A new technique developed at UC Davis may have broken the barrier to rapid assembly of pure protein synthesis machinery outside of living cells.
The overall aim of this thesis was to investigate how genome engineering might be used to generate Escherichia coli strains with increased capacities for recombinant protein production. As translation constitute a possible bottleneck in recombinant production processes [Mahalik et. al, 2014] this work focused on evaluating and increasing translational capacities in E. coli. Two methods were used to evaluate translational capacities in E. coli: 1. Two plasmid reporter systems were established to investigate levels of ribosome expression. These plasmids carried red fluorescent protein genes (mCherry), under control of ribosomal promoters. Levels of expression of ribosomal constituents were evaluated by measuring fluorescence from strains carrying reporter plasmids.. 2. Exponential phase growth rates were used to assess translational capacities. Protein synthesis is generally the growth rate limiting factor during exponential phases, and a positive linear correlation between growth rates and ...
Upon EV-A71 infection of a host cell, EV-A71 RNA is translated into a viral polyprotein. Although EV-A71 can use the cellular translation machinery to produce viral proteins, unlike cellular translation, which is cap-dependent, the viral RNA genome of EV-A71 does not contain a 5′ cap and the translation of EV-A71 protein is cap-independent, which is mediated by the internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) located in the 5′ UTR of EV-A71 mRNA. Like many other eukaryotic viruses, EV-A71 manipulates the host cell translation devices, using an elegant RNA-centric strategy in infected cells. During viral translation, viral RNA plays an important role in controlling the stage of protein synthesis. In addition, due to the cellular defense mechanism, viral replication is limited by down-regulating translation. EV-A71 also utilizes protein factors in the host to overcome antiviral responses or even use them to promote viral translation rather than host cell translation. In this review, we provide an introduction
Abstract: The development of cancer is a consequence of mutations that lead to dysfunctional cell processes such as unrestrained cell proliferation resistance to apoptosis and improper regulation of cell processes such as translation. Cell proliferation and apoptosis are linked to specific gene expression events regulated by protein synthesis which begins with the binding of various eukaryotic initiation factors (eIF) to mRNA and ribosomes to initiate translation. eIF4G-1 catalyzes two types of translation initiation. Cap-dependent translation requires eIF4E to bind a 5-methylated mRNA cap and eIF4G-1. This in turn facilitates recruitment and promotes translation of cell cycle and growth-related proteins. Cap-independent translation initiates internally through internal ribosome entry sites (IRES) in the 5 UTR of mRNA and promotes translation of apoptotic mRNAs such as Apaf-1. Previous studies found that eight variants of eIF4G-1 mRNA exist and five protein isoforms can be resolved by ...
There is extensive evidence that the structurally complex, negatively charged GAG side chains of HSPGs are crucial for signaling by diverse secreted ligands, including BMPs. Although the distribution of HSPGs is generally assumed to be ubiquitous, our data showing that GAGs are absent in the first three hours after egg laying but are rapidly synthesized thereafter demonstrates that HSPG expression can, in fact, be precisely temporally regulated. We have shown that this regulation results from an absence of enzymes essential for HSPG synthesis, owing to a block to their translation. Furthermore, our data strongly support the notion that the translational control mechanism involves the use of developmentally regulated internal ribosome entry sites (IRESs) in mRNA 5′ UTRs. Translationally blocking GAG synthesis may enable generation of the Dpp/Scw activity gradient in the absence of GAGs, while permitting rapid GAG synthesis from the abundant maternal mRNA supply coincident with the expression of ...
Deregulation of translational control can promote cellular transformation. Protein synthesis and the expression of components of the translation machinery are elevated in cancers and contribute to tumorigenesis (1-5, 7). Here, we show that nuclear ErbB2 promotes binding of RNA Pol I to rDNA, co-occupies the rRNA gene with β-actin and RNA Pol I, and stimulates rRNA production and protein translation independently of traditional ErbB2 downstream PI3-K and ERK signalings, suggesting that nuclear ErbB2 may contribute to oncogenesis by upregulating total cellular translation. rRNA synthesis by RNA Pol I plays a critical role in production of mature ribosomes that are central protein synthesis machinery of the cells. Perturbation of RNA Pol I activity as well as rRNA and protein biosynthesis (i.e., translation control) by oncoproteins such as Myc or tumor suppressors p53, RB, and ADP ribosylation factor has been reported to be associated with tumor development (1, 2, 7-10). The capability of Myc to ...
Localization of the cytoplasmic translation and mitochondrial import machinery relative to newly-made mitochondrial transcripts. Cells were grown in BrU for 30
TY - JOUR. T1 - Electrically stimulated contraction accelerates protein synthesis rates in adult feline cardiocytes. AU - Ivester, C. T.. AU - Kent, R. L.. AU - Tagawa, H.. AU - Tsutsui, Hiroyuki. AU - Imamura, T.. AU - Cooper IV, G.. AU - McDermott, P. J.. PY - 1993/1/1. Y1 - 1993/1/1. N2 - Cardiocytes were induced to contract via electrical field stimulation with an 8 V/cm electrical square-wave pulse of 5 ms at 0.125-2.0 Hz for up to 6 h. Protein synthesis rates were measured as rate of incorporation of [3H]- phenylalanine into total cell protein. Rates of protein synthesis were accelerated 43 ± 4%, P , 0.001, by 4 h. The acceleration of total protein synthesis showed a frequency dependence between 0.125 and 0.5 Hz. In addition to accelerating rates of total protein synthesis, electrical stimulation of contraction accelerated fractional rates of synthesis of myosin heavy chain by 42 ± 8%, P , 0.05. Protein synthesis rates were not accelerated upon electrical stimulation using subthreshold ...
Several control mechanisms of eukaryotic gene expression target the initiation step of mRNA translation. The canonical translation initiation pathway begins with cap-dependent attachment of the small ribosomal subunit (SSU) to the messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) followed by an energy-dependent, sequential ‘scanning’ of the 5′ untranslated regions (UTRs). Scanning through the 5′UTR requires the adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-dependent RNA helicase eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 4A and its efficiency contributes to the specific rate of protein synthesis. Thus, understanding the molecular details of the scanning mechanism remains a priority task for the field. Here, we studied the effects of inhibiting ATP-dependent translation and eIF4A in cell-free translation and reconstituted initiation reactions programmed with capped mRNAs featuring different 5′UTRs. An aptamer that blocks eIF4A in an inactive state away from mRNA inhibited translation of capped mRNA with the
A technique for image alignment with global translation and linear stretch determines translation parameters for three corresponding linearly displaced blocks in a reference image and a corresponding distorted test image. From the differences between the translation parameters for the three blocks the presence of stretch is detected and, if detected, a stretch factor is estimated. The estimated stretch factor is used as a starting point to stretch the reference image to overlap the distorted test image as a refinement process. The resulting refined stretch factor is then used in a reverse stretch process to shrink the distorted test image, and the distorted test image is then aligned with the reference image to obtain picture quality metrics.
Plant viruses recruit cellular translation factors not only to translate their viral RNAs but also to regulate their replication and potentiate their local and systemic movement. Because of the virus dependence on cellular translation factors, it is perhaps not surprising that many natural plant recessive resistance genes have been mapped to mutations of translation initiation factors eIF4E and eIF4G or their isoforms, eIFiso4E and eIFiso4G. The partial functional redundancy of these isoforms allows specific mutation or knock-down of one isoform to provide virus resistance without hindering the general health of the plant. New possible targets for antiviral strategies have also been identified following the characterization of other plant translation factors (eIF4A-like helicases, eIF3, eEF1A and eEF1B) that specifically interact with viral RNAs and proteins and regulate various aspects of the infection cycle. Emerging evidence that translation repression operates as an alternative antiviral RNA
Quiescence (G0) represents an assortment of reversible, cell cycle-arrested states that are resistant to unfavorable conditions and associated with cancer persistence. G0 involves regulated gene expression with selective mRNA expression and decreased canonical translation. Low mTOR activity in G0 activates the cap complex inhibitor, eIF4EBP, and impairs canonical translation. The alternative translation mechanisms in G0 remain to be uncovered. Our data show that microRNAs, regulatory, non-coding RNAs that target distinct mRNAs to alter gene expression, can associate with alternative complexes and translation factors to regulate specific mRNA translation in G0. One subset of transcripts expressed in G0 includes specific mRNAs recruited by an FXR1a-associated microRNP (microRNA-protein complex) for translation activation in G0 mammalian cells. MicroRNPs predominantly mediate repression and downregulation; however, FXR1a-microRNP lacks conventional microRNP repressors, and instead, contains a ...
The unfolded protein response (UPR) is an intracellular signaling pathway that is activated by the accumulation of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The UPR results in an increase in transcription of ER-resident proteins that facilitate protein folding in the ER. A key regulatory step in UPR activation is the regulated splicing of HAC1 mRNA, which encodes Hac1p, a transcription factor dedicated to this pathway. Hac1p can be detected only when the spliced form of HAC1 mRNA (termed HAC1i mRNA, for induced) is produced; this was surprising because the unspliced HAC1u mRNA (HAC1u for uninduced) is equally stable in cells.. ...
A translation lookaside buffer (TLB) stores translation entries. The translation entries include a virtual address, a physical address and a memory local/not-local flag. When a processor is in a low power/local memory mode a virtual address is received. A matching translation entry has a local/not-local flag. Upon the local/not-local flag indicating the physical address of the matching translation entry being outside the local memory, an out-of-access-range memory access exception is generated.
Messenger RNA (mRNA) degradation is an important element of gene expression that can be modulated by alterations in translation, such as reductions in initiation or elongation rates. Reducing translation initiation strongly affects mRNA degradation by driving mRNA toward the assembly of a decapping complex, leading to decapping. While mRNA stability decreases as a consequence of translational inhibition, in apparent contradiction several external stresses both inhibit translation initiation and stabilize mRNA. A key difference in these processes is that stresses induce multiple responses, one of which stabilizes mRNAs at the initial and rate-limiting step of general mRNA decay. Because this increase in mRNA stability is directly induced by stress, it is independent of the translational effects of stress, which provide the cell with an opportunity to assess its response to changing environmental conditions. After assessment, the cell can store mRNAs, reinitiate their translation or, ...
Every protein in a cell is produced from a transiently synthesized messenger molecule, termed mRNA. This mRNA is then recognized by a cellular machinery that translates the base sequence of mRNA into its corresponding protein (which is a sequence of amino acids). This protein synthesis machinery, termed ribosome, is actually a ribozyme, i.e. it is a catalytically active assembly of several RNA molecules. Consequently, RNAs do not only serve as messenger molecules or perform structural functions as e.g. in tRNA but may also act as catalysts that perform biochemical reactions as is the case for protein enzymes. Of course, the ribosome also contains numerous proteins as it is a very complex ribonucleoprotein particle but these predominantly serve structural functions, e.g. to give the ribosome its shape. Fascinatingly, the initial analysis of the human genome sequence revealed that, apparently, only a very small fraction of the DNA of our genome is encoding proteins. Scientists at first thought ...
Gene expression in human tissue has primarily been studied on the transcriptional level, largely neglecting translational regulation. Here, we analyze the translatomes of 80 human hearts to identify new translation events and quantify the effect of translational regulation. We show extensive translational control of cardiac gene expression, which is orchestrated in a process-specific manner. Translation downstream of predicted disease-causing protein-truncating variants appears to be frequent, suggesting inefficient translation termination. We identify hundreds of previously undetected microproteins, expressed from lncRNAs and circRNAs, for which we validate the protein products in vivo . The translation of microproteins is not restricted to the heart and prominent in the translatomes of human kidney and liver. We associate these microproteins with diverse cellular processes and compartments and find that many locate to the mitochondria. Importantly, dozens of microproteins are translated from ...
By using a systemic mtEF4 gene knockout mouse model, researchers from the Institute of Biophysics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences found that mtEF4 knockout damages the oxidative phosphorylation function in germ cells of male mice, thus causing male sterility.
Organisms use highly accurate molecular processes to transcribe their genes and a variety of mRNA quality control and ribosome proofreading mechanisms to maintain intact the fidelity of genetic information flow. Despite this, low level gene translational errors induced by mutations and environmental factors cause neurodegeneration and premature death in mice and mitochondrial disorders in humans. Paradoxically, such errors can generate advantageous phenotypic diversity in fungi and bacteria through poorly understood molecular processes. In order to clarify the biological relevance of gene translational errors we have engineered codon misreading in yeast and used profiling of total and polysome-associated mRNAs, molecular and biochemical tools to characterize the recombinant cells. We demonstrate here that gene translational errors, which have negligible impact on yeast growth rate down-regulate protein synthesis, activate the unfolded protein response and environmental stress response pathways, and down
Figure 2. The phenotype of FoxC1 depleted gastulae. A:Xenopus FoxC1 pseudoalleles aligned against the reverse complement of the morpholino oligo used in the study using Clustal alignment in Macvector. B: FoxC1 MO (MO) blocks translation of FoxC1 mRNA (FoxC1) in a dose-responsive fashion, but does not block translation of a protected FoxC1 RNA, (MOR-), in an in vitro translation assay. C: HA-tagged Fox1 mRNA was injected alone or together with different doses of FoxC1 MO at the 2-cell stage to confirm a reduction of FoxC1 translation. D-G: Wild type sibling embryos and embryos injected with 40 ng MO (MO), or 40 ng MO and 50 pg MO-R FoxC1 mRNA (MO+RNA) were cultured until early (stage 10), mid (stage 11), and late gastrula (stage 11.5) stages before freezing and analyzing by real time RT-PCR for the expression of Mespo (D), Endodermin (E), Bix4 (F), and CK1ϵ (G). Expression levels are normalized to ODC. H,I: Whole mount in situ hybridization on FoxC1-depleted mid-gastrulae (bottom) as compared to ...
Abstract : Escherichia coli holds important secrets of the life, and persists with its metallic sheen among the model organisms used in modern biology research. Exploration of core biological processes in this classical model organism continues to provide a wealth of new information relevant to all life forms. In my lecture, I will discuss how the excellent amenability of E. coli to the classical genetics approaches in conjunction with the modern molecular methods continues to unravel evolutionary complexities of biological systems. In particular, I will discuss examples of how E. coli has been instrumental in addressing many questions in our pursuit of understanding the protein synthesis machinery.. ...
FIGURE 1. Posttranscriptional and translational mechanisms of gene regulation in CD4+ T cell subsets. (1) Increased translational events cause differentiated Tregs to proliferate, whereas Foxp3 induction and Treg differentiation are facilitated by decreased translation and posttranscriptional mechanisms. (2) miR-155 can cause an increase in IFN-Rα expression and initiate naive T cell differentiation toward the Th1 cell type. (3) miR-155 also blocks SOCS1 translation and, in turn, induces Foxp3 transcription. (4) Environmental cues like hypoxia can influence T cell differentiation into various lineages, with the Th17 and Treg types shown in this figure. (5) miR-126 blocks the translation of PU.1, an inhibitor of GATA-3 interaction with DNA, thus promoting the development of Th2 cells. (6) Interaction of eIF4E with mature mRNAs governs translation, and its activity is controlled by the eIF4E-binding proteins. (7) Poly(A)-binding proteins cause circularization of mRNAs and increase translation. ...
A rapid method for gene expression analysis, PURExpress® is a novel cell-free transcription/translation system reconstituted from the purified components necessary for E. coli translation. The relative nuclease-free and protease-free nature of the PURExpress platform preserves the integrity of DNA and RNA templates/ complexes and results in proteins that are free of modification and degradation. Transcription and translation are carried out in a one-step reaction, and require the mixing of only two tubes. With results available in a few hours, PURExpress saves valuable laboratory time and is ideal for high throughput technologies.
View Notes - Control of Gene Expression from BSC BSC1005 at Broward College. mRNA and translational mechanisms control the synthesis of protein after mRNA has been produced. Operons Operons are
The decay of eukaryotic mRNA is triggered mainly by deadenylation, which leads to decapping and degradation from the 5 end of an mRNA. Poly(A)-binding protein has been proposed to inhibit the decapping process and to stabilize mRNA by blocking the recruitment of mRNA to the P-bodies where mRNA degradation takes place after stimulation of translation initiation. In contrast, several lines of evidence show that poly(A)-binding protein (Pab1p) has distinct functions in mRNA decay and translation in yeast. To address the translation-independent function of Pab1p in inhibition of decapping, we examined the contribution of Pab1p to the stability of non-translated mRNAs, an AUG codon-less mRNA or an mRNA containing a stable stem-loop structure at the 5-UTR. Tethering of Pab1p stabilized non-translated mRNAs, and this stabilization did not require either the eIF4G-interacting domain of Pab1p or the Pab1p-interacting domain of eIF4G. In a ski2Δ mutant in which 3 to 5 mRNA degradation activity is ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Accumulation of viral products such as RNA replication intermediates and viral proteins represents a potential stressor for host cells. Rapidly after detection, host cells respond by implementing multiple appropriated defense mechanisms, including innate immune and stress responses. The strongest response to several forms of stress, including viral infections, is a global reduction of protein synthesis which promotes cellular survival. Translation suppression is induced by the phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor-2 (eIF2α), thereby causing stalling of translation initiation and accumulation of stalled pre-initiation complexes in cytosolic stress granules (SGs). Viruses do not package ribosomes and therefore fully rely on the utilization of the host translation machinery to ensure viral protein synthesis, replication and virus progeny production. As a consequence, virus survival depends on the establishment of a delicate and fine-tuned balance ...
By by ... Detlef --- dlls/mlang/tests/mlang.c , 7 +++++-- 1 files changed, 5 insertions(+), 2 deletions(-) diff --git a/dlls/mlang/tests/mlang.c b/dlls/mlang/tests/mlang.c index fb37e27..0da31b5 100644 --- a/dlls/mlang/tests/mlang.c +++ b/dlls/mlang/tests/mlang.c @@ -121,6 +121,9 @@ static const WCHAR de_engb2[] ={E,n,g,l,i,s,c,h, , K,0xF6,n,i,g,r,e,i,c,0}; static const WCHAR de_enus[] = {E,n,g,l,i,s,c,h, , (,U,S,A,),0}; +static const WCHAR de_enus2[] ={E,n,g,l,i,s,c,h, , + (,V,e,r,e,i,n,i,g,t,e, , + S,t,a,a,t,e,n,),0}; static const WCHAR de_de[] = {D,e,u,t,s,c,h, , (,D,e,u,t,s,c,h,l,a,n,d,),0}; static const WCHAR de_deat[] = {D,e,u,t,s,c,h, , @@ -184,11 +187,11 @@ static const info_table_entry info_table[] = { {MAKELANGID(LANG_ENGLISH, SUBLANG_NEUTRAL), MAKELANGID(LANG_GERMAN, SUBLANG_DEFAULT), TODO_NAME, en, de_en}, ...
Biology translations - Best Text - Your Professional TRANSLATION AGENCY. Swift Delivery and Affordable Prices! Medical Translations, Pharmaceutical Translations, Chemical Translations, Biology Translations, Biotech Translations, Veterinary Translations and more
Pharmaceutical translations - Best Text - Your Professional TRANSLATION AGENCY. Swift Delivery and Affordable Prices! Medical Translations, Pharmaceutical Translations, Chemical Translations, Biology Translations, Biotech Translations, Veterinary Translations and more
Studies like this found that 20 to 40 grams of protein stimulates maximal protein synthesis.. That is, 20 to 40 grams of protein in a meal is as anabolic as you can get and increasing intake beyond this amount accomplishes little-to-nothing in terms of muscle/tissue growth and repair.. This limit to protein synthesis is then construed as a limit to absorption.. If eating more protein doesnt further elevate protein synthesis rates, the story goes, that must mean your body cant "handle" any more, right?. Wrong.. How high protein synthesis rates go is only one dimension of what happens with them when you eat. How long they remains elevated is equally if not more important.. For example, research shows that 30 grams of whey protein spikes protein synthesis rates higher than 30 grams of casein does. But, due to wheys rapid absorption, protein synthesis rates also fall back to baseline sooner.. (Whey causes a shorter, larger increase in protein synthesis whereas casein causes a smaller, longer ...
It sounds like the autoradiography is done directly on the gel. Since the protein contains the hot sulfur, you dont need a radiolabeled antibody to detect it. You can infer the mass of the protein from its mobility (location of gel band). However, if you need to unambiguously prove the identity of the protein you might need a Western as well, since your radiolabelled gel gives mass information but not an epitope-antigen interaction. If you have a single mRNA produced in the transcription-translation system then that simplifies the system. Without knowing the source of the DNA and how many different kinds of mRNA would be expected to be present, its tough to tell whether a Western would be necessary to prove your band is what it should be ...
The rbcL 5′-UTR contains an SDsequence at the prokaryotic consensus position, whereas theatpB 5′-UTR lacks one. Therefore, it is likely that theatpB 5′-UTR has mechanisms other thanSD-ASD interactions in the 5′-UTR to facilitate translation initiation. The mechanism of translational activation is not known. A candidate for translational activation of theatpB mRNA is the general S1 ribosomal protein mediated mechanism with affinity for AU-reach sequences in the 5′-UTR (Franzetti et al., 1992; Alexander et al., 1998). A specific control factor could be encoded in a maize atp1 gene homolog (McCormac and Barkan, 1999). Our mutagenesis study indicates that the role of sequences downstream of AUG in plastid translation is highly dependent on the individual mRNA. The consequence of mutagenesis onrbcL translation was a dramatic 35-fold drop in NPTII levels from 11% (w/w) to 0.3% (w/w). It is apparent that translation of the chimeric mRNA is highly dependent on sequences directly downstream of ...
Research in this section is focused on understanding translational regulatory mechanisms and the molecular details of protein synthesis in eukaryotic cells. Given its critical importance as the ultimate step in gene expression and its significant energy r
This website converts English to other languages using an automated tool called Microsoft Translator™. The translations may include errors or change the intended meaning of the text. Please consult your healthcare provider about any medical information.. Translations may not be available for some items, including PDF documents, maps, video captions, and text that appears on photos. Also, some features on the website may not work in the translated versions.. ...
This website converts English to other languages using an automated tool called Microsoft Translator™. The translations may include errors or change the intended meaning of the text. Please consult your healthcare provider about any medical information.. Translations may not be available for some items, including PDF documents, maps, video captions, and text that appears on photos. Also, some features on the website may not work in the translated versions.. ...
Serine/threonine-protein kinase involved in energy homeostasis and protein translation. Phosphorylates EEF1A1, GYS1, PDX1 and RPS6. Probably plays a role under changing environmental conditions (oxygen, glucose, nutrition), rather than under standard conditions. Acts as a sensor involved in energy homeostasis: regulates glycogen synthase synthesis by mediating phosphorylation of GYS1, leading to GYS1 inactivation. May be involved in glucose-stimulated insulin production in pancreas and regulation of glucagon secretion by glucose in alpha cells; however such data require additional evidences. May play a role in regulation of protein translation by phosphorylating EEF1A1, leading to increase translation efficiency. May also participate to respiratory regulation.
2. A Universal Trend of Reduced mRNA Stability near the Translation-Initiation Site in Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes [LINK]. 3. Translation efficiency is determined by both codon bias and folding energy [LINK]. Optional Listen to Yoshimi Battles The Pink Robots as you read the papers.... ...
Previous in vivo studies showing a lack of correlation between CRH binding and CRHR-1 mRNA levels have suggested that receptor levels in the pituitary may be regulated at the translational level (Rabadan-Diehl et al., 1996, 1997). Modulation of translation rate is determined not only by the stability of the mRNA, but also by structural features of the mRNA, such as a secondary structure or initiation codons in the 5′-UTR (Kozak, 1991; Geballe and Morris, 1994). Because it has been shown that the presence of ORFs in the 5′-UTR of the mRNA can influence the translation efficiency of the main ORF, this study was conducted to determine whether the 5′-UTR could be involved in the regulation of the CRHR-1 receptor translation. The present experiments provide evidence that an upstream ORF, potentially encoding 10 amino acids, in the 5′-UTR of the CRHR1, decreases translation of the CRHR or a reporter gene. Mutation of the upstream ATG in constructs with the main ORF of CRHR1 or luciferase ...
Quinoa is high in protein. It also contains phytochemicals that increase protein synthesis, protect against cancer and lower blood glucose
Translations of a piece of content are managed with translation sets. Each translation set has one source post and any number of translations in any of the enabled languages. All translations are tracked to be up to date or outdated based on whether the source post was modified significantly.. ...
Read "The Effects of Questionnaire Translation on Demographic Data and Analysis, Population Research and Policy Review" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Why? because sometimes one English string may have two or more different translations depending on the context. What Im going to do is implement _interactive_ (or message-by-message) rough translation. If the message is already translated somewhere else, it suggests the translations (several, not one!) and displays them in the helper window. Translator may then choose one of the translation suggestions by pressing ctrl+1, ctrl+2, .. or ctrl+9, which will immediately insert it into msgstr (replacing the old translation if it exists). What old rough translation didnt provide is the ability to choose. UPDATE: ok, ill probably allow translator to autopopulate catalog with: ...
Why? because sometimes one English string may have two or more different translations depending on the context. What Im going to do is implement _interactive_ (or message-by-message) rough translation. If the message is already translated somewhere else, it suggests the translations (several, not one!) and displays them in the helper window. Translator may then choose one of the translation suggestions by pressing ctrl+1, ctrl+2, .. or ctrl+9, which will immediately insert it into msgstr (replacing the old translation if it exists). What old rough translation didnt provide is the ability to choose. ...
We were recently on the topic of fasted training and the need for pre-workout protein intake as a slight compromise to training completely fasted.. I argued that the need for pre-workout protein intake was due to this being a case where the benefits (increased protein synthesis) simply outweighted the negatives (insulin increase; low insulin being a determinant of the fasting state). Its also known that BCAAs independently affects the same myogenic pathway through which fasted training may increase protein synthesis in response to post-workout nutrition.. On the whole, the scientific evidence that speaks in favor of pre-workout protein for increased protein synthesis and muscle growth is strong. Some researchers even speculate that it may be just as important as post-workout protein intake.. Last week I came across another study which makes a strong argument for pre-workout protein to facilitate body fat loss. Let me give you a brief summary of the findings.. Participants were recruited for two ...
With 18 years experience and a wealth of international references, we are confident that we have good insight into our clients requirements. We know what they need and can see what they dont like in our industry. This is why you get exactly what you want - our goal isnt to force our services on anyone. We also pay particular attention to ensuring that our processes are simple and fully transparent. At the same time, our dedicated contact persons are there to inform you in detail about all matters and listen carefully to your concerns.. We offer strong guarantees, without any equivocation. Working as quickly and with the same translation technology as a global translation agency, but with greater focus and more attractive prices. We are reachable and helpful, whilst our project management and professional, multi-stage proofreading mean that we can guarantee the highest quality. This is all combined with a deadline guarantee and satisfaction guarantee, but without surcharges for any reason at ...
RNA turnover and processing have now been demonstrated to be important steps that directly affect protein synthesis and the cells ability to survive in nature. However, the analysis of mRNA decay and polyadenylation in Escherichia coli has long been considered technically difficult. The development over the past 15 years of methods for the isolation and characterization of both mRNA and polyadenylated species has made the study of these important pathways of RNA metabolism more straightforward (Arraiano et al., 1988; OHara et al., 1995; Mohanty and Kushner, 1999).... ...
The mechanism of protein synthesis on 70S ribosomes includes the following stages: 1. The transcription: The process of protein synthesis is started by the uncoiling of strands of DNA molecule. One strand of DNA molecule acts as a template for the formation of mRNA. The mRNA is formed according to the triplet codes of DNA […]. ...
1. Rapid translation-based stress responses to environmental changes.. Across eukaryotes a fast, initial response to stress is mediated by messenger (m)RNAs already present in the cytoplasm, before transcription in the nucleus is re-programmed. However, major questions about the molecular mechanisms of rapid stress adaptation remain unanswered: (1) What are the mRNA sequences controlling rapid adaptation? (2) Which translation factors dynamically adjust proteome composition? (3) How do alternative translation pathways contribute to the response? (4) How do changes in ribosomal configuration, availability for translation and structural arrangement of RNA drive the response? During stress, mammalian frontline responses regulating mRNA and its translation are pervasive and critical for cell death/survival decisions and adaptation, but the transnational control and input of the different phases of translation remains largely unknown. We wish to provide this information.. 2. Translational control in ...
A method for peptide mapping of tryptic digests on cellulose this layers was developed. The method was much more sensitive than procedures based on paper or column separation techniques, and enabled the detection of many peptides resulting from non-specific tryptic hydrolysis during protein digestion. An E-coli cell-free protein synthesizing system directed by R17 RNA was used to examine the fidelity of translation in vitro. The major product of this system, the coat protein, was separated from the in vitro reaction mixtures and analysed by the peptide mapping procedure. A series of experiments utilising radioactive amino acids established that the fidelity of translation was high, and enabled the identification of the mapping position of the major tryptic peptides ...