CiteSeerX - Document Details (Isaac Councill, Lee Giles, Pradeep Teregowda): Abstract-Soft Error Resiliency is a major concern for Pet-ascale high performance computing (HPC) systems. Blue Gene/Q (BG/Q) is the third generation of IBMs massively parallel, ener-gy efficient Blue Gene series of supercomputers. The principal goal of this work is to understand the interaction between Blue-Gene/Qs hardware resiliency features and high-performance applications through proton irradiation of a real chip, and soft-ware resiliency inherent in these applications through applica-tion-level fault injection (AFI) experiments. From the proton irradiation experiments we derived that the mean time between correctable errors at sea level of the SRAM-based register files and Level-1 caches for a system similar to the scale of Sequoia system. From the AFI experiments, we characterized relative vulnerability among the applications in both general purpose and floating point register files. We categorized and quantified the
The Proton Irradiation Facility (PIF) was designed primarily for single-event effect (SEE) studies and characterization of electronic components and detectors for the space environment. The energy spectrum of protons trapped in earth orbits peaks in the 10-100 MeV region (depending on the amount of intervening absorber) and drops by about an order of magnitude at 500 MeV. This makes the TRIUMF cyclotrons variable-energy capability of up to 500 MeV ideal for studies of space effects. Biological studies such as cell irradiations to measure the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of protons are also being carried out in conjunction with the Proton Therapy Centre.. PIF makes use of two different beam lines at TRIUMF for low-intensity radiation-damage studies. The lower energies, variable from as low as 5 MeV up to 120 MeV are available from the beam line BL2C, which is also used on a regular basis for proton treatments of ocular melanoma. Higher energies, from 120 MeV up to 500 MeV are ...
The proton conductivity of a dense coordination polymer (CP) was investigated under high-pressure conditions. Impedance measurements under high pressures revealed that the proton conductivity of the CP decreased more than 1000-fold at pressures of 3-7 GPa and that the activation energy for proton conduction almost doubled compared with that at ambient pressure. A synchrotron X-ray study under high pressure identified the amorphization process of the CP during compression, which rationally explains the decrease in conductivity and increase in activation energy. This phenomenon is categorized as reversible pressure-induced amorphization of a dense CP and is regarded as a demonstration of the coupling of the mechanical and electrical properties of a CP. ...
Proton Inhibition - 28 images - Differentiating Ger From Gerd To Quot D Quot Or Not To Quot D Quot Ppt, Antacids H2 Antagonists Ppis Proton Inhibitors, Proton Inhibitor, Proton Inhibitors Ppis Mechanism Images, Proton Pumps H
Background and purpose: To determine the influence of the number of fractions (or the dose per fraction) on the proton relative biological effectiveness (RBE). Materials and methods: Intestinal crypt regeneration in mice was used as the biological endpoint. RBE was determined relative to cobalt-60 gamma rays for irradiations in one, three and ten fractions separated by a time interval of 3.5 h. Proton irradiations were performed at the middle of a 7-cm Spread Out Bragg Peak (SOBP). Results: Proton RBEs (and corresponding gamma dose per fraction) at the level of 20 regenerated crypts per circumference were found equal to 1.15 ± 0.04 (10.0 Gy), 1.15 ± 0.05 (4.8 Gy) and 1.14 ± 0.07 (1.7 Gy) for irradiations in one, three and ten fractions, respectively. Alpha/beta ratios as derived from direct analysis of the quantal radiation response data were found to be 7.6 Gy for gamma rays and 8.2 Gy for protons. Additional proton irradiations in ten fractions at the end of the SOBP were found to be more ...
A proton is part of an atom.[1] They are found in the nucleus of an atom along with neutrons.[1] The periodic table groups atoms according to how many protons they have. A single atom of hydrogen (the lightest kind of atom) is made up of an electron moving around a proton. Most of the mass of this atom is in the proton, which is almost 2000 times heavier than the electron. Protons and neutrons make up the nucleus of every other kind of atom. In any one element, the number of protons is always the same. An atoms atomic number is equal to the number of protons in that atom. Protons are made of quarks.[1] A proton is believed to be made up of 3 quarks, two up quarks and one down quark.[1] One down quark has a charge of -1/3, and two up quarks have a charge of +2/3 each. This adds to a charge of +1. A proton has a very small mass. The mass of the proton is about one atomic mass unit. The mass of the neutron is also about one atomic mass unit. The size of a proton is determined by the vibration of ...
Performance degradation of the SiGe HBT after proton irradiation is investigated using a new physical TCAD model built into the Synopsys Sentaurus tool. The general conception of the model is based on the additive effects of ionization and displacement effects influence on transistor base current. New equations for the physical parameters τ, S, Nit taking into account radiation effects after the impact of proton irradiation are included in the program. Comparison of simulated and experimental characteristics of the SiGe HBT after subjection to proton fluences up to 5 · 10|sup|13|/sup| p/cm|sup|2|/sup| shows the 10-20% error.
We test the hypothesized pathway by which protons are passed from the substrate, ascorbate, to the ferryl oxygen in the heme enzyme ascorbate peroxidase (APX). The role of amino acid side chains and bound solvent is demonstrated. We investigated solvent kinetic isotope effects (SKIE) for the wild-type enzyme and several site-directed replacements of the key residues which form the proposed proton path. Kinetic constants for H(2)O(2)-dependent enzyme oxidation to Compound I, k(1), and subsequent reduction of Compound II, k(3), were determined in steady-state assays by variation of both H(2)O(2) and ascorbate concentrations. A high value of the SKIE for wild type APX ((D)k(3) = 4.9) as well as a clear nonlinear dependence on the deuterium composition of the solvent in proton inventory experiments suggest the simultaneous participation of several protons in the transition state for proton transfer. The full SKIE and the proton inventory data were modeled by applying Gross-Butler-Swain-Kresge theory ...
Mechanism of proton transfer among high-density acid groups in the interface between organic and inorganic materials for polymer electrolyte fuel cells has been theoretically examined. It has been clearly shown that the interactions between the phosphate groups at the surface of the inorganic material, zirconium phosphate (ZrP), and the adsorbed water molecules are relatively large and a strong hydrogen-bond network is generated locally. Because of the strong interactions, water molecules can be attached to ZrP and the O-O distance becomes shorter than that in bulk water systems. Because of the short O-O distances and the delocalized charge of each atom, the activation energy of proton transfer at the ZrP surface decreases and causes high proton conductivity even under conditions of high temperature and low humidity. Based on the above studies, the origin of the high proton conductivity of hybrid electrolytes is also discussed. We will also discuss the mechanism of oxygen reduction reaction on ...
It is clear that the voltage--‐gated proton channel HVCN1 plays an essential role in a range of cell types, in particular immune cells. Previous published work has confirmed the existence of proton channels in both murine and human macrophages. However, the role of HVCN1 in macrophages has not been investigated. Given that the current literature on voltage--‐gated proton channels in immune cells has found HVCN1 to be involved in several cellular processes (such as the respiratory burst and signalling events) it is important to establish its functional role in macrophages, which are a crucial constituent of the immune system. The aim of my thesis was to investigate the function of voltage--‐gated proton channels in macrophages with the use of mice with a disrupting mutation within the Hvcn1 gene, which results in HVCN1 loss. In particular, I wanted to address how Hvcn1--‐/--‐ macrophages responded to LPS activation. I hypothesised that HVCN1 regulates the respiratory burst of ...
Transport of the positively charged proton is typically electrogenic, i.e. it generates an electrical field across the membrane also called the membrane potential. Proton transport becomes electrogenic if not neutralized electrically by transport of either a corresponding negative charge in the same direction or a corresponding positive charge in the opposite direction. An example of a proton pump that is not electrogenic, is the proton/potassium pump of the gastric mucosa which catalyzes a balanced exchange of protons and potassium ions. The combined transmembrane gradient of protons and charges created by proton pumps is called an electrochemical gradient. An electrochemical gradient represents a store of energy (potential energy) that can be used to drive a multitude of biological processes such as ATP synthesis, nutrient uptake and action potential formation. In cell respiration, the proton pump uses energy to transport protons from the matrix of the mitochondrion to the inter-membrane ...
It is established that in case of changing of electrons and protons normal conductance by uncoupler as rotenone - inhibitor of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I, inhibitor of mitochondrial hydrogen atom transport at NADH: ubiquinone oxidoreductase level, the significance of the pH value in the outside of isolated erythrocytes, the significance of the pH value after the partial hemolysis of isolated erythrocytes, the significance of the pH value after the full hemolysis of isolated erythrocytes changed to alkaline side. Under effect of uncoupler rotenone, which action occured in the 2-th stage of the full 9 stepped cycle of proton conductance inside human body in the form of blockage of transferring of proton, electron to NADH, FADH2 as hydrogen atom accompanying with release of CO2, the significance of the pH value have been changed to alkaline side i.e. blockage of the transferring of protons and electrons to NADH as hydrogen atom lead to decrease of free proton concentration, proton ...
Bacterial cells have to regulate the cytoplasmic pH to survive in the constantly changing environment as bacterial growth is dependent on substrate availability, as well as the redox potential and the pH of the medium. The regulation of internal pH involves proton export that requires energy in the form of ATP. The biochemical reactions in the cytoplasm associated with metabolism can lead to a net proton production or consumption. The variations in proton concentration in the cytoplasm during growth, can affect the kinetics and the thermodynamic feasibility of biochemical reactions necessitating active regulation of pH. The energetic cost of pH regulation via exporting protons associated with metabolism can impact the biomass yield of the organism and the extent of this effect can vary with the environment.. For example, in E. coli grown with glucose as the electron donor, organic acids released during growth greatly contribute to changes in pH of the medium. Previous studies [41-43] have shown ...
MCOs catalyze one-electron oxidation processes, and four molecules of substrate are oxidised in order to reduce a dioxygen molecule to two waters molecules. Substrate oxidation occurs at the mononuclear T1 centre and then the electrons are shuttled, along a T1 coordinating cisteine, to the two histidines that are coordinating the T3 coppers of the trinuclear centre (Figure 1b), where reduction of dioxygen occurs [2, 4, 11]. This constitutes a HCH conserved motif characteristically found in MCOs. Four electrons, as well as four protons, are used to reduce a molecule of dioxygen with the concomitant formation of two water molecules [1, 2, 12]. Electrons needed for this process are obtained through the oxidation of a variety of substrates, but not much is known about the mechanism of proton transfer during this process. Recently, site directed mutagenesis studies suggest that Asp112 of CueO (Asp 116 in CotA; Figure 1c) [13, 14], a conserved residue that is located in the exit channel in close ...
The structure and dynamics of aqueous protons play fundamental roles in many areas of chemistry, biology, and physics. There is a general consensus that the proton achieves its anomalously large diffusion (up to 7 times larger than similarly sized cations) through a structural exchange process, referred to as the Grotthuss mechanism, whereby protons are passed from one molecule to the next. While there has been a multitude of computational studies focused on unraveling the intricacies of proton transport, they have been biased by the assumptions made about the proton dynamics due to the lack of a robust determination of the proton diffusion coefficient from first-principles. Through extensive ab initio molecular dynamics simulations, we provide a thorough statistical determination of the proton diffusion coefficient. These simulations demonstrate that the standard assumption of Markovian dynamics for the Grotthuss mechanism is too simplistic. Proton transitions are correlated and result in the ...
In addition to the Steered MD (SMD) approach described starting on page 108 of the manual, a new set of Adaptively Biased MD and related methods has been introduced for Amber10 (See page 121 and also be aware that this tutorial uses an Amber11 addition, LCOD, to these methods. Adding LCOD capabilities to Amber10 is described below). The whole Adaptively Biased MD section (4.6) should be studied for background to this tutorial. The new implementation of the SMD method specifically is described starting on page 125. The tutorial is a brief test case using steered MD to force an intramolecular proton transfer (PT) in malonaldehyde (pictured). The simulation was carried out in vacuum with the QMMM DFTB Hamiltonian using the LCOD (linear combination of distances) reaction coordinate. The QM region consisted of the whole molecule. These results should be compared with the Empirical Valence Bond (EVB) section, specifically to Figure 3.4 (page 77, closed triangles). As indicated above the LCOD reaction ...
International Launch Services (ILS) announces a product line extension of the Proton Breeze M commercial launch vehicle designed to expand the addressable GEO market for cost effective launch solutions in the small and medium satellite class range (3 to 5 metric tons). Designated as "Proton Variants," these two additional vehicles will be optimized 2-stage versions of the time tested and flight proven Proton Breeze M launch system for exclusive commercial use by ILS.. The Proton Variants initial launch capability will be established beginning in 2018 with the "Proton Medium" vehicle launching from Pad 24 at the Baikonur Cosmodrome. The 2-stage Proton Medium Variant will have a 4-meter payload fairing and utilize the standard Proton M configuration with 6 engines on the first stage. It will be followed in 2019 by the "Proton Light" Variant. The 2-stage Proton Light will have a 4-meter payload fairing but feature only 4 engines on the first stage. Both variants will maintain use of the flight ...
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A high current proton linear accelerator has been designed and is at the moment under construction for the ESSBilbao project. The current status of the acc
Proton conduction of the La(III)M(III) compounds, LaM(ox)3·10H2O (abbreviated to LaM; M = Cr, Co, Ru, La; ox(2-) = oxalate) is studied in view of their networks. LaCr and LaCo have a ladder structure, and the ladders are woven to form a channel network. LaRu and LaLa have a honeycomb sheet structure, and the sheets are combined to form a layer network. The occurrence of these structures is explained by the rigidness versus flexibility of [M(ox)3](3-) in the framework with large La(III). The channel networks of LaCr and LaCo show a remarkably high proton conductivity, in the range from 1 × 10(-6) to 1 × 10(-5) S cm(-1) over 40-95% relative humidity (RH) at 298 K, whereas the layer networks of LaCr and LaCo show a lower proton conductivity, ∼3 × 10(-8) S cm(-1) (40-95% RH, 298 K ...
What is so nice is that the transformation of protons to dark protons is indeed the basic mechanism of TGD inspired quantum biology! For instance, it would occur in Pollack effect in with irradiation of water bounded by gel phase generates so called exclusion zone, which is negatively charged. TGD explanation is that some fraction of protons transforms to dark protons at magnetic flux tubes outside the system. Negative charge of DNA and cell could be due to this mechanism. One also ends up to a model of genetic code with the analogs of DNA, RNA, tRNA and amino-acids represented as triplets of dark protons. The model predicts correctly the numbers of DNAs coding given amino-acid. Besides biology the model has applications to cold fusion, and various free energy phenomena. See the article Two different lifetimes for neutron as evidence for dark protons and chapter New Particle Physics Predicted by TGD: Part I. For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD. Articles and other ...
Probing the water-amide proton exchange rates through a CLEANEX-PM-FHSQC experiment.A. 1H-15N-FHSQC spectrum of free Aβ40. The peak intensities of the 1H-15N-F
Randomized. 2 institutions (Harvard and Loma Linda). 392 patients, stage T1b-T2b, PSA ,15 ng/mL (median PSA 6.3). Arm 1) proton boost 19.8/11 GyE followed by photons 50.4/28 vs. Arm 2) proton boost 28.8/16 followed by photons 50.4/28. Proton CTV = prostate + 5 mm margin. PTV = CTV + 7-10 mm. Loma Linda used opposed lateral beams, 250 MeV protons; Harvard used perineal boost, 160 MeV protons. Rectal Lucite probe, inflated with 25-50 mL saline. Photons were 4F plan, photon CTV = prostate/SV + 10 mm margin ...
Amide proton transfer (APT) imaging is a pH mapping method based on the chemical exchange saturation transfer phenomenon that has potential for penumbra identification following stroke. The majority of the literature thus far has focused on generating pH-weighted contrast using magnetization transfer ratio asymmetry analysis instead of quantitative pH mapping. In this study, the widely used asymmetry analysis and a model-based analysis were both assessed on APT data collected from healthy subjects (n = 2) and hyperacute stroke patients (n = 6, median imaging time after onset = 2 hours 59 minutes). It was found that the model-based approach was able to quantify the APT effect with the lowest variation in grey and white matter (≤ 13.8 %) and the smallest average contrast between these two tissue types (3.48 %) in the healthy volunteers. The model-based approach also performed quantitatively better than the other measures in the hyperacute stroke patient APT data, where the quantified APT effect in the
Voltage-gated hydrogen channel 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HVCN1 gene. Voltage-gated hydrogen channel 1 is a voltage-gated proton channel that has been shown to allow proton transport into phagosomes and out of many types of cells including spermatozoa, electrically excitable cells and respiratory epithelial cells. The proton-conducting HVCN1 channel has only transmembrane domains corresponding to the S1-S4 voltage sensing domains (VSD) of voltage-gated potassium channels and voltage-gated sodium channels. Molecular simulation is consistent with a water-filled pore that can function as a "water wire" for allowing hydrogen bonded H+ to cross the membrane. However, mutation of Asp112 in human Hv1 results in anion permeation, suggesting that obligatory protonation of Asp produces proton selectivity. Quantum mechanical calculations show that the Asp-Arg interaction can produce proton selective permeation. The HVCN1 protein has been shown to exist as a dimer with two functioning ...
These surface pores are attached to the electrosensory cells by canals filled with clear, viscous jelly, which let the fish detect weak electrical fields emitted by other animals in the sea - even signals as subtle as 5 nanovolts per centimetre.. As the scientists do not yet completely understand the way the jelly plays a part in this purpose, it is obvious that it somehow plays a particular role, because of its enormous convenience of conductivity, that the group claims to be the greatest previously documented to get a biological material.. At roughly 2 ± 1 millisiemens per centimetre, the conductivity of the jelly is just 40 times lower than the polymer Nafion, a synthetic material known for its superior conductivity.. Proton conductivity is just a type of electrical conductivity where hydrogen carry the charge ions, as opposed to electrons. Although electrons carry the charge in extremely conductive metals for example copper and silver, proton conductivity is definitely an essential process ...
New bionanocomposite proton exchange membranes were prepared from sulfonated polybenzimidazole (s-PBI) and various amounts of sulfonated ZnO/cellulose nanohybrids (ZnO/cellulose-SO3H). The use of ZnO/cellulose-SO3H compensates for the decrease in ion exchange capacity of membranes observed when non-sulfonated nano-ﬁllers are utilized. The strong -SO3H/-SO3H interaction between s-PBI chains and ZnO/cellulose-SO3H hybrids leads to ionic cross-linking in the membrane structure, which increases both the thermal stability and methanol resistance of the membranes. The ZnO/cellulose -SO3H in the membranes served as spacers for polymer chains to provide extra space for water permeation, so as to bring high permeation rates to the complex membranes. Moreover, the membranes exhibited excellent antibacterial activities against S. aureus and E. coli. A.
The input bias current response of LM124 operational amplifiers to proton irradiation is shown to correlate with the response of identical part types expos
This paper clarifies the role of cytochrome c in Pseudomonas AM1 by measuring the stoicheiometry of proton translocation driven by respiration of endogenous or added substrates in wild-type bacteria and in a mutant lacking cytochrome c (mutant PCT76). The maximum →H+/O ratio (protons translocated out of the bacteria per atom of oxygen consumed during respiration) was about 4 and, except when respiration was markedly affected, this ratio was similar in mutant and wild-type bacteria. The →H+/O ratios were unaltered when the usual oxidase (cytochrome a3) was inhibited by 300μm-KCN and respiration involved the single cytochrome b functioning as an alternative oxidase. Ratios measured in cells respiring endogenous substrate and in cells loaded with malate or 3-hydroxybutyrate suggest that there are two proton-translocating segments operating during the oxidation of NADH. By contrast, during oxidation of formaldehyde or methylamine only one pair of protons is translocated. Proton translocation ...
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The new Proton. In stores now. Building on the immense success of its first generation, it is even more refined, precise, and without beating around the bush, simply faster, which is what the Proton is all about.. Gabriel Browne, Team Rider on the PWA: "The new Proton is a totally new design and concept. The three volume numbers are the same, and thats about it. All sizes come with all new shapes, fine tuned rockers, volume flow, rails, outlines, deck shapes. Everything you love about the old Proton is improved on the new Proton.. Its a Slalom board designed to win races everywhere in all conditions and for someone who wants to push hard and get the max out of it. During the second generation R&D we had the chance to test in different places, Denmark, Brazil and Maui. The Proton is designed to get the max out of a racing course, meaning starts, acceleration, speed and jibes.. From my side, as the rider, as a racer, the boards feel very free, powerful and fast with the new outlines, bottom, ...
Malaysias International Trade and Industry Minister Mustapa Mohamed met with SAIPA CEO Mehdi Jamali in Tehran on Monday. The Malaysian minister said expansion of bilateral ties is the main goal of the visit and that SAIPA and Proton have been negotiating for some time, Persian Khodro reported. Mohamed added that Proton has a long history in Iran and "Malaysia is looking forward to expand industrial and financial ties with the country in the post-sanctions era". "Three new models of Proton products are to be offered in Iran in the near future," he added." (Financial Tribune, "SAIPA is forging ties with Malaysias Proton and entering the Lebanese car market," 10/27/2016).. --. Proton Holdings Bhd is confident of increasing its market share in Iran with sales of 50,000 cars a year by the end of 2012. Managing director Datuk Syed Zainal Abidin Syed Mohamed Tahir said the national car company will start pushing 10,000 units a year by the first quarter of 2009, by bringing in other Proton models. ...
A single Na+/K+-ATPase pumps three Na+ outwards and two K+ inwards by alternately exposing ion-binding sites to opposite sides of the membrane in a conformational sequence coupled to pump autophosphorylation from ATP and auto-dephosphorylation. The larger flow of Na+ than K+ generates outward current across the cell membrane. Less well understood is the ability of Na+/K+ pumps to generate an inward current of protons. Originally noted in pumps deprived of external K+ and Na+ ions, as inward current at negative membrane potentials that becomes amplified when external pH is lowered, this proton current is generally viewed as an artifact of those unnatural conditions. We demonstrate here that this inward current also flows at physiological K+ and Na+ concentrations. We show that protons exploit ready reversibility of conformational changes associated with extracellular Na+ release from phosphorylated Na+/K+ pumps. Reversal of a subset of these transitions allows an extracellular proton to bind an ...
We make use of the physical mechanism of proton pumping in the so-called Complex I within mitochondria membranes. Our model is based on sequential charge transfer assisted by conformational changes which facilitate the indirect electron-proton coupling. The equations of motion for the proton operators are derived and solved numerically in combination with the phenomenological Langevin equation describing the periodic conformational changes. We show that with an appropriate set of parameters, protons can be transferred against an applied voltage. In addition, we demonstrate that only the joint action of the periodic energy modulation and thermal noise leads to efficient uphill proton transfer, being a manifestation of stochastic resonance.
Mapping the structure of protonated water clusters. Water molecules are continuously forming short-lived networks called clusters. These can in turn bind positively charged protons, and such clusters can provide active functional groups in proteins. Using infrared spectroscopy, it is possible to determine the bond strengths, geometrical structures and chemical properties of protonated water clusters. In order to measure the spectrum of molecular vibrations in clusters it is, however, necessary to use other molecules as messengers. A team of physicists and chemists including Dr. Gerald Mathias of LMU Munich and Professor Dominik Marx of the Ruhr-Universität Bochum has, for the first time, described how these messengers influence the assignment of spectral bands by infrared spectroscopy. "The results will improve our ability to interpret spectroscopic data", says Mathias, "and that is an important step towards a better understanding of the function of protonated water clusters in proteins. ...
For all participants, right after one regular treatment fraction, NeuroPET or NeuroPET II will be wheeled into the patient room. The patient bed will be moved directly into the scan position and a PET scan will be acquired in list-mode for 15 to 20 minutes followed by a CT scan for ~5 minutes. After undergoing their first PET scan, participants will have the option to undergo 1-2 additional scans throughout radiation treatment in the same manner as the first scan ...
For all participants, right after one regular treatment fraction, NeuroPET or NeuroPET II will be wheeled into the patient room. The patient bed will be moved directly into the scan position and a PET scan will be acquired in list-mode for 15 to 20 minutes followed by a CT scan for ~5 minutes. After undergoing their first PET scan, participants will have the option to undergo 1-2 additional scans throughout radiation treatment in the same manner as the first scan ...
Our Sun is indeed getting brighter because under the high temperatures and pressures in its core, it is turning hydrogen, actually protons, into helium nuclei consisting of two protons and two neutrons. Since helium nuclei have about the mass of four protons, but only the charge of two protons, they take up about as much room as two protons when bouncing around in the Suns core. However, because helium nuclei have four times the density of a single proton, the Suns core is constantly getting denser with time as protons are constantly being turned into helium nuclei. A core that is constantly getting denser means that gravity is also constantly getting stronger within the Suns core, and consequently, the pressure within the Suns core that resists the increasing pull of gravity must also rise to stave off the collapse of the core. The pressure within the Suns core can only increase by increasing its temperature, but that is easily achieved because a hotter, denser, core also fuses protons ...
Influenza proton pump. Molecular model showing the protein structure of a proton pump from an influenza A virus. Proton pumps are membrane proteins that move protons across a cell membrane. This is tetrameric proton channel M2. - Stock Image C015/4985
Internal proton transfer between an enzyme and substrate is a common feature of many enzyme mechanisms. Likewise, internal proton transfer between the chromophore of green fluorescent protein (GFP) and amino acids on the inside of the beta barrel are important both in the ground and excited state. I will discuss an interesting connection between the proton transfer dynamics in GFP and those in an enzyme, ketosteroid isomerase (KSI), bound to substrate analogs. In both cases there is a tug of war between the protein and bound substrate analog or chromophore that depends on their affinities for a proton and which can be tuned either by changing the substrate/chromophore or the protein. This can be observed in the ground state by optical methods (absorption and IR) as well as by nmr, or in the excited state by time-resolved fluorescence or visible pump-IR probe measurements. In both cases the proton dynamics have important functional consequences. To cite this abstract, use the following reference: ...
In mitochondria and aerobic bacteria energy conservation involves electron transfer through the membrane-bound protein of the respiratory chain to oxygen. Cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) catalyzes the reduction of oxygen to water. Part of the energy released in this reaction is used to pump protons across the membrane. The protons that are pumped, and those needed for reduction to water, are taken from the inside of the membrane. This helps to maintain an electrochemical potential over the membrane, which is necessary for the survival of the cell and is used for example to produce ATP.. This work has been focused on the proton, electron and oxygen transfer in CcO from Rhodobacter sphaeroides. Results presented here show that there is a need for a specific O2-channel, due to structural rigidity of the area close to the catalytic site. In other parts of the enzyme regions that undergo redox-dependent structural changes were identified, and we proposed areas involved in controlling proton pumping and in ...
The flux n(o) becomes stronger when the proton interacts with other particles, because there is an overlap between the flux n(o) of the proton and the flux n(o) of the other particle. A free proton has the radius in order of 0,8 fm, as measured by the experiments of proton-electron scattering. The shrinkage in the protons radius depends on the mass of the other particle, because the intensity of the total flux n(o) crossing the ring of the proton depends on the mass of the other particle. ...
Posted on 03/15/2013 7:37:13 AM PDT by Ernest_at_the_Beach. From the AGU weekly highlights:. Large solar proton event explains 774-775 CE carbon-14 increase Tree ring records indicate that in 774-775 CE, atmospheric carbon-14 levels increased substantially. Researchers suggest that a solar proton event may have been the cause. In solar proton events, large numbers of high-energy protons are emitted from the Sun, along with other particles. If these particles reach Earth s atmosphere, they ionize the atmosphere and induce nuclear reactions that produce higher levels of carbon-14; the particles also cause chemical reactions that result in depletion of ozone in the ozone layer, allowing harmful ultraviolet radiation to reach the ground.. A previous group of researchers suggested that to cause the observed eighth century carbon-14 increase, a solar proton event would have had to be thousands of times larger than any that has been observed from the Sun. However, Thomas et al. believe that group s ...
Proton irradiation can preserve some vision and prevent eye removal in patients with tumors adjacent to the optic disc, according to a study published online Sept. 13 in Archives of Ophthalmology.
Hi, I am a young physics student who wonders a lot about the atom, especially its nucleus. I thought about the atom and realised that there could never be a nucleus of two protons because they both would reject each other. I have made some calculations and realised that the gravitational force is far lower than the electric force, so both protons would reject each other. Is there an element with only two protons in its nucleus? or does it needs neutrons to bring the protons together? Thanks ...
Term Use Of Proton Inhibitors - 28 images - Ppi And Diuretic Up Risk With Hypomagnesemia Hospitalization, Term Proton Inhibitor Use Associated With, Term Use Of Proton Inhibitors And Increased, Proton Inhibitors Considerations With Term Use, Drugs Used In Git Disorders Ppt
Subang Jaya, 12 February 2020 - PROTON launched the 2020 Proton X70, the latest iteration of the automakers segment leading sports-utility-vehicle (SUV) today. Built on a completely new production line at its refurbished plant in Tanjung Malim, the 2020 Proton X70 brings a host of features and new technology that further increase the value proposition of the award winning vehicle.
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The Proton kit is composed of 235W Innokin Proton MOD and 2ml Scion 2 tank The Proton kit is composed of 235W Innokin Proton MOD and 2ml Scion 2 tank, the Innokin Proton Scion II kit is a new and innovative TC kit with an ergonomic design and elegant appearance. Powered by two 18650 batteries (NOT INCLUDED) with a new
Ini lah masanya kalau siapa-siapa yang rasa nak berkhidmat untuk negara tapi malas jadi askar bolehlah kerja Proton. Masa inilah nak cakap serupa bikin, bila dah masuk dalam Proton lu orang buatlah yang terbaik. Gua tengok dari tepi je, kalau lu orang dapat kerja jangan lupa jadi spy GT, jangan lupa daratan, jumpa orang kampung jangan lupa tegur.. Jawatan kat Proton ni semua taraf tinggi, gua bukan tak nak mohon tapi Veyron gua mana nak simpan, kang orang syak gua buat kerja salah.. Agak-agak kalau bran, klik: Gua nak kerja Proton, gua nak buat kereta Proton! Gua sayang Matpon!. Babai.. -Matpon-. ...
Ceramics, which exhibit high proton conductivity at moderate temperatures, are studied as electrolyte membranes or electrode components of fuel cells, electrolysers or CO2 converters. In severe operating conditions (high gas pressure/high temperature), the chemical activity towards potentially reactive atmospheres (water, CO2, etc.) is enhanced. This can lead to mechanical, chemical, and structural instability of the membranes and premature efficiency loss. Since the lifetime duration of a device determines its economical interest, stability/aging tests are essential. Consequently, we have developed autoclaves equipped with a sapphire window, allowing in situ Raman study in the 25-620 °C temperature region under 1-50 bar of water vapor/gas pressure, both with and without the application of an electric field. Taking examples of four widely investigated perovskites (BaZr0.9Yb0.1O3−δ, SrZr0.9Yb0.1O3−δ, BaZr0.25In0.75O3−δ, BaCe0.5Zr0.3Y0.16Zn0.04O3−δ), we demonstrate the high potential of our
Ceramics, which exhibit high proton conductivity at moderate temperatures, are studied as electrolyte membranes or electrode components of fuel cells, electrolysers or CO2 converters. In severe operating conditions (high gas pressure/high temperature), the chemical activity towards potentially reactive atmospheres (water, CO2, etc.) is enhanced. This can lead to mechanical, chemical, and structural instability of the membranes and premature efficiency loss. Since the lifetime duration of a device determines its economical interest, stability/aging tests are essential. Consequently, we have developed autoclaves equipped with a sapphire window, allowing in situ Raman study in the 25-620 °C temperature region under 1-50 bar of water vapor/gas pressure, both with and without the application of an electric field. Taking examples of four widely investigated perovskites (BaZr0.9Yb0.1O3−δ, SrZr0.9Yb0.1O3−δ, BaZr0.25In0.75O3−δ, BaCe0.5Zr0.3Y0.16Zn0.04O3−δ), we demonstrate the high potential of our
Ucp2 (untagged) - Mouse uncoupling protein 2 (mitochondrial, proton carrier) (Ucp2), nuclear gene encoding mitochondrial protein, (10ug), 10 µg.
A nickel bis(diphosphine) complex containing proton relays in the second and outer coordination spheres, Ni(PCy2N(CH2)2OMe)2, (PCy2N(CH2)2OMe = 1,5-di(methoxyethyl)-3,7-dicyclohexyl-1,5-diaza-3,7-diphosphacyclooctane), is an electrocatalyst for hydrogen oxidation. The addition of hydrogen to the Ni(ii) compl
article{41e659e2-dc5e-4bff-a635-0b00025b4e98, abstract = {The intra-molecular, proton-coupled electron transfer from a tyrosine residue to covalently linked tris-bipyridine ruthenium(III) complexes in aqueous solution (Ru-III-TyrOH --> Ru-II-TyrO(.) + H+) is studied in two complexes. The Ru-III-TyrOH state is generated by laser flash-induced photo-oxidation in the presence of the electron acceptor methyl viologen. The reaction is shown to follow either a concerted electron transfer-deprotonation (CEP) mechanism or a step-wise mechanism with electron transfer followed by deprotonation (ETPT). The CEP is characterised by a pH-dependent rate constant, a large reorganisation energy (lambda = 1.4 eV at pH = 7) and a significant kinetic isotope effect: k(H)/k(D) = 1.5-3. We can explain the pH-dependence and the high lambda by the pH-dependent DeltaGdegrees for proton release to bulk water, and by the additional reorganisation energy associated with the proton transfer coordinate (both internal and ...
Proton beam radiation therapy (PBRT) is a form of external radiation therapy in which positively charged subatomic particles, or protons, are targeted to a specific tissue mass through use of a stereotactic planning and delivery system. With this treatment, a focused dose of radiation is delivered to the target area while the surrounding healthy tissue receives minimal radiation. The use of proton beam radiation may improve outcomes when thefollowing conditions apply:. ...
A 90-ton machine called a cyclotron will accelerate protons to very high speeds to impact human tumors. For more on proton therapy at UAB, click here. Click to enlarge.The ability to make protons a cancer-fighting tool s...
Kuala Lumpur, Friday 18 January 2008 - 1731 hours - At exactly 5.31 pm today, we are free of the embargo imposed by Proton on the media with regards to the new BLM model, which should have been launched a minute ago.. We have had this story sitting in our holding tank since a couple of days ago, when we were invited to attend a media preview of the all-new BLM, now officially known as the SAGA, a more than worthy replacement for the outgoing, 22 year old, first ever Proton model to be produced in this country.. According to Dato Syed Zainal Abidin, CEO of Proton, the new SAGA is a peoples car, stating that the product strategy was for Proton to come out with a car that is modern, serves the needs of the rakyat, and be competitively priced.. Well, with prices starting from RM29,999 for the cheapest and most basic model, and many variants of 4-speed automatic and 5-speed manual versions with various levels of trim, there is a Saga to suit anybody and any pocketbook size.. The Saga comes with ...
Mitochondria use energy derived from fuel combustion to create a proton electrochemical gradient across the mitochondrial inner membrane. This intermediate form of energy is then used by ATP synthase to synthesize ATP. Uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1) is a brown fat-specific mitochondrial inner membrane protein with proton transport activity. UCP1 catalyzes a highly regulated proton leak, converting energy stored within the mitochondrial proton electrochemical potential gradient to heat. This uncouples fuel oxidation from conversion of ADP to ATP. In rodents, UCP1 activity and brown fat contribute importantly to whole-body energy expenditure. Recently, two additional mitochondrial carriers with high similarity to UCP1 were molecularly cloned. In contrast to UCP1, UCP2 is expressed widely, and UCP3 is expressed preferentially in skeletal muscle. Biochemical studies indicate that UCP2 and UCP3, like UCP1, have uncoupling activity. While UCP1 is known to play an important role in regulating heat ...
Molecules with ionizable protons, with different proton transfer efficiencies in the excited and ground states, show excited state prototropism (ESPT). In suitable proton donating/accepting environments, ESPT of a molecule can result in the observation of emissions from different prototropic species, each ch 2019 Perspective article collection
Two positrons and two protons are kept on the four corners of a square of side a. Positrons are kept at vertices A and C and protons are kept at B and D. let q denote the charge on both positron as well as the proton. So what is the kinetic energy of the positron and proton respectively after a long time ...
Scientists at the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis conducted a detailed comparison of catalytic performance. They compared catalysts with different ring sizes and different numbers of proton relays. They found that the catalyst 7P2N with a smaller ring and fewer proton relays was faster or had a higher turnover efficiency. CME is an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by DOE Basic Energy Sciences and led by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
Proton/hydrogen-transfer processes have been broadly studied in the past 50 years to explain the photostability and the spontaneous tautomerism in the DNA base pairs. In the present study, the CASSCF/CASPT2 methodology is used to map the two-dimensional potential energy surfaces along the stretched NH reaction coordinates of the guanine-cytosine (GC) base pair. Concerted and stepwise pathways are explored initially in vacuo, and three mechanisms are studied: the stepwise double proton transfer, the stepwise double hydrogen transfer, and the concerted double proton transfer. The results are consistent with previous findings related to the photostability of the GC base pair, and a new contribution to tautomerism is provided. The C-based imino-oxo and imino-enol GC tautomers, which can be generated during the UV irradiation of the Watson-Crick base pair, have analogous radiationless energy-decay channels to those of the canonical base pair. In addition, the C-based imino-enol GC tautomer is ...
The voltage-gated proton channel, Hv1, Hv1 or HVCN1 (273 aas) (Ramsey et al., 2006). Thr29 is a phosphorylation site that activates the HVCN1 channel in leukocytes (Musset et al., 2010). The condctivity pore has been delineated and depends of a carboxyl group (Asp or Glu) in the channel (Morgan et al. 2013). The four transmembrane helices sense voltage and the pH gradient, and conduct protons exclusively. Selectivity is achieved by the unique ability of H3O+ to protonate an Asp-Arg salt bridge. Pathognomonic sensitivity of gating to the pH gradient ensures HV1 channel opening only when acid extrusion will result, which is crucial to its biological functions (DeCoursey 2015). An exception occurs in dinoflagellates (see 1.A.51.1.4) in which H+ influx through HV1 triggers a bioluminescent flash. The gating mechanism of Hv1, cooperativity within dimers and the sensitivity to metal ions have been reviewed (Okamura et al. 2015). How this channel is activated by cytoplasmic [H+] and depolarization of ...
Abstract: We demonstrate that the energy spectra of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECR) as observed by AGASA, Flys Eye, HiRes and Yakutsk detectors, have the imprints of UHE proton interaction with the CMB radiation as the dip centered at $E\sim 1\times 10^{19}$ eV, beginning of the GZK cutoff, and very good agreement with calculated spectrum shape. This conclusion about proton composition agrees with recent HiRes data on elongation rate that support the proton composition at $E\geq 1\times 10^{18}$ eV. The visible bump in the spectrum at $E \sim 4\times 10^{19}$ eV is not caused by pile-up protons, but is an artifact of multiplying the spectrum by $E^3$. We argue that these data, combined with small-angle clustering and correlation with AGN (BL Lacs), point to the AGN model of UHECR origin at energies $E \leq 1\times 10^{20}$ eV. The events at higher energies and the excess of the events at $E \geq 1\times 10^{20}$ eV, which is observed by AGASA (but absent in the HiRes data) must be ...
The backprojection-then-filtering algorithm was applied to proton CT data to reconstruct a map of proton stopping power relative to water (RSP) in air, water and bone. Backprojections were performed along three commonly used path estimates for the proton: straight line path, cubic spline path, and most likely path. The proton CT data was obtained through simulations using the GEANT4 simulation toolkit. Two elliptical phantoms were inspected, and an accuracy of 0.2% and 0.8% was obtained for the RSP in water and bone respectively in the region of interest, while the RSP of air was significantly underestimated.. ...
The backprojection-then-filtering algorithm was applied to proton CT data to reconstruct a map of proton stopping power relative to water (RSP) in air, water and bone. Backprojections were performed along three commonly used path estimates for the proton: straight line path, cubic spline path, and most likely path. The proton CT data was obtained through simulations using the GEANT4 simulation toolkit. Two elliptical phantoms were inspected, and an accuracy of 0.2% and 0.8% was obtained for the RSP in water and bone respectively in the region of interest, while the RSP of air was significantly underestimated.. ...
The point atomic charges in a number of ionic H-bonded systems are studied by ab initio calculations as functions of the proton transfer coordinate. In the proton-bound complexes of water-water, ammonia-ammonia, formamide-water, formamide-ammonia, and dimethylether-ammonia, the net atomic charges were obtained using Mulliken population analysis and from the diagonal elements of the atomic polar tensors calculated at the HF/4-31G and MP2/6-31 + G** levels. The dependence of the atomic charges upon the coordinate of the transferring proton was found to be close (within an error of 0.02 e) to a linear function for intermolecular distances in the 2.5-2.8 Å range. The obtained charge and charge flux dependencies highlight the electron redistribution during the proton transfer process and provide insights into the source of the high infrared (IR) intensities of stretching modes of NH and OH bonds undergoing hydrogen bonding. © 1994 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Visualisation of how a proton is produced from three quarks. The proton is a constituent of all atomic nuclei. It contains three valence quarks, two up quarks and one down quark. The quarks are held together by the strong nuclear force, seen as the exchange of gluons (straight lines). The three valence quarks are hidden in the corners of a triangular cloud of virtual quarks, anti- quarks and gluons which are spontaneously created within the proton. All of these contribute to the interaction between the proton and its neighbours in the nucleus. The colours represent the strong force charges: red, green and blue for particles; cyan, magenta and yellow for anti-particles. - Stock Image A152/0041
From this point in the mission, the Breeze M will perform planned mission maneuvers to advance the orbital unit first to a circular parking orbit, then to an intermediate orbit, followed by a transfer orbit, and finally to a geosynchronous transfer orbit. Separation of the EchoStar XV satellite is scheduled to occur approximately 9 hours, 13 minutes after liftoff.. The EchoStar XV satellite will join DISH Networks fleet of satellites that serve more than 14 million satellite TV customers in the U.S. From its location at 61.5 degrees west longitude, EchoStar XV will provide Ku-band services over the eastern continental United States.. Built by Space Systems/Loral of Palo Alto, California, the 5,521 kg (12,146 lbs) satellite sports 32 Ku-Band transponders and will have a service lifetime of 15 years.. This will be the 7th Proton Launch in 2010, the 5th ILS Proton Launch in 2010, the 61th Proton Launch for ILS, the 4th EchoStar Satellite Launched on ILS Proton, and the 15th Space Systems/Loral ...
Let me share my experience with my less than 2-month old Proton Inspira 2.0P. Last week, I discovered that the car boot was flooded with water. I reported the problem to Proton i.Care and they responded to my email the very next morning. I was told that they have forwarded my complaint to the respective departments. Not bad at all; for their very prompt reply. Unfortunately, that was the last I heard from them. I waited for a full week and not even a single call or email from them. I wrote to Proton i.Care again and told them that I have made a service appointment and requested that they ensure that someone is there to attend to my problem. This time, not even a reply from them. This is what I got for buying a Proton Inspira; Poor QC + Poor Service. I took a gamble and thinking that they have improved much over the last couple of years. I was wrong and paid dearly for it. Think twice before you part with your hard earned money.. ...
AH: I could only speculate. I think irrelevant issues are being considered in the negotiations. When I say irrelevant issues I mean issues which have nothing to do with business at all. Things like "if Volkswagen comes in, there must still be a Bumiputra Managing Director/CEO" or a Bumiputra or Malaysian management". Things like "if you come in, you must ensure that Protons vendors must be Bumiputra" and stuffs like that. I mean, if the seller of the shares do not want to relinquish management to Volkswagen, why must Volkswagen acquire a controlling interest? And why must the seller fear Volkswagens management of Proton? After all, Volkswagen is bigger than Proton. They have been in the business for far longer than Proton. They know the market. They have the expertise, both in terms of marketing networking and strategy and production technology and know how and not to mention financial clout. After all their parent company is Porsche! Why dont we give them the power to manage with a set ...
Proton managing director Datuk Hj Syed Zainal says Proton is in very preliminary talks with Renault on a technical collaboration, which sources in the company say are centered around the supply of a diesel engine for Proton. Proton is also toying with the idea of a Laguna-based Perdana but this is just one of the
A comprehensive database of proton quizzes online, test your knowledge with proton quiz questions. Our online proton trivia quizzes can be adapted to suit your requirements for taking some of the top proton quizzes.
Launch of Russian Proton Rocket with British Inmarsat 5-F2 Sat, Proton M rocket explosion July 2 2013 slow motion full HD, Proton M rocket explosion, NEW VIDEO 1, from Astrium team, July 2, 2013, Rocket Profile - Proton
We have always emphasized on the potential of the Indian Automobile Market and always state that it is probably the most rapidly growing market and the most luring one as well and confirming it are the brand like Bugatti, Koenigsegg, Ferrari etc. who wish to enter it.. Not only the super luxurious brands, in fact automakers which are popular for their economical yet competitive products also wish the same. the best example for it is the Malaysian auto manufacturer Proton, who will soon be rolling its cars on the Indian turf. Initially the brand will come loaded with with a very strong lineup comprising of a sedan Proton Savvy, a small car Proton Saga and a SUV Proton Exora. Earlier the brand was on a look out for a company ready to join hands with it and make its entry easier, but now the brand is all ready to enter alone. ...
Yang hadir sama, Ketua Pegawai Eksekutif PROTON, Dr Li Chunrong.. Pada majlis itu, PROTON turut memperkenalkan sistem interaksi kokpit pintarnya yang pertama iaitu GKUI.. GKUI membolehkan pemandu berinteraksi dengan kenderaan terbabit untuk mengubah beberapa tetapan mengikut kesesuaian seperti tahap penghawa dingin, suara audio dan juga navigasi menerusi arahan suara (voice command).. Buat masa ini, GKUI hanya diprogramkan dalam bahasa Inggeris dan PROTON kini dalam proses membangunkan sistem itu untuk menambah bahasa Thailand dan Indonesia.. Seperti yang dimaklumkan sebelum ini, model hasil kerjasama dengan Geely itu dijana dengan enjin 1.8 liter Turbo Gasoline Direct Injection (TGDI) yang menghasilkan kuasa 181 hp dan tork 285Nm pada 1,500 rpm.. PROTON berkata, model itu mampu memecut dari 0 hingga 100 kilometer sejam (km/j) dengan catatan masa 10.5 saat.. Selain itu, terdapat tiga pilihan mod pemanduan iaitu Normal, Eco dan Sport. Setiap mod itu akan menyaksikan perubahan warna pada bahagian ...
Hari ini dengan rasminya Proton Saga FL 1.6 Executive dilancarkan oleh Proton. Harga Proton Saga FL 1.6 Executive ialah RM46,549 (semenanjung Malaysia). Proton Saga FL 1.6 Executive ini hanya dikeluarkan dalam versi automatik dan hanya warna putih (solid white color ...
Hari ini dengan rasminya Proton Saga FL 1.6 Executive dilancarkan oleh Proton. Harga Proton Saga FL 1.6 Executive ialah RM46,549 (semenanjung Malaysia). Proton Saga FL 1.6 Executive ini hanya dikeluarkan dalam versi automatik dan hanya warna putih (solid white color ...
The effects of guanosine 5-triphosphate (GTP) and GTP-gamma-S, known activators of GTP binding proteins, on proton transport were investigated in endosome-enriched vesicles (endosomes). Endosomes were prepared from rabbit renal cortex following the intravenous injection of FITC-dextran. The rate of intravesicular acidification was determined by measuring changes in fluorescence of FITC-dextran. Both GTP and GTP-gamma-S stimulated significantly the initial rate of proton transport. In contrast, GDP-beta-S, which does not activate GTP binding proteins, inhibited proton transport. The rank order of stimulation was GTP-gamma-S greater than GTP greater than control greater than GDP-beta-S. GTP-gamma-S stimulation of proton transport was also observed under conditions in which chloride entry was eliminated, i.e., 0 mM external chloride concentration in the presence of potassium/valinomycin voltage clamping. GTP-gamma-S did not affect proton leak in endosomes as determined by collapse of H+ ...
Quantum mechanics can predict basic properties of molecules such as relative energies, electronic charge distributions, dipoles, ionization and excitation energies. By solving the Schrödinger equation with the electronic molecular Hamiltonian we can determine the electronic structure of the molecule that implies physical and chemical properties of the molecule. ❧ In this thesis we use quantum mechanics to study basic properties of microhydrated nucleobases--essential building blocks of DNA. Water plays a central role in chemistry and biology by mediating the interactions between molecules, altering energy levels of solvated species, modifying potential energy profiles along reaction coordinates, and facilitating efficient proton transport through ion channels and interfaces. The effect of hydration on different properties of molecules and chemical reactions has been intensively studied for many years both theoretically and experimentally. Numerous solvation models were developed in an effort ...
Yn Ffiseg, mae proton yn ronyn isatomig gyda gwefr drydanol o un uned sylfaenol positif (1.602 × 10−19 coulomb). Mae Proton yn cael ei ffeindio o fewm niwclysau atommau ac maen hefyd yn sefydlog ar ben ei hyn fel ïon hydrogen H+. Cyfansoddwyd y proton can 3 gronyn isatomig yn cynnwys dau cwarc i fynu a un cwarc i lawr. ...
3. the assumption implicit in the calculations used in QED to calculate the charge radius of the proton from its high-energy scattering form factor is that quarks are point-like. This assumption is wrong if quarks are extended bound states of several more fundamental particles. This is what I predicted in 1979 in a research paper published in Physics Letters, vol 84B, p. 133. In fact, I proved that the observed, approximate t^(-2) behaviour of the proton magnetic form factor (t = square of momentum transfer) could be due to Lorentz contraction of both finite-sized proton and quark wavepackets, indicative of composite quarks, which my paper predicted ...
The reaction C14(p, p) has been investigated over the energy range from 340 to 690 kev. No wide anomalies are found, but a narrow anomaly at 527 kev has been attributed to d-wave protons forming a state of spin 3 / 2+. The reaction C14(p, γ), investigated over the range from 250 to 690 kev, shows a resonance at 261 kev in addition to the three previously known resonances at 351, 527, and 634 kev. Proton and radiative widths are obtained for all these resonances, and limits are placed on the spin assignments. From the data obtained, it is clear that the levels corresponding to the resonances at proton energies of 261, 351, and 527 kev cannot contribute significantly to the scattering or capture of low-energy neutrons by N14. In addition, the level corresponding to the 634-kev resonance cannot be responsible for the whole of the N14+n cross section at low energies, but it may be responsible for part of this cross section. It is suggested that the level at 9.84 Mev is responsible for the remainder ...
The protonmotive force, ∆mFH+, is known as Δp in Peter Mitchells chemiosmotic theory [1], which establishes the link between electric and chemical components of energy transformation and coupling in oxidative phosphorylation. The unifying concept of the pmF ranks among the most fundamental theories in biology. As such, it provides the framework for developing a consistent theory and nomenclature for mitochondrial physiology and bioenergetics. The protonmotive force is not a vector force as defined in physics. This conflict is resolved by the generalized formulation of isomorphic, compartmental forces, ∆trF, in energy (exergy) transformations [2]. Protonmotive means that there is a potential for the movement of protons, and force is a measure of the potential for motion. The pmF is generated in oxidative phosphorylation by oxidation of reduced fuel substrates and reduction of O2 to H2O, driving the coupled proton translocation from the mt-matrix space across the mitochondrial inner membrane ...
Abstract: Two-photon exchange contributions to elastic electron-proton scattering cross sections are evaluated in a simple hadronic model including the finite size of the proton. The corrections are found to be small in magnitude, but with a strong angular dependence at fixed $Q^2$. This is significant for the Rosenbluth technique for determining the ratio of the electric and magnetic form factors of the proton at high $Q^2$, and partly reconciles the apparent discrepancy with the results of the polarization transfer technique ...