The immediate early gene c-fos is one of the most studied genes in the CNS as a marker for neuronal activation (Edwards et al.,1999; Abraham and Kovacs,2000; Konkle and Bielajew,2004). It is thus generally believed that activation of a neuronal system with c-fos expression in the brain is a hallmark for reflecting the functional status of a discrete brain structure. The c-fos belongs to the family of immediate-early transcription factor genes that are believed to function in coupling short-term signals elicited by extracellular to long-term changes in cellular phenotype by orchestrating changes in target gene expression (Curran and Morgan,1995). However, the expression of c-Fos, which is normally low, can be increased by a number of pharmacological, physiological, and behavioral manipulations (Morgan and Curran,1989; Herrera and Robertson,1996). Therefore, the measurement of c-Fos protein levels, the product of c-fos gene activation, has been used as a marker for activated neurons (Hoffman et ...
Immobilization stress upregulates c-Fos expression in several CNS areas. Repeated stress or the use of drugs can modulate stress-induced c-Fos expression. Here, we investigated in 40 different areas of the rat brain the effects of dexamethasone (SDX, a synthetic glucocorticoid), diazepam (SBDZ, a benzodiazepine), and imipramine (IMI, an antidepressant) on the c-Fos expression induced by restraint stress. Wistar rats were divided into four groups and submitted to 20 days of daily injection of saline (three first groups) or imipramine, 15 mg/kg, i.p. On day 21, animals were submitted to injections of saline (somatosensory, SS), SDX (1 mg/kg, i.p.), SBDZ (5 mg/kg, i.p.), or IMI (15 mg/kg, i.p.) before being submitted to restraint. Immediately after stress, the animals were perfused and their brains processed with immunohistochemistry for c-Fos (Ab-5 Oncogene Science). Dexamethasone reduced stress- induced c-Fos expression in SS cortex, hippocampus, paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVH), ...
Nesprin-2 mediates the translocation of c-Fos after TGFβ induction. (A) Nuclear translocation of transcription factor c-Fos was studied in control and KD HaCaT
The present study has investigated the modulating effect of carnosic acid on the expression pattern of cell proliferative (proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) cyclin D1 and a transcription factor c-fos), apoptotic (p53, Bcl-2, Bax caspase -3 and 9), inflammatory (Nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX- 2) and angiogenic (vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) markers during 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis. Oral tumors were developed in the hamsters buccal pouches by painting with 0.5% DMBA in liquid paraffin three times a week for 14 weeks. Hundred per cent tumour formation (well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma) accompanied by deregulation in the above mentioned molecular markers was noticed in hamsters treated with DMBA alone (tumour bearing hamsters). Oral administration of carnosic acid at dose of 10mg/kg bw to hamsters treated with DMBA not only completely prevented the tumour formation, but also corrected ...
The effect of mild chronic renal failure (CRF) induced by 4/6-nephrectomy (4/6NX) on central neuronal activations was investigated by c-Fos immunohistochemistry staining and compared to sham-operated rats. In the 4/6 NX rats also the effect of the angiotensin receptor blocker, losartan, and the central sympatholyticum moxonidine was studied for two months. In serial brain sections Fos-immunoreactive neurons were localized and classified semiquantitatively. In 37 brain areas/nuclei several neurons with different functional properties were strongly affected in 4/6NX. It elicited a moderate to high Fos-activity in areas responsible for the monoaminergic innervation of the cerebral cortex, the limbic system, the thalamus and hypothalamus (e.g. noradrenergic neurons of the locus coeruleus, serotonergic neurons in dorsal raphe, histaminergic neurons in the tuberomamillary nucleus). Other monoaminergic cell groups (A5 noradrenaline, C1 adrenaline, medullary raphe serotonin neurons) and neurons in the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The influence of age on the treadmill exercise-induced c-Fos expression in the hippocampus of rats. AU - Kim, Sang Ho. AU - Kim, Hong. AU - Kim, Sung Soo. AU - Shin, Mal Soon. AU - Chang, Hyun Kyung. AU - Lee, Taeck Hyun. AU - Jang, Mi Hyeon. AU - Shin, Min Chul. AU - Lee, Hee Hyuk. AU - Kim, Young Pyo. AU - Kim, Chang Ju. PY - 2004/7/1. Y1 - 2004/7/1. N2 - c-Fos has been used as a neuronal activity marker. Here, we examined the influence of age on the treadmill running-induced c-Fos expression in rat hippocampus. Rats of exercise groups were forced to run on treadmill for 30 min once a day for 5 consecutive days. Without exercise, c-Fos expression was highest in 8-week old rats. Treadmill exercise significantly enhanced the c-Fos expression in the hippocampus of rats in all ages. In the CA region, the increase of the c-Fos expression by treadmill exercise was highest in 4-week old rats. In the dentate gyrus, the increase of the c-Fos expression by treadmill exercise was highest ...
The goal of this study is to identify reward-related distributed brain networks by delineating a reliable immunohistological technique...
Fos induction in the rostral ARC following male exposure.Representative bright-field photomicrographs showing greater Fos immuno-localization in anestrous ewes
Propofols effects on nociceptive behavior and spinal c-fos expression after intraplantar formalin injection in mice with a mutation in the gamma-aminobutyric a
Buy our Recombinant Human c-Fos protein. Ab56280 is a full length protein produced in Baculovirus infected Sf9 cells and has been validated in WB, FuncS…
The inhibition of GLUT2-mediated sugar detection increased food intake in GLUT2-SDD mice (line TgG) by enlarging meal sizes without changes in meal frequency. The decision to stop eating is delayed in conjunction with defects in arcuate c-Fos activation in response to glucose and changes in orexin and TRH neuropeptide mRNA levels in the hypothalamus of fed mice. Thus, GLUT2 receptor function, independent of sugar transport and metabolism, is involved in controlling feeding behavior.. GLUT2 plays a key role in glucodetection, which controls the feeding behavior in mice. Indeed, daily food intake is similarly increased in GLUT2-SDD (line TgG) and in GLUT2-null rescued (ripglut1;glut2−/−) mice (5), and in both mouse models, provision of glucose failed to reduce food intake. GLUT2-dependent sugar transport (except in pancreatic β-cells) and sugar detection were invalidated in GLUT2-null mice; by contrast, GLUT2-SDD mice lack only the receptor function, and thus sugar transport was still able to ...
Functionally, parallel circuits from NAc-S and NAc-C have been shown previously to mediate different aspects of the way Pavlovian conditioning influences instrumental actions with the NAc-S mediating specific PIT and the NAc-C general PIT, a form of PIT associated with general motivational arousal as opposed to the highly selective predictions of specific outcomes (Hall et al., 2001; Corbit and Balleine, 2011). Both regions of the accumbens also receive inputs from the basolateral amygdala (BLA) that affect instrumental action and yet it is the BLA to NAc-S pathway that controls specific PIT (Shiflett and Balleine, 2010). From a functional perspective, therefore, is not surprising that signals from distinct regions of nucleus accumbens, project to separate regions in the VP and that, in the current study, we found that a significant proportion of c-Fos-positive neurons in the NAc-S projected to the VP-m. Indeed, a single axon tracing study of NAc-S neurons found that all short- and long-range ...
It is unknown how the brain coordinates decisions to withstand personal costs in order to prevent other individuals distress. Here we test whether local field potential (LFP) oscillations between brain regions create "neural contexts" that select specific brain functions and encode the outcomes of these types of intersubjective decisions.Rats participated in an "Intersubjective Avoidance Test" (IAT) that tested rats willingness to enter an innately aversive chamber to prevent another rat from getting shocked. c-Fos immunoreactivity was used to screen for brain regions involved in IAT performance. Multi-site local field potential (LFP) recordings were collected simultaneously and bilaterally from five brain regions implicated in the c-Fos studies while rats made decisions in the IAT. Local field potential recordings were analyzed using an elastic net penalized regression framework.Rats voluntarily entered an innately aversive chamber to prevent another rat from getting shocked, and c-Fos ...
TransAM AP-1 Kits are DNA-binding ELISAs that quantify activated c-Fos, FosB, c-Jun, JunB, JunD & Fra-1 transcription factors using a method that is faster and more sensitive than gelshift, without radioactivity and gels.
c-Fos兔多克隆抗体(ab429)可与鸡样本反应并经WB, EMSA实验严格验证,被6篇文献引用并得到1个独立的用户反馈。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
TY - JOUR. T1 - Osteoclasts, mononuclear phagocytes, and c-Fos. T2 - New insight into osteoimmunology. AU - Matsuo, Koichi. AU - Ray, Neelanjan. PY - 2004/6/1. Y1 - 2004/6/1. N2 - Osteoimmunology is the emerging concept that certain molecules link the skeletal and immune systems. The transcription factor c-Fos, a component of activator protein-1 (AP-1), is essential for osteoclast differentiation. Mice lacking c-Fos are osteopetrotic owing to impaired osteoclast development. Recent studies suggest that in contrast to this positive role in osteoclastogenesis, c-Fos expression inhibits differentiation and activation of mononuclear phagocytes. Here, we focus on the contrasting roles of c-Fos in the bone and immune lineages. Both osteoclasts and mononuclear phagocytes are derived from common myeloid precursors. Osteoclasts resorb bone, whereas macrophages and myeloid dendritic cells phagocytose microbial pathogens, initiating innate and adaptive immunity. Differentiation of the common precursors ...
Home , Papers , Evaluation of c-Fos immunoreactivity in the rat brainstem nuclei relevant in migraine pathogenesis after electrical stimulation of the trigeminal ganglion. ...
This thesis examines mechanisms of regulation of neuropeptide gene expression in vivo in some neurosecretory hypothalamic neurones of the rat. In particular, the influence of neural pathways, acting via receptors and subsequent regulation of genetic transcription factors was measured and second messenger pathways were directly manipulated and the effects of their mutation on gene expression were measured. The magnocellular neurones of the supraoptic nucleus (SON) are known to be directly (i.e. non-synaptically) osmosensitive. Fos, the protein product of the immediate early gene c-fos, has been used as a marker of neuronal activation and its expression is induced in these neurones by increasing systemic hyperosmolarity. The effects of acute, direct hyperosmotic stimulation, via a microdialysis probe, on Fos expression in supraoptic nucleus magnocellular neurones was investigated. Fos expression was detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC). However, direct hyperosmotic stimulation failed to induce ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Interleukin-4 regulates macrophage interleukin-12 protein synthesis through a c-fos mediated mechanism. AU - Roy, Sabita. AU - Charboneau, Richard. AU - Melnyk, Dean. AU - Barke, Roderick A.. PY - 2000/1/1. Y1 - 2000/1/1. N2 - Background. Interleukin-4 (IL-4) treatment after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induction inhibits macrophage (Mφ) IL-12 synthesis; however, IL-4 pretreatment (PreTx) primes the Mφ for increased LPS-induced IL-12 production. In this study we study the role of c-fos in the IL-4 priming of Mφ IL-12 synthesis. Methods. With a murine in vitro peritoneal Mφ model, we studied the effect of either c-fos deficiency (wild type, WT; homozygous c-fos knockout, Homo KO) or c-fos overexpression to study the role of c-fos in IL-4 priming of LPS-induced Mφ IL-12 synthesis. Results. (1) We first show that IL-4 PreTx results in a 72% decrease in Mφ c-fos mRNA compared with vehicle PreTx. (2) With respect to IL-12 p70 protein, IL-4 PreTx in the WT group increased LPS-induced ...
We report here that levels of c-fos mRNA in GnRH neurons are elevated significantly coincident with the first increase in LH levels at the time of an E- and P-induced LH surge in female rats. Similarly, Fos protein increases in GnRH neurons near the time of the LH surge in rats (Lee et al., 1990a; Hrabovszky et al., 1995; Wang et al., 1995), mice (Wu et al., 1992), hamsters (Berriman et al., 1992;Doan and Urbanski, 1994), and sheep (Moenter et al., 1993). In rats, Fos protein is first detectable in GnRH neurons after the onset of the expected LH surge, and the number of GnRH neurons expressing Fos increases during the ascending phase of the LH surge (Lee et al., 1990a, 1992b). These results agree with those of the present study showing that c-fos gene expression increases in GnRH neurons near the onset of the LH surge. Synaptic blockade with phenobarbital or MK-801 (an NMDA channel blocker) inhibits the LH surge and the induction of Fos in GnRH neurons (Lee et al., 1990a, 1993), suggesting that ...
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The establishment and maintenance of apical-basal cell polarity is essential for the functionality of glandular epithelia. Cell polarity is often lost in advanced tumours correlating with acquisition of invasive and malignant properties. Despite extensive knowledge regarding the formation and maintenance of polarity, the mechanisms that deregulate polarity in metastasizing cells remain to be fully characterized. Here we show that AmotL2 expression correlates with loss of tissue architecture in tumours from human breast and colon cancer patients. We further show that hypoxic stress results in activation of c-Fos-dependent expression of AmotL2 leading to loss of polarity. c-Fos/hypoxia-induced p60 AmotL2 interacts with the Crb3 and Par3 polarity complexes retaining them in large vesicles and preventing them from reaching the apical membrane. The resulting loss of polarity potentiates the response to invasive cues in vitro and in vivo in mice. These data provide a molecular mechanism how hypoxic ...
In support of this speculation, CRF strongly activates NE neurons in LC. Furthermore, prior results from our laboratory reveal that systemic clonidine, an α2 autoreceptor agonist decreases NE release, decreases responding when offered on the first working day of extinction, and systemic α1 and β-adrenoceptor antagonists block tension-induced reinstatement of cocaine in search of. We do not believe that the improve in Fos expression for the duration of ED1 is because of to increased locomotor activity or that CP outcomes on Fos expression are because of to common suppression of locomotor activity. Results from Listening to et al. 2008 point out that elevated fast early gene expression for the duration of relapse to cocaine in search of is independent of lever pressing, and CP does not impact basal locomotor exercise stages or alter the gratifying effects of cocaine in the course of self-administration. Although we speculate that the results in noticed in LC-NE neurons is due to CRF in LC, CRF ...
Isabelle Dunand-Sauthier, Marie-Laure Santiago-Raber, Leonardo Capponi, Charles E. Vejnar, Olivier Schaad, Magali Irla, Queralt Seguin-Estévez, Patrick Descombes, Evgeny M. Zdobnov, Hans Acha-Orbea and Walter Reith ...
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... - Its been so long since Ive actually posted any of my FOs on craftster. I guess I just fell into a funk for a while. Anyway, here a couple
OBJECTIVE To compare the mechanotransduction caused by cyclic and static mechanical strains in human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (hPDLFs) cultured under identical conditions. MATERIALS AND METHODS hPDLFs, originating from the same donors, were exposed either to cyclic or to static tensile strain using specially designed devices and under identical culture conditions. Activation of all members of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) was monitored by western immunoblot analysis. Expression levels of immediate/early genes c-fos and c-jun were assessed with quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS Time course experiments revealed that both types of stresses activate the three members of MAPK, that is ERK, p38, and JNK, with cyclic stress exhibiting a slightly more extended activation. Further downstream, both stresses upregulate the immediate/early genes c-fos and c-jun, encoding components of the activator protein-1 (AP-1), a key transcription factor in osteoblastic ...
In different behavioral paradigms including the elevated plus maze (EPM), it was observed previously that deletion of the neuropeptide Y Y2 receptor subtype results in potent suppression of anxiety-related and stress-related behaviors. To identify neurobiological correlates underlying this behavioral reactivtiy, expression of c-Fos, an established early marker of neuronal activation, was examined in Y2 receptor knockout (Y2(-/-)) vs. wildtype (WT) mice. Mice were placed on the open arm (OA) or closed arm (CA) of the EPM for 10 min and the effect on regional c-Fos expression in the brain was investigated. The number of c-Fos positive neurons was significantly increased in both WT and Y2(-/-) lines after OA and CA exposure in 51 of 54 regions quantified. These regions included various cortical, limbic, thalamic, hypothalamic, and hindbrain regions. Genotype influenced c-Fos responses to arm exposures in 6 of the 51 activated regions: the cinguhttp://linkage.garvan.unsw.edu.au/intranet/publications
The work presented in this thesis examined the expression of two proteins, a transcription factor, Fos, which influences cellular change at the genomic level, and a cytoskeletal protein, Flatmap 1, involved in dynamic change of the cell at such localized areas as the cell soma or processes. These proteins were of interest because of their potential roles as underlying mechanisms and possible markers of developmental and adult-learning associated plasticity. Experiment 1 examined expression of the immediate early gene protein product Fos and related proteins (Fos-related proteins) in the rat brain during development when cell differentiation is prevalent using immunocytochemistry with a Fos-specific and a Fos and Fos related protein-specific antibody. Results of the study showed that Fos and Fos-related antigens are differentially expressed in the developing brain prior to and during peak times of cell differentiation in a region- and cell-specific manner. Fos may, therefore, be a useful marker ...
Looking for online definition of FOS-like antigen-1 in the Medical Dictionary? FOS-like antigen-1 explanation free. What is FOS-like antigen-1? Meaning of FOS-like antigen-1 medical term. What does FOS-like antigen-1 mean?
The growth factor-regulated ribosomal S6 kinase RSK2 appears to be essential for osteoblast function, since mice lacking RSK2 are osteopenic because of a cell-autonomous defect in osteoblast activity. In contrast, osteoclast differentiation was unaffected in vivo and in vitro in the absence of RSK2. However, the development of c-Fos-induced osteosarcomas was found to be dependent on RSK2-mediated c-Fos posttranscriptional regulation. Thus, important functions of c-Fos are determined by RSK2-mediated posttranscriptional mechanisms, which may also be required in human osteosarcomas and in CLS.. Humans carrying mutations of RSK2 suffer from CLS, an X-linked mental retardation condition associated with progressive skeletal deformities and osteopenia, delayed bone age, and delayed fontanelle closure (18). It has been shown that mice lacking RSK2 also have impaired learning and cognitive functions (19). Interestingly, mice lacking c-fos in the CNS have similar learning and behavior deficits (27). ...
Nuclear phosphoprotein which forms a tight but non-covalently linked complex with the JUN/AP-1 transcription factor. On TGF-beta activation, forms a multimeric SMAD3/SMAD4/JUN/FOS complex, at the AP1/SMAD-binding site to regulate TGF-beta-mediated signaling. Has a critical function in regulating the development of cells destined to form and maintain the skeleton. It is thought to have an important role in signal transduction, cell proliferation and differentiation (By similarity). In growing cells, activates phospholipid synthesis, possibly by activating CDS1 and PI4K2A. This activity requires Tyr-dephosphorylation and association with the endoplasmic reticulum (By similarity).
Expression of cellular oncogenes was studied in a T cell hybridoma that undergoes cytolytic activation when stimulated by specific antigen or by anti-Thy-1 antibody. The activation occurs without induction of hybridoma proliferation, providing a model to examine oncogene expression during functional differentiation of lymphocytes. We found that c-fos and c-ets-1 mRNAs were transiently induced at high levels in the hybridoma 30 min and 4 h after stimulation, respectively. c-myc and c-ets-2 oncogenes were constitutively expressed in the hybridoma and their mRNA levels were unaffected during 4 h of stimulation, although c-myc expression was reduced in the later stage of stimulation. Inhibitors of T cell activation, cyclosporin A and anti-LFA-1 antibody, blocked the induction of c-fos and c-ets-1 mRNAs without reducing the levels of c-myc and c-ets-2. The results indicate that the functional activation of the CTL hybridoma is associated with induction of c-fos and c-ets-1 genes. ...
This paper presents a strategy for expressing a mouse protein (c-Fos) in E. coli. Potentially, this strategy can be applicable to other mammalian genes. c-Fos protein is part of a dimer that makes up activator protein (AP-1) and binds to the TPA response element (TRE). Unaltered mouse c-Fos DNA (CAI = 0.239) had undetectable expression in E. coli, presumably due to the presence of multiple rare Arg codons. Two approaches were used to optimize the codon usage of c-Fos for high levels of expression in E. coli. 1) Five Arg codons (at codon position 140, 142,143,144 and 146) were optimized therefore resulting in the M1 gene (CAI = 0.258); 2) then five additional Arg codons (at codon position 119,155,157,158 and 159) were optimized (M2 gene, CAI = 0.278) using oligodeoxynucleotide mutagenesis. The optimized gene was cloned into pTH6 vector and induced with IPTG for protein expression. The optimization in M1 gene did not improve the protein expression significantly. However, optimization in M2 ...
In the analyses of FLI, macronutrient infusions as a whole had their greatest effect on the region of the NTS immediately subjacent to the AP, with fewer cells expressing Fos in the NTS rostral to the AP and in the AP itself and even fewer cells showing Fos in the NTS caudal to the AP. This result was not surprising, because the NTS is larger and contains more neurons in the region of the AP than in its more rostral or caudal regions. Duodenal nutrient infusions had no detectable effect on Fos in the dmnX. These results agree with work by Zittel et al. (33), where lipid and glucose infusions induced greater Fos labeling in the more rostral NTS (subjacent to the AP and the 4th ventricle) than in the caudal NTS (at obex). In an earlier study by Olson et al. (13), Fos expression was determined after treatments that inhibited food intake (e.g., CCK, food ingestion) or potentiated food intake (deprivation or insulin). Although the rostrocaudal distribution of Fos expression was not described, ...
RNA INTERFERENCE MEDIATED INHIBITION OF FOS GENE EXPRESSION USING SHORT INTERFERING NUCLEIC ACID (siNA) - diagram, schematic, and image 148 ...
RNA INTERFERENCE MEDIATED INHIBITION OF FOS GENE EXPRESSION USING SHORT INTERFERING NUCLEIC ACID (siNA) - diagram, schematic, and image 26 ...
References for Abcams Recombinant Human c-Jun protein (ab54319). Please let us know if you have used this product in your publication
c-FOS immunostaining of an intact mouse brain hemisphere with SmartLabel. Tissue processing has never been faster or better quality!
TY - JOUR. T1 - Serotoninergic neurons in the brainstem expressing FOS protein after orofacial noxious stimulation: an immunocytochemical double-labeling study. AU - Lang, B. AU - Li, Y Q. PY - 1998. Y1 - 1998. N2 - Employing an immunocytochemical double-labeling technique, we investigated the co-localization of FOS protein, the expression product of c-fos proto-oncogene induced by orofacial noxious stimulation, and serotonin in the rat brainstem. About 3.2%-25.6% of serotonin-like immunoreactive neurons and 6.2%-46.7% of FOS-like immunoreactive neurons in the raphe nuclei, reticular formation and ventrolateral subdivision of the midbrain periaqueductal gray exhibit FOS-like immunoreactivity and serotonin-like immunoreactivity, respectively. The present results provide further morphological evidence for the involvement of serotoninergic neurons in modulating the transmission of noxious information.. AB - Employing an immunocytochemical double-labeling technique, we investigated the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Upregulation of Npas4 protein expression by chronic administration of amphetamine in rat nucleus accumbens in vivo. AU - Guo, Ming Lei. AU - Xue, Bing. AU - Jin, Dao Zhong. AU - Liu, Zhen Guo. AU - Fibuch, Eugene E.. AU - Mao, Li Min. AU - Wang, John Q.. PY - 2012/10/24. Y1 - 2012/10/24. N2 - The neuronal PAS domain protein 4 (Npas4) is a transcription factor that is almost exclusively expressed in the mammalian brain. As an activity-dependent transcription factor, Npas4 regulates the transcription of discrete genes and transcriptionally controls the experience-dependent learning and memory. In this study, we explored the impact of the psychostimulant amphetamine (AMPH) on Npas4 protein expression in the rat striatum. We found that acute systemic injection of AMPH had a minimal effect on protein levels of Npas4 in the caudate putamen (CPu) and nucleus accumbens (NAc), while AMPH readily increased protein products of the immediate early gene c-Fos in these regions. In contrast, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - c-Fos expression by dorsal horn neurons chronically deafferented by peripheral nerve section in response to spared, somatotopically inappropriate nociceptive primary input. AU - Sugimoto, Tomosada. AU - Ichikawa, Hiroyuki. AU - Hijiya, Hiroyuki. AU - Mitani, Seiji. AU - Nakago, Tadao. PY - 1993/9/3. Y1 - 1993/9/3. N2 - Subcutaneous formalin injection into the hindpaw of rats induces c-Fos expression in neurons in the ipsilateral spinal cord dorsal horn. In laminae I and II of the dorsal horn at the junction of 4th and 5th segments of the lumbar spinal cord, neurons exhibiting c-Fos protein-like immunoreactivity (Fos-LI) are concentrated in the medial 3 4 that correspond to the terminal field of primary neurons innervating the sciatic nerve. Subacute tibial nerve section 24 h before formalin stimulation caused almost complete elimination of neurons with the formalin-induced Fos-LI in the medial 1 2 (tibial territory) of the above sciatic territory of the dorsal horn. Following a ...
We previously demonstrated that APP epigenetically regulates Egr1 expression both in cultured neurons and in vivo. Since Egr1 is an immediate early gene involved in memory formation, we wondered whether other early genes involved in memory were regulated by APP and we studied molecular mechanisms involved. By comparing prefrontal (PF) cortex from wild type (APP+/+) and APP knockout mice (APP-/-), we observed that APP down regulates expression of four immediate early genes, Egr1, c-Fos, Bdnf and Arc. Down regulation of Egr1, c-Fos and Bdnf transcription resulted from a decreased enrichment of acetylated histone H4 on the corresponding gene promoter. Further characterization of H4 acetylation at Egr1 and c-Fos promoters revealed increased acetylation of H4K5 and H4K12 residues in APP-/- mice. Whereas APP affected Egr1 promoter activity by reducing access of the CREB transcription factor, its effect on c-Fos appeared to depend on increased recruitment of HDAC2 histone deacetylase to the gene ...
Excessive extracellular glutamate triggers delayed neuronal death by promoting the influx of calcium into cells by activating N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) or non-NMDA glutamate receptors. [4] Glutamate receptor activation, in turn, stimulates expression of rapidly induced transcriptional activators known as the immediate-early genes. These genes initiate a complex cascade of events that transduct extracellular signals into alterations of cellular functions by regulating target gene expression (late-response genes). [5-7] The immediate-early gene c-fos is rapidly and transiently induced in neurons within the hippocampal formation of the brain after seizures, hypoxia, and global ischemia through glutamate-mediated NMDA and non-NMDA receptor activation. [8-10] The protein product of c-fos mRNA, FOS, modulates transcription of several late-response genes, such as p53, heat-shock protein, bcl-x, tyrosine hydroxylase, and opioid peptides. [10-12] Some of the late-response genes expressed after c-fos ...
To test the hypothesis that the difference in the directions of DNA bending induced by transcription activation domains linked to the bZIP region of Fos versus Jun was due to a preferred orientation of heterodimer binding to the AP‐1 site, we examined bending at additional binding sites. The relative directions of DNA bending induced by the transcription activation domains fused to the Fos versus Jun bZIP domains at the M, X, MX, XM and X6G sites were similar (Figure 5), suggesting that Fos-Jun heterodimers bind to these sites in the same preferred orientation. These AP‐1 sites share an asymmetric central C:G base pair. To examine the influence of this central base pair on the orientation of heterodimer binding and to explore the relationship between binding orientation and DNA bending, we examined DNA bending at two sites that contained a central G:C base pair. One site (W) is identical to the M site with the exception of transversion of the central C:G base pair to a G:C base pair. The ...
Within the functional group of transcriptional regulation, we find the transcription factor Fosl2 (also known as Fra2), a Fos family member, among the most prominently up-regulated by both chemopreventive compounds. Interestingly, an antitumor promoter, the phenolic antioxidant tert-butylhydroquinone, was reported to induce expression of Fra2 (Fosl2) as well as Fra1. Furthermore, the authors concluded that inhibitory activator protein-1 complexes composed of Jun-Fra heterodimers, induced by tert-butylhydroquinone, antagonize the transcriptional effects of the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate, which are mediated by Jun-Fos heterodimers (21). Similarly, inhibition of interleukin-6-stimulated cell growth of human myeloma and mouse hybridoma cells was shown to be associated with increased expression of Fra2 protein (22). Fra2 has also been associated with differentiation in epidermis, and exogenous expression of Fra-2 (Fosl2) repressed activator protein-1 transcriptional activity ...
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a deadly disease with no effective cure that develops in the context of liver diseases associated with chronic inflammation. New paper describes how important is the protein c-Fos for HCC development, because it affects cholesterol homeostasis in hepatocytes. Using genetically modified mouse models, researchers at the Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO) experimentally document how c-Fos modulates premalignant hepatocyte transformation and how this is linked to cholesterol and inflammation.
Results In response to 4h infection with CRC-associated AIEC isolates HM44 and HM358, 11 Wnt target-genes were significantly up-regulated and 7 significantly down-regulated, many regulating cell cycle, cell proliferation, migration and angiogenesis. Key genes up-regulated in SW480 cells included cyclooxygenase-2 (PTGS-2/COX2), increased 8.1 ± 0.9 and 9.2 ± 1.0 fold (both P = 0.0002), Fos-related antigen 1 (FOSL1) increased 6.1 ± 0.6 and 7.9 ± 1.9 fold (P , 0.01), and vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGFA) upregulated 4.6 ± 0.3 and 4.2 ± 0.2 fold respectively (P , 0.0001). Down-regulated genes (,2 fold change) included a known CRC tumour suppressor, Wnt-1 inducible signalling pathway 2 (WISP2); P , 0.05. Similar gene changes were seen using DLD-1 cells, and confirmed by qPCR. AIEC also significantly increased cellular protein levels; e.g. COX2, up 5.7 ± 0.7 and 2.8 ± 0.04 fold respectively (both P , 0.01; N=3, n = 3). In addition, b-catenin increases were 2-3 fold at 2h and 4h ...
A central question in T cell development is what makes cortical thymocytes respond to stimulation in a qualitatively different way than any other thymocyte subset. Part of the answer is that AP-1 function changes drastically at two stages of T cell development. It undergoes striking down-regulation as thymocytes differentiate from immature, CD4^-CD8^- double-negative (DN) TCR^- thymocytes to CD4^+CD8^+ double-positive (DP) TCR^(lo) cortical cells, and then returns in the cells that mature to TCR^(high), CD4^+CD8^- or CD4^-CD8^+ single-positive (SP) thymocytes. At all three stages, the jun family mRNAs can be induced similarly. However, we demonstrate that DP cortical thymocytes are specifically impaired in c-fos and fosB mRNA induction, even when stimuli are used that optimize survival of the cells and a form of in vitro maturation. fra-2 expression is induction independent but much lower in DP cells than in the other subsets. Overall Fos family protein induction accordingly is severely ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Function of Fos proteins in bone cell differentiation. AU - Matsuo, K.. AU - Jochum, W.. AU - Owens, J. M.. AU - Chambers, T. J.. AU - Wagner, E. F.. PY - 1999/7/1. Y1 - 1999/7/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0344867028&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0344867028&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1016/S8756-3282(99)00120-9. DO - 10.1016/S8756-3282(99)00120-9. M3 - Article. C2 - 10423040. AN - SCOPUS:0344867028. VL - 25. JO - Bone. JF - Bone. SN - 8756-3282. IS - 1. ER - ...