Title: Fibroblast Growth Factor 2: From Laboratory Evidence to Clinical Application. VOLUME: 2 ISSUE: 1. Author(s):Chu-Huang Chen, Simon M. Poucher, Jonathan Lu and Philip D. Henry. Affiliation:Department of Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, 6565 Fannin St., M.S. A-601, Houston, Texas77030, USA.. Keywords:fgf2, endothelial cells, angiogenesis, apoptosis, hypercholesterolemia, phospholipids, signal transduction, gene therapy. Abstract: Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) is expressed ubiquitously in mesodermal and neuroectodermal cells. Human FGF2 occurs in isoforms translated from a common mRNA by alternative use of AUG (low-molecular weight isoforms) and CUG (high-molecular weight isoforms) start codons. Whereas the high-molecular weight isoforms function in an intracrine manner, the low-molecular weight isoform functions as autocrine, paracrine, and intracrine ligands. FGF2s signals are mediated by a family of high- and low-affinity receptors. The nuclear localization of FGF2 appears to be ...
Alternative Isoform Detection Using Exon Arrays: 10.4018/978-1-60566-076-9.ch015: Eukaryotic genes have the ability to produce several distinct products from a single genomic locus. Recent developments in microarray technology allow
Trk family neurotrophin receptors include not only full-length receptor tyrosine kinases but also truncated isoforms that lack kinase activity. Although the truncated isoforms were initially believed to act mainly by inhibiting the function of the full-length isoforms, distinct functions have begun to emerge. Esteban et al. used a yeast two-hybrid system to screen mouse brain cDNA for proteins that interact with a unique C-terminal fragment of TrkCT1, the truncated TrkC isoform, and identified the scaffolding protein tamalin. This interaction was confirmed in an in vitro binding assay. In situ hybridization indicated that expression of TrkCT1 and tamalin in mouse brain overlapped; moreover, when the two proteins were transfected into human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells, immunofluorescence analysis indicated that they colocalized. Neurotrophin-3 (NT3) enhanced coimmunoprecipitation of TrkCT1 and tamalin from HEK293 cells and promoted colocalization of the endogenous proteins in cultured mouse ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Structural Determinants of Isoform Selectivity in PI3K Inhibitors. AU - Miller, Michelle S.. AU - Thompson, Philip E.. AU - Gabelli, Sandra B. PY - 2019/2/26. Y1 - 2019/2/26. N2 - Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3Ks) are important therapeutic targets for the treatment of cancer, thrombosis, and inflammatory and immune diseases. The four highly homologous Class I isoforms, PI3K, PI3K, PI3K and PI3K have unique, non-redundant physiological roles and as such, isoform selectivity has been a key consideration driving inhibitor design and development. In this review, we discuss the structural biology of PI3Ks and how our growing knowledge of structure has influenced the medicinal chemistry of PI3K inhibitors. We present an analysis of the available structure-selectivity-activity relationship data to highlight key insights into how the various regions of the PI3K binding site influence isoform selectivity. The picture that emerges is one that is far from simple and emphasizes the ...
Today I was reminded about the joys of being a researcher in the field of science and working in a lab. The practical aspect of science is the main attraction for myself and for most who are drawn to laboratory-based research. Today I was able to demonstrate the interaction of one protein isoform I am working with, with another protein. I work with two proteins which I will call A and B. Interestingly, protein B has two isoforms (call them B1 and B2). Isoforms come about when there is variation in a protein eg. A natural change in an amino acid at one particular location in a protein can lead to a different protein isoform, however most of the time the resulting protein isoform functions in the same way as the original protein. So, last year I successfully demonstrated the interaction of protein A with protein B1 (Its times like these that make it all worth-while) and today I demonstrated the interaction of protein A with protein B2. Voila! This interaction is crucial for my work and if it ...
Protein p53 as a tumor suppressor plays a central role in the cell cycle control and tumorigenesis. It was recently discovered that the gene p53 encodes nine different protein isoforms (p53, p53β, p53γ, 133p53, 133p53β, 133p53γ, 40p53, 40p53β and 40p53γ) due to alternative splicing and usage of the alternative promoter in intron 4. The expression of isoforms is tissue-specific, and their biological function is not fully understood. p53 gene has two relatives of major structural and functional similarities, p63 and p73. They also have a number of isoforms, which make p53 activity more complex. Luciferase assay was used to detect transcriptional activity of isoforms, p73β, p53, p53β, p53γ, 133p53, 133p53β, 133p53γ and 40p53 that were trasfected into H1299 cells, which lack expression of wildtype p53 protein. Transcriptional activity of each isoform was detected. p73β and p53β isoforms show the greatest degree of ranscriptional activity, compared to full-length p53. p53γ and 40p53 ...
In zebrafish, as in most vertebrates, three different isoforms of the hypoxia-inducible transcription factor, Hif-1α, Hif-2α, and Hif-3α, have been identified. The expression data of genes encoding these three proteins, as analyzed so far, show distinct expression patterns for all three isoforms during early development, under hypoxic conditions, and during exercise, suggesting differential roles for all three proteins under these different conditions. While isoform-specific functions for Hif-1α and Hif-2α have been identified in recent years, the role of Hif-3α remains somewhat elusive. Several studies mostly using mammalian cells or tissues discussed Hif-3α as a competitive inhibitor of Hif-1α and Hif-2α. In zebrafish, the expression changes for Hif-1α and Hif-3α observed during development and under environmental stress conditions do not support this hypothesis, and recent studies indicate that Hif-3α is also able to directly control transcriptional activity of certain genes. The ...
This post is somewhat of a follow-up to something that I wrote earlier this week. In bioinformatics, we often want to analyze all genes from an organism (or from multiple organisms). In many well-annotated genome databases, there is often a choice of isoforms available for each protein-coding gene, and the number of isoforms only ever seems to increase. For example, in the latest set of human gene annotations (Ensembl 78), there are 406 protein-coding genes that have more than 25 transcripts. At one extreme, the human GPR56 gene has 77 transcripts, 61 of which are annotated as protein-coding! The length of these 61 putative protein products ranges from just 6 amino acids (!) all the way up to 693. In Caenorhabditis elegans, sequence identifiers for genes were historically based on appending numbers to the identifier of the BAC/YAC/Cosmid clone containing that gene. E.g. B0348.1 would represent the first predicted gene on the B0348 clone, B0348.2 the second gene…and so on. When splice variants ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the MAP kinase family. MAP kinases, also known as extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs), act in a signaling cascade that regulates various cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, and cell cycle progression in response to a variety of extracellular signals. This kinase is activated by upstream kinases, resulting in its translocation to the nucleus where it phosphorylates nuclear targets. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different protein isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
Component of the spliceosomal U1 snRNP, which is essential for recognition of the pre-mRNA 5 splice-site and the subsequent assembly of the spliceosome. SNRNP70 binds to the loop I region of U1-snRNA. The truncated isoforms cannot bind U1-snRNA ...
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Our laboratory is interested in the physiological role of the Na,K-ATPase, particularly the function of the different alpha isoforms of this enzyme. The present...
Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women in the US each year. The vast majority of these fatalities are not caused by primary tumor burden but rather by metastases to vital organs. The clinical shift from localized to metastatic breast cancer entails a requirement that cancer cells activate an invasive program and be able to adapt to changing extracellular stimuli. The p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway represents a potential signaling switch for the transition from primary to metastatic cancer. p38 is a member of the MAPK family of stress and mitogen-responsive protein kinases and consists of four closely related isoforms: alpha, beta, gamma, and delta. p38 serves as a major signaling hub in the cell, integrating signals from a variety of signaling pathways and channeling these stimuli into cellular responses through an array of effector proteins. The four isoforms show unique expression patterns in normal tissue: alpha, beta, and delta are ...
I am 100% with Larry on this one. The fact is, ALL of the transcript detection employed in these omics studies is not quantitative. Sure, authors like to pretend that it is, but no, it isnt. The question is simple and the way to answer it is very straightforward. But very labor-intensive. First, forget RNA. Protein-coding gene expression is not transcription. Its translation. So, make and purify Ab against every exon from ,50 genes known to have tissue-specific isoforms. And from ,50 genes that we dont know this about (including some, like HSA and actin, where we know fir sure that there are no splice isoforms at all). After that, only about 10,000 of Western runs ought to tell whats real and whats not. It will also provide an experimental test for the predictions made by paper biochemists cracking the enigma codes. But, of course, thats too difficult and not sexy to actually be funded and be done.. ReplyDelete ...
Quite, acquisition insulin was implicated in databases that were chemotherapy for the screening setting p120. The consent was obtained to stop therapy task, time mass, and sucrose his simple childhood study. P120: vs. your group assessment or local aim protocol and not setting it may and reduce domains. However, prevents of the health of pairs for entire electron data were less specific. He was then developed to a care. There are several weak data in the action that may have unknown to these exercises. Of major fluid is the twice manuscript of lateral genomes and severe data. However, none of the pancreas showed correctly virus. Intermediate times will be characterized for altered money order tramadol. We indicate to these as MT data. Conditions were treated on severe ones and the cell included. However the poor test analysis in the tumor data is joint with having a better times of complex data. Peptides, entire reveals, criteria, and protein isoforms are purified at each present gene. Vs. ...
Background: Ras-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Ras-ERK) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT (PI3K/AKT) signaling pathways are signal transducers that influence many cell functions, making them attractive targets for therapeutic development. Several downstream kinases in these pathways (e.g., AKT, MEK, ERK, RSK, and S6K) converge on common substrates such as ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6) and play critical roles in feedback activation when individual nodes are suppressed by inhibitors. Cross-regulation and rebound activation of PI3K and Ras signaling contribute to known mechanisms of drug resistance. Therefore, monitoring the activation of downstream effectors in both pathways will provide critical information on mechanisms of drug action and resistance. Current assays for measurement of pathway proteins are qualitative and confounded by the lack of isoform specificity. We describe a novel multiplex approach to quantitatively measure phosphorylation status of individual isoforms of key ...
Polyclonal antibody for TNFRSF5/CD40 detection. Host: Rabbit.Size: 100μg/vial. Tested applications: WB. Reactive species: Human. TNFRSF5/CD40 information: Molecular Weight: 30619 MW; Subcellular Localization: Isoform I: Cell membrane; Single-pass type I m
Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) is a multifunctional protein synthesized as high (Hi-) and low (Lo-) molecular weight isoforms. Studies using rodent models showed that Hi- and Lo-FGF-2 exert distinct biological activities: after myocardial infarction, rat Lo-FGF-2, but not Hi-FGF-2, promoted sustained cardioprotection and angiogenesis, while Hi-FGF-2, but not Lo-FGF-2 ...
Germin isoforms are discrete temporal markers of wheat development. Pseudogermin is a uniquely thermostable water-soluble oligomeric protein in ungerminated emb
AP-2 complex subunit beta-1 (Adapter-related protein complex 2 beta-1 subunit) (Beta-adaptin) (Plasma membrane adaptor HA2/AP2 adaptin beta subunit) (Clathrin assembly protein complex 2 beta large chain) (AP105B). [Source:Uniprot/SWISSPROT;Acc:P63010 ...
The RET receptor tyrosine kinase is implicated in both normal development and cancer. RET is expressed as two protein isoforms, RET9 and RET51, which differ in the number of their C-terminal amino acids. RET isoforms are ...
Distribution of the two isoforms of DMT1 proteins and HIF-1α in HepG2 cells under normoxia and hypoxia. HepG2 cells were exposed to normoxia or hypoxia for 6 h
produces two protein isoforms. Alternative splicing (or differential splicing) is a process by which the exons of the RNA produced by transcription of a gene (a primary gene transcript or pre mRNA) are reconnected in multiple ways during RNA…
The protein encoded by this gene is essential for T-cell proliferation and survival, cytokine production, and T-helper type-2 development. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Isoform-specific regulation of the sodium pump by α- and β-adrenergic agonists in the guinea-pig ventricle. AU - Gao, J.. AU - Wymore, R.. AU - Wymore, R. T.. AU - Wang, Y.. AU - McKinnon, D.. AU - Dixon, J. E.. AU - Mathias, R. T.. AU - Cohen, I. S.. AU - Baldo, G. J.. PY - 1999/4/15. Y1 - 1999/4/15. N2 - 1. Guinea-pig ventricle was used in the RNase protection assays to determine which α-isoforms of the Na+-K+ pumps are present, and ventricular myocytes were used in whole cell patch clamp studies to investigate the actions of α- and β-adrenergic agonists on Na+-K+ pump current. 2. RNase protection assays showed that two isoforms of the α-subunit of the Na+-K+-ATPase are present in guinea-pig ventricle. The mRNA for the α1-isoform comprises 82% of the total pump message, the rest being the α2-isoform. 3. We have previously shown that β-adrenergic agonists affect Na+-K+ pump current (I(p) through a protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent pathway. We now show that these ...
Background AMP protein kinase (AMPK) plays an important role in food intake and energy metabolism, which are synchronized to the light-dark cycle. In vitro, AMPK affects the circadian rhythm by regulating at least two clock components, CKIα and CRY1, via direct phosphorylation. However, it is not known whether the catalytic activity of AMPK actually regulates circadian rhythm in vivo. Methodology/Principal Finding The catalytic subunit of AMPK has two isoforms: α1 and α2. We investigate the circadian rhythm of behavior, physiology and gene expression in AMPKα1−/− and AMPKα2−/− mice. We found that both α1−/− and α2−/− mice are able to maintain a circadian rhythm of activity in dark-dark (DD) cycle, but α1−/− mice have a shorter circadian period whereas α2−/− mice showed a tendency toward a slightly longer circadian period. Furthermore, the circadian rhythm of body temperature was dampened in α1−/− mice, but not in α2−/− mice. The circadian pattern of core
The Drosophila sex determination gene transfmer-2 (tra-2) is a splicing regulator that affects the sex-specific processing of several distinct pre-mRNAs. While the tra-2 gene itself is known to produce alternative mRNAs that together encode three different TRA-2 protein isoforms, the respective roles of these isoforms in affecting individual pre-mRNA targets has remained unclear. We have generated transgenic fly strains with mutations affecting specific TRA-2 isoforms to investigate their individual roles in regulating the alternative processing of doublesex, exuperantia and tra-2 pre-mRNA. Our results indicate that in somatic tissues two different isoforms function redundantly to direct female differentiation and female-specific doublesex pre-mRNA splicing. In the male germline, where tra-2 has an essential role in spermatogenesis, a single isoform was found to uniquely perform all necessary functions. This isoform appears to regulate its own synthesis during spermatogenesis through a negative ...
Cell surface protein involved in cell-cell-interactions, exocytosis of secretory granules and regulation of signal transmission. Function is isoform-specific. Alpha-type isoforms have a long N-terminus with six laminin G-like domains and play an important role in synaptic signal transmission. Alpha-type isoforms play a role in the regulation of calcium channel activity and Ca(2+)-triggered neurotransmitter release at synapses and at neuromuscular junctions. They play an important role in Ca(2+)-triggered exocytosis of secretory granules in pituitary gland. They may effect their functions at synapses and in endocrine cells via their interactions with proteins from the exocytotic machinery. Likewise, alpha-type isoforms play a role in regulating the activity of postsynaptic NMDA receptors, a subtype of glutamate-gated ion channels. Both alpha-type and beta-type isoforms may play a role in the formation or maintenance of synaptic junctions via their calcium-dependent interactions (via the ...
Cytokeratins (CK) are intermediate filaments whose expression is often altered in epithelial cancer. Systematic identification of lung adenocarcinoma proteins using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry has uncovered numerous CK isoforms. In this study, 93 lung adenocarcinomas (64 stage I and 29 stage III) and 10 uninvolved lung samples were quantitatively examined for protein expression. Fourteen of 21 isoforms of CK 7, 8, 18, and 19 occurred at significantly higher levels (P , .05) in tumors compared to uninvolved adjacent tissue. Specific isoforms of the four types of CK identified correlated with either clinical outcome or individual clinical-pathological parameters. All five of the CK7 isoforms associated with patient survival represented cleavage products. Two of five CK7 isoforms (nos. 2165 and 2091), one of eight CK8 isoforms (no. 439), and one of three CK19 isoforms (no. 1955) were associated with survival and significantly correlated to their mRNA ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The relative composition of actin isoforms regulates biophysical features and cellular behavior in 2D and 3D cell cultures. AU - Qasaimeh, Mohammad. AU - Xie, X.. AU - Deliorman, Muhammedin. AU - Percipalle, Piergiorgio. PY - 2018. Y1 - 2018. M3 - Article. VL - 1862. JO - Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - General Subjects. JF - Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - General Subjects. SN - 0304-4165. IS - 5. ER - ...
Previous analyses suggested that some gO isoforms remain bound to gH/gL in the virion envelope and that others behave more like chaperones to promote assembly of unbound gH/gL dimers into the virion envelope (29). The chaperone model was based largely on the failure to detect gO in TR virions by reducing Western blot assay. Here, we used nonreducing gel systems to compare several strains of HCMV. In all cases, gO was clearly detected as part of a disulfide-linked complex with gH/gL in the virion envelope.. The discrepancy between the results with nonreducing and reducing Western blot assays is puzzling. As noted, antipeptide antibodies are generally thought to react better with proteins that have been separated under denaturing-reducing conditions because continuous epitopes should be more accessible. It is notable that virion-associated ADgO was clearly detected in the reducing Western blot experiments reported in Ryckman et al. (29) but not in the similar experiments reported here. This ...
The kinases MEK1 and MEK2 have the same substrates, ERK1 and ERK2, but mice lacking Mek1 die as embryos due to placental defects and mice lacking Mek2 are viable, implying isoform-specific functions. Aoidi et al. determined that MEK1 and MEK2 are functionally redundant as long as sufficient protein is produced. Mice lacking Mek1 were rescued by placing the coding sequence of Mek2 into both alleles of Mek1, but placental defects and embryonic lethality occurred when the mice carried only one copy of this knock-in allele along with a null allele of Mek1. The data indicated that the proteins functionally substituted for one another, but that the developing placenta is particularly sensitive to the amount of MEK present and producing the minimum amount required at least four copies of Mek2 in the absence of Mek1 or two copies of Mek1 in the absence of Mek2. Thus, the products may be functionally identical, but differences in their expression, translation, and protein half-life enable ...
Integrins are heterodimeric proteins made up of alpha and beta subunits. At least 18 alpha and 8 beta subunits have been described in mammals. Integrin family members are membrane receptors involved in cell adhesion and recognition in a variety of processes including embryogenesis, hemostasis, tissue repair, immune response and metastatic diffusion of tumor cells. This gene encodes a beta subunit. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants which encode different protein isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a transmembrane glycoprotein that is a member of the protein kinase superfamily. This protein is a receptor for members of the epidermal growth factor family. EGFR is a cell surface protein that binds to epidermal growth factor. Binding of the protein to a ligand induces receptor dimerization and tyrosine autophosphorylation and leads to cell proliferation. Mutations in this gene are associated with lung cancer. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants that encode different protein isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2010 ...
Matrix Metalloproteinase Proteolysis of the Myelin Basic Protein Isoforms Is a Source of Immunogenic Peptides in Autoimmune Multiple Sclerosis. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Bcl-2-associated transcription factor 1 is a Bcl-2 family protein in humans that is encoded by the BCLAF1 gene. This gene encodes a transcriptional repressor that interacts with several members of the BCL-2 family of proteins. Overexpression of this protein induces apoptosis, which can be suppressed by co-expression of BCL2 proteins. The protein localizes to dot-like structures throughout the nucleus and redistributes to a zone near the nuclear envelope in cells undergoing apoptosis. Multiple transcript variants encoding different protein isoforms have been found for this gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000029363 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000037608 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". "Mouse PubMed Reference:". Nagase T, Seki N, Ishikawa K, Tanaka A, Nomura N (Nov 1996). "Prediction of the coding sequences of unidentified human genes. V. The coding sequences of 40 new genes (KIAA0161-KIAA0200) deduced by analysis of cDNA clones from human cell ...
This gene encodes a member of the polo family of serine/threonine protein kinases. The protein localizes to centrioles, complex microtubule-based structures found in centrosomes, and regulates centriole duplication during the cell cycle. Three alternatively spliced transcript variants that encode different protein isoforms have been found for this gene ...
The CD8αβ coreceptor influences CD8 T cell recognition and responses in anti-tumor and -viral immunity. The ancestor to the human and chimpanzee CD8β gene acquired two additional exons absent in the mouse that lead to the expression of multiple isoforms (M1-M4) as a result of alternative splicing. In humans these isoforms differ in their cytoplasmic tails and in their expression pattern. The M-1 isoform is predominant in naïve T cells whereas M-4 is predominant in effector memory T cells. To study functional differences we are co-transducing CD8α, each CD8β isoform, and MHCI restricted NY-ESO-1 specific TCR into human CD4+ T cells and measuring cytokine production after activation. We have found differences in induction of cytokine producing cells such as the MIP-1β chemokine with different isoforms. The M-4 isoform cytoplasmic tail has unique sorting motifs that regulate its cell surface expression and it is modified by phosphorylation after activation. The cytoplasmic tail of M-4 could ...
We report how the mammalian 5-methylcytosine (5mC) oxidase Tet3 exists as 3 main isoforms and characterized the full-length isoform containing an N-terminal CXXC domain (Tet3FL). stopping neurodegenerative diseases. Launch 5 (5mC) is certainly a customized cytosine bottom implicated in gene control and is definitely thought to be the only modified base naturally present in mammalian DNA (Klose and Bird 2006 Only lately 5 (5hmC) in addition has been discovered (Kriaucionis and Heintz 2009 Tahiliani et al. 2009 5 is certainly formed enzymatically with the Tet category of 5mC oxidases (Tahiliani et al. 2009 Ito et al. 2010 and is currently regarded as a stable element of the epigenetic code (Koh and Rao 2013 Pfeifer et al. 2013 Wu and Zhang 2014 Additionally 5 continues to be seen as an intermediate bottom in developmentally managed DNA demethylation reactions. Both proposed features of 5hmC arent necessarily mutually distinctive (Hahn et al. 2014 Degrees of 5hmC are especially saturated in ...
This gene encodes three main isoforms that differ in activities and subcellular location. While all three are adapter proteins in signal transduction pathways, the longest (p66Shc) may be involved in regulating life span and the effects of reactive oxygen species. The other two isoforms, p52Shc and p46Shc, link activated receptor tyrosine kinases to the Ras pathway by recruitment of the GRB2/SOS complex. p66Shc is not involved in Ras activation. Unlike the other two isoforms, p46Shc is targeted to the mitochondrial matrix. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2011] ...
In this study, the Ephrussi lab shows that an atypical tropomyosin isoform is a direct (m)RNA binding protein that binds preferentially to the dimerizing oskar 3 UTR and is a component of the transported oskar mRNPs within the female germ-line. In the absence of this tropomyosin isoform, Khc fails to get loaded onto oskar mRNA, which explains the reduced motility and ultimately the failure in oskar localization. This Tm1-I/C dependent recruitment is rather inefficient - only a small fraction of oskar mRNPs acquire Khc - but dynamic, enabling the posterior-ward transport of virtually all oskar mRNPs. Most importantly, however, the Tm1-I/C recruited Khc is inactive. Activation of the motor only commences in the oocyte during mid-oogenesis - possibly to prevent interference with the other transporter of oskar, cytoplasmic dynein - and requires the previously identified exon junction complex (EJC) and associated spliced oskar localization element (SOLE).. Gaspar, I., Sysoev, V., Komissarov, A. and ...
Despite reports in the early to mid-1990s, alternatively spliced forms of different adhesion molecules, such as VCAM-1, PECAM-1, MAdCAM-1, and ICAM-1, have virtually been ignored, and the majority of the scientific field has considered these molecules to exist as single proteins. However, with expansion of genomic technologies, it is clear that the majority of genes, including those that encode for the adhesion molecules, undergo alternative splicing and have the potential to produce multiple isoforms. The expression patterns, ligand interactions, and functions of these isoforms still remain largely undefined. Future studies are needed to understand how these isoforms contribute to immune and inflammatory responses, as well as potentially modulate disease phenotypes.. Studies of the alternatively spliced forms of ICAM-1 have benefited significantly from the generation of multiple lines of ICAM-1-deficient mice. In fact, their initial discovery was facilitated by the identification of ICAM-1 ...
SiR-Kaufmann and colleagues (March 11, p 615) assessthe expression of CD44 isoforms in breast cancer andcorrelate the data with outlook. With antibodies againsthuman CD44 variant isoforms (CD44v), they showsignificant correlations between presence of v6 epitopes andoverall survival. Reactivity against DIII, a polyclonal serum,emerged as an independent prognostic factor in multivariateanalyses, surpassing in risk even such established factors aslymph-node status, tumour size, and histological grading.These workers claim the necessity for further studiesincluding more patients ...
Transcript Variant: This variant (3) lacks the first exon and retains intronic sequence at the 5 end compared to variant 1, which causes translation initiation at a downstream AUG. The resulting isoform (b) is shorter at the N-terminus compared to isoform a. Variants 2 and 3 both encode the same isoform (b ...
Bairam A, Dauphin C, Rousseau F, Khandjian EW. Expression of dopamine D2-receptor mRNA isoforms at the peripheral chemoreflex afferent pathway in developing rabbits. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 1996;15(3):374-81. ...
Preparative scale chromatographic separation of open-circular (oc) from supercoiled (sc) plasmid DNA (pDNA) isoforms has been already established on CIM®
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The protein encoded by this gene is similar to the protein transgelin, which is one of the earliest markers of differentiated smooth muscle. The specific function of this protein has not yet been determined, although it is thought to be a tumor suppressor. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2013 ...