TY - CHAP. T1 - From cancer immunoediting to new strategies in cancer immunotherapy. T2 - The roles of immune cells and mechanics in oncology. AU - Aragon-Sanabria, Virginia. AU - Kim, Gloria B.. AU - Dong, Cheng. PY - 2018/1/1. Y1 - 2018/1/1. N2 - For the last three decades, the concept of immunoediting has evolved to characterize our increasing understanding of the interactions between cells from the immune system and cancer development. Elucidating the role of immune cells in the progression of cancer has been very challenging due to their dual role; the immune system can either suppress tumor formation by killing cancer cells, or it can also promote tumor growth. Revealing how immune cells are hampered by the tumor microenvironment and how they aid tumor progression has signaled strategies to reverse these effects and control cancer cell growth; this has been the advent of immunotherapy design. More recently, the role of physical forces in the process of immunoediting has been highlighted by ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Characterization of a newly established human pancreatic carcinoma cell line, UK Pan-1. AU - Fralix, Kimberly D.. AU - Ahmed, Mansoor M.. AU - Mattingly, Cynthia. AU - Swiderski, Carol. AU - McGrath, Patrick C.. AU - Venkatasubbarao, Kolaparthi. AU - Kamada, Nanao. AU - Mohiuddin, Mohammed. AU - Strodel, William E.. AU - Freeman, James W.. PY - 2000/5/1. Y1 - 2000/5/1. N2 - BACKGROUND. A highly tumorigenic cell line designated as UK Pan-1 was established in a surgically removed human pancreatic adenocarcinoma and characterized as having many of the genotypic and phenotypic alterations commonly found in pancreatic tumors. METHODS. The cell line was characterized by its morphology, growth rate in monolayer culture and soft agar, tumorigenicity in nude mice, and chromosomal analysis. Furthermore, the status of p53, Ki-ras mutation and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β receptor expression were determined. The characteristics of UK Pan-1 were compared with those of other commonly ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Chemosensitization and inhibition of pancreatic cancer stem cell proliferation by overexpression of microRNA-205. AU - Chaudhary, Amit Kumar. AU - Mondal, Goutam. AU - Kumar, Virender. AU - Kattel, Krishna. AU - Mahato, Ram I. PY - 2017/8/28. Y1 - 2017/8/28. N2 - Treatment of pancreatic cancer with gemcitabine (GEM) is limited due to its rapid plasma metabolism and development of chemoresistance. MicroRNA (miRNA) regulates cancer stem cell (CSC) maintenance and induces chemoresistance in cancer cells. In this study, we observed differential downregulation of miR-205 (miR-205-5p) in human pancreatic cancer tissues and cells. Compared to GEM-sensitive MIA PaCa-2 cells, miR-205 was highly downregulated in GEM-resistant MIA PaCa-2R cells. Lentivirus-mediated overexpression of miR-205 inhibits MIA PaCa-2R cell proliferation after GEM-treatment. Further investigation confirmed that miR-205 alone significantly reduces the proliferation of CSCs and tumor growth in mouse models. However, ...
Looking for online definition of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration in the Medical Dictionary? endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration explanation free. What is endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration? Meaning of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration medical term. What does endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration mean?
Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) is a type of tumor that can occur within the cells of the pancreatic duct. IPMN tumors produce mucus, and this mucus can form pancreatic cysts. Although intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms are benign tumors, they can progress to pancreatic cancer. As such IPMN is viewed as a precancerous condition. Once an intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm has been found, the management options include close monitoring and pre-emptive surgery.[medical citation needed] Pathologists classify intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) into two broad groups - those that are associated with an invasive cancer and those that are not associated with an invasive cancer. This separation has critical prognostic significance. Patients with a surgically resected intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm without an associated invasive cancer have an excellent prognosis (>95% will be cured), while patients with a surgically resected intraductal papillary mucinous ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Expression of Das-1 in primary lung adenocarcinomas represents reactivation of an oncofetal pulmonary antigen. AU - Deshpande, C. G.. AU - Shah, R. N.. AU - Yeldandi, A.. AU - Papreddy, K.. AU - Badve, S.. PY - 2002/12/1. Y1 - 2002/12/1. N2 - Objective: The monoclonal antibody (mAb) designated as mAb Das-1 was generated against a colonic epithelial protein. It reacts with bronchiolar epithelium and submucosal glands and weakly with alveolar lining cells of fetal lung. Adult alveolar epithelium is, however, nonreactive for mAb Das-1. The present study was designed to evaluate the immunoexpression of Das-1 and to correlate it with the histomorphology of primary lung adenocarcinomas and intestinal metaplasia. Methods: Eighty-four cases of primary lung adenocarcinomas were reviewed and categorized according to histologic grade and subtype. Immunohistochemical staining with mAb Das-1 was performed with normal colon as control. Results: Expression of Das-1 in the submucosal bronchial ...
Solid pseudopapillary tumors are rare, with the majority of described cases originating in the pancreas. To date, there are only 10 documented reports of primary ovarian solid pseudopapillary tumors. Here, we describe the case of a 24-year-old woman who presented with worsening pelvic pain and dysmenorrhea. Workup demonstrated a right ovarian solid mass on ultrasound and an elevated serum LDH, which raised concerns for dysgerminoma due to her relatively young age. Therefore, she was taken to the operating room and underwent laparoscopic right salpingo-oophorectomy. On initial rapid frozen section, her ovarian cyst had a grossly hemorrhagic appearance with multiple hemosiderin deposits noted microscopically, which suggested a benign hemorrhagic cyst. However, the final pathology was reported as solid pseudopapillary tumor based on several defining histologic characteristics. Most importantly, immunostaining was positive for |i|β|/i|-catenin and negative for E-cadherin. This report presents a brief
Most pancreatic endocrine neoplasms are non-syndromic, that is they do not produce a clinical syndrome caused by excess hormone production by the tumor. A growing number of these are asymptomatic, discovered when a patient is imaged for a different indication. When the patients do have symptoms, the symptoms typically include abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, weight loss, or rarely jaundice (a yellowing of the skin caused by blockage of the bile duct). The diagnosis can often be suggested on CT scan, as most pancreatic endocrine neoplasms have a rich blood supply (they are hypervascular), and, as a result, they "enhance" when contrast is used in CT scanning.. The treatment of choice is usually surgical removal. When removed, most pancreatic endocrine neoplasms can be seen to be well-demarcated, soft tan to reddish masses. This appearance is very different from the more common pancreatic cancer (ductal adenocarcinoma) of the pancreas, which forms firm, sometimes rock-hard, white to yellow ...
BioAssay record AID 86084 submitted by ChEMBL: In vitro cytotoxicity against human colon adenocarcinoma cell line HT-29 at 5.9*10e-5M.
Tocotrienol (T3), unsaturated vitamin E, has recently gained considerable attention as a potent antiangiogenic agent minimizing tumor growth, the exact intracellular mechanisms of which remain poorly understood. Because hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha), its downstream target vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and other angiogenic factors such as interleukin-8 (IL-8) and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) play critical roles in neovascularization, we tested the hypothesis that the inhibitory effect of T3 on tumor angiogenesis is via regulation of these angiogenic factors. We used 2 cancer cell lines, human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells (DLD-1) and human hepatoma cells (HepG2). T3 isomers (2 micromol/L) inhibited hypoxia-induced VEGF secretion from DLD-1, with delta-T3 showing potent inhibition. Delta-T3 suppressed hypoxia-induced VEGF and IL-8 expression in DLD-1 at both mRNA and protein levels, and we found the inhibitory mechanism of delta-T3 by reducing HIF-1alpha protein expression or
Hahne M, Rimoldi D, Schröter M, Romero P, Schreier M, French LE, Schneider P, Bornand T, Fontana A, Lienard D, Cerottini J, Tschopp J.. 1996. Science.. 1996 Nov 22 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Circulating Leptin and Branched Chain Amino Acids-Correlation with Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasm Dysplastic Grade. AU - Yip-Schneider, Michele T.. AU - Simpson, Rachel. AU - Carr, Rosalie A.. AU - Wu, Huangbing. AU - Fan, Hao. AU - Liu, Ziyue. AU - Korc, Murray. AU - Zhang, Jianjun. AU - Schmidt, C. Max. PY - 2019/5/15. Y1 - 2019/5/15. N2 - Background: The most common type of mucinous pancreatic cyst that may progress to pancreatic cancer is intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN). Low-risk IPMN with low-/moderate-grade dysplasia may be safely watched, whereas high-risk IPMN with high-grade dysplasia or invasive components should undergo resection. However, there is currently no reliable means of making this distinction. We hypothesize that blood concentrations of insulin resistance biomarkers may aid in the differentiation of low- and high-risk IPMN. Methods: Plasma/serum was collected from consented patients undergoing pancreatic resection. IPMN diagnosis and ...
Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma is a rare malignancy arising from the minor salivary glands in the aerodigestive system, most frequently the hard palate. The treatment of choice is wide surgical resection, and the efficacy of radiotherapy has not been confirmed. A 54-year-old male presenting with a mass at the base of the tongue performed transoral laser microsurgery. The pathologic diagnosis was polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma. Complete surgical excision was performed via transoral robotic surgery without a flap reconstruction of the surgical defect. Without complications of bleeding or injury to the hypoglossal nerve, proper surgical margins were obtained, and no recurrence was found after 6 months after surgery. The patient did not complain of dysphagia or aspiration. We conclude that, in surgery for tongue base tumors with unknown malignant potential, transoral robotic surgery can be considered for achieving a definite resection avoiding a mandibulotomy without complications of dysphagia
TY - JOUR. T1 - Invasive carcinoma derived from intestinal-type intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm is associated with minimal invasion, colloid carcinoma, and less invasive behavior, leading to a better prognosis. AU - Nakata, Kohei. AU - Ohuchida, Kenoki. AU - Aishima, Shinichi. AU - Sadakari, Yoshihiko. AU - Kayashima, Tadashi. AU - Miyasaka, Yoshihiro. AU - Nagai, Eishi. AU - Mizumoto, Kazuhiro. AU - Tanaka, Masao. AU - Tsuneyoshi, Masazumi. AU - Oda, Yoshinao. PY - 2011/5/1. Y1 - 2011/5/1. N2 - Objectives: Although intestinal-type intraductal papillary mucinous carcinoma (IPMC) is reported to have a better prognosis, few studies have addressed its invasive pattern. The meaning of "minimal invasion" (MI) in IPMC also remains unclear. We investigated the prognosis of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) focusing on MI and subtypes. Methods: We evaluated 71 patients with IPMC among a total of 179 patients with resected IPMN. Results: Although 2 of 10 MI-IPMC patients had lymph ...
Acinar cell carcinoma of lung|Adenocarcinoma of lung|Adenocarcinoma of lung (disorder)|Adenocarcinoma of lung, stage I|Adenocarcinoma of lung, stage I (finding)|Adenocarcinoma of lung, stage II|Adenocarcinoma of lung, stage II (finding)|Adenocarcinoma of lung, stage III|Adenocarcinoma of lung, stage III (finding)|Adenocarcinoma of lung, stage IV|Adenocarcinoma of lung, stage IV (finding)|Adenoid cystic carcinoma of lung|Adenosquamous carcinoma of lung|Alveolar cell carcinoma|BC - Bronchogenic carcinoma|Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of lung|Bronchial carcinoma|Bronchiolar adenocarcinoma|Bronchiolar carcinoma|Bronchioloalveolar carcinoma|Bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (disorder)|Bronchioloalveolar carcinoma - disorder|Bronchoalveolar cancer|Bronchogenic carcinoma|CA - Cancer of bronchus|CA - Carcinoma of bronchus|CA - Lung cancer|Cancer of bronchus|Carcinoma of bronchus|Carcinoma of lung|Carcinoma of lung parenchyma|Carcinoma of lung parenchyma (disorder)|Carcinosarcoma of lung|Clear cell squamous cell
Primary adenocarcinoma of the appendix is a rare disease in clinical practice. Moreover, primary adenocarcinoma of the appendix in the pediatric age group is even rarer with very little cases being published. Here, we report a case of primary adenocarcinoma of the appendix with local invasion into adjacent organs in a child who was initially diagnosed as having an acute appendicitis. A 13-year-old girl presented with abdominal pain of 3-month duration. Imaging study showed a mass including the fecalith that occupied her pelvic and right lower abdominal cavity. Drainage of the abscess and appendectomy were performed by the preoperative diagnosis of an acute appendicitis with an appendiceal mass. Postoperative histopathological examinations revealed the appendiceal adenocarcinoma. She then received the whole mass resection, ileocecal resection with lymph node dissection. The masses were tightly adherent with infiltration into the sigmoid colon, uterus, and right ovary. These organs were all dissected, and
Cisplatin is widely used for chemotherapy of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. However, details of the molecular mechanism responsible for cisplatin resistance are still unclear. The aim of this study was to identify the expression of genes related to cisplatin resistance in oral squamous cell carcinoma cells. A cisplatin-resistant cell line, Tca/cisplatin, was established from a cisplatin-sensitive cell line, Tca8113, which was derived from moderately-differentiated tongue squamous cell carcinoma. Global gene expression in this resistant cell line and its sensitive parent cell line was analyzed using Affymetrix HG-U95Av2 microarrays. Candidate genes involved in DNA repair, the MAP pathway and cell cycle regulation were chosen to validate the microarray analysis results. Cell cycle distribution and apoptosis following cisplatin exposure were also investigated. Cisplatin resistance in Tca/cisplatin cells was stable for two years in cisplatin-free culture medium. The IC50 for cisplatin in Tca
Natural Killer (NK) cells contribute to the control of cancer through immunosurveillance and may influence phenotypic sculpting of cancer through immunoediting. NK cells may also contribute to the control of hematological malignancies such as acute myeloid leukemia (AML) following allogeneic stem cell transplantation. However, no studies have shown direct clinical evidence that supports immunoediting by NK cells in AML at presentation, or whether activating ligand expression at diagnosis serves as a prognostic indicator of survival. We now show that at diagnosis, expression of NK cell ligands on AML blast populations is heterogeneous. Furthermore, expression of multiple activating ligands is associated with favorable cytogenetics and improved leukemia-free survival. In analyses of paired diagnostic and relapse samples, AML blasts exhibiting lower expression of activating ligands were selectively increased at relapse, indicating that NK cell-mediated blast immunoediting occurred prior to AML ...
SAN DIEGO, Dec. 7, 2017 /PRNewswire/ - Trovagene, Inc. (NASDAQ: TROV), a precision medicine biotechnology company, today announced that preclinical data demonstrating the sensitivity of triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell lines to PCM-075, its highly selective Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) Inhibitor, will be featured as a Poster Presentation at the 40th San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium (SABCS) on December 7th, from 5:00 - 7:00 PM CST, in San Antonio, Texas.. Trovagenes poster entitled, Sensitivity of Triple Negative Breast Cancer Cell Lines to PCM-075, a Highly Selective Polo-like Kinase 1 Inhibitor, presents the preclinical analysis of 40 cancer cell lines and demonstrates that triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell lines are 20-fold more sensitive to PCM-075 than estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer cells lines.. Polo-like Kinase 1 (PLK1) is known to be over-expressed in many hematologic and solid tumor cancers, including breast cancer. PLK1 inhibition by PCM-075 induces ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Unusual roles of caspase-8 in triple-negative breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231. AU - De Blasio, Anna. AU - Di Fiore, Riccardo. AU - Morreale, Marco. AU - Carlisi, Daniela. AU - Drago-Ferrante, Rosa. AU - Montalbano, Mauro. AU - Scerri, Christian. AU - Tesoriere, Giovanni. AU - Vento, Renza. PY - 2016/1/1. Y1 - 2016/1/1. N2 - Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a clinically aggressive form of breast cancer that is unresponsive to endocrine agents or trastuzumab. TNBC accounts for ∼10-20% of all breast cancer cases and represents the form with the poorest prognosis. Patients with TNBC are at higher risk of early recurrence, mainly in the lungs, brain and soft tissue, therefore, there is an urgent need for new therapies. The present study was carried out in MDA-MB-231 cells, where we assessed the role of caspase-8 (casp-8), a critical effector of death receptors, also involved in non-apoptotic functions. Analysis of casp-8 mRNA and protein levels indicated that they were ...
Background: Medicinal plants, especially examples rich in polyphenolic compounds, have been suggested to be chemopreventive on account of antioxidative properties. Punica granatum (PG) (pomegranate) is a well known fruit in this context, but its cytotoxicity in cancer cells has not been extensively studied. Here, we investigated the antiproliferative properties of a peel extract of PG from Iran in different human cancer cells. Materials and Methods: A methanolic extract of pomegranate peel (PPE) was prepared. Total phenolic content(TPC) and total flavonoid conetnt (TFC) were determined by colorimetric assays. Antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH radical scavenging activity. The cytotoxicity of different doses of PPE (0, 5, 20, 100, 250, 500, |TEX|$1000{\mu}g/ml$|/TEX|) was evaluated by MTT assays with A549 (lung non small cell cancer), MCF-7 (breast adenocarcinoma), SKOV3 (ovarian cancer), and PC-3 (prostate adenocarcinoma) cells. Results: Significant (P|0.01) or very significant (P|0.0001)
TY - JOUR. T1 - Association of CYP19A1 polymorphisms with risks for atypical adenomatous hyperplasia and bronchioloalveolar carcinoma in the lungs. AU - Kohno, Takashi. AU - Kakinuma, Ryutaro. AU - Iwasaki, Motoki. AU - Yamaji, Taiki. AU - Kunitoh, Hideo. AU - Suzuki, Kenji. AU - Shimada, Yoko. AU - Shiraishi, Kouya. AU - Kasuga, Yoshio. AU - Hamada, Gerson Shigeaki. AU - Furuta, Koh. AU - Tsuta, Koji. AU - Sakamoto, Hiromi. AU - Kuchiba, Aya. AU - Yamamoto, Seiichiro. AU - Kanai, Yae. AU - Tsugane, Shoichiro. AU - Yokota, Jun. PY - 2010/8/5. Y1 - 2010/8/5. N2 - Estrogen has been indicated to play an etiological role in the development of lung adenocarcinoma (ADC), particularly bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (BAC), a type of ADC that develops from a benign adenomatous lesion, atypical adenomatous hyperplasia (AAH). Polymorphisms in the CYP19A1 gene cause interindividual differences in estrogen levels. Here, 13 CYP19A1 singlenucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were examined for associations with lung ...
Cancer immunology is an interdisciplinary branch of biology that is concerned with understanding the role of the immune system in the progression and development of cancer; the most well known application is cancer immunotherapy, which utilises the immune system as a treatment for cancer. Cancer immunosurveillance and immunoediting are based on protection against development of tumors in animal systems and (ii) identification of targets for immune recognition of human cancer. Cancer immunology is an interdisciplinary branch of biology concerned with the role of the immune system in the progression and development of cancer; the most well known application is cancer immunotherapy, where the immune system is used to treat cancer. Cancer immunosurveillance is a theory formulated in 1957 by Burnet and Thomas, who proposed that lymphocytes act as sentinels in recognizing and eliminating continuously arising, nascent transformed cells. Cancer immunosurveillance appears to be an important host ...
Immunoediting is a dynamic process that consists of immunosurveillance and tumor progression. It describes the relation between the tumor cells and the immune system. It is made up of three phases: elimination, equilibrium, and escape. Immunoediting is characterized by changes in the immunogenicity of tumors due to the anti-tumor response of the immune system, resulting in the emergence of immune-resistant variants. The elimination phase, also known as immunosurveillance, includes innate and adaptive immune responses to tumour cells. For the innate immune response, several effector cells such as natural killer cells and T cells are activated by the inflammatory cytokines, which are released by the growing tumour cells, macrophages and stromal cells surrounding the tumour cells. The recruited tumour-infiltrating NK cells and macrophages produce interleukin 12 and interferon gamma, which kill tumour cells by cytotoxic mechanisms such as perforin, TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligands (TRAILs), ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Tumor immunoediting, from T cell-mediated immune surveillance to tumor-escape of uterine leiomyosarcoma. AU - Hayashi, Takuma. AU - Horiuchi, Akiko. AU - Sano, Kenji. AU - Hiraoka, Nobuyoshi. AU - Ichimura, Tomoyuki. AU - Ishiko, Osamu. AU - Kanai, Yae. AU - Yaegashi, Nobuo. AU - Aburatani, Hiroyuki. AU - Shiozawa, Tanri. AU - Tonegawa, Susumu. AU - Konishi, Ikuo. PY - 2013. Y1 - 2013. N2 - The majority of smooth muscle tumors found in the uterus are benign, but uterine leiomyosarcomas (LMSs) are extremely malignant, with high rates of recurrence and metastasis. The development of gynecologic tumors is often correlated with female hormone secretion; however, the development of uterine LMS is not substantially correlated with hormonal conditions, and the risk factors are not clearly understood. The presentation of antigenic peptides by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules is important for tumor rejection by cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs). Such antigenic ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Comprehensive genetic characterization of human thyroid cancer cell lines. T2 - A validated panel for preclinical studies. AU - Landa, Iñigo. AU - Pozdeyev, Nikita. AU - Korch, Christopher. AU - Marlow, Laura A.. AU - Smallridge, Robert Christian. AU - Copland, John A III. AU - Henderson, Ying C.. AU - Lai, Stephen Y.. AU - Clayman, Gary L.. AU - Onoda, Naoyoshi. AU - Tan, Aik Choon. AU - Garcia-Rendueles, Maria E.R.. AU - Knauf, Jeffrey A.. AU - Haugen, Bryan R.. AU - Fagin, James A.. AU - Schweppe, Rebecca E.. PY - 2019/1/1. Y1 - 2019/1/1. N2 - Purpose: Thyroid cancer cell lines are valuable models but have been neglected in pancancer genomic studies. Moreover, their misidentification has been a significant problem. We aim to provide a validated dataset for thyroid cancer researchers. Experimental Design: We performed next-generation sequencing (NGS) and analyzed the transcriptome of 60 authenticated thyroid cell lines and compared our findings with the known genomic defects ...
Natural Killer (NK) cells are cells of the innate immune system that act as first line of defense against viral infections and participate in tumor immune surveillance. NK cells do not cause graft versus host disease (GvHD), or require prior antigen exposure to exert anti-tumor activity, hence are an attractive choice for immunotherapy applications. Owing to small numbers of NK cells in peripheral blood (1-32%, with a 6% median), ex vivo expansion of NK cells is critical for NK cell adoptive immunotherapy, various expansion platforms have been explored over the decades. We developed a robust platform for ex vivo expansion of human NK cells using K562 expressing membrane bound IL-21 (K562.mbIL21), and showed that K562.mbIL21 enables significantly higher expansion of functionally potent NK cells compared to K562.mbIL15. Both membrane bound IL15 (mbIL15) and membrane bound IL21 (mbIL21) expanded NK cells are currently in several Phase I/II clinical trials. K562.mbIL21 surpasses any other expansion to date
Fallopian Tube Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma Fallopian Tube Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma Fallopian Tube Mucinous Adenocarcinoma Fallopian Tube Serous Adenocarcinoma Fallopian Tube Transitional Cell Carcinoma Malignant Ovarian Brenner Tumor Ovarian Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma Ovarian Mucinous Adenocarcinoma Ovarian Seromucinous Carcinoma Ovarian Serous Adenocarcinoma Ovarian Transitional Cell Carcinoma Primary Peritoneal Serous Adenocarcinoma Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer Stage IIA Ovarian Cancer Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer Stage IIB Ovarian Cancer Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer Stage IIC Ovarian Cancer Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer Stage IV Ovarian Cancer Stage IV Primary ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration versus core needle biopsy. T2 - comparison of post-biopsy hematoma rates and risk factors. AU - Chae, In Hye. AU - Kim, Eun Kyung. AU - Moon, Hee Jung. AU - Yoon, Jung Hyun. AU - Park, Vivian Y.. AU - Kwak, Jin Young. PY - 2017/7/1. Y1 - 2017/7/1. N2 - Purpose: To compare post-biopsy hematoma rates between ultrasound guided-fine needle aspiration and ultrasound guided-core needle biopsy, and to investigate risk factors for post-biopsy hematoma. Methods: A total of 5304 thyroid nodules which underwent ultrasound guided biopsy were included in this retrospective study. We compared clinical and US features between patients with and without post-biopsy hematoma. Associations between these features and post-biopsy hematoma were analyzed. Results: Post-biopsy hematoma rate was 0.8% (43/5121) for ultrasound guided-fine needle aspiration and 4.9% (9/183) for ultrasound guided-core needle biopsy (P , 0.001). For ultrasound guided-fine needle ...
Avoiding immune destruction is a hallmark of cancer. Over the past few years, significant advances have been made in understanding immune dysfunction and immunosuppression in multiple myeloma (MM), and various immunotherapeutic approaches have delivered improved clinical responses. However, it is still challenging to completely eliminate malignant plasma cells (PCs) and achieve complete cure. The interplay between the immune system and malignant PCs is implicated throughout all stages of plasma cell dyscrasias including asymptomatic states called monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and smoldering myeloma. While the immune system effectively eliminates malignant PCs or at least induces functional dormancy at early stages, malignant PCs eventually evade immune elimination, leading to progression into active MM, in which dysfunctional effector lymphocytes, tumor-educated immunosuppressive cells, and soluble mediators coordinately act as a barrier for anti-myeloma immunity. An in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Wilms tumor, pancreatic islet cell carcinoma, and pheochromocytoma in a child. AU - Sola, Juan E. AU - Gutierrez, Juan C.. AU - Thompson, William R.. AU - Alvarez, Ofelia A. AU - Casillas, Victor. AU - Rodriguez, Maria. PY - 2008/3/1. Y1 - 2008/3/1. N2 - We present the first case of Wilms tumor, pancreatic islet cell carcinoma, and pheochromocytoma affecting the same individual. This case underscores the importance of repeat biopsies in patients with multiple neoplasms to confirm the diagnosis and guide management.. AB - We present the first case of Wilms tumor, pancreatic islet cell carcinoma, and pheochromocytoma affecting the same individual. This case underscores the importance of repeat biopsies in patients with multiple neoplasms to confirm the diagnosis and guide management.. KW - Multiple endocrine neoplasia. KW - Pancreatic islet cell carcinoma. KW - Pediatric. KW - Pheochromocytoma. KW - Wilms tumor. UR - ...
In recent years, gold compounds have gained more and more attentions in the design of new metal anticancer drugs. Numerous researches have reported that gold compounds, in addition to their widely studied cytotoxic antitumor effects, also reverse tumor immune escape and directly facilitate the functions of immune cells, leading to enhanced anticancer effects. This review mainly summarizes our current understandings of antitumor effects of gold drugs and their relationships with various aspects of antitumor immunity, including innate immunity, adaptive immunity, immunogenic cell death, and immune checkpoints, as well as their roles in adverse effects. Some recent examples of anticancer gold compounds are highlighted. The property of gold compounds is expected to combine with anticancer immunotherapy, such as immune checkpoint inhibitors, to develop new anticancer therapeutic strategies.
MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma / mortality. Adenocarcinoma / radiotherapy. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / mortality. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Disease Progression. Disease-Free Survival. Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation. Ethmoid Sinus. Eye Injuries / etiology. Eye Injuries / prevention & control. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Life Tables. Male. Maxillary Sinus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Maxillary Sinus Neoplasms / mortality. Maxillary Sinus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Maxillary Sinus Neoplasms / surgery. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Optic Nerve Injuries / etiology. Optic Nerve Injuries / prevention & control. Radiation Injuries / etiology. Radiation Injuries / prevention & control. Radiotherapy Dosage. Survival Analysis. Treatment ...
Polyamines (PAs) are involved in regulation of cell growth and cellular survival by interacting with processes like translation, transcription or ion transport. It is described that polyamines can induce apoptosis in mesenchymal cell lines. The aim of our study was to analyze whether the physiological PAs (putrescine, spermidine or spermine) or the PA-derivate deoxyspergualin (DSG), a novel immunosuppressant, induce apoptosis in immunocompetent cells. Furthermore, we wanted to investigate which molecular mechanisms are involved in the execution of the cell death program. By means of flow cytometric analysis we found an induction of apoptosis by spermine (Spm) and DSG in quiescent and activated PBMCs, PHA generated lymphoblasts, and various tumor cell lines (Jurkat, SKW-3, U937). Moreover, DSG and Spm triggered apoptosis in human Fas-deficient cells and in cell lines MV4.11. and RS4.11., which are described to be resistant to apoptosis induction by many conventional chemotherapeutic agents. ...
Periampullary cancers encompass a mixture of cancers but in general are separated into four subtypes: cancer in the head of the pancreas, distal bile duct cancer, true ampullary cancer, and duodenal cancer. These cancers arise in the vicinity of the ampulla of Vater and are differentiated by their histologic origins (pancreatic, distal bile duct, ampulla of Vater, or duodenum). While pancreatic adenocarcinoma makes up the majority of resected periampullary cancers at 62%, ampullary cancer accounts for 19%, distal bile duct cancer 12%, and duodenal cancer 7% of resected periampullary cancers.1 Although preoperative assessment with imaging and biopsy can distinguish one subtype from the other, often times the tumor origin may be undetermined preoperatively. Moreover, duodenal cancer in the periampullary region as well as intestinal-type ampullary cancer behave in a similar fashion, whereas distal bile duct cancer and pancreaticobiliary-type ampullary cancer behave similar to one another. While 56% ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cancer and mTOR inhibitors in kidney transplantation recipients. AU - Kao, Chih Chin. AU - Liu, Jia Sin. AU - Chang, Yu Kang. AU - Lin, Ming Huang. AU - Lin, Yen Chung. AU - Chen, Hsi Hsien. AU - Chang, Wei Chiao. AU - Hsu, Chih Cheng. AU - Wu, Mai Szu. PY - 2018/1/1. Y1 - 2018/1/1. N2 - Background: Previous studies show that mTOR inhibitors decrease the risk of cancer development after kidney transplantation. However, the effect of cumulative doses of mTOR inhibitors on cancer after kidney transplantation is not well known. Methods: In the current study, patients were registered into a national database in Taiwan. Between year 2000 and 2013, 4,563 patients received kidney transplantation. They were divided into two groups, according to mTOR inhibitors usage. The cumulative dose of mTOR inhibitors was recorded. Patients were followed-up until de novo cancer development, death, or the end of 2014. Results: Patients were divided into two groups: mTOR inhibitors users (study group, ...
The histiocyte group of cells are part of the bodys immune surveillance system. They take up and process foreign antigens, such as pollens and viral, bacterial and fungal microorganisms.
With further understanding of tumor immune evasion, systemic immunotherapy which utilizes the patients own immune system directly to eradicate and target neoplastic cells, has now been approved for urothelial bladder cancer. Monoclonal antibodies that target programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1), including Nivolumab and Pembrolizumab, and its ligand, PD-L1, including Atezolizumab, Durvalumab, Avelumab, have all been investigated and approved in the setting of metastatic refractory urothelial cancer (Gupta et al. in Cancer, 9(15):1-14 ...
Murine Qa‐2 and human leukocyte antigen (HLA)‐G are young MHC Ib proteins in that they diverged from MHC Ia less than 20 million years ago, and therefore have many similarities with the classical Ia molecules: they present a repertoire of nonameric peptides, contain a CD8 binding loop, associate with β2‐microglobulin (β2m), display similar exon-intron organization and even share a high degree of amino‐acid sequence homology (Seliger et al, 2003).. The murine Qa‐2 region, located in the H2‐Q class Ib locus, encodes the proteins Q8 and Q9 in C57BL/6 (B6) mice, which differ from each other by 20 amino acids located in the α1 and α2 domains. These proteins have overlapping peptide‐binding motifs and are recognized by cross‐reactive anti‐tumour CTLs, and therefore appear to be functionally equivalent (Chiang & Stroynowski, 2006). Surface expression of Qa‐2 molecules requires a functional TAP (transporter associated with antigen processing) peptide transporter (Tabaczewski et ...
Figure 1. Characteristic imaging findings in a 12-year-old female patient with NF2. A and B, Axial FSE-T2 (A) and post-gadolinium-enhanced fat-suppressed T1-weighted images (B) through the internal auditory canals show bilateral vestibular schwannomas (arrows) with characteristic heterogeneous T2 signal and avid contrast enhancement. C, This same patient with NF2 also had extensive peripheral schwannomas, with whole-brain MRI showing extensive schwannomatous involvement of sacral nerve roots and sciatic nerve (arrow). ...
Tseng, T.-C., Liu, C.-J., Yang, H.-C., Su, T.-H., Wang, C.-C., Chen, C.-L., Fang-Tzu Kuo, S., Liu, C.-H., Chen, P.-J., Chen, D.-S. and Kao, J.-H. (2012), Determinants of spontaneous surface antigen loss in hepatitis B e antigen-negative patients with a low viral load. Hepatology, 55: 68-76. doi: 10.1002/hep.24615 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Myeloid-derived suppressor cells. T2 - Cellular missiles to target tumors. AU - Chandra, Dinesh. AU - Gravekamp, Claudia. PY - 2013. Y1 - 2013. N2 - While conventional anticancer therapies, including surgical resection, radiotherapy, and/or chemotherapy, are relatively efficient at eliminating primary tumors, these treatment modalities are largely ineffective against metastases. At least in part, this reflects the rather inefficient delivery of conventional anticancer agents to metastatic lesions. We have recently demonstrated that myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) can be used as cellular missiles to selectively deliver a radioisotope-coupled attenuated variant of Listeria monocytogenes to both primary and metastatic neoplastic lesions in mice with pancreatic cancer. This novel immunotherapeutic intervention robustly inhibited tumor growth while promoting a dramatic decrease in the number of metastases.. AB - While conventional anticancer therapies, including surgical ...
NK cells have important functions in cancer immunosurveillance, bone marrow allograft rejection, fighting infections, tissue homeostasis and reproduction. NK cell-based therapies are promising treatments for blood cancers. Overcoming their currently limited efficacy requires a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms controlling NK cell development and dampening their effector functions. NK cells recognize the loss of self-antigens or upregulation of stress-induced ligands on pathogen-infected or tumor cells through invariant NK cell receptors (NKR), and then kill such stressed cells. Two second-messenger pathways downstream of NKRs are required for NK cell maturation and effector responses: PIP3-generation by PI3K, and generation of diacylglycerol and IP3 by PLCγ. Here, we identify a novel role for the phosphorylated IP3 metabolite inositol(1,3,4,5)tetrakisphosphate (IP4) in NK cells. IP4 promotes NK cell terminal differentiation and acquisition of a mature NKR repertoire. However, in ...
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are expanded in tumor microenvironments, including that of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). The link between MDSC expansion and EBV infection in NPC is unclear. Here, we show that EBV latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) promotes MDSC expansion in the tumor microenvironment by promoting extra-mitochondrial glycolysis in malignant cells, which is a scenario for immune escape initially suggested by the frequent, concomitant detection of abundant LMP1, glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) and CD33+ MDSCs in tumor sections. The full process has been reconstituted in vitro. LMP1 promotes the expression of multiple glycolytic genes, including GLUT1. This metabolic reprogramming results in increased expression of the Nod-like receptor family protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome, COX-2 and P-p65 and, consequently, increased production of IL-1β, IL-6 and GM-CSF. Finally, these changes in the environment of malignant cells result in enhanced ...
Natural killer (NK) cells are derived from pluripotent hematopoietic stem cell precursors, but develop independently of the thymus. They comprise a key lymphocyte subset (approximately 10%-15% of peripheral blood mononuclear cells) and are a constituent of the innate immune system, since these cells do not rearrange their germline DNA to obtain specificity. NK cells serve an important role in host defense against viral infections, as well as tumor surveillance. They are also a component of the adaptive immune response through cytokine production. NK cell functions are governed by a balance between activating receptors and inhibitory receptors.. NK cells are identified by expression of different cell-surface receptors and they are not a homogeneous population.(1) In general, the most common combination of surface markers used to identify the majority of NK cells is the absence of CD3 (CD3-), along with expression of CD56 (neural cell adhesion molecule) and CD16 (low-affinity IgG Fc ...
Lifelong, nonspecific immunosuppressive drugs, although essential to preventing allograft rejection, impose a substantial risk of morbidity and mortality and hinder tumor immunosurveillance.52-55 Given the immune-regulatory properties of MSCs, these cells have been administered to transplant recipients with the hope of tipping the balance between effector and regulatory pathways and eventually promoting the host potential to control the immune response to the allograft without the use or with minimal use of immunosuppressive drugs. To date, this possibility has mainly been explored in kidney transplantation.7 Results from MSC-based therapy in kidney transplant recipients are, however, available from only six phase 1 clinical studies (four using autologous56-60 and two using allogeneic MSCs61,62) (Table 1), all with cells prepared by academic laboratories. Twelve studies in kidney transplant recipients are still ongoing, with no outcomes publicly available yet (Table 2).. In 2011, we first ...
Background. Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome (SGBS) is an X-linked recessive overgrowth syndrome manifesting primarily in boys and characterised by macrosomia, distinctive facial features and multiple congenital abnormalities. Although this rare condition is thought to be under-diagnosed, making a diagnosis is important as affected boys have a 7.5% risk of developing visceral tumours and surveillance is warranted. Mutations in GPC3 are found in up to 70% of boys affected with SGBS. Objectives. A clinical and molecular investigation of two boys with SGBS, probands B and S, and their mothers. Documentation of the clinical phenotype could assist with diagnosis in affected boys and will lead to early initiation of tumour surveillance. Methods. Hospital folders were reviewed and clinical consultations arranged for both probands and their mothers. Molecular investigations initially searched for whole-exon deletions in GPC3 followed by gene sequencing. Results. The clinical phenotype of both probands was
With a new hospital (Smilow Cancer Center) the clinical MRI service includes four 3.0T (Siemens Verio and Skyra) and three 1.5T (Siemens Avanto, Espree, and Aera) scanners within Yale-New Haven Hospital, one off-site 1.5T (GE HD) scanner in a nearby facility, and one 3T (Siemens Skyra) scanner at a separate off-site facility.. The Body MRI service typically reads between 20-30 cases per day and provides the perfect balance between clinical workload, teaching, and hands-on experience.. We do a high volume of Liver MRI for hepatoma screening, as well as transplant evaluations and monitoring of disease following loco-regional therapies such as TACE, RFA, and Y-90 ablation. Other busy clinical programs include MR enterography, imaging of the female pelvis, MRI abdomen/pelvis for cancer staging and surveillance, and MRI prostate for targeted biopsy and tumor surveillance.. Dedicated MR Fellows spend 9-10 four-week blocks in Body MRI and are responsible for running the clinical service with primary ...
Tumor escape from immune response is considered as the greatest impediment to the application of effective immunotherapy [31]. It was reported that a three-stage process was needed for the generation of effector T cells after vaccination with tumor cell vaccine. Firstly, an effective immune response requires tumor-antigen uptake and processing at the site of injection by APCs. Then APCs migrate into the regional draining lymph nodes, where tumor-specific T cells are activated respectively by TAA peptides presented on MHC class I and class II molecules of APCs. Finally circulation of activated T cells leads to tumor cell destruction [32, 33].. Since the identity of specific TAAs of most types of cancer is not known, the irradiated autologous tumor may be used as a source of vaccinating material. However, tumor cells in cancer patients evolve in a stealthy way lacking identifying markers that label them for uptake by APC, so they cant be detected by APCs, even in the form of vaccine [34]. It was ...
Dendritic cells are presumed to function as "gatekeepers" which determine what the body can tolerate and which immune defence reactions it needs to instigate when confronted with foreign substances. One of the objectives of Åkessons project was therefore to examine the interaction of dendritic cells with prion protein uptake. Firstly, it was necessary to characterise dendritic cells in healthy sheep intestines and secondly, to investigate which types of cells were associated with the uptake of the prion protein.. Her findings showed that it was not dendritic cells, but macrophages, which were mainly responsible for the uptake of the protein. Åkessons study revealed that the prion protein makes use of the normal physiological uptake channel for macromolecules in the intestines and that this may have a significant effect on the bodys immunological surveillance system. One possible consequence is that immuno-tolerance is stimulated, thus impeding a normal immuno reaction against the prion ...