The androgen receptor (AR) is a transcription factor, and key regulator of prostate development and cancer, which has discrete functions in stromal versus epithelial cells. AR expressed in mesenchyme is necessary and sufficient for prostate development while loss of stromal AR is predictive of prostate cancer progression. Many studies have characterized genome-wide binding of AR in prostate tumour cells but none have used primary mesenchyme or stroma. We applied ChIPseq to identify genomic AR binding sites in primary human fetal prostate fibroblasts and patient derived cancer associated fibroblasts, as well as the WPMY1 cell line overexpressing AR. We identified AR binding sites that were specific to fetal prostate fibroblasts (7534), cancer fibroblasts (629), WPMY1-AR (2561) as well as those common among all (783). Primary fibroblasts had a distinct AR binding profile versus prostate cancer cell lines and tissue, and showed a localisation to gene promoter binding sites 1 kb upstream of the
Diabetic Mouse Prostate Smooth Muscle Cells from Creative Bioarray are isolated from the prostate of Diabetic (db/db) mice (8 weeks). Diabetic Mouse Prostate Smooth Muscle Cells are grown in T25 tissue culture flasks pre-coated with gelatin-based coating solution for 2 min and incubated in Creative Bioarrays Culture Complete Growth Medium generally for 3-7 days. Prior to shipping, cells at passage 1 are detached from the culture flasks and immediately cryo-preserved in vials. Each vial contains at least 0.5x10^6cells per ml and is delivered frozen ...
Prostate Epithelial Cell Basal Medium is a sterile, phenol red-free, liquid tissue culture medium intended for use as one component in a complete ATCC ® Primary Cell Solutions ™ system. This serum-free system is designed to support prostate epithelial cells derived from normal human prostate. Prostate Epithelial Cell Basal Medium contains essential and non-essential amino acids, vitamins, other organic compounds, trace minerals and inorganic salts. To support the proliferation and plating efficiency of various types of prostate epithelial cells, Prostate Cell Basal Medium must be supplemented with the appropriate cell-specific growth kit. When using this complete media system, the growth of prostate epithelial cells is supported without the use of feeder layers, extracellular matrix proteins or other substrates. A. For prostate epithelial cells derived from prostate tissue (e.g., Primary Prostate Epithelial Cells, Normal, Human, ATCC ® PCS-440-010), supplement Prostate Epithelial Cell Basal
4. Kill mouse by cervical dislocation 5. Spray with 70%ethanol, open skin over abdomen with sterile scissors, open muscle tissue to face abdominal organs (best place to cut is lower abdominal region) 6. Take out the bladder by holding onto it with forceps; pull organs attached to bladder, including urethra, prostate, seminal vesicles (SV) out. Cut urethra and connective tissue below to pull out whole periurethral region. Put into 60 mm dish with HBSS. 7. Using a stereo microscope, dissect prostate lobes. First, remove all non-prostate tissue and connective tissue: remove ductus deferens, ampullary gland (if present), and all fat tissue (resembles Styrofoam in appearance). Keep prostate tissue (transparent glandular tissue). Prostate lobes can be found: the anterior prostate is the biggest lobe and lines the inner curvature of the SV. The dorsal prostate is attached to both the initial segment of the outer curvature of the SV and the urethra. The lateral and ventral prostates are located above ...
A functional model of adult human prostate epithelium is described. This model shows that stromal cells, but not an androgenic stimuli, are required for architectural organisation of prostate epithelium. Within an organised structure, androgenic stimulation is required for the establishment of secretory epithelial cell morphology and associated function. In the absence of stromal cells but in the presence of androgens architectural organisation and secretory function are lost. Epithelial parenchymal units (organoids) from human prostate tissue were isolated, cultured within a three-dimensional collagen matrix, and xenografted subcutaneously into athymic mouse hosts. The grafted gels were rapidly invaded by host fibroblasts. Epithelial organisation initially disappeared but was re-established concurrently with the stromal cell invasion. In intact male hosts, cuboidal and columnar cells that expressed human prostate-specific secretory markers were found. In castrated male and in female hosts ...
... BACKGROUND. Androgen ablation, the standard treatment for advanced prostate cancer, results in increased apoptosis, decreased cell proliferation and subsequent involution of the prostate gland. The mechanisms behind these responses are largely unknown, but effects in the prostatic epithelium are believed to be mediated by primary changes in the stroma. The purpose of this thesis was to investigate short-term cellular effects of castration-induced prostate tissue involution in mice and humans.. METHODS. Prostate tissue factors affected by castration were investigated using cDNA-arrays, micro-dissection, RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. The effects of local insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) administration were investigated in intact and castrated mice. Non-malignant and malignant epithelial and stromal cells were micro-dissected from human prostate biopsies taken before and within two ...
Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality in men in the United States (Siegel et al., 2016) and the second most common malignancy in men worldwide (Torre et al., 2015). Although prostate carcinoma arises from the epithelium, numerous studies have revealed the potential influence of reciprocal interactions between prostate stromal cells (fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells or SMCs) and cancer epithelial cells on tumor progression (Barron and Rowley, 2012; Franco and Hayward, 2012). For example, human prostate carcinoma-associated fibroblasts, but not normal prostate fibroblasts, induce substantial growth and neoplasia of nonmalignant human prostate epithelial cell lines in tissue recombinants in mice (Olumi et al., 1999). Furthermore, the proportion of reactive stroma within human PCa samples has prognostic value for PCa-specific death (Ayala et al., 2003, 2011). Unlike normal prostate stroma that is primarily composed of mature SMCs, the reactive stroma of ...
Loss of TP63 expression in the prostate epithelium is a hallmark of invasive prostate cancer. An inability of prostate epithelial cells to undergo apoptosis, a process regulated by both TP63 and TP53, is a feature of their malignant transformation. p53 mutations in prostate cancer are uncommon, being mainly associated with advanced metastatic disease. Therefore it is likely that the inability of wild-type p53 to initiate and execute apoptosis is due to molecular alterations elsewhere in the apoptotic pathway. iASPP is an inhibitory member of the ASPP family of proteins and is known to inhibit p53-mediated apoptosis and regulate p63 function. In this work we have investigated how iASPP can affect normal prostate development and prostate tumourigenesis. By utilising an iASPP-deficient mouse model, we show that iASPP plays a key role in normal prostate development and homeostasis by maintaining the TP63-positive basal cell lineage of the prostate epithelium. The loss of iASPP is associated with ...
Aim: Establish the main differences in the prostate volume, prostate specific antigen density (PSAD), number of biopsy samples in patients with primarily or rebiopsy detected prostate cancer. Materials and methods: In the 2007-2009 period, at the KCUS Urology Clinic, there were 379 TRUS guided prostate biopsies in 323 patients with known prostate volume. The total of 56 patients (17.3%) underwent the first rebiopsy, primarily due to precancerous lesions. The mean prostate volume, ranges of prostate size, PSAT, PSAD and the number of biopsy samples were analysed retrospectively, and the main characteristics in patients with primarily and rebiopsy diagnosed Pca were evaluated as well. Results: The first biopsy cancer detection rate was 29.6% (112/379). The rebiopsy detection rate was 30.3%. There was no statistically significant difference in the prostate volume and the number of biopsy samples among the total number of patients with prostate cancer against the group with benign (suspected) ...
Background: The incidence of infection associated with transrectal prostate biopsy has been increasing largely due to fluoroquinolone resistance (FQR). Purpose: To identify the antibiotic prescribing patterns employed when men seek medical professionals due to infectious complications of prostate biopsy, and employ a quality improvement initiative to improve antibiotic selection. Methods: A retrospective review determined the percentage of patients who presented to the emergency department (ED) after TRUS biopsy, and whether they were given appropriate antibiotic therapy. Prospective quality improvement was initiated by obtaining cultures via rectal swab at the time of transrectal biopsy in order to allow culture results and fluoroquinolone sensitivities to be available in the electronic medical record. The provider to guide antibiotic selection if the patient returned with infection symptoms could utilize the data. Findings: From 10/2009 to 6/2014, 0.5% (9/1724) of patients who underwent TRUS prostate
The paired non-malignant and malignant African-American prostate epithelial cell lines RC-77 T/E and RC-77 N/E represent one of only a few cell lines derived from African-American prostate cancer patients [30]. E006AA, RC-165 N, and MDA-PCa 2a/2b are other African-American patient-derived cell lines. E006AA also has a highly tumorigenic derivative, E006AA-hT, and an associated stroma cell line, S006AA [27]. While the E006AA-hT model can be used to examine the differences between less and more highly tumorigenic cancers, it does not have a non-malignant paired epithelial cell line. The RC-165 N cell line is unique because it was derived from benign prostate tissue of an African-American male and was immortalized by telomerase [41]. This cell line is useful for understanding the functions of the androgen receptor in prostate epithelial cells. MDA-PCa 2a/2b cells are tumorigenic but differ in vivo and in vitro. These cell lines are a useful androgen sensitive model, but, unlike RC-77 cells, they do ...
OBJECTIVE: To determine the role of vascular response in the castration-induced regression of benign and malignant human prostate tissue, as recent studies show that castration rapidly decreases blood flow and induces endothelial cell death, which may be important for subsequent epithelial cell death and involution of the glandular tissue of the prostate.. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptors was analysed using the quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, in benign and tumour areas of core biopsies taken before, and approximately 1 week after castration therapy. The castration-induced VEGF response was related to therapy-induced changes in tumour cell apoptotic index and subsequent response in serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA). In another set of patients, serum VEGF was quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay before, and at 3--6 months after castration therapy.. RESULTS: VEGF mRNA was down-regulated ...
Prostate development is a complex process, and knowledge about this process is increasingly required for both basic developmental biology studies and clinical prostate cancer research, as prostate tumorigenesis can be regarded as the restoration of development in the adult prostate. Using rodent animal models, scientists have revealed that the development of the prostate is mainly mediated by androgen receptor (AR) signaling and that some other signaling pathways also play indispensable roles. However, there are still many unknowns in human prostate biology, mainly due to the limited availability of proper fetal materials. Here, we first briefly review prostate development with a focus on the AR, WNT, and BMP signaling pathways is necessary for prostate budding/BMP signaling pathways. Based on the current progress in in vitro prostatic differentiation and organoid techniques, we propose human pluripotent stem cells as an emerging model to study human prostate development.
Clusterin, ubiquitously distributed in mammalians, was cloned and identified as the most potently induced gene during rat prostate involution following androgen deprivation. Also found to be involved in many other patho-physiological processes, its biological significance is still controversial, particularly with regard to apoptosis. We previously showed that transient over-expression of clusterin blocked cell cycle progression of simian-virus-40-immortalized human prostate epithelial cell lines PNT1A and PNT2. We show in the present study that the accumulation of an intracellular 45 kDa clusterin isoform was an early event closely associated with death of PNT1A cells caused by cell detachment followed by apoptosis induction (anoikis). Cell morphological changes, decreased proliferation rate and cell cycle arrest at G0/G1-S-phase checkpoint were all strictly associated with the production and early translocation to the nucleus of a 45 kDa clusterin isoform. Later, nuclear clusterin was found ...
Supplementary Material for: Are Transrectal Prostate Biopsies Routinely Indicated in Patients with Incidentally Diagnosed Prostate Cancer following Transurethral Resection of the Prostate for Benign Disease?
Topic Index - Prostate Health Prostate Health Home Anatomy of the Prostate Gland Benign Prostate Problems Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) Impotence / Erectile Dysfunction Prostatitis Urinary Incontinence Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer Overview Signs and Symptoms of Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer Statistics Risk Factors for Prostate Cancer Staging of Prostate Cancer Grading of Prostate Cancer Diagnostic and Evaluation Procedures Treatments for Prostate Cancer Expectant Therapy Surgery Radiation Ther...
The prostate is one of the most complex glands in the human body in both an anatomical and pathological sense. Even the slightest modification in the prostate gland can create a disastrous cascade of events that can lead to both emotional and physical harm. Endocrinologists are now working around the clock to find the causes and treatments to prostate diseases. In China, the 3D Prostate Treatment is taking lead in creating an environment that fosters research in both finding causes in the most common and obscure prostate diseases and treating them with their proprietary 3D Prostate Treatment. The purpose of the prostate is to secrete prostate fluid, a milky solution of alkaline pH. The prostate fluid is then used by the body to make semen that can fertilize eggs of a women during sexual intercourse. The muscles of the prostate gland help in this process as they are able to propel seminal fluid from the prostate into the urethra before ejaculation. Problems or diseases of the prostate can ...
Abstract Background Zinc plays important roles in maintaining normal function of the prostate and in development of prostate malignancy. It has been demonstrated that prostate malignant epithelial cells contain much less cellular zinc than the surrounding normal epithelial cells. However, the pathway(s) which leads to lower zinc accumulation in malignant prostate epithelial cells is poorly understood. In this study, the zinc homeostatic features of two human prostate epithelial cell lines (non-tumorigenic, RWPE1, and tumorigenic, RWPE2) were investigated. Effects of over-expression of ZIP1 in RWPE2 on cell proliferation and apoptosis were also studied. Results RWPE2 accumulated less intracellular zinc than RWPE1 due to the decreased zinc uptake activity. The mRNA expression of ZIP1 and ZIP3 in RWPE1 and RWPE2 was comparable. However, the protein expression of ZIP1 in RWPE2 was lower than that in RWPE1. ZIP3 was detected in a lysosomal compartment of RWPE2 while no ZIP3 was detected in the same
TY - JOUR. T1 - Aberrant expression of fibroblast growth factor receptor-1 in prostate epithelial cells allows induction of promatrilysin expression by fibroblast growth factors. AU - Udayakumar, T. S.. AU - Klein, Russell D.. AU - Maliner, M. Suzanne. AU - Nagle, Raymond B.. AU - Bowden, G. T.. PY - 2001/1/15. Y1 - 2001/1/15. N2 - Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) degrade extracellular matrix proteins, and there is evidence that they play a role in tumor cell growth, invasion and metastasis. Matrilysin (MMP-7) is over-expressed in prostate cancer cells and increases prostate cancer cell invasion. Prostate stromal fibroblasts secrete a factor(s), including fibroblast growth factor-I (FGF-I), which induces promatrilysin expression in the prostate carcinoma cell line LNCaP but not in normal prostate epithelial cells (PrECs). Since FGF-I is present in the prostate, an altered sensitivity to FGF-I might explain the up regulation of matrilysin expression in prostate cancer cells compared to normal ...
Cypate-octreote peptide analogue conjugate (Cytate) was investigated as a prostate cancer receptor- targeted contrast agent. The absorption and fluorescence spectra of Cytate were ranged in the near- infrared "tissue optical window." Time-resolved investigation of polarization-dependent fluorescence emitted from Cytate in solution as well as in cancerous and normal prostate tissues was conducted. Polarization preservation characteristics of Cytate in solution and tissues were studied. Fluorescence intensity emitted from the Cytate-stained cancerous prostate tissue was found to be much stronger than that from the Cytate-stained normal prostate tissue, indicating more Cytate uptake in the former tis sue type. The polarization anisotropy of Cytate contained in cancerous prostate tissue was found to be larger than that in the normal prostate tissue, indicating a larger degree of polarization preservation in Cytate-stained cancerous tissue. The temporal profiles of fluorescence from Cytate solution ...
Did you understand?. Your risk of prostate cancer will increase as you become older. Most males with the illness are over 50. If your brother or father has had prostate cancer, your risk can also be increased. What is prostate cancer?. Prostate cancer occurs when the conventional cells within the prostate gland change and develop to type a mass of cells known as a tumour. These cancer cells can have an effect on how the prostate works.. Prostate cancer cells might not develop in any respect or else develop slowly throughout a persons lifetime. Many males by no means develop issues or signs from their prostate cancer. In some, prostate cancer grows extra rapidly and wants remedy to stop it spreading outdoors of the prostate gland.. In most instances, prostate cancer might be cured or stored beneath management.. Prostate cancer most frequently happens in males of their fifties and onwards. It can happen on uncommon events in males of their late forties. The risk of creating prostate cancer rises ...
Using nuclear medicine, German researchers may have found a way to accurately differentiate cancerous tissue from healthy tissue in prostate cancer patients. The research is highlighted in findings published by Rahbar et al in The Journal of Nuclear Medicine.. These new findings demonstrate that the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) on gallium-68 prostate-specific membrane antigen (68Ga-PSMA) positron-emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) scans correlates with PSMA-expression in primary prostate cancer. By this means, researchers were able to generate an SUVmax cutoff for the differentiation of cancerous and benign prostate tissue.. "To the best of our knowledge, this was the first study to generate a cutoff SUVmax, validated by immunohistochemistry, for separating prostate cancer from normal prostate tissue by 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT images," explained Vikas Prasad, MD, PhD, of Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin in Germany. "Our SUVmax cutoff can be used to confirm or rule out ...
Second to skin cancer, prostate cancer is the most common form of cancer in men; approximately 300,000 men in the United States are diagnosed with prostate cancer every year. The exact cause of prostate cancer is unknown. According to the American Cancer Society, an average American man has a one in six chance of being diagnosed with prostate cancer during his lifetime.. Located just below the bladder and in front of the rectum, the prostate is a walnut sized gland that is part of the male reproductive system. The urethra, which is the tube that urine flows through, runs through the center of the prostate gland. The prostate gland produces prostatic fluid which, when mixed with sperm, produces semen.. Prostate cancer occurs when the prostate gland develops malignant cells. "Localized" prostate cancer is when the cancer remains inside the prostate. However, it is possible for the cancer to grow to surrounding tissue, or spread (metastasize) to the lymph nodes or bone. As with many forms of ...
Results The validity of CHKA-antibody was verified using CHKA-transfected cells and siRNA knockdown. Immunoblotting of tissues showed good resolution of CHKA protein in malignant prostate, verifying use of the antibody for IHC. There was minimal qRT-PCR detectable CHKA mRNA in normal tissue, and conversely high expression in malignant prostate tissues. IHC of normal prostate cores showed mild (intensity) CHKA expression in only 28% (7/25) of samples with no Ki67 expression. In contrast, CHKA was expressed in all malignant prostate cores along with characteristically low proliferation (median 2% Ki67-LI; range 1-17%). Stratification of survival according to CHK intensity showed a trend towards lower progression-free survival with CHK score of 3. ...
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There are various tests to detect the presence of prostate cancer, the only sure way to detect the condition is through a prostate biopsy. Every year in theUS, there are approximately over a million men who undergo prostate biopsy. Within the biopsies that are preformed, around 25% indicate the existence of prostate cancer. In the other 75% of prostate biopsies, one third indicates a false negative result. With this information, researchers are concerned that prostate cancer is not being detected in the earlier stages.. A prostate biopsy is when a prostate gun which shoots tiny little needles into the prostate is used to take small samples of the tissue. This procedure is preformed in the physicians office without the use of anesthesia. Since this procedure can be painful, the approximate numbers of tissue samples that are taken are about 6 cores. The specimen is taken to a lab for a pathologist to read to determine if cancer is present. If cancer is present the pathologist will assign a ...
Prostate cancer is the most common non-skin cancer among American men. Prostate cancers usually grow slowly. Most men with prostate cancer are older than 65 and do not die from the disease.. The prostate is a part of the male reproductive system, and is located just below the bladder and in front of the rectum. It is about the size of a walnut and surrounds the urethra (the tube that empties urine from the bladder). As a man ages, the prostate tends to increase in size. This can cause the urethra to narrow and decrease urine flow. This is condition is called benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and it is not the same as prostate cancer.. All men are at risk. Out of every 100 American men, about 13 will get prostate cancer during their lifetime, and about two to three men will die from prostate cancer. The most common risk factor is age. The older a man is, the greater the chance of getting prostate cancer. Men who are African-American or have a family history of prostate cancer are at increased ...
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Presentation Authors: Xiaolong Wang, Yiming Wang, Christian Gratzke, Anna Ciotkowska, Qingfeng Yu, Ruixiao Wang*, Bingsheng Li, Frank Strittmatter, Christian G. Stief, Martin Hennenberg, Munich, Germany. Introduction: Leptin is a metabolic peptide hormone produced by adipocytes, with assumed roles in proflieration of prostate cancer cells and of prostate cells in animal models of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Thus, a role of leptin as a molecular link connecting BPH and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) suggestive of BPH with metabolic syndrom appears possible/feasible, but is still unknown. In fact, a connection between metabolic syndrome and BPH/LUTS is becoming increasingly evident from epidemiologic studies. Key factors of LUTS suggestive of BPH are an increased prostate smooth muscle tone, and prostate enlargement, which may both contribute to bladder outlet obstruction. Here, we examined the effects of leptin on contraction of human prostate smooth muscle and on growth of stromal ...
For men with an abnormal PSA, there are now additional tests that may be considered before prostate needle biopsy. These include prostate Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and other genomic tests such as the 4k test and the Prostate Health Index (PHI).If prostate cancer is detected, it is stratified into risk categories of low, intermediate and high risk. Additional educational resources on prostate cancer risk stratification and diagnosis are provided through the NCCN Guidelines.Additional work up with imaging (bone scan, CAT scan or MRI) and treatment options are based on a mans prostate cancer risk stratification.Learn more here about having an MRI or CT scan performed at Weill Cornell Medicine.Locally advanced prostate cancers may obstruct urinary flow and/or cause severe irritation in the bladder region when the cancer extends from the prostate into the base of the bladder. Treatment of this locally advanced cancer can be very difficult. Obstruction to urinary flow may be opened by transurethral
Gene fusions involving ETS family transcription factors (mainly TMPRSS2-ERG and TMPRSS2-ETV1 fusions) have been found in ~50% of human prostate cancer cases. Although expression of TMPRSS2-ERG or TMPRSS2-ETV1 fusion alone is insufficient to initiate prostate tumorigenesis, they appear to sensitize prostate epithelial cells for cooperation with additional oncogenic mutations to drive frank prostate adenocarcinoma. To search for such ETS-cooperating oncogenic events, we focused on a well-studied prostate tumor suppressor NKX3.1, as loss of NKX3.1 is another common genetic alteration in human prostate cancer. Previous studies have shown that deletions at 8p21 (harboring NKX3.1) and 21q22 (resulting in TMPRSS2-ERG fusion) were both present in a subtype of prostate cancer cases, and that ERG can lead to epigenetic silencing of NKX3.1 in prostate cancer cells, whereas NKX3.1 can in turn negatively regulate TMPRSS2-ERG fusion expression via suppression of the TMPRSS2 promoter activity. We recently ...
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Many men do not realize that they have a choice when a physician recommends a prostate biopsy. Often they sit there in shock when told that they will need a biopsy. This scenario is played out over a million times annually though out the United States each year. The fact that alternative diagnostic procedures are not discussed or even brought to the patients attention is amazing. It is important to note that medical practitioners have relied upon prostate biopsies since the first one performed in 1930. A lot has changed in eighty years however the prostate biopsy is still the most relied upon diagnostic procedure. Today revenue generation from prostate biopsies is estimated at 3 billion dollars annually in the US. If you have ever found yourself facing a biopsy you may be surprised how most health care providers fail to discuss the alternatives to a prostate biopsy. In addition no one ever discusses the fact that men who undergo a prostate biopsy often experience side effects due to the ...
If you are a male over 50, or are over 40 and at increased risk for prostate cancer because you have a family history of prostate cancer or are of African-American descent, your doctor should screen you for prostate cancer during your yearly examination by conducting a prostate physical examination (the digital rectal test), a urine evaluation, and a PSA test.. Because of the prostates location, your physician performs the physical examination of the prostate (also known as the Digital Rectal Examination or DRE) by briefly inserting a gloved, lubricated finger into the rectum to feel the back wall of the prostate. The examination allows your doctor to check for any areas in the back wall of the prostate for firmness, hard nodules, lumps or irregularities.. Combined with the DRE, the PSA test can serve to detect prostate cancer in its early stages. The PSA test measures the amount of prostate specific antigen (PSA), an enzyme that is produced by the prostate and released into the bloodstream. ...
Prostate cancer is the most common nondermatologic cancer in men. Approximately 90 percent of men who are diagnosed with prostate cancer have cancer confined to the prostate gland (clinically localized disease). The percentage of men diagnosed with clinically localized prostate cancer might change as a result of the recent recommendations from the United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF).1,2 Clinically localized prostate cancer is usually asymptomatic or may be associated with symptoms that overlap with benign lower urinary tract symptoms. Presenting symptoms, a physical examination, a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test, and a biopsy may be used to diagnose localized prostate cancer.. The National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) Clinical Guideline for the Treatment of Prostate Cancer, published in 2015, defined clinically localized prostate cancer as clinical stages T1-T3a, which includes tumors confined to the prostate (T1-T2) and tumors with extracapsular extension but ...
ATCC ® Normal Human Primary Prostate Epithelial Cells, when grown in Prostate Epithelial Cell Basal Media supplemented with Prostate Epithelial Cell Growth Kit components, provide an ideal cell system to propagate prostate epithelial cells in serum-free conditions. The cells are cryopreserved at the second passage to ensure the highest viability and plating efficiency. ATCC ® Primary Cell Solutions™ cells, media, supplements and reagents are quality tested together to guarantee optimum performance and reliability.
New York, NY, August 20, 2014 /3BL Media/ - Transrectal ultrasound guided biopsy is the gold standard for detecting prostate cancer, but international reports have suggested that the number of risks associated with the procedure is increasing. In a new nationwide population-based study, Swedish researchers found that six percent of men filled a prescription for antibiotics for a urinary tract infection within 30 days after having a prostate biopsy, with a twofold increase in hospital admissions over five years, reports The Journal of Urology®.. Earlier studies reported serious adverse events after prostate biopsy including febrile urinary tract infection and urosepsis in one to four percent of men, despite the use of prophylactic antibiotics. There have also been reports that chronic conditions such as diabetes, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and a history of urinary tract infection increase the risk of infections.. To estimate the incidence of infection after prostate biopsy and assess ...
The Global Prostate Cancer Market is expected to reach $ 72 billion by the end of 2020 growing at a CAGR of around 9.7% from 2014 to 2020. Prostate cancer is an advancement of cancer in the prostate, a gland present in the male reproductive system which exists directly under the bladder in front of the rectum. The cancer cells may spread from the prostate to the other parts of the body, viz. the bones and lymph nodes. In the later stages of cancer it can cause difficulty in urination, blood in the urine, etc. Old age, family history and race are some of the factors that increase the risk of prostate cancer. Prostate cancer is most of the times diagnosed by biopsy.. U.S is considered to be the largest market of prostate cancer because the incidence of prostate cancer is common in African American population. The Global Prostate Cancer Market is segmented on the basis of Diagnostic Techniques (Digital Rectal Exam (DRE) and Prostate Specific Antigen Test (PSA)), Surgery (Radical Prostatectomy, ...
... Statistics: Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in U.S. men with approximately 218,850 new cases expected in 2007. Prostate cancer is expected to kill 27,050 American men in 2007, third behind lung cancer and colorectal cancers. The death rate from prostate cancer has declined by about 30% in the past 15 years as a result of early detection and improved treatment. While nearly 40% of U.S. men will develop some form of prostate cancer, many will not be diagnosed with or die from this cancer.. Natural history: Prostate cancer grows locally within the prostate and eventually invades into nearby tissues (bladder, seminal vesicals, muscles and fat). When it spreads, it typically goes to lymph nodes and bone, and later to other organs. When it spreads well beyond the prostate, survival is reduced and cure improbable.. Prostate cancer is graded based upon its microscopic appearance. Well differentiated tumors somewhat resemble normal prostate and behave less ...
Presentation Authors: Alexander Tamalunas*, Cora Sauckel, Anna Ciotkowska, Beata Rutz, Christian G. Stief, Christian Gratzke, Martin Hennenberg, Munich, Germany. Introduction: Medical treatment in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) includes reduction of prostate size to prevent disease progression, complications, and surgery, and also reduction of prostate smooth muscle tone for rapid relieve of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Combination therapies are still required to target both at once. However, current medications are insufficient, causing high rates of patient non-compliance due to an unfavourable balance between side effects and efficacy, with discontinuation rates peaking up to 90% for combination therapies. Here, we investigated the effect of lenalidomide on cellular functions including cytoskeletal organization and growth of prostate stromal cells.. Methods: Experiments were carried out in an immortalized line of cultured human prostate stromal cells (WPMY-1). Cytoskeletal ...
b1 integrin regulates the response of both normal and cancer cells to their local environment. Although mis-localised in prostate cancer, the role b1 integrin plays in prostate development and carcinogenesis remains unknown. To assess the role of b1 integrin in vivo, we conditionally deleted b1 integrin from prostate epithelium and subsequently crossed these mice to the TRAMP prostate carcinogenesis model. Deletion of b1 integrin following castration and subsequent androgen supplementation resulted in an expansion of the p63-positive basal cell population and decreased differentiation. Consistent with these findings, deletion of b1 integrin in TRAMP mice decreased animal survival, decreased retention of normal prostate morphology, increased the percentage of tissue with poorly differentiated carcinoma, and increased cell proliferation. This study demonstrates that b1 integrin regulates several aspects of normal prostate development and in contrast to its role in several other tissues, its loss
... For many older men, prostate cancer may be present but never cause symptoms or problems and many men will die with their prostate cancer rather than of their prostate cancer. Yet it remains the second leading cause of male cancer deaths, so it is critical to identify those cases that will progress in order to reduce the risk of succumbing to the disease. The younger you are, the healthier you are and therefore the longer your life expectancy, the greater the chance that prostate cancer will come against you during your life span. Therefore although prostate cancer is much less common in younger men, it is very important to make a diagnosis in younger men. For further information on screening and early detection of prostate cancer, see the Section entitled Screening for Prostate Cancer. Conversely, the older you are and the greater your co-morbidity (other diseases or medical conditions that you have that could affect your life expectancy) the less likely prostate cancer will be a ...
which is present in the normal, hyperplastic and dysplastic prostate. NE cells are located in all regions of the human prostate at birth, but rapidly decrease in the peripheral prostate after birth and then reappear at puberty [4]. After puberty, the number of NE cells seems to increase until an apparently optimum level is reached, which persists from 25 to 54 years old [5]. The relationship of age beyond puberty to the number and distribution of these endocrine-paracrine cells has not been definitively assessed, but in the guinea pig these cells in the peripheral prostate increase markedly with adult age [6]. Studies on adult human prostates indicate that NE cells are more frequent in the periurethral ducts than in the peripheral parts of the gland [7]. Others [8,9] also described the presence of NE cells in the stroma of fetal and infantile prostates.
In most cases, prostate cancer grows slowly. In fact, for some men, the prostate cancer grows so slowly that it never becomes a major problem. However, some types of prostate cancer can grow quickly and spread to other parts of the body. When cancer spreads from its point of origin to other locations, it is termed metastasized cancer. Prostate cancer most commonly metastasizes to the bones, bone marrow, liver, lungs, lymph nodes, and bladder. By far, prostate cancer most frequently metastasizes to the bones. Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer related death among American men, according to the American Cancer Society. However, prostate cancer related deaths are decreasing, probably because of improved detection methods and treatments. The exact cause of prostate cancer is not always known. Researchers have recently discovered that some types of prostate cancer are linked to changes in DNA. Your DNA is the carrier of your genetic information, including directions for how your ...
Donald J. Vander Griend is the author of this article in the Journal of Visualized Experiments: Formation of Human Prostate Epithelium Using Tissue Recombination of Rodent Urogenital Sinus Mesenchyme and Human Stem Cells
Over 233,000 men are diagnosed with prostate cancer each year and almost 30,000 die. There are other common prostate issues such as enlarged prostate due to benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH), or prostatitis. Prostate health is one of the most crucial aspects to a mans health. Here are 7 tips.
The fear of having prostate cancer can be devastating to men. However, it is treated most successfully when found early. Consider these statistics from the American Cancer Society (ACS):. • 91 percent of all prostate cancers are discovered while they are either confined to the prostate or near the prostate. The five-year survival rate for men diagnosed with prostate tumors discovered at these stages is 99 percent.. • In the last 20 years, the five-year survival rate for all stages of prostate cancer combined has increased from 67 percent to 99 percent.. • Prostate cancer is the most common cancer among men, excluding skin cancer.. • In 2010, 217,730 new cases of prostate cancer will be diagnosed in the U.S.. • In 2010, 32,050 men will die from prostate cancer in the U.S. alone, making it the second leading cause of cancer death in men.. Colorectal cancer is malignant cells found in the colon or rectum. The colon and the rectum are parts of the large intestine, which is part of the ...
In order to specifically deliver chemotherapeutic agents to cancer cells, Dr. Gmeiners team first tested the utility of DNA as a drug delivery vehicle. Special, highly structured DNA molecules were designed and shown to be capable of delivering toxic drugs to prostate cancer cells. The next step was to apply this DNA delivery system to the delivery of other agents that would specifically target the cancer cells, leaving the normal prostate cells unharmed. Since prostate cancer cells have lower zinc levels than normal prostate cells, combining zinc compounds with the DNA delivery vehicle resulted in specific delivery of the compound to the prostate cancer cells, and subsequently increased the cancer cells sensitivity to chemotherapy ...
Prostatic acinar tissue is fundamentally similar in the dorsal, lateral, and ventral lobes but with tinctorial differences reflecting different biochemical constituents of secretions and differing staining protocols among laboratories. There is also variability in the amount of secretion both within and between specific lobes. In addition, the single-cell lining of the prostatic acini varies in height depending upon the degree of secretory activity. The challenge in evaluating the prostate is reliable identification of specific lobes. Specific lobe identification is highly dependent upon obtaining a section that clearly shows their relationship to one another and how they encircle the urethra ( Figure 1 ). The ventral prostate is the largest lobe, is most easily separated from the rest of the prostate for weighing, and consists of varying-sized acini with homogeneous or flocculent secretion. The dorsal and lateral lobes are smaller than the ventral lobe, are adjacent to one another, have ...