Purified HEK AR Nuclear Translocation Assay Kit from Creative Biomart. HEK AR Nuclear Translocation Assay Kit can be used for research.
View Notes - bis_104_pq_29_ans_ss_i_2009 from BIS BIS 104 at UC Davis. Increased numbers of GLUT-4 receptors transport glucose from blood into the ell where it is rapidly phosphorylated to maintain
Parkinsons disease : Alpha synucleins non-amyloidal component (NAC) aids the proteins movement through axons - Featured https://debuglies.com
The table below shows the top 100 pain related interactions that have been reported for chemokine receptor transport out of membrane raft. They are ordered first by their pain relevance and then by number of times they were reported for chemokine receptor transport out of membrane raft. Please click on the INT link to display more detailed information on each interaction. ...
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Recent identification of several members of the chloroplastic protein translocation machinery has allowed for further refinement of our understanding of the mechanism by which precursors are transported into chloroplasts. We have attempted to define the composition of complexes that form during translocation using co‐immunoprecipitation techniques with antibodies specific to translocation components. We have observed that precursors could be found in stable association with translocation complexes after solubilization with a mild detergent, decylmaltoside. Characterization of these complexes has led to two conclusions: (i) that under limiting ATP conditions, precursors associated with translocation complexes containing components of the outer and inner envelope membranes; and (ii) that the chaperone ClpC, a stromal Hsp100 homolog, was associated with precursor‐containing complexes under these limiting ATP conditions.. The data presented here suggest a new role for the stromal Hsp100 homolog ...
View Notes - wingfield.npb101.readings.2009 from NPB NPB 101 at UC Davis. adhesion molecules, gap junctions, receptors, transport molecules Feedback loops (negative and positive) How are chemical
The protein export is the active transport of proteins from the cytoplasm to the exterior of the cell, or to the periplasmic compartment in Gram-negative bacteria. The sec dependent pathway is the general protein export system that transports newly synthesized proteins into or across the cell membrane. The translocation channel is formed from a conserved trimeric membrane protein complex, called the Sec61/SecY complex. The twin-arginine translocation (Tat) pathway is another protein transport system that transports folded proteins in bacteria, archaea, and chloroplasts. Many Tat systems comprise three functionally different membrane proteins, TatA, TatB, and TatC, but TatA and TatE seem to have overlapping functions, with TatA having by far the more important role ...
A system and computer program product for tracking and monitoring assets along a transport route. The system includes at least one receiver for receiving asset identifications transmitted from the as
The intracellular localization and movement (i.e. translocation) of proteins are critically correlated with the functions and activation states of these proteins. Simple and accessible detection methods that can rapidly screen a large cell population with single cell resolution have been seriously lacking. I
The research labs of the associate professor Dr. Thomas Becker and Prof. Dr. Nikolaus Pfanner from the Institute for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology at the University of Freiburg discovered a function of the metabolite channel of the mitochondrial outer membrane in protein transport.
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buildroot}/etc/ ...and placed in the final destination of: /etc I keep getting the entire %{buildroot} created on the destination host. TIA ...
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The carboxyl terminal of heterotrimeric G protein alpha subunits binds both G protein-coupled receptors and mastoparan (MP), a tetradecapeptide allostere. Moreover, peptides corresponding to the carboxyl domains of G(i)3 alpha and G(t) display intrinsic biological activities in cell-free systems. Thus, the purpose of this study was to develop a cell penetrant delivery system to further investigate the biological properties of a peptide mimetic of the G(i)3 alpha carboxyl terminal (G(i)3 alpha(346-355); H-KNNLKECGLY-NH2). Kinetic studies, using a CFDA-conjugated analogue of G(i)3 alpha(346-355), confirmed the rapid and efficient intracellular translocation of TP10-G(i)3 alpha(346-355) (t(0.5) = 3 min). Translocated G(i)3 alpha(346-355), but not other bioactive cargoes derived from PKC and the CB1 cannabinoid receptor, promoted the dual phosphorylation of p42/p44 MAPK without adverse changes in cellular viability. The relative specificity of this novel biological activity was further confirmed by ...
This book addresses the most recent advances in the transport of proteins across a variety of biological membranes. In addressing this topic, this volume includes several new twists not previously addressed in the literature. In the last few years, the study of protein translocation has been revolutionized by the availability of structural information on many of the components and complexes involved in the process. Unlike earlier books written on protein translocation, this volume considers these advances. In addition, several chapters discuss facets of protein translocation from a systems biology perspective, considered by many to be the next paradigm for biological study. Readers of this book will come away with a deeper understanding of the problems facing researchers of protein translocation and see how the most modern biological techniques and approaches are being recruited to answer those questions. The chapters are also written such that problems awaiting future investigation are clearly ...
Trafficking of postsynaptic receptors is a means of regulating synaptic function in the dendrites, yet the details of delivery processes are not well explored. In this study, we present two general pathways for receptor transport to synaptic sites in the dendrite. Six of the seven GPCRs examined notably preferred passive diffusion from the cell body to the dendrite branches. This energy efficient transport via the plasma membrane is likely shared by most postsynaptic GPCRs. An alternate pathway, as seen with 5-HT1B, retains receptors in transport vesicles. At the cost of expending energy on active transport, 5-HT1B is maintained as a readily accessible source of mobile receptors for rapid exocytotic recruitment to the membrane throughout the dendrites. Though unique among the receptors included in our study, this active trafficking pathway may be used by yet unexamined receptors.. Previous postsynaptic GPCR studies describing intracellular trafficking are mostly limited to receptor recycling or ...
The piece of gold that Richard Taylor was thrilled to track down weighed less than a single bacterium. Taylor, a postdoctoral fellow at the Max Planck Institute, was working to follow individual nanogold-labeled molecules that move just nanometers, billionths of a meter.
Conserved ER Protein Translocation Channel; Essential Subunit Of Sec61 Complex (Sec61p, Sbh1p, And Sss1p); Forms Channel For SRP-dependent Protein Import; With Sec63 Complex Allows SRP-independent Protein Import Into ER; Involved In Posttranslational Soluble Protein Import Into The ER, ERAD Of Soluble Substrates, And Misfolded Soluble Protein Export From The ER
Degradation of the plant hormone cytokinin is controlled by cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase (CKX) enzymes. The molecular and cellular behavior of these proteins is still largely unknown. In this study, we show that CKX1 is a type-II single-pass membrane protein that predominantly localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). This indicates that this CKX isoform is a bona fide ER protein directly controlling the cytokinin which triggers the signaling from the ER. By using various approaches, we demonstrate that CKX1 forms homodimers and homooligomers in vivo. The N-terminal part of CKX1 was necessary and sufficient for the protein oligomerization as well as for targeting and retention in the ER. Moreover, we show that protein-protein interaction is largely facilitated by transmembrane helices and depends on a functional GxxxG-like interaction motif. Importantly, mutations rendering CKX1 monomeric interfere with its steady-state localization in the ER and cause a loss of the CKX1 biological ...
One of the most important metabolic actions of insulin is catalysing glucose uptake into skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. This is accomplished via activation of the PI3K/Akt signalling pathway and subsequent translocation of GLUT4 from intracellular storage vesicles to the plasma membrane. As such, this represents an ideal system for studying the convergence of signal transduction and protein trafficking. The GLUT4 translocation process is complex, but can be dissected into at least 4 discrete trafficking steps. This raises the question as to which of these is the major regulated step in insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation. Numerous molecules have been reported to regulate GLUT4 trafficking. However, with the exception of TBC1D4, the molecular details of these distal signalling arms of the insulin signalling network and how they modify distinct steps of GLUT4 trafficking have not been established. We discuss the need to adopt a more global approach to expand and deepen our understanding of the
Membrane proteins are critical components of all cells, controlling, e.g., signaling, nutrient exchange, and energy production, and are the target of over half of all drugs currently in production. At an early stage of their synthesis, nearly all membrane proteins are directed to a protein-conducting channel, the SecY/Sec61 complex, which permits access to the membrane via its lateral gate.
There are two automated imaging systems in the Facility that can be used for HCS applications. The first is an InCell 6000 which is a semi-confocal imaging system designed to image cells cultured in standard format multi-well plates (although it can also image cells on slides). In addition to imaging fixed cells, the system has many features which make it suitable for live cell analysis including temperature control, CO2 regulation and liquid handling. The InCell 6000 is equipped with a Caliper Twister II robotic plate loader which significantly increases the throughput capability of the system. Potential applications for this system include live/dead analysis, cell cycle analysis, apoptosis, cytoplasmic/ nucleus translocation assays, DNA damage, tube formation (angiogenesis), neurite outgrowth, micronucleus assays, morphometric analysis (tubulin) and cell migration ...
The biogenesis and positioning of organelles involves complex interacting processes and precise control. Progress in our understanding is being made rapidly as advances in analysing the nuclear and organellar genome and proteome combine with developments in live-cell microscopy and manipulation at the subcellular level. This paper introduces the collected papers resulting from Organelle Biogenesis and Positioning in Plants, the 2009 Biochemical Society Annual Symposium. Including papers on the nuclear envelope and all major organelles, it considers current knowledge and progress towards unifying themes that will elucidate the mechanisms by which cells generate the correct complement of organelles and adapt and change it in response to environmental and developmental signals.. ...
The 2018 Gordon Research Conference on Protein Transport Across Cell Membranes will be held in Galveston, TX. Apply today to reserve your spot.
Exosomes are small (30-150 nm) vesicles containing unique RNA and protein cargo, secreted by all cell types in culture. They are also found in abundance in body fluids including blood, saliva, and urine. At the moment, the mechanism of exosome formation, the makeup of the cargo, biological pathways, and resulting
Inhibition of Delta pH pathway protein transport by antibodies to Hcf106. (A) Maize thylakoids were preincubated with 0.1 mg/ml anti-Hcf106 or preimmune (PI) Ig
Yet there are arguments made against this view. Although memory has never been found - and may never be found - in the human brain, there are attempts nevertheless to explain it as such; a particular experience for example can be physically monitored; the neuronal movements can be mapped, which will imply a technology that can see INTO neurons and all the protein movements occurring therein. Since this will involve millions of processes within a single neuron, well need an impressive supercomputer to do all this. But lets say we do all, and discover that "this" cluster of neurons corresponds to this memory; and show it that everytime this memory is activated, these proteins are assembled just like that. It seems almost absurd in the complexity; and even logically, we know that correlation isnt causation, and that is the real kicker about science and mind. You cant ever prove or unprove it. It just is: it stays as it is and we live as we live, and in the end, we die, and we dissolve into the ...
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Hepatocyte growth factor-regulated tyrosine kinase substrate (Hrs) is a prominent substrate for activated tyrosine kinase receptors that has been proposed to play a role in endosomal membrane trafficking. The protein contains a FYVE domain, which specifically binds to the lipid phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-phosphate (PI 3-P). We show that this interaction is required both for correct localization of the protein to endosomes that only partially coincides with early endosomal autoantigen 1 and for efficient tyrosine phosphorylation of the protein in response to epidermal growth factor stimulation. Treatment with wortmannin reveals that Hrs phosphorylation also requires PI 3-kinase activity, which is necessary to generate the PI 3-P required for localization. We have used both hypertonic media and expression of a dominant-negative form of dynamin (K44A) to inhibit endocytosis; under which conditions, receptor stimulation fails to elicit phosphorylation of Hrs. Our results provide a clear example of the
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
The major research focus of my group is the transport of proteins by the twin arginine protein transport pathway. This pathway, which is found in the cytoplasmic membranes of most bacteria, and the thylakoid membranes of plant chloroplasts, is highly unusual because it transports pre-folded proteins. Protein substrates are targeted to the Tat machinery by N-terminal signal peptides that contain an S/T- R-R-x-F-L-K twin arginine motif. Our aims are to study the function and mechanism of the Tat protein transporter, and the contribution that it makes to the physiology of bacteria. The Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus uses an unusual Type VII secretion system to secrete possible virulence factors. In a collaboration with Professor Bill Hunter we have been structurally and biochemically characterising components and substrates of this system. Contact details ...
Protein translocase subunit SecY; The central subunit of the protein translocation channel SecYEG. Consists of two halves formed by TMs 1-5 and 6-10. These two domains form a lateral gate at the front which open onto the bilayer between TMs 2 and 7, and are clamped together by SecE at the back. The channel is closed by both a pore ring composed of hydrophobic SecY resides and a short helix (helix 2A) on the extracellular side of the membrane which forms a plug. The plug probably moves laterally to allow the channel to open. The ring and the pore may move independently (443 aa ...
Intra-cellular and inter-cellular protein translocation can be observed by microscopic imaging of tissue sections prepared immunohistochemically. A manual densitometric analysis is time-consuming, subjective and error-prone. An automated quantification is faster, more reproducible, and should yield results comparable to manual evaluation. The automated method presented here was developed on rat liver tissue sections to study the translocation of bile salt transport proteins in hepatocytes. For validation, the cholestatic liver state was compared to the normal biological state. An automated quantification method was developed to analyze the translocation of membrane proteins and evaluated in comparison to an established manual method. Firstly, regions of interest (membrane fragments) are identified in confocal microscopy images. Further, densitometric intensity profiles are extracted orthogonally to membrane fragments, following the direction from the plasma membrane to cytoplasm. Finally, several
Not all proteins that accumulate in a specific subcellular compartment undergo processes of selective sorting and transport. Some proteins seem to be localized by a mechanism known as selective retention, which describes that cargoes are transported nonselectively to both axons and dendrites, but are eliminated at one side by selective endocytosis and retained at the other, where endocytosis is prevented. Prominent examples for this process are the proteins VAMP2 and NgCAM. NgCAM is sorted into carriers that preferentially deliver their cargo proteins to the axonal membrane. In contrast, VAMP2 is delivered to the surface of both axons and dendrites; however it is preferentially endocytosed from the dendritic membrane, a process, which also results in an axonal enrichment31. Indeed, VAMP2 harbors an endocytosis signal in its cytoplasmic domain, and mutation of this sequence consistently results in an evenly distribution of VAMP2 to cell body, dendrites, and axon. Although such process initially ...
Our results are consistent with the idea that the FP-Rab6 membrane system defines a separate compartment that corresponds to a Golgi→ER transport pathway containing specific retrograde cargo and exhibiting distinct functional requirements. The FP-Rab6 compartment comprises all FP-Rab6 elements, the Golgi-associated pool, tubular and globular trafficking elements, and peripheral corner regions. It is separate from some of the traditionally defined morphological compartments (endosomes, lysosomes, and Golgi→plasma membrane transport carriers), and partly overlaps with others (Golgi, ER). FP-Rab6 dynamics in live cells emphasized elements that were neglected in static images, thus revealing morphological features of endogenous Rab6 that had previously been overlooked ( Goud et al. 1990; Antony et al. 1992). Since endogenous Rab6 and FP-Rab6 have common features ( Fig. 2), FP-Rab6 dynamics are most likely not induced by overexpression of the FP-Rab6 fusion protein.. During the period when STB ...
The biogenesis of secretory as well as transmembrane proteins requires the activity of the universally conserved protein-conducting channel (PCC), the Sec61 complex (SecY complex in bacteria). In eukaryotic cells the PCC is located in the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum where it can bind to translating ribosomes for co-translational protein transport. The Sec complex consists of three subunits (Sec61alpha, beta and gamma) and provides an aqueous environment for the translocation of hydrophilic peptides as well as a lateral opening in the Sec61alpha subunit that has been proposed to act as a gate for the membrane partitioning of hydrophobic domains. A plug helix and a so-called pore ring are believed to seal the PCC against ion flow and are proposed to rearrange for accommodation of translocating peptides. Several crystal and cryo-electron microscopy structures revealed different conformations of closed and partially open Sec61 and SecY complexes. However, in none of these samples has the ...
Component of the coat protein complex II (COPII) which promotes the formation of transport vesicles from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The coat has two main functions, the physical deformation of the endoplasmic reticulum membrane into vesicles and the selection of cargo molecules.
Endosomal internalisation and subsequent lysosomal degradation of membrane proteins is important for regulation of multiple cellular processes, among these the termination of receptor signalling and degradation of misfolded membrane proteins. ESCRT (Endosomal sorting complex required for transport) proteins are vital for the sorting of ubiquitinated membrane proteins into multivesicular bodies for subsequent degradation in the lysosome. In this study we generated two stable cell lines expressing the EGFP tagged ESCRT proteins Hrs and hVps22. Our goal was to utilise these cell lines for investigations into ESCRT protein dynamics, the relative order of ESCRT protein recruitment to the endosomes, and the endosomal localisation of ESCRT proteins. However, though the EGFP-Hrs cell line seemed to express a functional Hrs protein, the EGFP-hVps22 protein was completely cytosolic and could not be visualised on endosomes. hVps4, and its mouse homologue Skd1 is an AAA-type ATPase shown to be necessary for ...
TRIM22 alters the sub-cellular localization of Gag protein.A) Analysis of Gag localization by fluorescence microscopy. HOS-CD4/CXCR4 cells were co-transfected w
The long length of axons makes them critically dependent on intracellular transport for their growth and survival. This movement is called axonal transport. Cargoes originating from the cell body move out towards the axon tip and cargoes originating in the axon or at the axon tip move back towards the cell body. The outbound movement is known as anterograde transport and it includes cargoes required for the growth, maintenance and plasticity of axons and presynaptic terminals. The inbound movement is called retrograde transport and it includes cargoes returning to the cell body for recycling or degradation, as well as cargoes that relay signals back to the cell body to modulate gene expression in response to the local environment.. Though axonal transport has a special name, it is not fundamentally different from the pathways of intracellular traffic found in other parts of nerve cells or in other cells. However, it is remarkable for its scale. For example, there are axons in our bodies that ...
The most thoroughly characterized quality‐control system is the one operating in the ER, which is a compartment specialized in the folding and subsequent export of translocated proteins. Unfolded proteins are typically denied access to the export pathway until they fold correctly, and those that fail to do so are disposed of by a process known as ERAD. This involves the retrotranslocation (dislocation) of misfolded substrates from the lumen of the ER, across the ER membrane back into the cytosol, followed by their ubiquitination and degradation by the proteasome. Under stress conditions, in which the workload imposed on the ER exceeds its capacity, cells respond by increasing the transcription of genes coding for ER chaperones as well as for ERAD components, and by attenuating protein synthesis-the so‐called unfolded protein response. R.S. Hegde (Bethesda, MD, USA) and D. T. Ng (Singapore) reported on additional ways in which the secretory pathway can respond to stress.. Hegde discussed an ...
Peroxisomes require the translocation of folded and functional target proteins of various sizes across the peroxisomal membrane. We have investigated the structure and function of the principal import receptor Pex5p, which recognizes targets bearing a C-terminal peroxisomal targeting signal type 1. …
Listing of the answers to the question: Proteins that are destined to become associated with the inner surface of the plasma membrane are:
Researchers from Freiburg discovered a novel mechanism that ensures obstacle-free protein traffic into the powerhouse of the cell
Exosomes are tiny (30-150 nm) vesicles secreted by all cell types in culture and found in large numbers in all body fluids. These vesicles, loaded with unique RNA and protein cargo, have a wide range of biological functions, only a small part of which is currently understood. For example, they are known to serve as
Genetic information processingProtein fateProtein and peptide secretion and traffickingTat (twin-arginine translocation) pathway signal sequence (TIGR01409; HMM-score: 25.5) ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Rivka A Rachel, Kunio Nagashima, T Norene OSullivan, Laura S Frost, Frank P Stefano, Valeria Marigo, Kathleen Boesze-Battaglia].
A meeting at the Weizmann Institute of Science in Israel, Nov 17-21, 2013. From their Welcome Letter: This meeting will bring together experts from the diverse fields of trafficking to discuss mechanisms of mRNA and protein transport, and their relationship to prominent diseases associated with organelle biogenesis. We hope to trigger significant scientific discourse between…