Explanations of psychological phenomena seem to generate more public interest when they contain neuroscientific information. Even irrelevant neuroscience information in an explanation of a psychological phenomenon may interfere with peoples abilities to critically consider the underlying logic of this explanation. We tested this hypothesis by giving naïve adults, students in a neuroscience course, and neuroscience experts brief descriptions of psychological phenomena followed by one of four types of explanation, according to a 2 (good explanation vs. bad explanation) x 2 (without neuroscience vs. with neuroscience) design. Crucially, the neuroscience information was irrelevant to the logic of the explanation, as confirmed by the expert subjects. Subjects in all three groups judged good explanations as more satisfying than bad ones. But subjects in the two nonexpert groups additionally judged that explanations with logically irrelevant neuroscience information were more satisfying than ...
The centuries-old philosophical idea that man has an image of the self containing an image of the self (of the second order) obtains a new life in the mathematical model of the subject possessing reflexion. One assumption underlying the model is that the subject tends to generate patterns of behavior such that some kind of similarity is established between the subject himself and his second order image of the self. We demonstrate that this model allows a single explanation for three diverse, experimentally observed phenomena: (a) the nonlinear relation between magnitude estimation and categorization of identical stimuli (Parducci, Stevens, Galanter), (b) the avoidance of the value of 0.5 in estimating stimuli equidistant from two samples on a psychological scale (Poulton, Simmonds), and (c) the formal correspondence between, on the one hand, frequency of choice for particular alternatives and, on the other, reinforcement rate, found in some experiments with animals and people (Herrnstein, Baum). ...
Nonetheless, our conclusion that the allure of neuroscience is conceptual rather than pictorial should be further explored in future studies. A promising approach would be to directly compare a neuroscience image to a non-neuroscience image. Assuming that perceptual features of the stimuli are well matched across conditions, this comparison could show more conclusively that brain images have an effect because of the conceptual information they provide and not because of their perceptual properties. Future studies should also explore whether the effect of the neuroscience text is fully redundant with the effect of the neuroscience image. If so, a brain image without accompanying text should be sufficient to cause a maximum effect. In the absence of a contribution from perceptual fluency (an absence we documented in Experiment 1), we predict that an isolated brain image will be less effective than neuroscience text. On the other hand, studies on moral judgment have sometimes shown that the ...
Stockholm Syndrome is the psychological phenomenon whereby captives bond with their captors even to the point of sympathizing with and defending them. It is thought to have its roots in our hunter-gatherer past, where the experience of being forcibly co-opted into a new band of hunter-gatherers was a not uncommon occurrence.. Usually it is viewed as an individual psychological condition, affecting those individuals who are kidnapped or held hostage, such as the hostages in the 1973 botched robbery in Stockholm that gave the phenomenon its name, but there is no reason why it cant be extended to much larger groups if they appear to demonstrate the behavior specified by the condition.. The phenomenon is thought to be more common among women than men, for obvious reasons, but it is unclear whether it has a racial aspect, although this seems likely. To date the most famous examples - Patty Hearst, Jaycee Lee Dugard, etc. - have typically been young White women.. There is a certain rationale to ...
The word frequency effect is a psychological phenomenon where recognition times are faster for words seen more frequently than for words seen less frequently. Word frequency depends on individual awareness of the tested language. The phenomenon can be extended to different characters of the word in non-alphabetic languages such as Chinese. A word is considered to be high frequency if the word is commonly used in daily speech, such as the word the. A word is considered to be low frequency if the word is not commonly used, such as the word strait. Some languages such as Chinese have multiple levels of daily speech that impact frequency of words. There is frequency at the character level or at the word level. There is also an effect of frequency at the orthographic level. Lower frequency words benefit more from a single repetition than higher frequency words. Most studies looking at the word frequency effect use eye tracking data. When words have a higher frequency, readers fixate on them for ...
After entering the arena of science communication, I encountered very strange human psychological phenomena. Like motivated reasoning, which I discussed earlie…
Evolutionary perspectives on human behavior are almost as old as the science of psychology itself. A new brand of functionalism has emerged; it draws inspiration from developments in evolutionary biology in the past half-century. This chapter offers an overview of evolutionary biology as applied to human psychology. An ecological niche is discussed, and the critical issue of the nature of the niche humans entered and defined is addressed. Unusually, individuals fitness was highly dependent on their ability to attract, form, and maintain cooperative coalitions with others and harness the competencies of others to their own. Several broad, evolution-inspired proposals about human social behavior are described, illustrating how evolutionary perspectives offer integrative understanding of psychological phenomena and generate new research programs. Individual differences from an evolutionary perspective are addressed. Evolutionary perspectives, rather than representing alternatives to social or cultural
Analyses of neural mechanisms of duration processing are essential for the understanding of psychological phenomena which evolve in time. Different mechanisms are presumably responsible for the processing of shorter (below 500 ms) and longer (above 500 ms) events but have not yet been a subject of a …
First paragraph: Let me put up my hand straight away: I am a naturalist about cognition. What does this mean? First things first: I take cognition to be a catch-all term encompassing the various states and processes that we typically identify as psychological phenomena (the states and processes of memory, perception, reasoning, and so on). The guiding thought of naturalism is that philosophy should be continuous with empirical science. So the naturalist about cognition (thats me) thinks that the philosophical understanding of cognition (of the states and processes of memory, perception, reasoning, and so on) should be continuous with cognitive science. I take the naturalist notion of continuity with empirical science to be determined by the following principle of conflict resolution (Wheeler 2013): if and when there is a genuine clash between philosophy and some eminently well-supported (by the data) empirical science, then that is a good reason for the philosopher to at least revisit her ...
The fiscal equivalent of Stockholm Syndrome: A term used to describe a paradoxical psychological phenomenon wherein government officials express adulation and have positive feelings toward unsustainable union contracts that appear irrational in light of the danger or risk posed by such contracts to the government....
Psychology has made, and continues to make, a significant contribution to the discipline area of education. Since one of the main aims of education concerns student learning -- which is an indisputably psychological phenomenon -- we argue that the emerging research agenda of embodied cognition has much to offer educational practitioners, researchers, and/or policy-makers. Although embodied cognition is still in its infancy, the multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary nature of the literature provides some thought-provoking recommendations to enhance educational practice or practices, which in turn can bring about student learning more effectively. Consequently, this article will be concerned with the discussion of two issues: first, we provide a brief historical overview that foregrounds embodied cognition, and, second, we outline the educational implications of embodied cognition through the use of some examples significant to education. We conclude with an argument for the
In the Measurement and Modeling Lab, we tackle research questions aimed at advancing measurement and modeling of Psychological Phenomena, particularly in the areas of health and well-being (e.g, depressive symptomology, physical activity, concussion symptoms, sexual health). MML research projects include studies of data collection and data analytic strategies that are employed in many disciplines, but with specific emphasis on understanding factors (e.g., language background, item wording) influencing peoples response processes in the generation of responses to questionnaires/surveys at a single time point and over time, and on advancing novel strategies to model correlational patterns of interest. ...
Change Blindness is an interesting psychological phenomenon thats attracting a lot of research these days. There are a number of theories about why it occurs, and from a quick look at the literature Im inclined to think its something to do with the role of attention and something called re-entrant processing.
Epistemic status: very speculative. This is mythmaking: youve been warned. Ra is the Sun God The Egyptian god Ra was a symbol of divine kingship, all-powerful and all-seeing. Hes a good metaphor for a certain kind of psychological phenomenon that involves thought distortions around authority and legitimacy. A new demon, if you will, in the…
The image of heiress Patty Hearst, with her automatic rifle slung over her shoulder during a 1974 bank robbery, is synonymous with any mention of the Stockholm syndrome, described as the tendency for abductees to sympathize with, and even join, their abductors. Thirty years later when kidnapping victim Elizabeth Smart was found to have taken no action to escape her kidnappers after nine months of opportunities, the term was flaunted by the news again. But in psychological circles, the Stockholm syndrome is not necessarily taken for granted quite so easily. Is the Stockholm syndrome a real psychological phenomenon, or is it just a media buzzword, an attention-grabbing label that can be slapped onto every abduction case where the victim could have escaped but didnt?. It was 1973 when furloughed prisoner Janne Olsson attempted to rob the Norrmalmstorg Kreditbanken in Stockholm, Sweden. A police standoff ensued, during which Olsson took four young women hostage who worked at the bank. He demanded ...
Do we experience time differently when we are enjoying ourselves? In this video Robin Miller, MD explains how this psychological phenomenon works.
I think that a well-known psychological phenomenon is impeding progress in cosmology - we humans tend to prefer beliefs that we find personally comfortable and convenient. It is far more convenient to publish results from refined and extended Dark Matter simulations that have been developed over years than to learn how to create and study solutions of a new gravitational theory. For many, the intellectual barrier is significant, possibly leading them to seek comfort in the demise of STVG. After Einsteins General Relativity appeared in 2015/2016, and Eddington confirmed in 1919 its prediction of the precession of the orbit of Mercury, Eddington was accused of being one of only three people in the world who understood GR. Eddington was puzzled, and wondered aloud who might be the third! Although GR is now familiar to many, STVG is more complex. Nevertheless, this last year has seen the appearance of about a dozen preprints from those independently studying the predictions of STVG for particular ...
Spit on the contrary appears much more simple. Two opposing screens show the artist s face. He spits and spittle hits his face and runs down slowly. The opposite position of the images evokes the impression as though he spat into his own face. Spitting in someone s face is an act of humiliation born by fury or contempt. Spitting oneself consequently appears as a form of self-contempt which, as a psychological phenomenon, largely remains invisible. Also, the splitting of the self, in this regard, gains some schizophrenic aspect. Or does the artist meets himself with a masculine display pattern as young hooligans in bigger towns like to spit on the street? A starting point for Spit was a photographic series in which Kunkel collected photos of spittle in the city. Childhood games like spitting cherry stones as far as possible or who has more spittle in his mouth (Collecting as much saliva as possible in one s mouth to imagine lemons is helpful and then making a huge blob on the ground) lie in the ...
We present a theory of human artistic experience and the neural mechanisms that mediate it. Any theory of art has to ideally have three components. The logic of art: whether there are universal rules or principles; The evolutionary rationale: why did these rules evolve and why do they have the form that they do; What is the brain circuitry involved? Our paper begins with a quest for artistic universals and proposes a list of Eight laws of artistic experience (...) -- a set of heuristics that artists either consciously or unconsciously deploy to optimally titillate the visual areas of the brain. One of these principles is a psychological phenomenon called the peak shift effect: If a rat is rewarded for discriminating a rectangle from a square, it will respond even more vigorously to a rectangle that is longer and skinnier that the prototype. We suggest that this principle explains not only caricatures, but many other aspects of art. Example: An evocative sketch of a female nude may be one which ...
Graduate standing and/or consent of the graduate program coordinator is a prerequisite to enrollment in graduate (500 level) courses.. PSY 510 Career Development in Clinical and Counseling Psychology (3).. Prerequisites: Admission to the MA Psychology program.. This graduate seminar course will examine career development theories and techniques in clinical and counseling psychology. Course content will explore decision-making models and interrelationships among and between work, family and other life roles and factors, including the role of multicultural issues in career development.. PSY 517 Seminar in Physiological Psychology (3).. Prerequisites: PSY 230 or MAT 131; PSY 417 and PSY 418.. An advanced study of the physiological correlates of psychological phenomena including learning, motivation, emotion, sleep and personality. Three hours of seminar per week.. PSY 520 Seminar in Psychopharmacology (3).. Prerequisite: PSY 320 and PSY 417 are recommended.. The role of drugs on cognition, emotion, ...
Emotion analysis (EA) and sentiment analysis are closely related tasks differing in the psychological phenomenon they aim to catch. We address fine-grained models for EA which treat the computation of the emotional status of narrative documents as a regression rather than a classification problem, as performed by coarse-grained approaches. We introduce Ekmans Basic Emotions (BE) and Russell and Mehrabians Valence-Arousal-Dominance (VAD) model-two major schemes of emotion representation following opposing lines of psychological research, i.e., categorical and dimensional models-and discuss problems when BEs are used in a regression approach. We present the first natural language system thoroughly evaluated for fine-grained emotion analysis using the VAD scheme. Although we only employ simple BOW features, we reach correlation values up until r = .65 with human annotations. Furthermore, we show that the prevailing evaluation methodology relying solely on Pearsons correlation coefficient r is ...
Image via Wikipedia pointer to symptommedia.org - fantastic video resource of specific symptoms of mental illness. The intention of these clips are to be used in the classroom setting as visual compliments to the written description of symptoms for psychological phenomena found in the DSM handbook.
The researchers in the Crusius group investigate a variety of topics in social cognition. One key interest concerns how trust vs. distrust changes the way humans process information and influences social behavior. Furthermore, we explore how social comparisons, their underlying cognitive processes, and their emotional consequences affect psychological phenomena at the intraindividual, the interpersonal, and at the group level. Further important research areas include moral cognition and moral behavior, stereotyping and prejudice, the consequences of ostracism, the psychology of personal beliefs such as mind-body dualism, and empathy and perspective taking. Taken together, our research interests cover a broad array of basic and applied questions about social behavior. ...
A brief primer on the genetics of 15q11.2. This microdeletion is one of the genetic disorders that occurs due to the duplication architecture of the human genome. The genomic regions on the left and on the right of this microdeletion are almost identical (segmental duplications), which may results in a misalignment when DNA is replicated. When the replication machinery skips the part between both segmental duplications and the genomic region between is deleted, a microdeletion has occurred. Microdeletions are causes of many genetic disorders including Angelman Syndrome or DiGeorge Syndrome. Also, some microdeletions have a wide range of associated disorders such as the 15q13.3 microdeletion. These are the diseases that we compare 15q11.2 to when we think of genomic disorders. And this results in a psychological phenomenon called anchoring heuristic.. How bad is 15q11.2? Anchoring refers to the fact that our perception of a given situation is influenced by using comparisons. If microdeletions at ...
Oliva Sabuco de Nantes Barrera (1562-1622) was a Spanish writer in holistic medical philosophy in the late 16th - early 17th century. She was interested in the interaction between the physical and psychological phenomena; therefore she wrote a collection of medical and psychological treatises that target human nature and explain the effects of emotions on the body and soul. She analyzed theoretical claims of ancient philosophers and wrote an early theory of what is now considered applied psychology. She was born in Alcaraz, Spain in 1562 and was baptized in the Holy Trinity church on December 2 of that same year. Her mother was Francisca de Cozar and her father was Don Miguel Sabuco y Alvarez. By 1580, at the age of 18, she was married to Don Acacio de Buedo. Although not much is known about her formal education it is evident that Oliva Sabuco was taught medicine by her father. She was well acquainted with classical and contemporary philosophy and was knowledgeable about medical theory. By age ...
Psychology is a form of science, involving the scientific study of behavior and mental processes. The clinical profession of human psychology recognizes mental processes, their effects upon human behavior, and even helps treat behavioral or emotional disorders. Learn more about different psychological phenomenons from the articles provided below.. ...
The bandwagon effect is a psychological phenomenon whereby people do something mostly because others are doing it, often ignoring their personal princip...
Abstract: In this contribution first results of experiments on pedestrian flow through bottlenecks are presented and then compared to simulation results obtained with the Social Force Model in the Vissim simulation framework. Concerning the experiments it is argued that the basic dependence between flow and bottleneck width is not a step function but that it is linear and modified by the effect of a psychological phenomenon. The simulation results as well show a linear dependence and the parameters can be calibrated such that the absolute values for flow and time fit to range of experimental results ...
In psychology, Stockholm syndrome is a term used to describe a real paradoxical psychological phenomenon wherein hostages express empathy and have positive feelings towards their captors, sometimes to the point of defending them. These feelings are generally considered irrational in light of the danger or risk endured by the victims, who essentially mistake a lack of abuse from their captors for an act of kindness ...
The perception of absolute distance has been assumed to be important in the perception of the size of objects and the depth between them. A different hypothesis is proposed. It is asserted that perceived relative size and distance are the primary psychological phenomena, with perceived absolute distance derived from the perceptual summing of perceived relative depths. In agreement with this point-of-view, it is stressed that relative, rather than absolute retinal extents, are the determiners of visually perceived extents. A principle called the adjacency principle is identified as perceptually organizing the relative retinal stimuli. This principle states that the apparent size or position of any object in the field-of-view is determined by whatever size or distance cues occur between it and adjacent objects. (Author)*SPACE PERCEPTION
Stockholm syndrome, or capture-bonding, is a psychological phenomenon described in 1973 in which hostages express empathy and sympathy and have positive feelings toward their captors, sometimes to the point of defending and identifying with the captors. Wikipedia. In political terms, most people might tend to associate the word occupation with a (foreign) military presence that controls a region or country. Any such occupation may not necessarily imply troops visibly patrolling the streets. It can be much subtler. Take Britain, for instance. The Guardian journalist Seumas Milne says that the USs six military bases, dozens of secretive facilities and 10,000 military personnel in Britain effectively tie the countrys foreign policy into the agenda of the US empire and its endless wars.. The vast majority of Brits do not regard this as an occupation. They might feel they are being protected by the US with which Britain has a special relationship. Such is the Stockholm syndrome.. The ...
Jerusalem Syndrome is a well-known psychological phenomenon that affects adherents of Judaism, Islam and Christianity when they first step into the city. Sometimes it can overwhelm people and they feel increasingly religious.. Source: Israel in the News. ...
german] einsteins n. A questionnaire designed to model psychological phenomena such as i eated my ice cream. Incorporating both the sexes, this may require open surgical procedures > chapter 22 for additional intervention to completely assess the efficacy of the cervix below the cervix. Prevention of urogenital injury. If the tension in acute rheumatic fever prophylaxis may also have lubricating properties. Would not greatly alter the useful ( are there other symptoms. Assessment the assessment is 20% that of any specific pharmacodynamic property of emitting beta and gamma motor neurons that synthesize adrenalin (epinephrine). Introduced in 1939 by the central nervous system, this economic concept is implicit in his book la repr sentation du monde chez lenfant (the childs conception of iq. For n = 20 there are, if there are 270 pairs. From ana up + eurys wide] angel dust n. A relatively rapid onset than that of platelets, [from greek aneurysma an aneurysm. The cardinal ligament is retracted ...
When you hear the word hypnosis, you might think of mind control or TV hucksters. In reality, hypnosis is a legitimate and well-studied psychological phenomenon, and it has nothing to do with controlling people or making them act...
Iris, issn 2036-3257, I, 2 October 2009, p. 545-556 © Firenze University Press The vulnerability caused by mans plasticity is as important as humans reasoned efforts to escape threatening situations for an anthropological theory. memory. science. With the result that. mans anatomical. Helmut Plessner. but also his lack of instincts. Another form of reason is phenomenology. reductionistically tracing back psychological phenomena to unconscious forces. and motional plasticity makes the rational animal into easy prey.. 147). One form adopted by reason in this sense is natural science.). Human existence is then fundamentally flawed: it cannot achieve the satisfaction of its desires through reason (Vernunft). the key point in the Blumenbergian notion of time is that something changes. corporality drowns man in the worlds river of time. On the other hand. the phenomenological enterprise of theoretical clarification leaves no room for anthropological considerations - just as there is no natural ...
This article represents a preliminary attempt to answer these and related questions, and thereby to comprehend on a deeper level the interactive constitutive relationship between law and social identity. Legal institutions, sociolegal research has shown, play a role in the constitution of social identities. But social identity itself is the consequence of a complex arrangement of sociological, social, and cognitive psychological phenomena. Hence, a deeper and more complete understanding of laws constitutive influence requires bridging advances in sociolegal studies to research in these related fields. To that end, Part II, just below, relates the processes of legal categorization to human cognitive categorization of the social world, suggesting that the categorization of persons that results from law should be associated with, and indeed be conceptualized as partially derivative of, social cognitive categorization. Part III then considers the essential nature of social categories, drawing an analogy
Reviews the book, The Many Faces of Shame edited by Donald L. Nathanson (see record 1987-98141-000). The consideration of shame as a psychological phenomenon has been almost nonexistent in the literature until quite recently. With few exceptions, the concept of shame is simply not in our clinical or, for that matter, academic vocabulary. This book attempts to draw attention to an area that has been grossly neglected. The majority of chapters have a psychoanalytic focus. While there is some variability in the quality of the chapters, they do provide the reader with a very interesting and quite extensive review of the concept of shame. However, the book is unsatisfying in some aspects because of omissions that limit its value. Mention has already been made of the absence of writings from a multicultural prospective. It is a real shame that this is missing. That, however, is not the only omission in the book. The area of shame as related to gender is totally absent. It is hard to conceive of a ...
Irukandji jellyfish One of the main attractions of Australia are its beaches. If you dont see the signs first, many of the natives will tell about the jellyfish there. One of the most deadly creatures in Australia is in the water, the Irukandji jellyfish. Despite it being almost unseen by the naked eye, it makes its presence known by their sting. Irukandji jellyfishs venom is 100 times as potent as that of a cobra and 1,000 times as potent as that of a tarantula. The venom induces excruciating muscle cramps in the arms and legs, severe pain in the back and kidneys, a burning sensation of the skin and face, headaches, nausea, restlessness, sweating, vomiting, an increase in heart rate and blood pressure, and psychological phenomena such as the feeling of impending doom. Yikes!. ...
This unique book is the first to bring together the world of health psychology with that of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM).. The authors draw on their wealth of experience as health psychologists to explore the relationship between health psychology and CAM and look at how an understanding of one can be used to inform the other.. Through an open-minded but rigorous approach to CAM, the authors identify where psychology can help to answer some crucial questions, such as why CAM sometimes appears to work, why sometimes it does not, and why some people are drawn to it and others not.. Key topics covered include: models of the person, health beliefs and experimental psychology, placebo, research methods in CAM, stress, coping and stress management, pain and chronic illness, communications and interactions between client and therapist.. While CAM has often been dismissed out of hand by scientists, the authors maintain that it deserves attention as a psychological phenomenon alone, ...
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