TY - JOUR. T1 - Proton conductivity of Nafion/ex situ Stöber silica nanocomposite membranes as a function of silica particle size and temperature. AU - Muriithi, Beatrice. AU - Loy, Douglas A.. PY - 2014/2/1. Y1 - 2014/2/1. N2 - In the first systematic study of the influence of the size of silica particles on ion exchange capacity (IEC) and proton conductivity of Nafion-silica nanocomposite membranes, thin films cast from mixtures of silica particles (5 wt%) with varying diameters ranging from 10 to 400 nm and Nafion in alcohol were examined. IECs decreased exactly as expected with the dilution of Nafion and its sulfonic acid groups with added silica. At 80 C, the proton conductivity was also less with silica particles. However, at higher temperatures (120 C), there was a 58 % improvement in proton conductivity at low relative humidity and a 45 % improvement at higher relative humidity for nanocomposite membranes prepared with silica particles ,50 nm in size. The improvement was less ...
CiteSeerX - Document Details (Isaac Councill, Lee Giles, Pradeep Teregowda): Abstract-Soft Error Resiliency is a major concern for Pet-ascale high performance computing (HPC) systems. Blue Gene/Q (BG/Q) is the third generation of IBMs massively parallel, ener-gy efficient Blue Gene series of supercomputers. The principal goal of this work is to understand the interaction between Blue-Gene/Qs hardware resiliency features and high-performance applications through proton irradiation of a real chip, and soft-ware resiliency inherent in these applications through applica-tion-level fault injection (AFI) experiments. From the proton irradiation experiments we derived that the mean time between correctable errors at sea level of the SRAM-based register files and Level-1 caches for a system similar to the scale of Sequoia system. From the AFI experiments, we characterized relative vulnerability among the applications in both general purpose and floating point register files. We categorized and quantified the
The Proton Irradiation Facility (PIF) was designed primarily for single-event effect (SEE) studies and characterization of electronic components and detectors for the space environment. The energy spectrum of protons trapped in earth orbits peaks in the 10-100 MeV region (depending on the amount of intervening absorber) and drops by about an order of magnitude at 500 MeV. This makes the TRIUMF cyclotrons variable-energy capability of up to 500 MeV ideal for studies of space effects. Biological studies such as cell irradiations to measure the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of protons are also being carried out in conjunction with the Proton Therapy Centre.. PIF makes use of two different beam lines at TRIUMF for low-intensity radiation-damage studies. The lower energies, variable from as low as 5 MeV up to 120 MeV are available from the beam line BL2C, which is also used on a regular basis for proton treatments of ocular melanoma. Higher energies, from 120 MeV up to 500 MeV are ...
The proton conductivity of a dense coordination polymer (CP) was investigated under high-pressure conditions. Impedance measurements under high pressures revealed that the proton conductivity of the CP decreased more than 1000-fold at pressures of 3-7 GPa and that the activation energy for proton conduction almost doubled compared with that at ambient pressure. A synchrotron X-ray study under high pressure identified the amorphization process of the CP during compression, which rationally explains the decrease in conductivity and increase in activation energy. This phenomenon is categorized as reversible pressure-induced amorphization of a dense CP and is regarded as a demonstration of the coupling of the mechanical and electrical properties of a CP. ...
The concept of surface coupled proton exchange between membrane proteins has long been criticized because the origin of proton?s surface affinity remained enigmatic. The weak dependence of both migration speed and span on lipid composition suggests that interfacial water serves as proton railways (1). However, it is unclear how to reconcile the apparent high proton affinity to the phase boundary (2) with the poor proton acceptability of water. Here we monitored the diffusion of excess protons along the phosphatidylcholine lipid bilayer/water interface at different temperatures. The kinetics of proton arrival from a distant spot of proton release to lipid anchored fluorescent pH-sensitive dyes indicated that the in vitro Gibbs activation energy ?G for proton surfaceto- bulk release harbours only a minor enthalpic constituent. Our observation that more than 2/3 of ?G are entropic in origin explains the high proton affinity to membranes in the absence of a potent proton acceptor. This work was ...
This article concerns the study of iron corrosion in wet air under mega-electron-volt proton irradiation for different fluxes at room temperature and with a relative humidity fixed to 45%. Oxidized iron sample surfaces are characterized by ion beam analysis (Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and elastic recoil detection analysis), for the elemental analysis. The structural and physicochemical characterization is performed using the x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy techniques. We have also measured the iron oxidation kinetics. Radiation enhanced diffusion and transport processes have been evidenced. The modeling of the experimental data shows that the apparent oxygen diffusion coefficient increases whereas the oxygen transport velocity decreases as function of flux. Finally, the point defect model has been used to determine the electric field value in the samples. Results have shown that the transport process can be attributed to the presence of an electrical
Applied Physics Letters, Volume 102, Issue 19, id. 193510 (4 pages) (2013).. Abdelkader Abderrahmane, S. Koide, H. Okada, H. Takahashi, S. Sato, T. Ohshima, A. Sandhu.. Department of Electrical and Electronic Information Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Hibarigaoka, Tempaku-cho, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580, Japan and. Electronics-Inspired Interdisciplinary Research Institute (EIIRIS), Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Hibarigaoka, Tempaku-cho, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580, Japan and. Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 1233 Watanuki-cho, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292, Japan.. Abstract The magnetoelectric properties of AlGaN/GaN micro-Hall effect sensors were studied after 380 keV proton irradiation. After irradiation the current-voltage measurements, stability of the magnetic sensitivity of the sensors, and the sheet electron density were degraded with a dramatic decrease of the electron mobility at high temperatures. Raman spectroscopy showed a ...
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Close The Infona portal uses cookies, i.e. strings of text saved by a browser on the users device. The portal can access those files and use them to remember the users data, such as their chosen settings (screen view, interface language, etc.), or their login data. By using the Infona portal the user accepts automatic saving and using this information for portal operation purposes. More information on the subject can be found in the Privacy Policy and Terms of Service. By closing this window the user confirms that they have read the information on cookie usage, and they accept the privacy policy and the way cookies are used by the portal. You can change the cookie settings in your browser. ...
Prostate cancer is the most common noncutaneous cancer among men in the United States. The purpose of this research study is to determine if dose-escalated proton radiation therapy is a good way to treat high-risk prostate cancer.. Proton therapy (PT) is a type of ionizing radiation therapy that reduces the dose of excess radiation delivered to normal tissues. By escalating the radiation dose just to the area of the known tumor within the prostate, one could potentially reduce the amount of excess radiation delivered to surrounding organs.This reduction in dose would improve the therapeutic ratio by improving disease control while minimizing the risk for additional toxicity.. In an effort to take advantage of dose escalations potential for improving disease control but also to limit toxicity, the use of advanced imaging to identify prostate cancer and provide a focal radiation boost to the area have proven to be useful. Recent advances in MRI have made it the most promising technique in ...
Proton Inhibition - 28 images - Differentiating Ger From Gerd To Quot D Quot Or Not To Quot D Quot Ppt, Antacids H2 Antagonists Ppis Proton Inhibitors, Proton Inhibitor, Proton Inhibitors Ppis Mechanism Images, Proton Pumps H
Background and purpose: To determine the influence of the number of fractions (or the dose per fraction) on the proton relative biological effectiveness (RBE). Materials and methods: Intestinal crypt regeneration in mice was used as the biological endpoint. RBE was determined relative to cobalt-60 gamma rays for irradiations in one, three and ten fractions separated by a time interval of 3.5 h. Proton irradiations were performed at the middle of a 7-cm Spread Out Bragg Peak (SOBP). Results: Proton RBEs (and corresponding gamma dose per fraction) at the level of 20 regenerated crypts per circumference were found equal to 1.15 ± 0.04 (10.0 Gy), 1.15 ± 0.05 (4.8 Gy) and 1.14 ± 0.07 (1.7 Gy) for irradiations in one, three and ten fractions, respectively. Alpha/beta ratios as derived from direct analysis of the quantal radiation response data were found to be 7.6 Gy for gamma rays and 8.2 Gy for protons. Additional proton irradiations in ten fractions at the end of the SOBP were found to be more ...
C. Biswas, K. Devarajan, T. K. Panda, and S. S. K. Raavi, Enhanced Broadband Emission in Novel Phenanthroimidazole Derivative Molecules via Excited State Intramolecular Proton Transfer, in OSA Advanced Photonics Congress (AP) 2020 (IPR, NP, NOMA, Networks, PVLED, PSC, SPPCom, SOF), L. Caspani, A. Tauke-Pedretti, F. Leo, and B. Yang, eds., OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2020), paper JTh3G.5 ...
A proton is part of an atom.[1] They are found in the nucleus of an atom along with neutrons.[1] The periodic table groups atoms according to how many protons they have. A single atom of hydrogen (the lightest kind of atom) is made up of an electron moving around a proton. Most of the mass of this atom is in the proton, which is almost 2000 times heavier than the electron. Protons and neutrons make up the nucleus of every other kind of atom. In any one element, the number of protons is always the same. An atoms atomic number is equal to the number of protons in that atom. Protons are made of quarks.[1] A proton is believed to be made up of 3 quarks, two up quarks and one down quark.[1] One down quark has a charge of -1/3, and two up quarks have a charge of +2/3 each. This adds to a charge of +1. A proton has a very small mass. The mass of the proton is about one atomic mass unit. The mass of the neutron is also about one atomic mass unit. The size of a proton is determined by the vibration of ...
Performance degradation of the SiGe HBT after proton irradiation is investigated using a new physical TCAD model built into the Synopsys Sentaurus tool. The general conception of the model is based on the additive effects of ionization and displacement effects influence on transistor base current. New equations for the physical parameters τ, S, Nit taking into account radiation effects after the impact of proton irradiation are included in the program. Comparison of simulated and experimental characteristics of the SiGe HBT after subjection to proton fluences up to 5 · 10|sup|13|/sup| p/cm|sup|2|/sup| shows the 10-20% error.
We test the hypothesized pathway by which protons are passed from the substrate, ascorbate, to the ferryl oxygen in the heme enzyme ascorbate peroxidase (APX). The role of amino acid side chains and bound solvent is demonstrated. We investigated solvent kinetic isotope effects (SKIE) for the wild-type enzyme and several site-directed replacements of the key residues which form the proposed proton path. Kinetic constants for H(2)O(2)-dependent enzyme oxidation to Compound I, k(1), and subsequent reduction of Compound II, k(3), were determined in steady-state assays by variation of both H(2)O(2) and ascorbate concentrations. A high value of the SKIE for wild type APX ((D)k(3) = 4.9) as well as a clear nonlinear dependence on the deuterium composition of the solvent in proton inventory experiments suggest the simultaneous participation of several protons in the transition state for proton transfer. The full SKIE and the proton inventory data were modeled by applying Gross-Butler-Swain-Kresge theory ...
Mechanism of proton transfer among high-density acid groups in the interface between organic and inorganic materials for polymer electrolyte fuel cells has been theoretically examined. It has been clearly shown that the interactions between the phosphate groups at the surface of the inorganic material, zirconium phosphate (ZrP), and the adsorbed water molecules are relatively large and a strong hydrogen-bond network is generated locally. Because of the strong interactions, water molecules can be attached to ZrP and the O-O distance becomes shorter than that in bulk water systems. Because of the short O-O distances and the delocalized charge of each atom, the activation energy of proton transfer at the ZrP surface decreases and causes high proton conductivity even under conditions of high temperature and low humidity. Based on the above studies, the origin of the high proton conductivity of hybrid electrolytes is also discussed. We will also discuss the mechanism of oxygen reduction reaction on ...
It is clear that the voltage--‐gated proton channel HVCN1 plays an essential role in a range of cell types, in particular immune cells. Previous published work has confirmed the existence of proton channels in both murine and human macrophages. However, the role of HVCN1 in macrophages has not been investigated. Given that the current literature on voltage--‐gated proton channels in immune cells has found HVCN1 to be involved in several cellular processes (such as the respiratory burst and signalling events) it is important to establish its functional role in macrophages, which are a crucial constituent of the immune system. The aim of my thesis was to investigate the function of voltage--‐gated proton channels in macrophages with the use of mice with a disrupting mutation within the Hvcn1 gene, which results in HVCN1 loss. In particular, I wanted to address how Hvcn1--‐/--‐ macrophages responded to LPS activation. I hypothesised that HVCN1 regulates the respiratory burst of ...
Transport of the positively charged proton is typically electrogenic, i.e. it generates an electrical field across the membrane also called the membrane potential. Proton transport becomes electrogenic if not neutralized electrically by transport of either a corresponding negative charge in the same direction or a corresponding positive charge in the opposite direction. An example of a proton pump that is not electrogenic, is the proton/potassium pump of the gastric mucosa which catalyzes a balanced exchange of protons and potassium ions. The combined transmembrane gradient of protons and charges created by proton pumps is called an electrochemical gradient. An electrochemical gradient represents a store of energy (potential energy) that can be used to drive a multitude of biological processes such as ATP synthesis, nutrient uptake and action potential formation. In cell respiration, the proton pump uses energy to transport protons from the matrix of the mitochondrion to the inter-membrane ...
It is established that in case of changing of electrons and protons normal conductance by uncoupler as rotenone - inhibitor of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I, inhibitor of mitochondrial hydrogen atom transport at NADH: ubiquinone oxidoreductase level, the significance of the pH value in the outside of isolated erythrocytes, the significance of the pH value after the partial hemolysis of isolated erythrocytes, the significance of the pH value after the full hemolysis of isolated erythrocytes changed to alkaline side. Under effect of uncoupler rotenone, which action occured in the 2-th stage of the full 9 stepped cycle of proton conductance inside human body in the form of blockage of transferring of proton, electron to NADH, FADH2 as hydrogen atom accompanying with release of CO2, the significance of the pH value have been changed to alkaline side i.e. blockage of the transferring of protons and electrons to NADH as hydrogen atom lead to decrease of free proton concentration, proton ...
Bacterial cells have to regulate the cytoplasmic pH to survive in the constantly changing environment as bacterial growth is dependent on substrate availability, as well as the redox potential and the pH of the medium. The regulation of internal pH involves proton export that requires energy in the form of ATP. The biochemical reactions in the cytoplasm associated with metabolism can lead to a net proton production or consumption. The variations in proton concentration in the cytoplasm during growth, can affect the kinetics and the thermodynamic feasibility of biochemical reactions necessitating active regulation of pH. The energetic cost of pH regulation via exporting protons associated with metabolism can impact the biomass yield of the organism and the extent of this effect can vary with the environment.. For example, in E. coli grown with glucose as the electron donor, organic acids released during growth greatly contribute to changes in pH of the medium. Previous studies [41-43] have shown ...
MCOs catalyze one-electron oxidation processes, and four molecules of substrate are oxidised in order to reduce a dioxygen molecule to two waters molecules. Substrate oxidation occurs at the mononuclear T1 centre and then the electrons are shuttled, along a T1 coordinating cisteine, to the two histidines that are coordinating the T3 coppers of the trinuclear centre (Figure 1b), where reduction of dioxygen occurs [2, 4, 11]. This constitutes a HCH conserved motif characteristically found in MCOs. Four electrons, as well as four protons, are used to reduce a molecule of dioxygen with the concomitant formation of two water molecules [1, 2, 12]. Electrons needed for this process are obtained through the oxidation of a variety of substrates, but not much is known about the mechanism of proton transfer during this process. Recently, site directed mutagenesis studies suggest that Asp112 of CueO (Asp 116 in CotA; Figure 1c) [13, 14], a conserved residue that is located in the exit channel in close ...
The structure and dynamics of aqueous protons play fundamental roles in many areas of chemistry, biology, and physics. There is a general consensus that the proton achieves its anomalously large diffusion (up to 7 times larger than similarly sized cations) through a structural exchange process, referred to as the Grotthuss mechanism, whereby protons are passed from one molecule to the next. While there has been a multitude of computational studies focused on unraveling the intricacies of proton transport, they have been biased by the assumptions made about the proton dynamics due to the lack of a robust determination of the proton diffusion coefficient from first-principles. Through extensive ab initio molecular dynamics simulations, we provide a thorough statistical determination of the proton diffusion coefficient. These simulations demonstrate that the standard assumption of Markovian dynamics for the Grotthuss mechanism is too simplistic. Proton transitions are correlated and result in the ...
In addition to the Steered MD (SMD) approach described starting on page 108 of the manual, a new set of Adaptively Biased MD and related methods has been introduced for Amber10 (See page 121 and also be aware that this tutorial uses an Amber11 addition, LCOD, to these methods. Adding LCOD capabilities to Amber10 is described below). The whole Adaptively Biased MD section (4.6) should be studied for background to this tutorial. The new implementation of the SMD method specifically is described starting on page 125. The tutorial is a brief test case using steered MD to force an intramolecular proton transfer (PT) in malonaldehyde (pictured). The simulation was carried out in vacuum with the QMMM DFTB Hamiltonian using the LCOD (linear combination of distances) reaction coordinate. The QM region consisted of the whole molecule. These results should be compared with the Empirical Valence Bond (EVB) section, specifically to Figure 3.4 (page 77, closed triangles). As indicated above the LCOD reaction ...
International Launch Services (ILS) announces a product line extension of the Proton Breeze M commercial launch vehicle designed to expand the addressable GEO market for cost effective launch solutions in the small and medium satellite class range (3 to 5 metric tons). Designated as Proton Variants, these two additional vehicles will be optimized 2-stage versions of the time tested and flight proven Proton Breeze M launch system for exclusive commercial use by ILS.. The Proton Variants initial launch capability will be established beginning in 2018 with the Proton Medium vehicle launching from Pad 24 at the Baikonur Cosmodrome. The 2-stage Proton Medium Variant will have a 4-meter payload fairing and utilize the standard Proton M configuration with 6 engines on the first stage. It will be followed in 2019 by the Proton Light Variant. The 2-stage Proton Light will have a 4-meter payload fairing but feature only 4 engines on the first stage. Both variants will maintain use of the flight ...
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A high current proton linear accelerator has been designed and is at the moment under construction for the ESSBilbao project. The current status of the acc
Replacement of Tyrosine D with Phenylalanine Affects the Normal Proton Transfer Pathways for the Reduction of P680+ in Oxygen-Evolving Photosystem II Particles from ...
Proton conduction of the La(III)M(III) compounds, LaM(ox)3·10H2O (abbreviated to LaM; M = Cr, Co, Ru, La; ox(2-) = oxalate) is studied in view of their networks. LaCr and LaCo have a ladder structure, and the ladders are woven to form a channel network. LaRu and LaLa have a honeycomb sheet structure, and the sheets are combined to form a layer network. The occurrence of these structures is explained by the rigidness versus flexibility of [M(ox)3](3-) in the framework with large La(III). The channel networks of LaCr and LaCo show a remarkably high proton conductivity, in the range from 1 × 10(-6) to 1 × 10(-5) S cm(-1) over 40-95% relative humidity (RH) at 298 K, whereas the layer networks of LaCr and LaCo show a lower proton conductivity, ∼3 × 10(-8) S cm(-1) (40-95% RH, 298 K ...
What is so nice is that the transformation of protons to dark protons is indeed the basic mechanism of TGD inspired quantum biology! For instance, it would occur in Pollack effect in with irradiation of water bounded by gel phase generates so called exclusion zone, which is negatively charged. TGD explanation is that some fraction of protons transforms to dark protons at magnetic flux tubes outside the system. Negative charge of DNA and cell could be due to this mechanism. One also ends up to a model of genetic code with the analogs of DNA, RNA, tRNA and amino-acids represented as triplets of dark protons. The model predicts correctly the numbers of DNAs coding given amino-acid. Besides biology the model has applications to cold fusion, and various free energy phenomena. See the article Two different lifetimes for neutron as evidence for dark protons and chapter New Particle Physics Predicted by TGD: Part I. For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD. Articles and other ...
Probing the water-amide proton exchange rates through a CLEANEX-PM-FHSQC experiment.A. 1H-15N-FHSQC spectrum of free Aβ40. The peak intensities of the 1H-15N-F
TY - JOUR. T1 - myo-inositol 1-phosphate synthase: Does a single active-site amino acid catalyze multiple proton transfers?. AU - Migaud, Marie. AU - Tian, Feng. AU - Frost, John. PY - 1999/6/23. Y1 - 1999/6/23. M3 - Article. VL - 121. JO - Journal of the American Chemical Society. JF - Journal of the American Chemical Society. SN - 0002-7863. IS - 24. ER - ...
Randomized. 2 institutions (Harvard and Loma Linda). 392 patients, stage T1b-T2b, PSA ,15 ng/mL (median PSA 6.3). Arm 1) proton boost 19.8/11 GyE followed by photons 50.4/28 vs. Arm 2) proton boost 28.8/16 followed by photons 50.4/28. Proton CTV = prostate + 5 mm margin. PTV = CTV + 7-10 mm. Loma Linda used opposed lateral beams, 250 MeV protons; Harvard used perineal boost, 160 MeV protons. Rectal Lucite probe, inflated with 25-50 mL saline. Photons were 4F plan, photon CTV = prostate/SV + 10 mm margin ...
Amide proton transfer (APT) imaging is a pH mapping method based on the chemical exchange saturation transfer phenomenon that has potential for penumbra identification following stroke. The majority of the literature thus far has focused on generating pH-weighted contrast using magnetization transfer ratio asymmetry analysis instead of quantitative pH mapping. In this study, the widely used asymmetry analysis and a model-based analysis were both assessed on APT data collected from healthy subjects (n = 2) and hyperacute stroke patients (n = 6, median imaging time after onset = 2 hours 59 minutes). It was found that the model-based approach was able to quantify the APT effect with the lowest variation in grey and white matter (≤ 13.8 %) and the smallest average contrast between these two tissue types (3.48 %) in the healthy volunteers. The model-based approach also performed quantitatively better than the other measures in the hyperacute stroke patient APT data, where the quantified APT effect in the
Voltage-gated hydrogen channel 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HVCN1 gene. Voltage-gated hydrogen channel 1 is a voltage-gated proton channel that has been shown to allow proton transport into phagosomes and out of many types of cells including spermatozoa, electrically excitable cells and respiratory epithelial cells. The proton-conducting HVCN1 channel has only transmembrane domains corresponding to the S1-S4 voltage sensing domains (VSD) of voltage-gated potassium channels and voltage-gated sodium channels. Molecular simulation is consistent with a water-filled pore that can function as a water wire for allowing hydrogen bonded H+ to cross the membrane. However, mutation of Asp112 in human Hv1 results in anion permeation, suggesting that obligatory protonation of Asp produces proton selectivity. Quantum mechanical calculations show that the Asp-Arg interaction can produce proton selective permeation. The HVCN1 protein has been shown to exist as a dimer with two functioning ...
The Hartree-Fock method in 6-311G** molecular orbitals basis set has been applied to calculations of proton affinities and proton transfer reaction energie
A polar cap absorption event results from the ionisation of the D-layer of the polar ionosphere by high energy protons. A PCA causes a HF radio blackout for trans polar circuits and can last several days. PCAs are almost always preceded by a major solar flare with the time between the flare event and the onset of the PCA ranging from few minutes to several hours.. See Real Time Riometer Data from Antarctic Stations.. The icon below indicates the estimated absorption in db of a 30 MHz riometer from Casey station in Antarctica. These figures give an indication of the severity of the PCA. The background colour of the icon is red when absorption exceeds 1db and green otherwise.. Details of any current proton event are given below:. (last updated 26 Sep 2020 03:20 UT). 10MeV Proton/PCA Event Began 14 07 2017 0850UT and is in progress 10MeV Proton/PCA Event Ended 14 07 2017 1135UT 10MeV Proton/PCA Event Began 14 07 2017 1235UT and is in progress 10MeV Proton/PCA Event Ended 14 07 2017 1340UT 10MeV ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Evolution of energy spectrum from laser-accelerated protons with a 100 fs intense prepulse. AU - Glinec, Y.. AU - Genoud, G.. AU - Lundh, O.. AU - Persson, A.. AU - Wahlström, C. G.. PY - 2008/11/1. Y1 - 2008/11/1. N2 - A parametric study is reported where a femtosecond prepulse is used to change the target properties before the interaction with a multi-terawatt laser pulse which accelerates protons from a foil target. The proton spectrum as function of the prepulse delay and intensity, up to 1.5 ns and up to 3×1016 W/cm2, respectively, shows a global decrease of the maximum proton energy with delay and intensity. However, under appropriate conditions, it is found that the maximum proton energy increases by more than 10% and that the spectral shape changes.. AB - A parametric study is reported where a femtosecond prepulse is used to change the target properties before the interaction with a multi-terawatt laser pulse which accelerates protons from a foil target. The proton ...
These surface pores are attached to the electrosensory cells by canals filled with clear, viscous jelly, which let the fish detect weak electrical fields emitted by other animals in the sea - even signals as subtle as 5 nanovolts per centimetre.. As the scientists do not yet completely understand the way the jelly plays a part in this purpose, it is obvious that it somehow plays a particular role, because of its enormous convenience of conductivity, that the group claims to be the greatest previously documented to get a biological material.. At roughly 2 ± 1 millisiemens per centimetre, the conductivity of the jelly is just 40 times lower than the polymer Nafion, a synthetic material known for its superior conductivity.. Proton conductivity is just a type of electrical conductivity where hydrogen carry the charge ions, as opposed to electrons. Although electrons carry the charge in extremely conductive metals for example copper and silver, proton conductivity is definitely an essential process ...
SAN JOSE, Calif., Feb. 1, 1995 - Societe Europienne des Satellites (SES) confirmed last week that the ASTRA 1F Satellite will be launched on a Lockheed-Khrunichev-Energia International, Inc. (LKEI), Russian Proton launch vehicle in March 1996. The 1F satellite will be capable of delivering digital compressed signals for Direct-to-Home (DTH) and cable TV reception. SES has also reserved other options with LKEI for future satellite launches.. SESs selection of Proton for the launch of ASTRA 1F together with recent selections of Proton by other customers reflects the communication industrys growing confidence in the Proton launch vehicle. Proton performed 13 successful launches out of 13 attempts during 1994 - the most successful launch record of any commercial rocket worldwide.. This record matches Protons launch records of 1984, 1987 and 1988. Proton achieved the 1994 success rate while operating with only one active launch pad for three quarters of the year. In September, a second launch pad ...
Numerical investigations on high energy proton beam interaction with high density Boron plasma allows to simulate conditions concerning the alpha production from recent experimental measurements . The experiments measure the alpha production due to p11B nuclear fusion reactions when a laser-driven high energy proton beam interacts with Boron plasma produced by laser beam interaction with solid Boron. The alpha production and consequently the efficiency of the process depends on the initial proton beam energy, proton beam density, the Boron plasma density and temperature, and their temporal evolution. The main advantage for the p11B nuclear fusion reaction is the production of three alphas with total energy of 8.9 MeV, which could enhance the alpha heating effect and improve the alpha production. This particular effect is termed in the international literature as the alpha avalanche effect. Numerical results using a multi-fluid, global particle and energy balance, code shows the alpha production ...
In this contribution, we discuss the optimization of laser driven proton acceleration efficiency by nanostructured targets, interpret the experimental results showing the manipulation of proton beam profiles by nanosctructured rear surface of the targets and investigate the acceleration of protons from hydrogen solid ribbon by PW-class lasers, with the help of multidimensional particle-in-cell simulations. Microstructured hollow targets are proposed to enhance the absorption of the laser pulse energy while keeping the target thickness to minimum, which is both favorable for enhanced efficiency of the acceleration of protons. Thin targets with grating structures of various configurations on their rear sides stretch the proton beams in the perpendicular direction to the grating orientation due to transverse electric fields generated inside the target grooves and can reduce the proton beam divergence in the parallel direction to the grating due to a lower density of the stretched beam compared with ...
New bionanocomposite proton exchange membranes were prepared from sulfonated polybenzimidazole (s-PBI) and various amounts of sulfonated ZnO/cellulose nanohybrids (ZnO/cellulose-SO3H). The use of ZnO/cellulose-SO3H compensates for the decrease in ion exchange capacity of membranes observed when non-sulfonated nano-fillers are utilized. The strong -SO3H/-SO3H interaction between s-PBI chains and ZnO/cellulose-SO3H hybrids leads to ionic cross-linking in the membrane structure, which increases both the thermal stability and methanol resistance of the membranes. The ZnO/cellulose -SO3H in the membranes served as spacers for polymer chains to provide extra space for water permeation, so as to bring high permeation rates to the complex membranes. Moreover, the membranes exhibited excellent antibacterial activities against S. aureus and E. coli. A.
The input bias current response of LM124 operational amplifiers to proton irradiation is shown to correlate with the response of identical part types expos
This paper clarifies the role of cytochrome c in Pseudomonas AM1 by measuring the stoicheiometry of proton translocation driven by respiration of endogenous or added substrates in wild-type bacteria and in a mutant lacking cytochrome c (mutant PCT76). The maximum →H+/O ratio (protons translocated out of the bacteria per atom of oxygen consumed during respiration) was about 4 and, except when respiration was markedly affected, this ratio was similar in mutant and wild-type bacteria. The →H+/O ratios were unaltered when the usual oxidase (cytochrome a3) was inhibited by 300μm-KCN and respiration involved the single cytochrome b functioning as an alternative oxidase. Ratios measured in cells respiring endogenous substrate and in cells loaded with malate or 3-hydroxybutyrate suggest that there are two proton-translocating segments operating during the oxidation of NADH. By contrast, during oxidation of formaldehyde or methylamine only one pair of protons is translocated. Proton translocation ...
The process would have taken a long time, further delaying the much-needed assistance that is required to solve Protons crisis with its vendors - it could also lead its lenders to request for the retirement of their loans. The company is in dire need of liquidity to pay its vendors, Mustapa said, adding that Protons total long-term borrowings stood at RM847 million as of March 31, 2015.. Despite this, Mustapa said that the current deal has its own punitive terms and features. The first of which entails that should Proton decide to convert the shares, the conversion rate would be set at 87 sen per share and the government would receive 87 sen per share. This is around 46% below Protons current net tangible asset of RM1.86 per share.. Whats more, a non-dilution clause has also been set to protect the government, should Proton secure dilutive financing under the 87 sen conversion rate. There will also be no dividend or shareholders advance being declared by the company as long as it still had ...
Proton Iswara U1112 OBD-II Diagnostic Network (U) Trouble Code Information Page. Reason for Proton Iswara U1112 and find the solution for the code Proton Iswara U1112 , well give to how to fix Proton Iswara U1112 trouble code problem.
The new Proton. In stores now. Building on the immense success of its first generation, it is even more refined, precise, and without beating around the bush, simply faster, which is what the Proton is all about.. Gabriel Browne, Team Rider on the PWA: The new Proton is a totally new design and concept. The three volume numbers are the same, and thats about it. All sizes come with all new shapes, fine tuned rockers, volume flow, rails, outlines, deck shapes. Everything you love about the old Proton is improved on the new Proton.. Its a Slalom board designed to win races everywhere in all conditions and for someone who wants to push hard and get the max out of it. During the second generation R&D we had the chance to test in different places, Denmark, Brazil and Maui. The Proton is designed to get the max out of a racing course, meaning starts, acceleration, speed and jibes.. From my side, as the rider, as a racer, the boards feel very free, powerful and fast with the new outlines, bottom, ...
Malaysias International Trade and Industry Minister Mustapa Mohamed met with SAIPA CEO Mehdi Jamali in Tehran on Monday. The Malaysian minister said expansion of bilateral ties is the main goal of the visit and that SAIPA and Proton have been negotiating for some time, Persian Khodro reported. Mohamed added that Proton has a long history in Iran and Malaysia is looking forward to expand industrial and financial ties with the country in the post-sanctions era. Three new models of Proton products are to be offered in Iran in the near future, he added. (Financial Tribune, SAIPA is forging ties with Malaysias Proton and entering the Lebanese car market, 10/27/2016).. --. Proton Holdings Bhd is confident of increasing its market share in Iran with sales of 50,000 cars a year by the end of 2012. Managing director Datuk Syed Zainal Abidin Syed Mohamed Tahir said the national car company will start pushing 10,000 units a year by the first quarter of 2009, by bringing in other Proton models. ...
A single Na+/K+-ATPase pumps three Na+ outwards and two K+ inwards by alternately exposing ion-binding sites to opposite sides of the membrane in a conformational sequence coupled to pump autophosphorylation from ATP and auto-dephosphorylation. The larger flow of Na+ than K+ generates outward current across the cell membrane. Less well understood is the ability of Na+/K+ pumps to generate an inward current of protons. Originally noted in pumps deprived of external K+ and Na+ ions, as inward current at negative membrane potentials that becomes amplified when external pH is lowered, this proton current is generally viewed as an artifact of those unnatural conditions. We demonstrate here that this inward current also flows at physiological K+ and Na+ concentrations. We show that protons exploit ready reversibility of conformational changes associated with extracellular Na+ release from phosphorylated Na+/K+ pumps. Reversal of a subset of these transitions allows an extracellular proton to bind an ...