Neural progenitor number is regulated by nuclear factor-kappa B p65 and p50 subunit-dependent proliferation rather than cell survival
PMID 21455670] Genetic variation in genes encoding for polymerase ? subunits associates with breast cancer risk, tumour characteristics and survival ...
Question 8: In some protein assemblies, one subunit may be referred to as a "regulatory subunit" and another as a "catalytic subunit." An enzyme composed of both regulatory and catalytic subunits when assembled is often referred to as a ________. ...
高い抗原親和性、特異性と安定した品質を兼ね備えたアブカムのウサギ・モノクローナル抗体 RabMAb® ab75993 交差種: Ms,Rat,Hu 適用: WB,IP,IHC-P,Flow Cyt,ICC/IF
The SWI/SNF complex contains 12-15 subunits [1-3], which are combinatorially assembled to create as many as several thousand biochemically distinct complexes. In development, changes to composition of SWI/SNF can drive developmental progression [4, 5]. In cancer, SWI/SNF is among the most commonly found mutations, with mutations observed in as many as 20% of tumors [6, 7]. However, these mutations are not equally spread across the subunits. Mutations in the ARID family members (ARID1A, ARID1B and ARID2) and the ATPase subunits (BRG1 and BRM) are more prevalent than in the other subunits [6, 7]. Additionally, in some cancers multiple subunits are mutated. This is the case in hepatocellular carcinoma where mutations have been identified in all three ARID subunits [8-10]. In other cancers, mutations are highly specific, such as BRG1 mutations in small cell carcinoma of the ovary hypercalcemic type (SCCOHT) [11] and SNF5 mutations in malignant rhabdoid tumors [12], and ARID1A in ovarian clear cell ...
The receptor subtypes involved in the physiological and pharmacological actions of gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) in peripheral and endocrine tissues are not clear. Information about the molecular characteristics of GABA(A) receptors in peripheral endocrine tissues is only available for the pancreas and the adrenal medulla. Using reverse transcription (RT) polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the widespread expression of GABA(A) receptors subunits in rat peripheral tissues, including adrenal, ovary, testis, placenta, uterus, and small intestine is shown. It is shown that GABA(A) receptor subunits are expressed in multiple endocrine tissues in a tissue specific manner. These results give an insight into the likely pharmacological properties of these GABA(A) receptors in these tissues. The gonadal endocrine tissues such as the placenta, ovary and the testis express greater range of GABA(A) receptor subunits relative to the adrenal gland. The tissues with greater smooth muscle content, the small intestine and
AMP-activated protein kinase is an evolutionarily conserved heterotrimeric enzyme whose primary role involves maintenance of energy balance in the eukaryotic cell. The structure and function of each of the subunits is conserved through evolution; however, although there are two or three genes encoding each subunit in the mammalian systems, there is but a single gene for each of them in Drosophila, making it an attractive model system to study the functions of AMPK in vivo (Pan and Hardie, 2002). Although it has been the focus of much research, little is known about the precise mechanisms underlying the regulatory functions of the β and γ subunits: β acts as a scaffold via its C-terminal domain and contains a carbohydrate-binding domain that associates the mammalian enzyme complex with glycogen, whereas the gamma subunit contains the so-called Bateman domains, responsible for binding of AMP and therefore allosteric activation of AMPK (Hardie, 2007). Finally, all three subunits are essential ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Synthesis and applications of affinity matrix containing immobilized βγ subunits of G proteins. AU - Pang, Iok-Hou. AU - Smrcka, Alan V.. AU - Sternweis, Paul C.. PY - 1994/1/1. Y1 - 1994/1/1. N2 - This chapter discusses synthesis and applications of affinity matrix containing immobilized βγ subunits of G proteins. All G proteins composed of α,β, and γ subunits. Stimulation of the proteins is effected by exchange of GTP for GDP. This activation can be mimicked, in vitro, by the binding of AIF4 - in concert with guanosine 5-diphosphate (GDP). Activation promotes dissociation of α and βγ subunits. Because generic purified complexes of βγ subunits interact with a wide variety of unique α subunits, it is possible to use βγ as an affinity reagent for the study of α subunits. The development of a functional immobilized βγ resin provided a novel method for isolating and purifying α subunits of G proteins and a unique means for studying the interaction between α and ...
Two main results have emerged from this work. First, we have established that the quaternary organization of P2X subunits can be accurately defined using a combination of BRET and fluorescence complementation. Second, we have demonstrated that P2X5 and P2X2 subunits associate in a new heteromeric receptor with two stoichiometries. We have provided evidence that this receptor is endogenously expressed within specific neuronal populations, and displays functional properties that were previously thought to be unique to the P2X7 receptor (Surprenant et al., 1996).. Our cell surface assay (Chaumont et al., 2004) allowed a preliminary screening of P2X subunits interacting at the plasma membrane. Indeed, this approach has accurately identified subunits known to interact with P2X2 or P2X5, such as P2X3 and P2X1, respectively (Lewis et al., 1995; Haines et al., 1999; Lê et al., 1999; Surprenant et al., 2000), and revealed P2X2 subunits as a new assembly partner of P2X5. In native tissue, P2X2 and P2X5 ...
Knockdown of glutamate-cysteine ligase by small hairpin RNA (shRNA) reveals that both catalytic and modulatory subunits are essential for the survival of primary neurons ...
This unit should take you approximately 24 hours to complete. ☐ Subunit 3.1: 1.0 hour ☐ Subunit 3.2: 2.5 hours ☐ Subunit 3.3: 2.0 hours ☐ Subunit 3.4: 5.0 hours ☐ Subunit 3.4.1: 1.0 hour ☐ Subunit 3.4.2: 1.0 hour ☐ Subunit 3.4.3: 0.5 hour ☐ Subunit 3.4.4: 0.5 hour ☐ Subunit 3.4.5: 1.0 hour ☐ Subunit 3.4.6: 1.0 hour. ☐ Subunit 3.5: 3.0hours ☐ Subunit 3.6: 2.5 hours ☐ Subunit 3.7: 2.0 hours ☐ Subunit 3.8: 2.0 hours ☐ Subunit 3.9: 4.0 hours ☐ Subunit 3.9.1: 1.0 hour ☐ Subunit 3.9.2: 1.0 hour ☐ Subunit 3.9.3: 1.0 hour ☐ Subunit 3.9.4: 1.0 hour. Unit3 Learning Outcomes ...
From NCBI Gene:. The protein encoded by this gene is a critical subunit of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, members of the glutamate receptor channel superfamily which are heteromeric protein complexes with multiple subunits arranged to form a ligand-gated ion channel. These subunits play a key role in the plasticity of synapses, which is believed to underlie memory and learning. Cell-specific factors are thought to control expression of different isoforms, possibly contributing to the functional diversity of the subunits. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]. From UniProt: ...
... , Authors: Dessen P. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol.
Date: June 2017 Source: Biological Shape Analysis: Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium (ISBSA), pp 249-258. School of Dentistry, UCLA, USA, 19-22 June 2015. Abstract: Facial morphology is the result of mazy interactions between environmental and epigenetic factors that lead to the composition of multiple subunits integrated to function as a whole. In this work, we […]. Read More ...
Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit gammaisoform (EC 2.7.1.153) (PI3-kinase p110 subunit gamma) (PtdIns-3-kinase subunit p110) (PI3K) (PI3Kgamma) (p120-PI3K ...
HTF Market Report released a new research document of 35 pages on industry titled as Interleukin 7 Receptor Subunit Alpha (CDw127 or CD127 or IL7R) - Pipe
Rubisco molecules with at least one (and probably only one) plastid-synthesized small subunit (i.e., L8S7SH) were somewhat less stable than L8S8 molecules. The former lost 35S label slowly during the chase period whereas the latter retained it completely (Figure 6). Perhaps the presence of even one His tag is sufficient to destabilize the whole hexadecamer slightly. However, the turnover rate of L8S7SH was slow compared with that of the D1 protein. Although enhanced turnover might contribute to the scarcity of plastid-synthesized small subunits, it cannot by itself completely explain it.. It is possible, however, that the plastid-synthesized small subunits or their precursors might be subject to rapid turnover before assembly into Rubisco. Although unassembled His-tagged small subunits would be isolated by the Ni2+ chelation procedure, such rapid degradation might keep their steady state pool sizes so small that they would escape detection in pulse-labeling experiments (Figure 6). Rapid ...
Alpha-morpholino subunits and polymer compositions composed of alpha-morpholino subunits are disclosed. These subunits can be linked together by uncharged linkages, one to three atoms in length, joini
Mediator has been shown to be essential for regulation of RNA Polymerase II mediated transcription. Mediator functions as an interface between the general transcriptional machinery and a multitude of DNA binding transcriptional regulators, although the molecular mechanism for the process is elusive. Mediator is a large complex of over twenty subunits, most of which are conserved from yeast to plants to mammals. Many of these subunits are essential for viability in yeast, and mutations in the corresponding genes have global effects on transcription. Mediator was originally identified in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, but has since been described in most eukaryotes. However, until recently the Mediator complex was not identified in plants. This thesis describes the first successful identification and isolation of the Mediator complex from the plant Arabidopsis thaliana. By raising antibodies against candidate A. thaliana Mediator subunits, we were able to purify a multisubunit protein complex. Mass ...
Several lines of evidence suggest that cancer progression is associated with up-regulation or reactivation of telomerase and the underlying mechanism remains an active area of research. The heterotrimeric MRN complex, consisting of Mre11, Rad50 and Nbs1, which is required for the repair of double-strand breaks, plays a key role in telomere length maintenance. In this study, we show significant differences in the levels of expression of MRN complex subunits among various cancer cells and somatic cells. Notably, siRNA-mediated depletion of any of the subunits of MRN complex led to complete ablation of other subunits of the complex. Treatment of leukemia and prostate cancer cells with etoposide lead to increased expression of MRN complex subunits, with concomitant decrease in the levels of telomerase activity, compared to breast cancer cells. These studies raise the possibility of developing anti-cancer drugs targeting MRN complex subunits to sensitize a subset of cancer cells to radio- and/or ...
PI-3 kinase subunit gamma antibody for detecting human phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit gamma isoform. Validated on up to 12 cell lysates for western blotting. Try a trial size today.
As most subunits of the transcriptional mediator complex have not been functionally analyzed in vertebrates, the extent to which subunit composition may contribute to developmental mechanisms has remained unclear. Here, we present the first functional analysis of the subunit Crsp34 in the context of development and cell differentiation of zebrafish. We tested the concept of subunit-specific roles by analyzing the loss-of-function effects of three mediator subunits on the development of the vertebrate CNS: Trap100 (Pietsch et al. 2006), Crsp150 (Amsterdam et al. 2004), and Crsp34 (this study). As an experimental system we chose the developing zebrafish retina, since it represents one of the best-studied units of the CNS, regarding anatomy and control of proliferation, as well as expression of genes involved in patterning and differentiation for zebrafish (reviewed in Malicki 2000). Therefore, analysis of the retina in a mutant embryo allows us to detect developmental defects at high ...
P48736: Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit gamma isoform; PI3-kinase subunit gamma; PI3K-gamma; PI3Kgamma; PtdIns-3-kinase subunit gamma; 2.7.1.153; Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase 110 kDa catalytic subunit gamma; PtdIns-3-kinase subunit p110-gamma; p110gamma; Phosphoinositide-3-kinase catalytic gamma polypeptide; Serine/threonine protein kinase PIK3CG; 2.7.11.1; p120- ...
The human Ether-à-go-go-Related Gene (hERG) encodes channels producing IKr currents in the human heart. hERG subunits are encoded by two alternate transcripts, 1a and 1b, which are identical except for their divergent amino (N) termini. Mutations or drug block of the hERG channel can result in Long QT Syndrome (LQTS) leading to potentially fatal ventricular arrhythmias. Studying the assembly process of the hERG subunits is important in elucidating the varied mechanisms by which hERG mutations, many of which are unique to the 1a N-terminus, can result in trafficking defects and disease. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the preferential assembly of hERG 1b with 1a is mediated by N-terminal interactions. Our results demonstrate that 1a and 1b heteromerize in the endoplasmic reticulum. A previously identified C-terminal tetramerization domain is not required for this interaction. hERG 1a and1b N-termini were sufficient for inter-subunit association and in vitro binding assays demonstrated that ...
Human embryonic, fetal, and adult hemoglobin have different subunit interface strengths. Correlation with lifespan in the red cell L.R. Manning, J.E. Russell, J.C. Padovan, B.T. Chait, A. Popowicz, R.S. Manning, and J.M. Manning, Protein Science 16 (2007) 1641.. ...
NMDA receptors are hetero-oligomers assembled from two typesof subunits, NR1 and NR2. The NR1 subunit is a single geneproduct, whereas the NR2 subunit is encoded by four differentgenes: NR2A-NR2D (147). Native NMDA receptors are thoughtto be heteromultimers containing four or five subunits consistingof two NR1 subunits and two or three NR2 subunits (38). Atmost synapses throughout the central nervous system, NMDA receptorsare composed of NR1 subunits in combination with either NR2Aor NR2B subunits. NR2A and NR2B subunits are ubiquitously distributedthrough the central nervous system and have been shown to undergoa developmental switch in hippocampal and cortical neurons(179). At birth NMDA receptors are composed of NR1/NR2B subunits,and there is a switch from NR2B to NR2A subunits around P7.However, in the LA, a recent study has shown that applicationof the NR2B-selective antagonist ifenprodil blocks the inductionof fear conditioning, suggesting that receptors containingNR2B subunits are present ...
Looking for online definition of Laminin-4 subunit alpha in the Medical Dictionary? Laminin-4 subunit alpha explanation free. What is Laminin-4 subunit alpha? Meaning of Laminin-4 subunit alpha medical term. What does Laminin-4 subunit alpha mean?
S cerevisiae RSC complex: an essential, abundant chromatin-remodeling complex of multiple subunits; has homology to SWI/SNF complex; amino acid sequence given in first source
Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) phosphorylates phosphatidylinositol and similar compounds, which then serve as second messengers in growth signaling pathways. PI3K is composed of a catalytic and a regulatory subunit. The protein encoded by this gene represents a regulatory subunit of PI3K. The encoded protein contains two SH2 domains through which it binds activated protein tyrosine kinases to regulate their activity. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2016 ...
This gene encodes a member of the prefoldin beta subunit family. The encoded protein is one of six subunits of prefoldin, a molecular chaperone complex that binds and stabilizes newly synthesized polypeptides, thereby allowing them to fold correctly. The complex, consisting of two alpha and four beta subunits, forms a double beta barrel assembly with six protruding coiled-coils. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
... Interleukin 15 Receptor Subunit Alpha (CD215 or IL15RA) - Pipeline Review, H2 - Market research report and industry analysis - 10579333
The cytolytic ionotropic ATP receptor P2X7 has several important roles in immune cell regulation, such as cytokine release, apoptosis, and microbial killing. Although P2X7 receptors are frequently coexpressed with another subtype of P2X receptor, P2X4, they are believed not to form heteromeric assemblies but to function only as homomers. Both receptors play a role in neuropathic pain; therefore, understanding how they coordinate the cellular response to ATP is important for the development of effective pain therapies. Here, we provide biochemical and electrophysiological evidence for an association between P2X4 and P2X7 that increases the diversity of receptor currents mediated via these two subtypes. The heterologously expressed receptors were coimmunoprecipitated from human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells, and the endogenous P2X4 and P2X7 receptors were similarly coimmunoprecipitated from bone marrow-derived macrophages. In HEK293 cells, the fraction of P2X4 receptors biotinylated at the ...
Compare N(alpha)-acetyltransferase 38, NatC auxiliary subunit ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations, reviews, and more.
In structural biology, a protein subunit is a single protein molecule that assembles with other protein molecules to form a protein complex. Some naturally occurring proteins have a relatively small number of subunits and therefore described as oligomeric, for example hemoglobin or DNA polymerase. Others may consist from a very large number of subunits and therefore described as multimeric, for example microtubules and other cytoskeleton proteins. The subunits of a multimeric protein may be identical, homologous or totally dissimilar and dedicated to disparate tasks.
An Inter-subunit salt bridge is broken in the active conformation of AP2.Predicted location of the modified worm residues within the inactive (PBD ID: 2VGL) and
Side-chain details from regions in subunit B shown with map and model.Comparable regions from the other two capsid subunits are shown in Supplementary Fig. 5.
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Component Of A Heterodimeric Poc4p-Irc25p Chaperone; Involved In Assembly Of Alpha Subunits Into The 20S Proteasome; May Regulate Formation Of Proteasome Isoforms With Alternative Subunits Under Different Conditions
MetabolismEnergy metabolismATP-proton motive force interconversionATP synthase F1, epsilon subunit (TIGR01216; EC 3.6.3.14; HMM-score: 120.2) ...
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Elliott, K.J.; Ellis, S.B.; Berckhan, K.J.; Urrutia, A.; Chavez-Noriega, L.E.; Johnson, E.C.; Veliçelebi, G.; Harpold, M.M., 1996: Comparative structure of human neuronal alpha 2-alpha 7 and beta 2-beta 4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits and functional expression of the alpha 2, alpha 3, alpha 4, alpha 7, beta 2, and beta 4 subunits
ASICs are permeable to cations and are activated by extracellular acidosis. They are subject to modulation by extracellular alkalosis, intracellular pH and various other factors. Much of what we know about these channels properties comes from expressing recombinant ASIC subunits in heterologous cells. Channels are formed by combinations of ASIC subunits in homotrimeric or heterotrimeric complexes, with different subunits conferring distinct properties (TABLE 1). The amino acid sequences of ASIC subunits are well conserved between species, in fact the mouse ASIC 1a and the human ASIC 1a share over 99% of their amino acid sequence identity. The recently described crystal structure of the chicken ASIC1 homomultimeric channel has shed light on the subunit interactions and, along with sequence homology analyses, has driven numerous structure-function experiments that are revealing how the channels respond to pH and other stimuli. In addition to the non-covalent inter-subunit interactions, disulphide ...
Acts as a regulatory subunit of the 26 proteasome which is involved in the ATP-dependent degradation of ubiquitinated proteins. Is not a genuine component of the 26S proteasome, but an auxiliary factor that interacts with the proteasomal ATPase of 19S regulatory particle (RP). Acts as a chaperone which regulates the highly structured assembly of the 19S regulatory particle. Involved in the substrate specificity of the 26S proteasome and is especially involved in the degradation of ubiquitinated GCN4. May contribute to the stability of the 26S proteasome in some stress conditions.
The F-ATPase in bovine mitochondria is a membrane-bound complex of about 30 subunits of 18 different kinds. Currently, ∼85% of its structure is known. The enzyme has a membrane extrinsic catalytic domain, and a membrane intrinsic domain where the turning of the enzymes rotor is generated from the transmembrane proton-motive force. The domains are linked by central and peripheral stalks. The central stalk and a hydrophobic ring of c-subunits in the membrane domain constitute the enzymes rotor. The external surface of the catalytic domain and membrane subunit a are linked by the peripheral stalk, holding them static relative to the rotor. The membrane domain contains six additional subunits named ATP8, e, f, g, DAPIT (diabetes-associated protein in insulin-sensitive tissues), and 6.8PL (6.8-kDa proteolipid), each with a single predicted transmembrane α-helix, but their orientation and topography are unknown. Mutations in ATP8 uncouple the enzyme and interfere with its assembly, but its roles ...
References for Abcams Recombinant Human DNA polymerase delta p50 protein (ab114798). Please let us know if you have used this product in your publication
TY - JOUR. T1 - The N-terminal domain of GABA receptor subunit ρ1 contains regions required for subunit assembly. AU - Hackam, A. S.. AU - Wang, Tian-Li. AU - Guggino, William B. AU - Cutting, Garry R. PY - 1996/2/15. Y1 - 1996/2/15. N2 - Purpose. The retina GABAC-like receptor subunit ρ1 forms robustly expressing homooligomeric receptors, whereas the GABAA receptor subunits require heterooligomerization for efficient expression. This indicates that each ρ1 subunit has the information for precise assembly into a functional receptor. This study was performed to investigate the topology of ρ1 and to localize the domain directing subunit assembly. Methods. Two ρ1 mutants were created: N-ρ1, containing a termination signal at codon 256 immediately prior to the putative first transmembrane domain, and C-ρ1, in which sequence from the putative signal peptide to the first hydrophobic region was deleted. Wild-type ρ1 and the truncation mutants were translated in vitro for immunoprecipitation and ...
This gene encodes a component of vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase), a multisubunit enzyme that mediates acidification of intracellular compartments of eukaryotic cells. V-ATPase dependent acidification is necessary for such intracellular processes as protein sorting, zymogen activation, receptor-mediated endocytosis, and synaptic vesicle proton gradient generation. V-ATPase is composed of a cytosolic V1 domain and a transmembrane V0 domain. The V1 domain consists of three A and three B subunits, two G subunits plus the C, D, E, F, and H subunits. The V1 domain contains the ATP catalytic site. The V0 domain consists of five different subunits: a, c, c, c, and d. Additional isoforms of many of the V1 and V0 subunit proteins are encoded by multiple genes or alternatively spliced transcript variants. This gene is one of two genes that encode the V1 domain C subunit proteins and is found ubiquitously. This C subunit is analogous but not homologous to gamma subunit of F-ATPases. Previously, this gene was ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Base-CP proteasome can serve as a platform for stepwise lid formation. AU - Yu,Zanlin. AU - Livnat-Levanon,Nurit. AU - Kleifeld,Oded. AU - Mansour,Wissam. AU - Nakasone,Mark A.. AU - Castaneda,Carlos A.. AU - Dixon,Emma K.. AU - Fushman,David. AU - Reis,Noa. AU - Pick,Elah. AU - Glickman,Michael H.. PY - 2015. Y1 - 2015. N2 - 26S proteasome, a major regulatory protease in eukaryotes, consists of a 20S proteolytic core particle (CP) capped by a 19S regulatory particle (RP). The 19S RP is divisible into base and lid sub-complexes. Even within the lid, subunits have been demarcated into two modules: module 1 (Rpn5, Rpn6, Rpn8, Rpn9 and Rpn11), which interacts with both CP and base sub-complexes and module 2 (Rpn3, Rpn7, Rpn12 and Rpn15) that is attached mainly to module 1. We now show that suppression of RPN11 expression halted lid assembly yet enabled the base and 20S CP to pre-assemble and form a base-CP. A key role for Regulatory particle non-ATPase 11 (Rpn11) in bridging lid ...
Interleukin 15 receptor, alpha subunit is a subunit of the interleukin 15 receptor that in humans is encoded by the IL15RA gene. The IL-15 receptor is composed of three subunits: IL-15R alpha, CD122, and CD132. Two of these subunits, CD122 and CD132, are shared with the receptor for IL-2, but IL-2 receptor has an additional subunit (CD25). The shared subunits contain the cytoplasmic motifs required for signal transduction, and this forms the basis of many overlapping biological activities of IL15 and IL2, although in vivo the two cytokines have separate biological effects. This may be due to effects of the respective alpha chains, which are unique to each receptor, the kinetics and affinity of cytokine-cytokine receptor binding, or due to the availability and concentration of each cytokine. IL-15Ralpha specifically binds IL15 with very high affinity, and is capable of binding IL-15 independently of other subunits. It is suggested that this property allows IL-15 to be produced by one cell, ...
GNG12 Human Recombinant produced in E.Coli is a single, non-glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 92 aa (1-69 a.a) and having a molecular mass of 10.1kDa.