. 2.6 Single-item versus multi-item scales. 2.7 Psychometrics and item response theory. 2.8 Psychometric versus clinimetric scales. 2.9 Sufficient causes and necessary causes. 2.10 Discriminative, evaluative and predictive instruments. 2.11 Measuring quality of life: indicator or causal items? 2.12 Conclusions. Part B. Developing and Testing Questionnaires. 3. Developing a questionnaire. 3.1 Introduction. 3.2 General ...
Fits Rasch models (RM), linear logistic test models (LLTM), rating scale model (RSM), linear rating scale models (LRSM), partial credit models (PCM), and linear partial credit models (LPCM). Missing values are allowed in the data matrix. Additional features are the ML estimation of the person parameters, Andersens LR-test, item-specific Wald test, Martin-Löf-Test, nonparametric Monte-Carlo Tests, itemfit and personfit statistics including infit and outfit measures, various ICC and related plots, automated stepwise item elimination, simulation module for various binary data matrices.. ...
97) Muthén, B. (2002). Statistical and substantive checking In growth mixture modeling. [Available as PDF] 98) Muthén, B., Jo, B. & Brown, C. H. (2002). Assessment of treatment effects using latent variable modeling: Comments on the New York school choice study. [Available as PDF] 99) Muthen, B. (2004). Latent variable analysis: Growth mixture modeling and related techniques for longitudinal data. In D. Kaplan (ed.), Handbook of quantitative methodology for the social sciences (pp.345-368). Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications. [Available as PDF]. 100) Lubke, G.H. & Muthén, B. (2005). Investigating population heterogeneity with factor mixture models. Psychological Methods, 10, 21-39. [Available as PDF]. 101) Muthén, B. (2006). Should substance use disorders be considered as categorical or dimensional? Addiction, 101, 6-16. [Available as PDF] 102) Muthén, B. & Asparouhov, T. (2006). Item response mixture modeling: Application to tobacco dependence criteria. Addictive Behaviors, 31, 1050-1066. ...
van der Meer, H., Visscher, C., Engelbert, R. H. H., Mulleners, W., Nijhuis-van der Sanden, M. W. G., & Speksnijder, C. M. (2017). Development and psychometric validation of the headache screening questionnaire. Abstract from WCPT , Capetown ...
We previously developed and psychometrically validated a self-reported memory problem (SRMP) measure using principal component analysis. In the present study, w...
If you have a question about this talk, please contact Professor John Rust.. Optimal design allows for estimating parameters of statistical models according to important optimality criteria, e. g., minimizing standard errors of estimators. Thus, optimal designs may considerably reduce the number of experimental units, such as respondents or items in empirical studies. For a long time, optimal design has not received much attention within psychology, but meanwhile interest for this subject is rapidly increasing as such designs are needed, e. g., in large scale assessment, adaptive testing or automatic item generation. In this presentation, first, fundamental principles of optimal design are introduced using well-known linear models, e. g. analysis of variance or simple regression. The rationale of adaptive, Bayesian, and minimax designs needed for nonlinear models will then be outlined. Such designs are presented for Item Response Theory (IRT) models, e.g., 1Pl and 2PL model or linear logistic ...
Edited by Susan E. Embretson, Scott L. Hershberger. In this volume prominent scholars from both psychology and education describe how these new rules of measurement work and how they differ from the old rules. Several contributors have been involved in the recent construction or revision of a major test, while others are well-known for their…. Hardback - 1999-02-01 ...
Find out what your ideal summer vacation would be based on your individual MBTI personality type. How accurately does this describe your ideal vacation?
A study was undertaken to develop guidelines for the interpretation of the parameters of three multidimensional item response theory models and to determine...
Individuals differ in the intensity of exercise they prefer and the intensity they can tolerate. The purpose of this project was to develop a measure of individual differences in the preference for and tolerance of exercise intensity. The steps involved in (a) item generation and face validation, (b) exploratory factor analysis and item selection, (c) structural validation, (d) examination of the internal consistency and test-retest reliability, (e) concurrent validation, and (f) construct validation are described. The Preference for and Tolerance of the Intensity of Exercise Questionnaire (PRETIE-Q) is a 16-item, 2-factor measure that exhibits acceptable psychometric properties and can be used in research aimed at understanding individual differences in responses to exercise and thus the psychological processes involved in the public health problem of exercise dropout. ...
This new book investigates the relevant literature, mastering Rasch measurement and the Rasch Unidimensional Measurement Models (RUMM) computer program with its relevant statistics and their applications in the field of education ...
Purpose: Patient-reported outcomes should ideally be adapted to the individual patient while maintaining comparability of scores across patients. This is achievable using computerized adaptive testing (CAT). The aim here was to develop an item bank for CAT measurement of the pain domain as measured by the EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaire. Methods: The development process consisted of four steps: (1) literature search, (2) formulation of new items and expert evaluations, (3) pretesting and (4) field-testing and psychometric analyses for the final selection of items. Results: In step 1, we identified 337 pain items from the literature. Twenty-nine new items fitting the QLQ-C30 item style were formulated in step 2 that were reduced to 26 items by expert evaluations. Based on interviews with 31 patients from Denmark, France and the UK, the list was further reduced to 21 items in step 3. In phase 4, responses were obtained from 1103 cancer patients from five countries. Psychometric evaluations showed that ...
Psychometric assessment has become standard practice for most global organizations and companies with a keen interest in thorough employee selection and development. Today psychometric assessment is used by more than 80% of the Fortune 500 companies in the USA and by over 75% of the Times Top 100 companies in the UK.. Never before has the appropriate selection of effective psychometric assessment tools been more important.. Read the rest of this entry ». ...
Student understanding and competency in probability have been investigated from different perspectives. Competency is often measured in the form of tests. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether perceived understanding and competency can be calibrated and assessed together using Rasch measurement tools. The study comprised 44 students who enrolled in the STAT131 Understanding Uncertainty and Variation course at University of Wollongong, Australia. Their voluntary participation in the study was through the e-learning Moodle platform where tests and assessment were administered online. Data were analysed using the Rasch measurement models. The study revealed majority of the students had little understanding about conditional and independent events prior to learning them but tended to demonstrate a slightly higher competency level afterward. Based on the Rasch map, there is an indication of some increase in learning and knowledge about probability concepts at the end of the two weeks lesson.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Initial psychometric properties of the pain care quality survey (PainCQ). AU - Beck, Susan L.. AU - Towsley, Gail L.. AU - Pett, Marjorie A.. AU - Berry, Patricia H.. AU - Smith, Ellen Lavoie. AU - Brant, Jeannine M.. AU - Guo, Jia Wen. PY - 2010/12/1. Y1 - 2010/12/1. N2 - This study examined the psychometric properties of the Pain Care Quality (PainCQ) survey, a new instrument to measure the quality of nursing and interdisciplinary care related to pain management. Hospitalized medical/surgical oncology patients with pain from 3 states completed the 44-item version of the PainCQ survey following completion of a nursing shift. Interdisciplinary items were evaluated over the entire hospital stay; nursing care was evaluated during the previous shift. The sample included 109 patients ranging in age from 20 to 84 (mean = 53.09). The sample was 58.7% female, 88% non-Hispanic white. Principal Axis Factoring with an oblimin rotation was used as factors were correlated. Two scales ...
Research has demonstrated that cancer patients report problems with cognitive functioning related to their cancer and their cancer treatments. Cognitive complaints refer to subjective reports of problems such as decreased memory, attention, concentration, and language skills. These problems with cognitive functioning can interfere with a persons quality of life. The current measures of cognitive complaints have poor or unknown psychometric properties. Therefore, the present study sought to examine the psychometric properties of a newly developed measure of cognitive complaints for cancer patients, the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy Cognitive Scale (FACT-Cog). Eighty-two patients were administered a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests assessing memory, executive functioning, motor, and attention, as well as a battery of psychosocial measures six months or twelve months after receiving a bone marrow transplant. Results indicated that the internal consistency reliability of the FACT
immune Uncategorized BIBR-1048, RPB8 Background Little is known about the psychometric properties of alcohol abuse and dependence criteria among recent-onset adolescent drinkers, particularly for those who consume alcohol infrequently. be endorsed at higher AUD severity. Two criteria, tolerance and time spent getting, using or recovering from alcohol showed differential item functioning between drinking frequency groups (< 7 vs. 7 days in past month), with lower discrimination and severity for more frequent drinkers. DSM-IV criteria were most precise for intermediate levels of AUD severity. Conclusions All but two DSM-IV criteria had consistent psychometric properties across drinking frequency groups. Symptoms were most precise for a narrow, intermediate range of AUD severity. Those assessing AUD in recent onset adolescent drinkers might consider additional symptoms to capture the full AUD continuum. = 9,356 individuals ages 12C21 who reported (1) drinking in the past month and (2) their first ...
Certainly, the main difficulty of this study is the limited sample size. However, the aim was to find a way to reasonably evaluate rating scale type assessment instruments at an early stage (which implies a small sample), and thereby make it possible to introduce improvements or evaluate the appropriateness of their use before a further large scale application. Furthermore, the history tells us that small studies are carried out quite frequently. We therefore suggest this 3- step strategy, which starts out from the use of sum score as the aggregated message from an instrument. It is well known that statistical models are vulnerable when applied on small samples. The sum score model is a model based solely on conditions in the assessment instrument - equally weighted items with unit distances between item categories - a fact which is often overlooked. In step 1, the nonparametric approach, basic characteristics are revealed with as few modelling restrictions as possible and form the basis for ...
The primary studies often use a range of statistics to present their results. Convenience functions to convert these onto a common metric are presented by: compute.es which converts from various statistics to d, g, r, z and the log odds ratio, MAc which converts to correlation coefficients, MAd which converts to mean differences, and metafor which converts to effect sizes an extensive set of measures for comparative studies (such as binary data, person years, mean differences and ratios and so on), for studies of association (a wide range of correlation types), for non-comparative studies (proportions, incidence rates, and mean change). It also provides for a measure used in psychometrics (Cronbachs alpha). esc provides a range of effect size calculations with partial overlap with metafor but with some extras, noticeably for converting test statistics, also includes a convenience function for collating its output for input to another package like metafor or producing a CSV file. effsize ...
The primary studies often use a range of statistics to present their results. Convenience functions to convert these onto a common metric are presented by: compute.es which converts from various statistics to d, g, r, z and the log odds ratio, MAc which converts to correlation coefficients, MAd which converts to mean differences, and metafor which converts to effect sizes an extensive set of measures for comparative studies (such as binary data, person years, mean differences and ratios and so on), for studies of association (a wide range of correlation types), for non-comparative studies (proportions, incidence rates, and mean change). It also provides for a measure used in psychometrics (Cronbachs alpha). esc provides a range of effect size calculations with partial overlap with metafor but with some extras, noticeably for converting test statistics, also includes a convenience function for collating its output for input to another package like metafor or producing a CSV file. effsize ...
Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Cognition Disorders/*diagnosis/psychology; Female; Geriatric Assessment/*methods; Homes for the Aged/organization & administration; Humans; Ireland; Male; *Mental Status Schedule; *Neuropsychological Tests; Nursing Homes; Predictive Value of Tests; Psychometrics/ ...
1989) CLASSICAL TESTS FOR CONTEMPORANEOUSLY UNCORRELATED DISTURBANCES IN THE LINEAR SIMULTANEOUS-EQUATIONS MODEL. JOURNAL OF ECONOMETRICS, 42 (3). pp. 299-317 ...
Zenger, M., Körner, A., Maier, G. W., Hinz, A., Stöber-Richter, Y., Brähler, E., & Hilbert, A. (2015). The Core Self-Evaluation Scale: Psychometric properties of the German version in a representative sample. Journal of Personality Assessment, 97, 310-318. doi:10.1080/00223891.2014. ...
Revisiting developmental assessment of children. Schek 17 adapted the general functioning scale of the family to another cultural context, with a sample of 4, Chinese adolescents. The author obtained significant results similar to those investigated here: temporal stability and good internal consistency, good construct and concurrent validity, and the ability to discriminate between clinical and nonclinical groups. The author points out that the significant correlation of the GFF scale with other family functioning measures is a relevant finding, especially since the GFF is a fairly reduced scale compared to the others.. This result is at odds with Morris 13 and Aarons et al. Other studies report GFF scale measurement equivalence data. Georgiadis et al. This may indicate that this item represents the same idea of other items, therefore being redundant in this instrument. In the analysis, items 2 and 9 were maintained, despite the correlation. Operationally, this option would allow for ...
Dr. Bjorner will describe the unique features of item banks and CAT, discuss how to develop item banks, and describe some of the opportunities and challenges for using CAT in medical research. In CAT, a computer selects the items from an item bank that are most relevant for and informative about the particular respondent; thus optimizing test relevance and precision. Dr. Bjorner will discuss principles and practical experiences in developing item banks and CAT for health outcomes. In addition to the careful psychometric analysis, the clinical application of PROM assessments needs clear construct definitions, good items, and well-founded interpretation guidelines. The application of CAT in medical research offers new opportunities and challenges for test strategies and for the statistical analysis of data from a CAT. The strongest statistical analysis is usually achieved through expanded IRT models that specify the research question of interest as a parameter in the model. Such specialized IRT ...
1]The American Board of Pediatrics is sponsoring the Future of Testing Conference, bringing together approximately 75 leaders from the educational and pediatric communities to hear speakers and presentations, and work in small discussion groups to explore new methods to better assess physician competencies.. Professor Cees P.M. van der Vleuten, Scientific Director, School of Health Sciences Education,University of Maastricht, Netherlands, will be the opening keynote speaker.. "Our goal is to elicit best thinking and facilitate small-group dialogue at this conference," says Linda Althouse, PhD, ABP Vice President of Psychometrics, Research, and Testing Services. "The ABP recognizes the ongoing changes occurring in physician practice, as well as the rapid advances in assessment, and wants to identify and explore new methods that may better assess physician competencies.". Some topics to be explored at the conference include:. ...
1]The American Board of Pediatrics is sponsoring the Future of Testing Conference, bringing together approximately 75 leaders from the educational and pediatric communities to hear speakers and presentations, and work in small discussion groups to explore new methods to better assess physician competencies.. Professor Cees P.M. van der Vleuten, Scientific Director, School of Health Sciences Education,University of Maastricht, Netherlands, will be the opening keynote speaker.. "Our goal is to elicit best thinking and facilitate small-group dialogue at this conference," says Linda Althouse, PhD, ABP Vice President of Psychometrics, Research, and Testing Services. "The ABP recognizes the ongoing changes occurring in physician practice, as well as the rapid advances in assessment, and wants to identify and explore new methods that may better assess physician competencies.". Some topics to be explored at the conference include:. ...
Find out more about Psychometrics Canada and the assessments we offer for employee & management selection and development. MBTI®, Strong, TKI, WPI.
An assessment is usually conducted over 6-8 clinical sessions and includes face-to-face interviews with the individual, significant others, and professionals involved. Telephone consultations with professionals/significant others may also be conducted as appropriate. The clients personal history and other relevant background information is explored. Direct observations alongside a battery of psychometric instruments are used to gain further insight into an individuals cognitive capacity, psychological and emotional functioning, and to identify specific strengths or weaknesses. This information is used in conjunction with the clinical interviews, psychometric testing and collateral information to gain an understanding of the offence and the dynamics involved. Depending on the offence in question, an assessment of risk of future offending is conducted using the most up-to-date risk assessment tools. Finally, recommendations regarding risk management and treatment are offered.. ...
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Thsi presnetation is the latest version of all the IRT presentation I made. This also contains Rasch analysis for polytomous scales.
Results. One factor (overall cognitive efficiency) explains 37% of the variance of the subscalesʼ results. The scale has satisfactory internal consistency (Cronbachʼs alfa = 0.83). Subjects with schizophrenia achieved significantly lower scores than healthy subjects. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) for discriminating between subjects with schizophrenia and healthy subjects was 0.83. Cut-off point of 16 raw points is 86% sensitive and has 70% specificity ...
The maintenance intervals below are for 2016 Audi models operating under normal conditions. For models exposed to severe conditions need some extra work done to keep them in tiptop shape. Maintenance schedules are included below and are followed by maintenance checklists that you can print for future reference.. Maintenance Schedules/Intervals. 5,000 Miles: Standard Maintenance Service with tire rotation. 15,000 Miles: Major Maintenance Service with additional items. 25,000 Miles: Standard Maintenance Service. 35,000 Miles: Major Maintenance Service with additional items. 45,000 Miles: Standard Maintenance Service. 55,000 Miles: Major Maintenance Service with additional items. 65,000 Miles: Standard Maintenance Service. 75,000 Miles: Major Maintenance Service with additional items. 85,000 Miles: Standard Maintenance Service. 95,000 Miles: Major Maintenance Service with additional items. 105,000 Miles: Standard Maintenance Service. 110,000 Miles: Timing Belt Replacement for Audi TTS only. 115,000 ...
Development and psychometric properties of the Hand-Use-at-Home questionnaire to assess amount of affected hand-use in children with unilateral paresis ...
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Abello, D. & Hernández, C. (2010). Diseño y validación de un modelo teórico e ins-trumental para la identificación de estilos de enseñanza en docentes universitarios [de-sign and validation of theoretical and intrumental model to identify the university pro-fessor´s teaching style]. Tesis de maestría. Universidad Pedagógica Nacional. Bogotá. http://repository.pedagogica.edu.co/bitstream/handle/20.500.12209/7798/TO-13140.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y Abello, D., Hernández, C. & Hederich, C. (2012). Características psicométricas del instrumento de estilos de enseñanza de Abello, Hernández y Hede-rich. [Psychometric characteristics from the Abello, Hernandez and Hede-rich teaching styles instrument] En Estilos de aprendizaje: investigaciones y ex-periencias: [V Congreso Mundial de Estilos de Aprendizaje], Santander, 27, 28 y 29 de junio de 2012. https://www.researchgate.net Alonso-Tapia, J. (1997). Motivar para el aprendizaje. Teoría y estrategias. Barcelona, España: Edebé. ...
Standard item response theory (IRT) models fit to dichotomous examination responses ignore the fact that sets of items (testlets) often come from a single common stimuli (e.g. a reading comprehension...
Conclusion: CBI-24 appears to be equivalent to the 42-item CBI in psychometric properties, validity, reliability, and scoring for caring behaviors ...
Now it works like that: Draw vertices array to framebuffer (framebuffer contents is black color, drawable quads (from vertices array) has white textures with various alpha values) If in same place is drawed two quads whos textures alpha is 0.5, that place has white quad with 1.0 alpha How to do so that if the place where I draw a textured quad with 0.5 alpha already has half-opaque white quad, dont add its alpha value to it (leave it white with 0.5 alpha)? And if I draw textured
A specific instrument, adapted to detect representations of NIV, it is being validated. It will be based on a modified version of the Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire (BMQ) developed by Prof. Dr. Rob Horne et al. This tool is used to check the patients beliefs regarding medications. It consists of two scales: Beliefs Specifications (10 items) and General Beliefs (8 items). In order to achieve the objectives of the study, we will use a modified version of the BMQ, adapted to detect representations of NIV. The unit of measure will be the scale that emerges from the test. All subjects will be assigned to psychometric assessment ...
A collection of functions useful in learning and practicing IRT, which can be combined into larger programs. Provides basic CTT analysis, a simple common interface to the estimation of item parameters in IRT models for binary responses with three different programs (ICL, BILOG-MG, and ltm), ability estimation (MLE, BME, EAP, WLE, plausible values), item and person fit statistics, scaling methods (MM, MS, Stocking-Lord, and the complete Hebaera method), and a rich array of parametric and non-parametric (kernel) plots. Estimates and plots Habermans interaction model when all items are dichotomously scored.. ...
The computer program Facets implements the many-facet Rasch measurement model (Linacre, 1989). Each ordinal observation is conceptualized to be the outcome of an interaction between elements, e.g., a student, an item and a rater. These interacting elements are modeled to be operating independently and their measures to combine additively on the latent variable. For instance each raters is modeled to exhibit a specific amount of leniency or severity, and to act as an independent expert, not as a scoring machine. The relationship between the ordinal observations and the linear measures of the elements is non-linear.. Danish Mathematician Georg Rasch (1960) constructed the necessary and sufficient mathematical model for the transformation of ordinal observations into linear measures. This model has the form of a logistic regression model, but each person and item is individually parameterized. In fact, it looks like a regression in which each item and each person is parameterized as a ...
Background: The main aim of this study was to assess the reliability and structural validity of the French version of the 12-item version of the Personal Report of Confidence as Speaker (PRCS), one of the most promising ...
Ok so I will be putting a list together with what contents can be found in what deadzones to help make looking for the rarer items needed to level up
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Version 3.2.3 and current 3.3. R.C / Windows 10 1) Default score 2) Toggle in Continuous view 3) Press I -> Add a flute -> Ok 4) Undo Result: crash
A rating response mechanism for ordered categories, which is related to the traditional threshold formulation but distinctively different from it, is formulated. In addition to the subject and item pa
This new format of our visceral courses focuses during the first part (three days) on liver, stomach, gall bladder, duodenum and small intestine. There will be clear instruction for anatomical topology, for detailed tests of mobility and motility of the organs, for their relations with vessels and sphincters. We will learn how to distinguish the role of ligaments and fascial envelopes. The goal of the course is to understand the meanwhile „classical" tests and treatment techniques within the context of new concepts, for example the viscoelasticity of some organs ...
Have you ever wondered what a world with 4 and more dimensions would look like? Here are some ideas on the multidimensionality of the space.
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Crafted from the highest quality materials, Diamatrix instruments are built tough to last long and provide continual value to you and your team. With a li
The Extranormal Institute is a strange and/or wonderful place where bizarre is the new normal. It makes good internal sense (as opposed to farce played for …
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Purpose: The sense of coherence (SOC) scale is widely used and has an extensive history in research. The psychometric properties of the SOC scale have been investigated using classic test theory, but modern test theory enables a more multifaceted investigation of the properties of the SOC scale. The aim of this study was to explore the measurement properties of the SOC scale using the Rasch measurement model.. Methods: SOC questionnaires from a sample of 623 healthy adults were analysed using Rasch analysis. Aspects analysed were rating scale functioning, item fit, unidimensionality, differential item functioning (DIF), targeting, and reliability.. Results: Rating scale analysis showed that the seven scale steps were not utilized in the intended manner and that a shortening to five categories would be beneficial. Twelve out of the 13 items showed acceptable goodness-of-fit and 43 % of the variance was explained by the SOC dimension in the principal components analysis. There was no DIF between ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Psychometric properties of a Persian-language version of the Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire. T2 - ATQ-Persian. AU - Ghassemzadeh, Habibollah. AU - Mojtabai, Ramin. AU - Karamghadiri, Narges. AU - Ebrahimkhani, Narges. PY - 2006/3. Y1 - 2006/3. N2 - Aims: To examine the psychometric properties of a Persian-language version of Hollon and Kendalls (1980) Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire (ATQ-Persian) - a measure of negative automatic thoughts in depression. Methods: In a sample of 125 student volunteers from two Iranian univers ities we assessed the internal consistency and test-retest reliability of ATQ-Persian, and examined its concurrent validity against the Beck Depression Inventory (Beck et al. 1996). We also examined the factor structure of the test through comparing the fit of various proposed factor-analytic models to the data using confirmatory factor analysis. Results: ATQ-Persian had excellent internal consistency (Cronbachs alpha = 0.96), test-retest reliability (r = ...
VAN ZYL, Casper J.J. y TAYLOR, Nicola. Evaluating the MBTI® Form M in a South African context. SA j. ind. Psychol. [online]. 2012, vol.38, n.1, pp.11-26. ISSN 2071-0763.. ORIENTATION: Psychological instruments require continued refinement, updating and evaluation. RESEARCH PURPOSE: To investigate the reliability, validity and differential item functioning of the MBTI® Form M across groups in South Africa using Classical Test Theory (CTT) and Item Response Theory (IRT) methods. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: To add to the continual research and improvement of the MBTI® Form M through the investigation of its psychometric properties across groups in South Africa. RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH AND METHOD: This study falls within the quantitative research paradigm. Classical test theory methods and Rasch analysis were used to evaluate the functioning of the MBTI Form M across gender and ethnic groups. A cross-sectional study was completed consisting of 10 705 South African respondents. MAIN FINDINGS: ...
hometric properties, construct validity, concurrent validity and the factor structure of the PAQ-C-It among general and clinical pediatric population. Study 1 (n = 1170) examined the psychometric properties, internal consistency, factor structure (exploratory factor analysis, EFA) and construct validity with enjoyment perception during physical activity. Study 2 (n = 59) reported on reliability, construct validity with enjoyment and BMI, and on cross-sectional concurrent validity with objectively measured MVPA (tri-axial accelerometry) over the span of seven consecutive days. Study 3 (n = 58) examined the PAQ-C-It reliability, construct validity with BMI and VO₂ max as the objective measurement among a population of children with congenital heart defects (CHD). In study 2 and 3, the factor structure of the PAQ-C-It was then re-examined with an EFA. The PAQ-C-It showed acceptable to good reliability (alpha .70 to .83). Results on construct validity showed moderate but significant association ...
The first version of the package plink has been uploaded to CRAN. plink is a package for conducting unidimensional IRT scaling and chain linking for multiple groups for single-format or mixed-format common items. The package supports eight IRT models and four calibration methods. Dichotomous Models: 1PL, 2PL, 3PL Polytomous Models: -Graded response model -Partial credit model -Generalized partial credit model -Nominal response model -Multiple-choice model Calibration Methods: -Mean/Mean -Mean/Sigma -Haebara -Stocking-Lord Any combination of dichotomous and polytomous items can be supplied with intermingled unique and common items for as many items and groups as system memory allows. Linking constants are computed and returned for all the calibration methods, and (if desired) ability and/or item parameters can be rescaled and returned using any of the estimated linking constants. Any of the included groups can be specified as the base scale, the characteristic curve methods can use symmetric or ...
OBJECTIVE: The objective was to create a linguistically and culturally validated Swedish version of the Valued Life Activities scale. The aim was also to describe its content and concurrent validity and its internal consistency in persons with rheumatoid arthritis.. METHODS: The Valued Life Activities scale was translated to Swedish and culturally adapted. In order to describe the content validity, both the Swedish and original Valued Life Activities scale were linked to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. The concurrent validity and internal consistency were evaluated in 737 patients with rheumatoid arthritis. To establish concurrent validity, the scale was correlated to disease activity, activity limitations, and life satisfaction. Internal consistency was assessed with Cronbachs alpha.. RESULTS: The equivalence of meaning between the Swedish and the original Valued Life Activities scale was ensured by harmonization review. Content validity was high when ...
Within structural equation modeling, the most prevalent model to investigate measurement bias is the multigroup model. Equal factor loadings and intercepts across groups in a multigroup model represent strong factorial invariance (absence of measurement bias) across groups. Although this approach is possible in principle, it is hardly practical when the number of groups is large or when the group size is relatively small. Jak, Oort and Dolan (2013) showed how strong factorial invariance across large numbers of groups can be tested in a multilevel structural equation modeling framework, by treating group as a random instead of a fixed variable. In the present study, this model is extended for use with three-level data. The proposed method is illustrated with an investigation of strong factorial invariance across 156 school classes and 50 schools in a Dutch dyscalculia test, using three-level structural equation modeling.
Background Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is widely used as an outcome measure in the evaluation of treatment interventions in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In order to address challenges associated with existing fixed-length measures (e.g., too long to be used routinely, too short to ensure both content validity and reliability), a COPD-specific item bank (COPD-SIB) was developed. Methods Items were selected based on literature review and interviews with Dutch COPD patients, with a strong focus on both content validity and item comprehension. The psychometric quality of the item bank was evaluated using Mokken Scale Analysis and parametric Item Response Theory, using data of 666 COPD patients. Results The final item bank contains 46 items that form a strong scale, tapping into eight important themes that were identified based on literature review and patient interviews: Coping with disease/symptoms, adaptability; Autonomy; Anxiety about the course/end-state ...
TY - CHAP. T1 - Psychometric Assessment Using Classic Neuropsychological and Virtual Reality Based Test: A Study in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and Schizophrenic Patients. AU - La Cascia, Caterina. AU - Francomano, Antonio. AU - La Barbera, Daniele. AU - La Paglia, Filippo. AU - Cipresso, Pietro. AU - Riva, Giuseppe. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - Assessment of neurocognitive functioning is a critical task in clinical settings. In many disorders, cognitive impairment precedes the onset of behavioral symptoms, and cognitive decline is a major factor contributing to functional disability. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the executive functions by comparing the evaluations obtained using a neuropsychological battery with the one obtained using the virtual reality version of the Multiple Errands Test (V-MET). The study population included three groups: 10 patients affected by Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD); 10 Schizophrenic patients; 10 healthy Controls. The results ...
The Rust Inventory of Schizotypal Cognitions (RISC) is a short objective inventory for assessing the cognitions associated with schizotypal personality disorder and acute schizophrenia.
This study was comprised of two phases. In Phase One an intense literature review was performed to facilitate item generation for the initial item-pool. This was then subjected to a review by a panel of experts to establish content validity. Phase Two involved the actual testing of the content validated item pool amongst a sample of ICU nurses from the target population. Ethical approval was obtained from the relevant hospitals. Classical Test Theory was implemented for psychometric evaluation of the instrument. Reliability of the instrument was addressed through the technique of test-retest reliability using Pearsons product-moment correlation coefficient and the Intra-Class correlation coefficient. Finally, the internal consistency of the instrument was addressed to examine the tools stability ...
Evaluating the psychometric properties of a newly developed instrument is critical to understanding how well an instrument measures what it intends to measure, and ensuring proposed use and interpretation of questionnaire scores are valid. The current study uses Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) techniques to examine the factorial structure and invariance properties of a newly developed construct called Superwoman Schema (SWS). The SWS instrument describes the characteristics of a superwoman (strong woman) which consists of 35 items representing five subscales: obligation to present an image of strength, obligation to suppress emotions, resistance to being vulnerable, intense motivation to succeed, and obligation to help others. Multigroup confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and a multiple indicators multiple causes (MIMIC) model were the SEM approaches used to examine measurement invariance in the SWS instrument. Specifically in the multigroup CFA analyses, configural invariance,
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To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to validate a questionnaire (translated into Brazilian Portuguese) that measures the quality of life of women diagnosed with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. The FACIT-CD questionnaire was developed by Rao et al. [6] in 2010. To date, no other studies have evaluated the psychometric properties of this instrument, which means that some comparisons are only exploratory.. The first test assessed the reliability of the questionnaire by analysing the internal consistency using Cronbachs alpha coefficient. Results higher than 0.70 indicate that the items on the scales or domains are homogeneous or that they measure the same attribute. In this study, the value on the relationship scale was lower than expected (0.66). However, other authors support the hypothesis that Cronbachs alpha values ​​higher than 0.60 could be acceptable [31]. Despite this assumption, we believe that a value of 0.70 ​​would be more desirable, and thus, we ...
If you believe that digital publication of certain material infringes any of your rights or (privacy) interests, please let the Library know, stating your reasons. In case of a legitimate complaint, the Library will make the material inaccessible and/or remove it from the website. Please Ask the Library, or send a letter to: Library of the University of Amsterdam, Secretariat, Singel 425, 1012 WP Amsterdam, The Netherlands. You will be contacted as soon as possible. ...
A total of 259 Mexican-American, bilingual women (English and Spanish), were recruited for the initial psychometric testing phase of the MBAQ and SMBAQ. The psychometric testing of the MBAQ and SMBAQ included the following steps: a) an estimate of the internal consistency reliability, utilizing Cronbachs alpha reliability coefficient, b) factor analysis, using principal components analysis with Varimax rotation, and c) paired t-test comparison of the means of the MBAQ and SMBAQ to establish their equivalence.. The sample size of 259 women was determined according to the formula of calculating 10 participants per item on a questionnaire (Nunnally & Bernstein, 1994). Since there were 25 items on both the MBAQ and SMBAQ, 250 participants were recruited into the study plus an additional nine participants to allow for questionnaires that would need to be eliminated because of incomplete or missing data on questionnaire items. Inclusion criteria for participants in the initial psychometric testing of ...
Jose Mestre, Carolyn Anderson, Hua Hua Chang, Gary Gladding and Katherine Ryan are leading a multidisciplinary effort that combines psychometrics and assessment, methodology, and science education to help retention of students in science and engineering. Findings from previous research show that lower performing students do not accurately predict their scores on exams. Such students tend to overestimate their performance, whether they predict performance before or after the exam. This unjustified optimism seems to reflect a tendency to confuse familiarity with the material and competence with the material. This is a critical problem because poor performance in introductory physics leads to poor retention of students in the engineering and science fields. Prof. Mestre and colleagues are tackling this problem from multiple perspectives. First, they are using advances in computer adaptive testing (CAT) to diagnose students problem solving and conceptual deficits prior to taking high-stakes course ...
Attitudes is a key help-seeking construct that influences treatment seeking behavior via intention to seek help, per the theory of planned behavior (TPB). This article presents the development and psychometric evaluation of the Mental Help Seeking Attitudes Scale (MHSAS), designed to measure respondents overall evaluation (unfavorable vs. favorable) of their seeking help from a mental health professional. In Study 1 (N = 857 United States adults), exploratory factor analysis (EFA), confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), and item response theory (IRT) analysis were used to identify an optimal set of 9 items that demonstrated initial evidence of internal consistency, unidimensionality, and strong measurement equivalence/invariance (ME/I) across gender, past help-seeking experience, and psychological distress ...
Patients with PAH are confronted with a growing number of therapeutic options, each of which is associated with its own unique delivery system. Because little to no comparative effectiveness data exists, patient preferences can often be the driving factor behind choice of therapy. Thus, treatment satisfaction is likely to be highly relevant in the management of PAH. In this study, we evaluated the psychometric characteristics of a relatively new treatment satisfaction measure, the TSQM, assessed among patients participating in a 12 week open-label study of inhaled PAH therapy. We found that transitioning from inhaled iloprost to inhaled treprostinil was associated with significant improvements in treatment satisfaction as measured by the TSQM. Domains of treatment satisfaction impacted included global satisfaction, effectiveness, and convenience, but not side effects. Overall, the TSQM showed high internal consistency, good convergent validity, and evidence of responsiveness to change over 12 ...
Conventional factor models assume that factor loadings are fixed over a long horizon of time, which appears overly restrictive and unrealistic in applications. In this paper, we introduce a time-varying factor model where factor loadings are allowed to change smoothly over time. We propose a local version of the principal component method to estimate the latent factors and time-varying factor loadings simultaneously. We establish the limiting distributions of the estimated factors and factor loadings in the standard large N and large T framework. We also propose a BIC-type information criterion to determine the number of factors, which can be used in models with either time-varying or time-invariant factor models. Based on the comparison between the estimates of the common components under the null hypothesis of no structural changes and those under the alternative, we propose a consistent test for structural changes in factor loadings. We establish the null distribution, the asymptotic local power
OBJECTIVE: Cancer-related fatigue (CRF) is one of the most common unrelieved symptoms experienced by patients. CRF is underrecognized and undertreated due to a lack of clinically sensitive instruments that integrate easily into clinics. Modern computerized adaptive testing (CAT) can overcome these obstacles by enabling precise assessment of fatigue without requiring the administration of a large number of questions. A working item bank is essential for development of a CAT platform. The present report describes the building of an operational item bank for use in clinical settings with the ultimate goal of improving CRF identification and treatment. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: The sample included 301 cancer patients. Psychometric properties of items were examined by using Rasch analysis, an Item Response Theory (IRT) model. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The final bank includes 72 items. These 72 unidimensional items explained 57.5% of the variance, based on factor analysis results. Excellent internal ...
There is growing evidence that Internet-mediated psychological tests can have satisfactory psychometric properties and can measure the same constructs as traditional versions. However, equivalence cannot be taken for granted. The prospective memory questionnaire (PMQ; Hannon, Adams, Harrington, Fries-Dias, & Gibson, 1995) was used in an on-line study exploring links between drug use and memory (Rodgers et al., 2003). The PMQ has four factor-analytically derived subscales. In a large (N = 763) sample tested via the Internet, only two factors could be recovered; the other two subscales were essentially meaningless. This demonstration of nonequivalence underlines the importance of on-line test validation. Without examination of its psychometric properties, one cannot be sure that a test administered via the Internet actually measures the intended construct. ...