ES domain oligomerization is necessary and sufficient for c18-induced motility. (A) Schematic of synthesis of ES domain monomer and dimer. Cleavage of an Fc-ES
KCTD21 (potassium channel tetramerization domain containing 21), Authors: Dessen P. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol.
The existence of functional GPCR heteromers represents both a major challenge and an opportunity for neuroscience and drug discovery. The number of GPCRs for which evidence suggests a functional role of heteromerization is rapidly increasing. Given the large number of GPCR genes, their ability to form combinations raises the daunting possibility that there are tens or even hundreds of thousands of unique receptor heteromers in the brain and nervous system. Elucidating the function of each of these potential distinct receptor complexes represents a considerable challenge.. ...
Induce specific interactions between proteins to control signal transduction, proliferation, differentiation, adhesion, transformation, and apoptosis. Previously available from ARIAD as the ARGENT Regulated Homodimerization Kit & AP20187.
Induce specific interactions between proteins to control signal transduction, proliferation, differentiation, adhesion, transformation, and apoptosis. Previously available from ARIAD as the ARGENT Regulated Homodimerization Kit & AP20187.
Dimerization of Silaethylene: Computational Evidence for a Novel Mechanism for the Formation of 1,3-Disilacyclobutane via a 1,2 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Maintenance of the DNA-damage checkpoint requires DNA-damage-induced mediator protein oligomerization. AU - Usui, Takehiko AU - Foster, Steven. AU - Petrini, John H. J.. N1 - Open Archive. PY - 2009/1/30. Y1 - 2009/1/30. N2 - Oligomeric assembly of Brca1 C-terminal (BRCT) domain-containing mediator proteins occurs at sites of DNA damage. However, the functional significance and regulation of such assemblies are not well understood. In this study, we defined the molecular mechanism of DNA-damage-induced oligomerization of the S. cerevisiae BRCT protein Rad9. Our data suggest that Rad9s tandem BRCT domain mediates Rad9 oligomerization via its interaction with its own Mec1/Tel1-phosphorylated SQ/TQ cluster domain (SCD). Rad53 activation is unaffected by mutations that impair Rad9 oligomerization, but checkpoint maintenance is lost, indicating that oligomerization is required to sustain checkpoint signaling. Once activated, Rad53 phosphorylates the Rad9 BRCT domain, which attenuates ...
On the cover: Twenty-five TLR4 TIR dimer models in which the BB loop of one TIR domain interacts with the E helix of the other. Toshchakov et al. screened a library of TLR4 TIR-derived decoy peptides to demonstrate that peptides derived from these regions inhibit TLR4 signaling by binding to the TLR4 TIR. Toshchakov, V. Y., H. Szmacinski, L. A. Couture, J. R. Lakowicz, and S. N. Vogel. 2011. Targeting TLR4 signaling by TLR4 Toll/IL-1 receptor domain-derived decoy peptides: Identification of the TLR4 Toll/IL-1 receptor domain dimerization interface. J. Immunol. 186: 4819-4827. ...
Antibodies for proteins involved in protein dimerization activity pathways, according to their Panther/Gene Ontology Classification
Together, the results from this study provide evidence for B1 receptor homo-oligomerization and the importance of this mechanism in the expression of the receptor on the cell surface of HEK293 cells. This mechanism directly translates into the presentation of a constitutive mechanism for cellular signaling through Gq/11-mediated phospholipase Cβ activity. Such homo-oligomers may be a regulatory point in B1 receptor maturation, and their disruption could provide a unique way for silencing signaling through this and other B1 receptor-stimulated pathways during inflammation.. Multiple methods were used to investigate whether B1 receptors form homo-oligomers in HEK293 cells. Although neither of these methods alone is sufficient to prove oligomerization, together they are consistent with such a mechanism. Higher order oligomeric receptor forms were readily apparent on immunoblots of SDS-PAGE gels. Such complexes were also indicated by coimmunoprecipitation of differentially tagged receptors. ...
Thermochemistry of HO2 + HO2 → H2O4: Does HO2 Dimerization Affect Laboratory Studies?: Self-reaction is an important sink for the hydroperoxy radical (HO2) in t
In the field of neurobiology, there is great discussion about which particular species of amyloid-beta oligomers (AβOs) contributes to the pathogenesis of Alzheimers disease (AD), a progressive neurodegenerative disease. Previously, our group has found, using molecular weight cutoff filters (MWCO), that AβOs are primarily 100-300 kilodaltons (kDa). The goal of this project is to verify this finding using size exclusion chromatography (SEC). SEC can be used to determine AβO molecular weight according to the amount of time it takes the AβOs to pass through the SEC column. Overall, the project yielded results showing significant portion of AβOs are either |1300 kDa or around 13 kDa. We are currently investigating further reasons why the MWCO and SEC data yield very different results.
The present work is one of the first characterizations of multimeric intermediates in protein aggregation, and offers direct information about the assembly process. The results of the Ellman assay confirm that the dimer is linked by a disulfide bond, as previously proposed (Manderson et al. 1998; Bauer et al. 2000). Formation of the dimer therefore requires at least unfolding of the proteins main helix (Qi et al. 1997), which protects the free cysteine from the solvent in the native structure. We have previously shown that the Blg oligomers are productive intermediates in aggregation: assembly of aggregates coincides with consumption of oligomers, and purified oligomers at high concentration aggregate very rapidly (Bauer et al. 2000). The molten globule character of the oligomers observed here is perfectly in line with previous studies on other proteins (Booth et al. 1997; Kayed et al. 1999; McParland et al. 2000; Rochet and Lansbury 2000), demonstrating that aggregation is accelerated by ...
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Looking for oligomeric protein? Find out information about oligomeric protein. A protein composed of two or more polypeptide chains Explanation of oligomeric protein
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Nanoscale organization is crucial to stimulating an immune response. Using self-assembling proteins as multimerization platforms provides a safe and immunogenic system to vaccinate against otherwise weakly immunogenic antigens. Such multimerization platforms are generally based on icosahedral viruse …
ProSpecs Adiponectins include: Adiponectin, Acrp30, AdipoQ, GBP-28, APM-1, ACDC, Trimeric Form, Globular Adiponectin, Human, Mouse, Recombinant
Page contains details about DNA origami-AgNP trimer . It has composition images, properties, Characterization methods, synthesis, applications and reference articles : nano.nature.com
0027] In an embodiment of the present invention, the hydrocarbon startup stream comprises a stream that is recycled from the reactor outlet or from a fractionation section downstream of the oligomerisation reaction, or a stream that is obtained from an external source. In this embodiment, the hydrocarbon startup stream preferably is less reactive than the hydrocarbon feed stream containing the olefin. We prefer to use as a component of the hydrocarbon startup stream a stream that is less reactive but that is not foreign to the oligomerisation process, and/or which is readily acceptable to the process. Suitable streams are a recycle from the reactor outlet or a recycle from a fractionation section downstream of the oligomerisation reaction. The latter for instance may be a portion of the light byproduct stream in which saturates, which are typically coming in with the feed, are separated from the reactor effluent and are concentrated. This mostly saturate containing light byproduct stream ...
The value derived for Henrys Law constant H relates to the properties of the substance oligomerisation and alkylation reaction products of 2-phenylpropene and phenol [EC no. 700-960-7]. Vapour pressure (VP) and water solubility (WS) were obtained from tests with different samples of the substance (see CSR Chapter 1.3). The molecular weight was determined as average molecular weight of the different commercial products of the substance taking into account the percentage of the components in the products and their respective molecular weights. The 90th percentile of these data was taken as characteristic average molecular weight for the substance (average MW 298 g/mol). The constant H for the substance oligomerisation and reaction product … is calculated using the vapour pressure of 0.044 Pa and the water solubility of 4 mg C/L (= 0.0134 mol/m³), both at 21°C (see Chapter 1.3.). Dimension of H is Pa*m³/mol. H = VP / WS x MW = 0.044 Pa / 4 mg/L x 298 g/mol = 3.278 Pa*m³/mol ...
For the B2RT-STOP-B2RT-2XMYC-vAChT donor construct, attempts were made to optimize the multimerization phenomenon by varying the quantity of substrate DNA and length of time of the Gibson reactions. For optimization of DNA quantity, Xho I/Pst I restriction digests for 20 independent clones resulting from 20-minute Gibson reactions using 200 (Figure S1A), 67 (Figure S1B), or 22 fmol (Figure S1C) of substrate DNA are shown. These restriction digests yielded constant bands of 5087, 1952, and 586 bp as well as variable bands from 642 bp (2XMYC) to 852 bp (7XMYC) in 42bp increments. The flexible linker GGSG was included between each MYC repeat to maximize the antigenic availability of the epitope tag and minimize the chances the tag alters the function of the vAChT protein. For each reaction condition, the MYC repeat number was quantitated as indicated for 200 (Figure S2A), 67 (Figure S2B), and 22 fmol (Figure S2C). Each reaction condition yielded at least one clone containing a 7XMYC repeat ...
An Inter-subunit salt bridge is broken in the active conformation of AP2.Predicted location of the modified worm residues within the inactive (PBD ID: 2VGL) and
Several types of D2R and D1R heteroreceptor complexes were discovered in the indirect and direct pathways of the striatum, respectively. Changes in the functio...
The Vasp Tetramerization Domain is a Right-Handed Coiled Coil Based on a 15-Residue Repeat.. PubMed ID: 15-569-942. From NIHs 3D Print Exchange. ...
Putcha P, Danzer KM, Kranich LR, Scott A, Silinski M, Mabbett S, Hicks CD, Veal JM, Steed PM, Hyman BT, McLean PJ. Brain-permeable small-molecule inhibitors of Hsp90 prevent alpha-synuclein oligomer formation and rescue alpha-synuclein-induced toxicity ...
Whats the best way to set up your grill and smoker? The secret is to have temperature control, and for grills, that almost always means using a 2-zone setup. For smokers, the secret is to get a small hot fire that makes clean blue smoke rather that billowy white smoke.
Soluble oligomeric aggregates of the amyloid-beta peptide (Abeta) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimers disease (AD). Although the conformation adopted by Abeta within these aggregates is not known, a beta-hairpin conformation is known to be accessible to monomeric Abeta. Here we show that this beta-hairpin is a building block of toxic Abeta oligomers by engineering a double-cysteine mutant (called Abetacc) in which the beta-hairpin is stabilized by an intramolecular disulfide bond. Abeta(40)cc and Abeta(42)cc both spontaneously form stable oligomeric species with distinct molecular weights and secondary-structure content, but both are unable to convert into amyloid fibrils. Biochemical and biophysical experiments and assays with conformation-specific antibodies used to detect Abeta aggregates in vivo indicate that the wild-type oligomer structure is preserved and stabilized in Abetacc oligomers. Stable oligomers are expected to become highly toxic and, accordingly, we find ...
Oligomerization of membrane proteins has received intense research interest because of their importance in cellular signaling and the large pharmacological and clinical potential this offers. Fluorescence imaging methods are emerging as a valid tool to quantify membrane protein oligomerization at high spatial and temporal resolution. Here, we provide a detailed protocol for an image-based method to determine the number and oligomerization state of fluorescently labeled prototypical G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) on the basis of small out-of-equilibrium fluctuations in fluorescence (i.e., molecular brightness) in single cells. The protocol provides a step-by-step procedure that includes instructions for (i) a flexible labeling strategy for the protein of interest (using fluorescent proteins, small self-labeling tags or bio-orthogonal labeling) and the appropriate controls, (ii) performing temporal and spatial brightness image acquisition on a confocal microscope and (iii) analyzing and ...
Chlamydia infections have an immense impact on public health and are associated with diverse disease manifestations including atherosclerosis, blindness, and sterility. The chlamydial developmental cycle is intrinsically linked with the ability of the organism to cause disease. The mechanisms that regulate the developmental cycle are poorly understood; however, transcription appears to play a governing role. An OmpR/PhoB subfamily response regulator termed ChxR exhibits expression patterns that indicate an important role during the developmental cycle. Previously, ChxR was demonstrated to interact with its own promoter and facilitate the transcriptional activation of the chxR gene. To begin to understand the functional role of ChxR, I identified the DNA sequence recognized by ChxR to identify its gene targets. Primarily using gel mobility shift assays, I determined that ChxR interacts with, and has differential affinity for six binding sites in the chxR promoter region. Using the DNA sequences ...
Six new R3 TACCrCl3 complexes, displaying branching on the second or third carbon of the ligand R group, were prepared for catalytic studies for ethylene oligomerisation and polymerisation. Five of the complexes made were activated with MAO and their reactivity towards ethylene, at ambient pressure and in a pressurised autoclave tested under various conditions. A number of the complexes were found to give good activities and selectivity for ethylene oligomerisation under optimum conditions. Chapter 2 discusses the design and synthesis of new R3 TACCrCl3 complexes displaying branching on the second or third carbon of the ligand R group. The complexes synthesised were characterised by paramagnetic NMR, magnetic moments, mass spectrometry, X-ray crystallography and elemental analysis. Chapter 3 explores the catalysis of an active selective ethylene oligomerisation R3TACCrCb complex which at optimal conditions shows higher activity for oligomerisation (trimerisation to l-hexene and higher oligomers) ...
Desjardins, Sylvie Yolande (1997) N-0 Chelated Nickel(II) Complexes as Catalysts for Ethene Oligomerisation, Polymerisation and Ethene/Carbon Monoxide Co-Polymerisation. Unspecified thesis, University of Tasmania. ...
Hinge region predictor (H-Predictor) predicts putative hinge regions involved in protein oligomerization via the domain-swapping mechanism. Domain swapping is an important mechanism for protein oligomerization, in which a fragment of a protein exchanges with a corresponding fragment of another like protein. The segment of polypeptide chain that links the swapped domain and the main protein is the hinge region. In most experimentally observed domain-swapped oligomers, the swapped domains correspond to one or several secondary structural elements from either the N- or C-termini. Only in some rare instances the swapped domains are positioned in the middle of the protein. The domain-swapped oligomeric structures are, therefore, mainly determined by the location and the properties of the hinge region.. Using a simple contact-based potential for enthalpy and graph theory- based estimation for entropy, H-Predictor quantifies for each residue the propensity as the hinge region. Physically, the ...
The photoreceptor cryptochrome 2 (CRY2) has become a powerful optogenetic tool that allows light-inducible manipulation of various signaling pathways and cellular processes in mammalian cells with high spatiotemporal precision and ease of application. However, it has also been shown that the behavior of CRY2 under blue light is complex, as the photoexcited CRY2 can both undergo homo-oligomerization and heterodimerization by binding to its dimerization partner CIB1. To better understand the light-induced CRY2 activities in mammalian cells, this article systematically characterizes CRY2 homo-oligomerization in different cellular compartments, as well as how CRY2 homo-oligomerization and heterodimerization activities affect each other. Quantitative analysis reveals that membrane-bound CRY2 has drastically enhanced oligomerization activity compared to that of its cytoplasmic form. While CRY2 homo-oligomerization and CRY2-CIB1 heterodimerization could happen concomitantly, the presence of certain ...
The dimerization interface in VraR is essential for induction of the cell wall stress response in Staphylococcus aureus: a potential druggable target. https://t.co/9mtzsf5GDw. ...
Cancer affects millions of people worldwide each year. Although effective treatments have been established for many forms of the disease, these therapies target the tumor suppressor p53, which is not involved in all cancers. It is thus critical to seek novel treatment methods that can affect cancers independent of p53. One group of homologous viruses have been found to code for a set of homologous proteins that selectively induce apoptosis in transformed cells in a p53 independent manner. This group includes the human homolog Torque Teno Virus (TTV). In order to explore TTV VP3s potential as a cancer therapeutic, several experiments concerning localization and multimerization were performed to evaluate and compare the apoptotic pathways of the highly characterized CAV Apoptin and TTV VP3.
The sole role of bradykinin (BK) as an inflammatory mediator is controversial, as recent data also support an anti-inflammatory role for BK in Alzheimers disease (AD). The involvement of two different receptors (B1R and B2R) could be a key to understand this issue. However, although copper and zinc dyshomeo Zinc in the Biosciences
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A dimer is a macromolecule that is composed of two equal components (monomers). These components can be identical (homodimer) or slightly different (heterodimer). ...
The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is activated by dimerization, but activation also generates higher-order multimers, whose nature and function are poorly understood. We have characterized ligand-induced dimerization and multimerization of EGFR using single-molecule analysis, and show that multimerization can be blocked by mutations in a specific region of Domain IV of the extracellular module. These mutations reduce autophosphorylation of the C-terminal tail of EGFR and attenuate phosphorylation of phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase, which is recruited by EGFR. The catalytic activity of EGFR is switched on through allosteric activation of one kinase domain by another, and we show that if this is restricted to dimers, then sites in the tail that are proximal to the kinase domain are phosphorylated in only one subunit. We propose a structural model for EGFR multimerization through self-association of ligand-bound dimers, in which the majority of kinase domains are activated cooperatively, ...
The extent to which Rhodopsin family G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) form invariant oligomers is contentious. Recent single-molecule fluorescence imaging studies mostly argue against the existence of constitutive receptor dimers and instead suggest that GPCRs only dimerize transiently, if at all. However, whether or not even transient dimers exist is not always clear due to difficulties in unambiguously distinguishing genuine interactions from chance colocalizations, particularly with respect to short-lived events. Previous single-molecule studies have depended critically on calculations of chance colocalization rates and/or comparison with unfixed control proteins whose diffusional behavior may or may not differ from that of the test receptor. Here, we describe a single-molecule imaging assay that 1) utilizes comparisons with well-characterized control proteins, i.e., the monomer CD86 and the homodimer CD28, and 2) relies on cell fixation to limit artifacts arising from differences in the
A broad aspect of the present disclosure relates to a process for conversion of a hydro- carbonaceous feed comprising at least 20 ppmw, 100 ppmw or 500 ppmw and less than 1000 ppmw, 5000 ppmw or 10000 ppmw halides, to a hydrocarbon produ ...
A RECOMBINANT ECTODOMAIN OF THE RECEPTOR FOR THE STEM-CELL FACTOR (SCF) RETAINS LIGAND-INDUCED RECEPTOR DIMERIZATION AND ANTAGONIZES SCF-STIMULATED CELLULAR-RESPONSES
Godin AG, Costantino S, Lorenzo L-, Swift JL, Sergeev M, Ribeiro-da-Silva A, et al. Revealing protein oligomerization and densities in situ using spatial intensity distribution analysis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2011;108(17):7010-5. ...
4,4-methylenediphenyldiisocyanate and 2,4-diisocyanatodiphenylmethane and their oligomerisation reaction products with 2,2-oxydiethanol, propane-1,2-diol and butane-1,3-diol ...
4GOD: Structures of the Sgt2/SGTA Dimerization Domain with the Get5/UBL4A UBL Domain Reveal an Interaction that Forms a Conserved Dynamic Interface.
Complete information for KCTD3 gene (Protein Coding), Potassium Channel Tetramerization Domain Containing 3, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Complete information for KCTD17 gene (Protein Coding), Potassium Channel Tetramerization Domain Containing 17, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Size Exclusion@Size Exclusion@Size Exclusion@Size Exclusion@Size Exclusion@Size Exclusion@Size Exclusion@Size Exclusion@Size Exclusion@Size Exclusion@Size Exclusion@Size Exclusion@Size ExclusionZenix@SRTPore Size Selection@ResolutionHPLC1 ...
Size Exclusion@Size Exclusion@Size Exclusion@Size Exclusion@Size Exclusion@Size Exclusion@Size Exclusion@Size Exclusion@Size Exclusion@Size ExclusionSRT@SRT-C@NanofilmPore Size Selection@Packing Chemistry@Resolution@AggregatesHPLC1 ...
FeCl3 oxidation of the racemate of C2 symmetric, inherently chiral, sexithiophene monomer 1 (2,2′-bis(2,2′-bithiophene-5-yl)-3,3′-bithianaphthene) affords a mixture of cyclic oligomers, from the prevailing dimer to traces of the pentamer. The oligomers are constituted by mixtures of stereoisomers which are t
Jury: Prof. P. Gönczy (président) ; Prof. J. Lingner (directeur) ; Prof. V. Dion, Prof. O. Hantschel, Prof. D. Shore (rapporteurs) Public defense: 2014-4-28. ...