Recent evidence suggests that attempts to tackle mental health stigma in athletes should include psychological theory to understand the competitive sport environment. Using the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA), the aim was to determine what demographic and psychological factors predicted mental health stigma among athletes. Athletes (n = 471) completed a questionnaire, and a multiple linear regression analyses was conducted, specifying demographic (e.g., gender), psychological (e.g., norms) and moderating variables (e.g., sport type) as predictors of stigma-related intentions to socialise with individuals who are living with a mental health condition. TRA models explained a significant amount of variance for intentions, in which knowledge about and exposure to individuals with mental health conditions significantly predicted better intentions. Further, athletes competing in team sports, particularly females, had stronger intentions. This was the first study to explore mental health stigma using ...
This article reviews the Akaike information criterion (AIC) and the Bayesian information criterion (BIC) in model selection and the appraisal of psychological theory. The focus is on latent variable models, given their growing use in theory testing and construction. Theoretical statistical results i …
Arnoud Arntz is professor of Clinical Psychology at the University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands, with an affiliation at Maastricht University, the Netherlands. His main research interests lie in the fields of PTSD and personality disorders, both applied and fundamental. He also practices as a psychotherapist at PsyQ in Amsterdam, where he treats patients with trauma and personality disorders. Together with Adam Radomsky he was editor of the Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry. His research focuses on psychological processes underlying personality disorders (PDs), especially borderline personality disorder (BPD), and anxiety disorders, especially PTSD; and their treatment. Using the approach of experimental psychopathology he tested psychological theories of anxiety disorders and PDs and contributed to the development of their psychological treatment. In developing and testing psychological theories and treatments he aims to connect basic research and clinical work. He is ...
My theories is behavior and social cognitive. Explain how these theories will influence the future of psychology. Explain if there is a new method that you can apply to or research in psychology. Explain how the information.
Introduction. What is meant by the term Successful Ageing? Refer to psychological research and theories in your answer. Word Count: 2763 (excluding quotations, in-text and end-text references) The last century has witnessed substantial increases in life expectancy at birth, significant medical advances, and increasing health and social care expenditure. These changes have collectively encouraged international interest in the promotion of healthier old age and how to age successfully. The idea of successful ageing has been the subject of investigations for a variety of academic disciplines for more than 3 decades. Earlier use of the term successful ageing has been found in the research reports of social scientists in the 1960s and 1970s (Havighurst, 1963; Williams and Wirths, 1965). While the 1980s and early 1990s had psychologists and behavioural scientists studying successful ageing (Ryff, 1982), more recent work shows an interest from physicians and health service researchers as well ...
The objective of this study was to identify factors derived from psychological models predictive of an evidence-based clinical behaviour, the placing of PFS in six to sixteen year old patients in Scotland. A theory-based questionnaire was developed to assess constructs from six models and applied to the prediction of clinical decision-making based on scenarios (behavioural simulation), as well as dentists intention to place PFS to manage caries in this age group.. Of the six models, only the CS-SRM did not explain a significant proportion of the variance in both behavioural simulation and intention. Only behavioural stage did not account for significant variance in behavioural simulation. The usual approaches to measuring behavioural stage in the literature were used in this study, but a more complex approach may be more informative in terms of the number and the nature of the stages when applied to clinical decision-making in specific situations (as depicted by the scenarios) rather than to a ...
Modern psychology has redefined the way we look at the human brain. We understand today that all of human behavior, motivation and personality stems from the foundation our brain establishes from the moment we exist. The world around us and how we react to it defines modern psychology. The human brain is the most complex…
Copyright Get Revising 2021 all rights reserved. Get Revising is one of the trading names of The Student Room Group Ltd. Register Number: 04666380 (England and Wales), VAT No. 806 8067 22 Registered office: International House, Queens Road, Brighton, BN1 3XE ...
The traditional physiologically defined activation or arousal continuum, which ranges from intense emotion and vigorous activity on one extreme to calmness and sleep on the other, is rejected in favor
Garlic has in vitro activity against many Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, including species of Escherichia, Salmonella, Staphylococcus,
This course provides a general introduction to the psychological theory and research in the areas of social, personality, developmental, health, and abnormal psychology. Broadly speaking, the course highlights the scientific approach to the study of behavior. We will examine such topics as how social interactions affect self-perception, how people make decisions about the causes and factors that influence their own behavior, what types of psychological and biological processes might contribute to individual differences (i.e., personality traits), what is the structure of personality, what processes might underlie normal development of cognition, speech, and emotional expression, what are the important stages of development, what is mental illness, what are the biological, social, and psychological processes that influence the development of mental disorders, what types of mental disorders are there, and how can they be effectively treated or prevented. It is assumed that all students enrolled in ...
This course provides a general introduction to the psychological theory and research in the areas of social, personality, developmental, and abnormal psychology. Broadly speaking, the course highlights the scientific approach to the study of behavior. We will examine such topics as how social interactions affect self-perception, how people make decisions about the causes and factors that influence their own behavior, what types of psychological and biological processes might contribute to individual differences (i.e., personality traits), what is the structure of personality, what processes might underlie normal development of cognition, speech, and emotional expression, what are the important stages of development, what is mental illness, what are the biological, social, and psychological processes that influence the development of mental disorders, what types of mental disorders are there, and how can they be effectively treated or prevented. It is assumed that all student enrolled in P102 ...
OUTLINE AND EVALUATE TWO SOCIAL PSYCHOLOICAL THEORIES OF AGGRESSION The first psychological theory of aggression is the social learning theory. This uses
This is a four-year degree at Goldsmiths. If you successfully achieve the progression requirements of the foundation year, you can continue with the full-time three-year BSc (Hons) Psychology. **Why study the Integrated Degree in Psychology at Goldsmiths?** - The programme is ideal if youre interested in psychology and its many applications, and want to boost your academic profile and progress to the full-time BSc Psychology. - There are no formal entrance requirements, you just need to demonstrate a lively interest in the world of psychology. - Youll attend a study skills course as part of the programme, to develop your academic writing and research skills. - We have excellent specialist and general-purpose research laboratories, including an EEG suite for brain research, an infant lab, and a visual perception and attention laboratory. The BSc Psychology degree offers a scientific approach to the study of human behaviour, giving a broad understanding of psychological theory and research. It ...
Introduction. Outline and assess none sociological theories of crime and deviance? Deviance is behavior that violates the norms and values of society and induces a negative reaction in a majority of the members of that society. An example of this would be burping in public. Crime is also behavior that violates the norms and values of society, however the behavior is deemed so bad to society that the state has put in place rules and punishments to stop this behavior from happening. An example of this is murder, and the punishment in UK is life imprisonment. Functionalist believe that deviance isnt a bad thing and that every society will generate deviance and have crime rates because the existence of norms and values and individual differences create deviance and rule breaking. There are many none sociological theories of crime and deviance. They can be split up into two categories biological and psychological theories. First I will look at biological theories and outline and assess their views ...
In many cases, the public (or large parts of it) want to restrict an activity or technology that they believe to be dangerous, but that scientific experts believe to be safe. There is thus a tension between respecting the preferences of the people and making policy based on our best scientific knowledge. Deciding how to make policy in the light of this tension requires an understanding of why citizens sometimes disagree with the experts on what is risky and what is safe. In this paper, we examine two highly influential theories of how people form beliefs about risks: the theory that risk beliefs are errors caused by bounded rationality and the theory that such beliefs are part and parcel of peoples core value systems. We then discuss the implications of the psychological theories for questions regarding liberal-democratic decision making: (1) Should policy be responsive to the preferences of citizens in the domain of risk regulation? (2) What risk-regulation policies are legitimate? (3) How should
The Doctor of Philosophy degree in Psychology is designed for students who have completed a masters degree and are interested in pursuing advanced doctoral training in topics related to health and mental health, statistics, and research methods. Graduates will have a reputation for research excellence and make contributions to applied areas of knowledge, especially in settings related to military health. Graduates are expected to have strong skills in conducting research including data analysis and interpretation, using the most advanced research methods and statistical techniques. Graduates are also expected to be able to implement practical applications of psychological theory in military environments and to have the communication skills necessary to convey their theoretical and methodological expertise to others. In order to meet these objectives, the program provides students with the opportunity to acquire a strong conceptual background in Psychology and gives them opportunities for ...
In his Pulitzer Prize-winning book, Denial of Death, cultural anthropologist Ernest Becker attempted to develop a unified theory of human behavior. He argued that it was the human capacity to grasp and contemplate our own mortality-and our need to suppress this knowledge-that was at the root of human culture and behavior, from genocide to altruism, religion to philosophy. Terror Management Theory (TMT) is a psychological theory directly based on Beckers work, developed by a group of social psychologists interested in testing Beckers assertions about death as a core motivator of human behavior. Over the last 25 years, psychologists in the North America, Europe and the Middle East have conducted hundreds of studies to test hypothesis derived from Beckers work and the Terror Management Theory it inspired. This body of research compellingly supports Beckers thesis and reveals the ways in which mortality salience influences behaviors ranging from aggression and stereotyping to creativity and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Virtual environments and autism: a developmental psychopathological approach. AU - Rajendran, G. PY - 2013/8. Y1 - 2013/8. N2 - Individuals with autism spectrum disorders supposedly have an affinity with ICT, making it an ideally suited media for this population. Virtual environments (VEs) - both two dimensional and immersive - represent a particular kind of ICT that might be of special benefit. Specifically, this paper discusses the importance of psychological theory for VE designed for this population. I describe the contribution that different theories of autism (e.g., theory of mind, executive function, weak central coherence theory) have made and can make, as well as the potential of other non-autism-specific theories (e.g., embodied cognition). These technologies not only illuminate our understanding of autism, but they can also be used to develop new technologies for people without autism. So, as well as being an area of specialism, I argue that VE research in autism has ...
Provides students with an understanding of the key theories, research methods, and discoveries in coping and resilience, identity development, interpersonal relationships, and mental health with an emphasis on developing the knowledge and skills necessary to be effective consumers of psychological theory and research. Through a focus on adjustment issues that arise in everyday life, this course will demonstrate some of the ways in which psychology can be used to benefit students wellbeing in their personal and professional lives. ...
A psychological approach to science; Problem contering vs. means centering in science; Preface to motivation theory; A theory of human motivation; The role of basic need gratification in psychological theory; The instinctoid nature of basic needs; Higher and lower needs; Psychopathogenesis and the theory of thereat; Normality, health and values.
Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience (CABN) offers theoretical, review, and primary research articles on behavior and brain processes in humans. Coverage includes normal function as well as patients with injuries or processes that influence brain function: neurological disorders, including both healthy and disordered aging; and psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and depression. CABN is the leading vehicle for strongly psychologically motivated studies of brain-behavior relationships, through the presentation of papers that integrate psychological theory and the conduct and interpretation of the neuroscientific data. The range of topics includes perception, attention, memory, language, problem solving, reasoning, and decision-making; emotional processes, motivation, reward prediction, and affective states; and individual differences in relevant domains, including personality. Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience is a publication of the Psychonomic Society and is ...
Staffordshire Universitys MSc Sport and Exercise Psychology offers students a critical understanding of current issues in psychological theory applied to sport and exercise settings.
Downloadable! This paper reviews the literature on one of the most meaningful concepts in modern behavioural finance, the overconfidence phenomenon. Overconfidence is presented as a well-developed psychological theory, with main facets comprising miscalibration, betterthan- average effect, illusion of control and unrealistic optimism. The primary applications of overconfidence in contemporary finance are analysed, from the perspective of financial markets and corporate behaviour. Experimental studies, formal models and analyses of market data demonstrate that overconfidence at least partially solves some financial market puzzles that cannot be accounted for by standard economic theory. Overconfidence in the corporate context may affect not only a companys internal financing structure, but also its interactions with other market participants through merger and acquisition activity.
Topic 2: Conflict and Cooperation. Generally, cognitive neuroscience aims to explain how mental processes such as believing, knowing, and inferring arise in the brain and affect behavior. Two behaviors that have important effects on the survival of humans are cooperation and conflict.. According to the NSF committee convened last year, conflict and cooperation is an important focus area for future cognitive neuroscience work. Although research in this area has typically been the domain of psychologists, it seems that the time is ripe to apply findings from neuroscience to ground psychological theories in the underlying biology.. Neuroscience has produced a large amount of information about the brain regions that are relevant to social interactions. For example, the amygdala has been shown to be involved in strong emotional responses. The mirror neuron system in the frontal lobe allows us to put ourselves in someone elses shoes by allowing us to understand their actions as though they were our ...
This is an evolving, online, open source, collaboratively authored collection of hundreds of chapters on unique motivation and emotion topics which emphasise how to improve our lives using psychological theory and research. Each chapter is accompanied by a 3-5 minute multimedia overview. This work has been developed through the Motivation and emotion unit at the University of Canberra (2010 - present).. ...
This entry focuses on recent psychological theory and research on sexual orientation and lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) issues, mostly from English-language journals and conducted in North America using quantitative methods. Unless authors have specifically used LGB, the term sexual minorities is used throughout because it is more inclusive and makes no assumptions about peoples self-labels. Also, the extant research tends to use broadly constituted samples and emphasizes common experiences related to minority status, even though the experiences of lesbians, gay men, and bisexual men and women vary substantially. Transgender issues are sometimes included with sexual orientation concerns (i.e., LGBT), but this article does not explicitly include gender-related expectations, diversity, and links to anatomical sex. Some research on bisexuality is included, although work with this focus is less common. Sexual orientation can be defined in multiple ways-most commonly, definitions focus on a) ...
While the general wisdom has it that behaviorism is dead, it not only survives but is intellectually active in areas such as psychological theory, the analysis of language and cognition, and behavioral economics. It is a successful, albeit limited, source of behavioral science. Its chief difficulty arises when its practitioners look out from their laboratory windows and attempt to explain the complexities of human behavior that will never be amenable to direct experimental investigation. Behavior analysis has failed to establish a methodology of interpretation to deal fully with such complexity. The message of this essay is that it cannot do so without embracing intentional explanation in the form of an interpretive overlay that plugs the gaps in its explanations of life beyond the lab.. ...
Examining the criminal mind is a fascinating and revealing journey. In this double degree, youll experience the mindsets of criminals, the perspectives of victims and the motivations of people working within the legal process. The course will equip you with the skills, knowledge and experience required to embark on a career in law, as well as a strong grounding in psychology and psychological theory, providing insights into the workings of the human mind. Through an optional professional placement you can develop networks and gain vital insight into career possibilities. Graduates may choose to pursue a career in one of the many facets of law, from health, social and disability services to youth services, corrective services, the armed services, research agencies and in education; or you can pursue postgraduate training for registration as a psychologist. This degree fulfils the academic requirements for admission to the legal profession in Australia. Professional admission authorities also require
Emily Impett is an Assistant Professor of Psychology at the University of Toronto Mississauga. She completed her PhD in Social Psychology at UCLA and completed two postdocs, the most recent at UC Berkeley. Dr. Impett applies and blends social psychological theories of close relationships and sexuality to understand when giving to a partner-both inside and outside of the bedroom-help versus harm relationships. Her research has been supported by grants from the National Institutes of Health, the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council, the Ontario Ministry of Research and Innovation, and the Canadian Foundation for Innovation, and she has received several research awards, including an award for Early Career Achievement from the International Association for Relationship Research.. ...
Various theories abound regarding how people make decisions, but at the end of the day they are all just theories. Until we can climb into peoples heads, we have to rely on psychological theory as a way to explain and understand whats going on so that we can motivate our…
Echelon Health have collaborated with one of the largest and world-leading contributors to the development of psychological theory and practice: Cambridge Brain Sciences, to offer a Neurocognitive brain assessment alongside our existing Health Assessments.. The revolutionary assessment will test core areas of cognition that are key to mental health and wellness and can also help determine any early signs of cognitive disorders such as Alzheimers Disease and Dementia.. The assessment is for anyone aged 18 and over who is interested in becoming educated on their brain health and functionality, or for those who are actively concerned about their cognitive function or risk of dementia.. The Neurocognitive assessment is an online brain health assessment that accurately measures core elements of cognitive function, including memory, attention, reasoning, and verbal abilities. The test is easy to follow and carried out in the comfort of your own home, once the assessment has been carried out, an ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Brief report: the relationship between visual acuity, the embedded figures test and systemizing in autism spectrum disorders. AU - Brosnan, Mark J. AU - Gwilliam, L R. AU - Walker, Ian. PY - 2012/11/1. Y1 - 2012/11/1. N2 - Enhanced performance upon the Embedded Figures Test (EFT) in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has informed psychological theories of the non-social aspects that characterise ASD. The Extreme Male Brain theory of autism proposes that enhanced visual acuity underpins greater attention to detail (assessed by the EFT) which is a prerequisite for Systemizing. To date, however, no study has empirically examined these relationships. 13 males with ASD and 13 male controls were assessed upon tasks argued to reflect these levels of processing. The ASD group were found to have significantly greater visual acuity, EFT performance and Systemizing ability than the control group. However, regression analysis revealed that the strongest relationship was between ...
Dr. Alex Terrazas says hes found a sure fire method for battling obesity. Its the psychological theory know as behavior modification, and hes using that principal along with high technology to motivate exercise.
With improved classroom performance an urgent goal in the U.S., a newly deployed intervention uses psychological theory introduced 50 years ago to show that a positive stimulus/response encounter can change human behavior. In the current study, researchers from the University of Chicago proved that test performance can
http://ift.tt/eA8V8J. When we are confronted with the acts of excessive and unprovoked violence, we cant help but wonder what is wrong with individuals committing such crimes. Think of serial killers: what motivates them? Both researchers and society, in general, have wanted to know how to explain the extreme brutality observed in some people. In most cases, they have no mental disorders that could explain their behavior. Even without going to the extremes, most of us did at some point in life come across people whose level of aggressiveness seemed beyond any reasonable explanation. Think of a hooligan looking for any excuse to pick a fight and beat someone up. Or a young boy torturing a defenseless animal with a smile on his face. Multiple theories were invented to this end, ranging from religious explanations (satanic possession) to scientific and psychological theories that involve a variety of mental disorders or problems with brain development.. The idea that excessive aggressiveness and ...
The very existence of the gender pay gap remains controversial, with some writers arguing that it does not exist, or that it exists for reasons other than structural inequality which disadvantages women.. But why does the gender gap remain controversial?. And why might people be opposed to action aimed at reducing it?. Threatening the ingroup. It may seem clear why men, for example, might question the existence of the gender pay gap. Organisations only have finite funds. Paying women more to reduce this gap directly affects men who may find their pay frozen or reduced in order to achieve the aim of equal pay based on gender.. We know from social psychological theory such as intergroup threat theory that groups are likely to see members of other groups as threats in many different ways, including as a direct threat to their own groups resources. There is also evidence that when people think about actions aimed at benefiting minority groups, they tend to concentrate on the potential effects on ...
Delineating the basic psychosocial and neurobiological processes of human cognition has been the principal goal of cognitive scientists throughout the past decades. Distinct lines of study have formed for the purposes of this undertaking, each with its own set of pros and cons. For instance, neuroimaging techniques link neural activity (or indirect measures of neural activity) with experimental manipulations that may not necessarily be informed by formal psychological theory. Behavioral approaches (e.g., psychophysics) potentially capture subjective experience but yield results that may not necessarily be predicted by models of cognition based solely on brain data. Computational models and quantitative descriptions of behavior (e.g., response time, performance accuracy) to infer cognitive processing sometimes do not take biological constraints into consideration. In recent years, the integration of these seemingly divergent approaches has led to the development of models that aim to unify brain and
This five-year longitudinal research study is designed to follow a diverse sample of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) youth, ages 15-24, and to examine changes in constellations, maginitudes, and developmental sequences of risk and protective factors for suicidal behaviors with a particular emphasis on the major components of the interpersonal psychological theory of suicide. Simultaneously, it is documenting whether or not the risk and protective factors for suicide are uniquely related to LGBT youths developmental milestones.. ...
Psychological theory has traditionally overlooked or minimized the role of siblings in development, focusing instead on parent-child attachment relationships. The importance of sisters has been even more marginalized. Sue A. Kuba explores this omission in The Role of Sisters in Womens Development, seeking to broaden and enrich current understanding of the psychology of women.
Each person experiences a vague, obnoxious diffuse sense of apprehension, often accompanied by headache, palpitation, sweating, stomach discomfort, chest tightness, and even irritability. This is called anxiety, an alerting reaction to an unknown and internal threat. Serving as a warning sign for an external or internal threat, it aids a person for survival thus, preventing one from pain, damage to organs, punishment/sanctions, and frustrating situations like separation from relatives and loved ones, and decline in social status. This brings about the necessary action to avoid or diminish the possible outcomes. Therefore, anxiety helps a person from damage and further dangers.. Anxiety disorders are the most prevalent group of psychiatric cases. Women are reported to have higher prevalence compared to men and overall prevalence is noted to be lower in higher socioeconomic status.. Several explanations contribute on the causes of anxiety. Psychological theories like the Psychoanalytic, Behavioral ...
BISAC: HEA007000. Pacing in Sport and Exercise: A Psychophysiological Perspective is the first book which comprehensively examines the way humans pace exercise and sporting activities. This concept represents an exciting opportunity to combine the latest physiological and psychological theories with practical sport and exercise applications. The book will be an essential read for sport and exercise science academics, students, coaches, athletes and general exercise enthusiasts.. Pacing is the strategy by which effort is managed across an exercise bout in relation to a specific goal and in the knowledge of the likely demands of the task. It is widely recognized that individuals distribute effort across a task and this is in evidence during all non-reflex exercise situations where individuals are able to receive and act upon neural feedback from peripheral physiologic systems. As such, pacing across a wide range of sport and exercise contexts is investigated and explained. Sporting activities as ...
Dr. Weber-Gasparonis research specialties include dental care for patients with special health care needs and infants, toddlers, and children of low-income, high risk populations. Her research includes early dental interventions, including early childhood caries, psychological theories of motivation, and public health issues affecting the health of pediatric dental patients.. ...
I get a sick feeling in the pit of my stomach when I read We did give electroshock therapy to thousands of patients during those same years, and all we managed to do was to separate a persons feelings from his consciousness; separate his memories from conscious/awareness. To make him emotionless and ahistoric. Is that what we want? There is something about that that brings me to the sick feeling of too much pain killer which I experienced shortly after back surgery. I never went for drugs because they all made me feel disconnected. What is life without a feeling connection? I am remembering when I used methods to ease first line pressure, something that seemed to get in the way of real connection or give me a rebound that I felt as anxiety. Ok, I dont want to go so far that this is a therapy session, but the reason psychological theories other than yours makes me angry and sick inside, just like religion, is that it is a kind of numbness to life. I cant see how that can help anyone. I am ...
Modern technology has now reached a point where improved safety can only be achieved through a better understanding of human error mechanisms. In its treatment of major accidents, the book spans the disciplinary gulf between psychological theory and those concerned with maintaining the reliabiblity of hazardous technologies. Much of the theoretical structure is new and original, and of particular importance is the identification of cognitive processes common to a wide variety of error types. ...
Talk if you can find someone who will listen.. I have a psychologist, an excellent one, to whom I bare my soul. He knows everything about me, the good things I do and the bad. He is an essential support. He helps me sift through my emotions, try to understand myself better, he is well educated on the currently accepted psychological theories on pretty much everything. He reframes what I am going through into a larger context and helps me put it into perspective.. He is very good at what he does.. But this is what he doesnt do. This is what he cant do:. He cant make me feel loved.. He cant make me feel like a worthwhile human being. He cant make me feel like a good person. He cant make me feel important in someone elses life.. He knows me well enough to know that I get a good deal of my self esteem from helping others. I was always this way, because I could be. I had heaps of energy, and heaps left over to give. When I got sick, I lost that energy, but I didnt lose that desire. I ...
What the sick hoped to be cured of was sometimes described as a pathos (from which our term pathology comes), but that term could include anything that happened to you or that you underwent or suffered (the cognate verb pascho has those senses). Pathe were not necessarily negative items, ailments that had to be removed. The word is often translated affection or feeling and in Greek psychological theories it is often interpreted by modern scholars as denoting especially what we call the emotions. The trouble about Masters of Truth was: could you believe them? There were rather a lot of them and they came in different guises. While the claims they made for themselves- or that were made for them-were that they had special powers, their being special immediately posed problems: what was the origin of these powers? Was it entirely benign? How could they be understood? Could they indeed be believed? We shall see these themes return in our next study. 1 Homer, Iliad 1. 8-26, 33-108 Who then of ...
By leaving their engines idling for long periods, drivers contribute unnecessarily to air pollution, waste fuel, and produce noise and fumes that harm the environment. Railway level crossings are sites where many cars idle, many times a day. In this research, testing two psychological theories of influence, we examine the potential to encourage drivers to switch off their ignition while waiting at rail crossings. Two field studies presented different signs at a busy rail crossing site with a 2-min average wait. Inducing public self-focus (via a Watching Eyes stimulus) was not effective, even when accompanied by a written behavioral instruction. Instead, cueing a private-self focus (think of yourself) was more effective, doubling the level of behavioral compliance. These findings confirm the need to engage the self when trying to instigate self-regulatory action, but that cues evoking self-surveillance may sometimes be more effective than cues that imply external surveillance ...
We describe an experiment in which the eye movements of participants, carrying out tasks using two contrasting graph designs, were recorded by means of a remote eye tracking device. A variety of eye movement properties were measured and analysed both temporally and spatially. Both graph designs were based on specific psychological theories and established graph design guidelines. One incorporated attributes thought likely to enhance usability, the other included attributes likely to have the opposite effect. The results demonstrate that the design and location of a graphs legend and its spatial relationship to the data area are extremely important in determining a graphs usability. The incorporation of these and other design features may promote or detract from perceptual proximity and therefore influence a displays usability. The paper demonstrates that this influence is reflected in eye movement patterns, which can be readily monitored by means of a remote eye tracking system, and that a ...
Like it or not, women do not belong in front-line combat roles.. I cant enlist - eyes keep me out, nystagmus (US Army regs sent by a recruiter).. Women CAN be good soldiers, just - especially in the pampered West - most are worthless for that sort of role. Id wager about 90% of MEN are, too, BTW - US Army regs were recently adjusted so what I would term the Morbidly Obese (Bigger then BMI 31; Body fat % in the 40% ragne and up) could actually meet recruitement requirements, so the army can make their numbers.. Women, OTOH, arent known for being motivated to kill (even dominate) the same way men are. Theres even a psychological theory that men are the fight or flight pattern, EXCLUSIVELY - women are Tend and befriend. Evolution-wise, it makes sense. Woman who continues to fight after the men are dead doesnt reproduce. The ones who give up will. Mix in a few millenia, and allow that women will choose dominant men by choice as well as result of conflict - dominance requires size and ...