TY - JOUR. T1 - Propensity-matched analysis of outcomes after mitral valve surgery between trainees and consultants (institutional report). AU - Bruno, Vito D.. AU - Chivasso, Pierpaolo. AU - Hayat, Amna. AU - Marsico, Roberto. AU - Benedetto, Umberto. AU - Caputo, Massimo. AU - Ascione, Raimondo. AU - Angelini, Gianni D.. AU - Ciulli, Franco. AU - Vohra, Hunaid A.. PY - 2018/3/1. Y1 - 2018/3/1. N2 - OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine whether early outcomes and long-term survival after mitral valve surgery performed by trainee residents are equivalent in terms of safety and efficacy when compared with consultant surgeons. METHODS: Between January 2000 and December 2015, a total of 1742 patients who underwent mitral valve surgery were identified. Of these, 1622 operations were performed by consultants (Group I) and 120 operations were performed by trainees (Group II). A propensity score-matched analysis has been used to minimize selection bias. Early postoperative outcomes were defined as ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Perioperative Morbidity of Lymph Node Dissection for Renal Cell Carcinoma. T2 - A Propensity Score-based Analysis. AU - Gershman, Boris. AU - Moreira, Daniel M.. AU - Thompson, R. Houston. AU - Boorjian, Stephen A.. AU - Lohse, Christine M.. AU - Costello, Brian. AU - Cheville, John C.. AU - Leibovich, Bradley C.. PY - 2017/1/1. Y1 - 2017/1/1. N2 - Background: There are little data regarding the morbidity of lymph node dissection (LND) for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) to assess its risk-benefit ratio. Objective: To evaluate the association of LND with 30-d complications among patients undergoing radical nephrectomy (RN) for RCC. Design, setting, and participants: A total of 2066 patients underwent RN for M0 or M1 RCC between 1990 and 2010, of whom 774 (37%) underwent LND. Intervention: RN with or without LND. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis: Associations of LND with 30-d complications were examined using logistic regression with several propensity score techniques. ...
We compared bleeding rates and clinical outcomes after ticagrelor vs. prasugrel use in patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary
Missing data could be a source of uncontrolled bias. However, due to the low range of missing data in our data, it is unlikely to influence the results significantly. It is also important to note that patients who only received vasopressor therapy were completely excluded from the analysis. This is a unique population that may actually do better than patients represented in the current article. Despite these limitations, we believe the results show an underlying signal regarding the potentially harmful effect of perioperative inotropic therapy. Our results support the findings of two other important observational studies. Fellahi et al. reported that catecholamine administration was associated with major cardiac morbidity. In an initial cohort of 667 patients, perioperative use of catecholamines was associated with increased cardiac morbidity measured as a combined endpoint of postoperative sustained ventricular arrhythmia, need for an intraaortic balloon pump in ICU or postoperative MI. The ...
Genetic Analysis Workshop 17 provided simulated phenotypes and exome sequence data for 697 independent individuals (209 case subjects and 488 control subjects). The disease liability in these data was influenced by multiple quantitative traits. We addressed the lack of statistical power in this small data set by limiting the genomic variants included in the study to those with potential disease-causing effect, thereby reducing the problem of multiple testing. After this adjustment, we could readily detect two common variants that were strongly associated with the quantitative trait Q1 (C13S523 and C13S522). However, we found no significant associations with the affected status or with any of the other quantitative traits, and the relationship between disease status and genomic variants remained obscure. To address the challenge of the multivariate phenotype, we used propensity scores to combine covariates with genetic risk factors into a single risk factor and created a new phenotype variable, the
Researchers and statisticians frequently use propensity score analyses (PSA) to analyze observational datasets and reduce the impact of confounding due to observed covariates. In many of these applied studies, nationally representative population-based complex survey datasets are frequently used. Most of these studies incorrectly choose to ignore the complex survey design features; partly because there is a lack of clear guidelines of how PSA should be implemented in a complex survey data analysis context. Only a few relatively recent studies have examined how to incorporate PSA in this context, and some of these recommendations are contradictory, inconclusive, or not generalizable to all types of PSA. This workshop will help recognize some of the challenges and open questions in the big data analysis setting. The workshop is aimed at practitioners and is particularly focused on demonstrating the implementation of PSA in a complex survey data analysis context through an illustrative data ...
Video created by Johns Hopkins University for the course Statistical Reasoning for Public Health 2: Regression Methods. 2000+ courses from schools like Stanford and Yale - no application required. Build career skills in data science, computer ...
Utilization of echocardiography during septic shock was associated with a decreased 28-day mortality: a propensity score-matched analysis of the MIMIC-III database
A propensity score model was created to evaluate the association between magnesium administration (independent variable) and maternal fever (dependent variable). After a univariate analysis to identify factors associated with receiving magnesium, the propensity score model was created using variables significantly associated with receiving treatment. Although chorioamnionitis and neuraxial analgesia were not significantly associated with magnesium use, they were included in the model to ensure balance in the subjects selected. Logistic regression was used to create a propensity score for each subject. Variables included in the model were white race, diagnosis of preeclampsia, duration of labor greater than 10 h (median labor time), preterm birth, spontaneous rupture of membranes, diagnosis of chorioamnionitis, group B streptococcus-positive status, use of neuraxial labor analgesia, antibiotic administration, systemic opioid administration, acetaminophen administration, cesarean delivery, ...
The use of retrospective healthcare claims datasets is frequently criticized for the lack of complete information on potential confounders. Utilizing patients health status-related information from claims datasets as surrogates or proxies for mismeasured and unobserved confounders, the high-dimensional propensity score algorithm enables us to reduce bias. Using a previously published cohort study of post-myocardial infarction statin use (1998 - 2012), we compare the performance of the algorithm with a number of popular machine learning approaches for confounder selection in high-dimensional covariate spaces: random forest, least absolute shrinkage and selection operator, and elastic net ...
Purpose : Although several studies showed the correlation between the stroke and open angle glaucoma (OAG), there have not been enough large population based longitudinal studies. In this study, we investigated the risk of subsequent stroke development after initial OAG diagnosis over a 10-year follow-up period. Methods : We performed a retrospective nationwide propensity score-matched cohort study. OAG and comparison groups were selected from a large database from the Korean National Health Insurance Service, comprising 1,025,340 random subjects. The OAG group comprised patients with an initial diagnosis of OAG between January 2004 and December 2007 (n = 1,520), and the comparison group comprised randomly selected patients (five per glaucoma patient; n = 7,570). Patients who were diagnosed with stroke before the enrollment date were excluded. Each cohort was tracked until 2013 for stroke development. Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was performed to determine possible association. ...
By Robert W. Rebar, MD Professor and Chair, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Western Michigan University Homer Stryker M.D. School of Medicine, Kalamazoo Dr. Rebar reports no financial relationships relevant to this field of study. SYNOPSIS: Women undergoing infertility treatment, particularly in vitro fertilization, are at higher risk of severe maternal morbidity, but the overall risk remains low. SOURCE: Dayan N, Joseph KS, Fell DB, et al. Infertility treatment and risk of severe maternal morbidity: A propensity score-matched cohort study. CMAJ 2019;191:E118-E127. Although it is . . .
This is not just to say that we cannot ensure that results from observational studies are unbiased or useless (because, as @propofol said, their results can be useful for designing RCTs), but also that PSs do certainly not offer a complete solution to this problem, or at least do not necessarily yield better results than other matching or multivariate methods (see e.g. (10)).. Propensity scores (PS) are, by construction, probabilistic not causal indicators. The choice of the covariates that enter the propensity score function is a key element for ensuring its reliability, and their weakness, as has been said, mainly stands from not controlling for unobserved confounders (which is quite likely in retrospective or case-control studies). Others factors have to be considered: (a) model misspecification will impact direct effect estimates (not really more than in the OLS case, though), (b) there may be missing data at the level of the covariates, (c) PSs do not overcome synergistic effects which are ...
Propensity score gives the probability of a subject in a population to belong to a group of interest such as a treatment group. Then comparing subjects with the same propensity scores across treatment and no-treatment groups enables the researcher to infer on the effect of the treatment regarding a given outcome even if he works…
Lung ultrasound score-based perioperative assessment of pressure-controlled ventilation-volume guaranteed or volume-controlled ventilation in geriatrics: a prospective randomized controlled trial
This course introduces some methods commonly used in program evaluation and real-world effectiveness studies, including two-stage modeling, interrupted time-series, regression discontinuity, and propensity score matching. These methods help address questions such as: Which medicine is more effective in the real world? Did an advertising program have an impact on sales? More generally, are the changes in outcomes causally related to the program being run?
Increased Rate of Poor Laryngoscopic Views in Patients Scheduled for Cardiac Surgery Versus Patients Scheduled for General Surgery: A Propensity Score-Based Analysis of 21,561 Cases ...
The study used data from 8 DWI courts, 7 from Michigan and 1 from North Carolina. Using a 2-way classification system based on court casemix severity and program intensity, we selected participants in 1 of the courts, and alternatively 2 courts as reference groups. Reference group courts had relatively severe casemixes and high service intensity. We used propensity score matching to match participants in the other courts to participants in the reference group court programs. Program outcome measures were the probabilities of participants: failing to complete the courts program; increasing educational attainment; participants improving employment from time of program enrollment; and re-arrest. ...
Objective To compare the effectiveness, safety and costs of standard versus individually tailored reduced doses of anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF) drugs in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) after achieving low-disease activity. Methods This was a single-centre prospective observational study performed within the ATTRA registry. The anti-TNF dose tapering strategy was chosen by treating physicians, without prespecified protocol. We used propensity score (PS) methodology to identify two cohorts of patients matched for relevant baseline characteristics who were treated with either reduced (n=53) or standard (n=83) doses of TNF inhibitors. One-year outcomes and costs of anti-TNF drugs were compared between both PS-matched cohorts. Results In the reduced dosing group, the median dose of TNF inhibitor corresponded to 0.67 and 0.5 of the standard dose initially and at 12 months respectively, and 21% of patients required return to standard dosing regimen. The mean change per year in Bath Ankylosing
Our study had several methodological strengths, including the matching process of villages across the implementation boundaries. While we used propensity score matching using census data from several years before the study, we found that the villages matched well on multiple observed dimensions not used in the matching process, suggesting that the villages were matched on unobserved variables as well. We also focused on health outcomes proximal to the services covered by the scheme, as its circumscribed set of covered services enabled measurement of changes in cause specific mortality even if changes in general population health were difficult to measure.. This study was, however, also limited in several ways. First, it was quasi-experimental in that the scheme was not randomly assigned to villages. This posed several methodological challenges but also presented opportunities for using rigorous approaches designed to reduce selection bias. The northern portion of Karnataka was selected for ...
DISCUSSION. The results indicated that the PBF had a positive impact on the nutritional status of children and adolescents aged 5 to 19 years in both study regions. In the Northeast the beneficiary families had a smaller proportion of underweight children and adolescents, and in the Southeast, they had a smaller proportion of overweight/obese children and adolescents. These results, especially those that regard the Northeast, rectify the appropriate focus of the program as this region concentrates the countrys highest prevalence of food insecurity [10]. Families that live in food insecurity may have difficulties to access adequate and healthy food, which may contribute to unfavorable nutritional diagnoses, such as malnutrition, for example. Assessment of public policies provides scientific evidence for political decision making. However, impact assessment studies must use the appropriate methodology, especially regarding sampling and confounder control. The present study used propensity score ...
We first estimated a propensity score model in which the dependent variable was multinomial, assuming 13 distinct values corresponding to the 13 hospitals (1 hospital is the reference group). The specific clinical variables included in the model were selected from a literature review of existing models and expert opinion from a panel of senior cardiac surgeons. A multinomial logistic regression model was estimated, and predictions for each patient in the sample were subsequently obtained. Thus, each patient had 14 estimated probabilities, each reflecting the likelihood that the patient would undergo CABG at 1 specific hospital rather than 1 of the remaining 13 hospitals. For this reason, the sum of the 14 estimated probabilities for each patient was 1.. To compare the performance of each hospital with that of its peers, it is necessary to assess whether the population of patients undergoing surgery at a particular hospital is comparable to that of all other Massachusetts hospitals on the basis ...
ConclusionWe conclude that diaphragm interventions are an essential part of CRS. They are associated with increased perioperative morbidity. This morbidity is not attributable to whether the patient underwent diaphragm stripping or resection. However in mesothelioma and LAMNs, requiring diaphragm resection is likely to be an indicator for tumor aggression....
The present simulation study shows that in case of rare exposure, PS-weighting or PS-matching can be biased for estimating the marginal hazard ratio of an exposure. This result was particularly clearcut with PS-weighting analysis using ATE weights, even if stabilized weights were used across all analyses. All methods were converging to their theoretical value with increasing sample size and/or prevalence, but the use of ATE weights and PS-matching needed more subjects than the use of ATT weights. This result leads to limiting the use of PS analysis in case of rare exposure if a sufficient number of subjects is not available, and to favour PS-weighting method using ATT weights when the number of subjects is limited.. Nevertheless, ATT estimation is not consistent with the study objectives in all cases. Small prevalence of exposure could be encountered in two main situations. First, a drug on the market for a long time, and actually little prescribed: in this situation, estimating ATE may not be ...
A client transmits one or more lead records to a lead enhancement module that is configured to enhance the received lead records and return enhanced lead records to the client. The lead enhancement module may return a contactability score for each lead record, indicating a likelihood that the individual identified in the lead may be contacted using the contact information provided in the lead record and/or additional contract information located by the lead enhancement module. The lead enhancement module may also receive additional data items associated with leads from one or more data sources. Additionally, statistical models that may be customized for each client may be applied to information associated with lead records in order to determine one or more propensity scores for each of the lead records, where a propensity score indicates a likelihood that an individual will take a particular action, such as purchasing particular goods or services.
SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIAL Table S1. The logistic regression model used to calculate the propensity score. Table S2. Distribution of propensity score among the treat and control groups of the full and matched
Johnson AC, Ethun CG, Liu Y, Lopez-Aguiar AG, Tran TB, Poultsides G, Grignol V, Howard JH, Bedi M, Gamblin TC, Tseng J, Roggin KK, Chouliaras K, Votanopoulos K, Cullinan D, Fields RC, Delman KA, Wood WC, Cardona K, Maithel SK. Studying a Rare Disease Using Multi-Institutional Research Collaborations vs Big Data: Where Lies the Truth? J Am Coll Surg. 2018 09; 227(3):357-366.e3 ...
Subjects who were recently diagnosed with both hypertension and dyslipidemia and who are not yet taking any medications for these conditions OR subjects with both hypertension and dyslipidemia who were previously treated with antihypertensive and/or lipid lowering medications but discontinued these medications for at least 3 months prior to the Screening visit ...
Health,...A new score for predicting the risk of heart disease gives a more accu...The study published on bmj.com on July 6 estimates that in the gener...The study comes as the governments drugs watchdog the National Instit...A persons chance of developing heart disease is estimated using standa...,New,heart,disease,risk,score,will,help,minimize,health,inequalities,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
MatchingFrontier is an easy-to-use R Package for making optimal causal inferences from observational data. Despite their popularity, existing matching approaches leave researchers with two fundamental tensions. First, they are designed to maximize one metric (such as propensity score or Mahalanobis distance) but are judged against another for which they were not designed (such as L1 or differences in means). Second, they lack a principled solution to revealing the implicit bias-variance trade off: matching methods need to optimize with respect to both imbalance (between the treated and control groups) and the number of observations pruned, but existing approaches optimize with respect to only one; users then either ignore the other, or tweak it, usually suboptimally, by hand.. MatchingFrontier resolves both tensions by consolidating previous techniques into a single, optimal, and flexible approach. It calculates the matching solution with maximum balance for each possible sample size (N, N-1, ...
This tutorial describes how to use a menu-driven Shiny app based on the Toolkit for Weighting and Analysis of Nonequivalent Groups (TWANG) R package. It can be used to estimate propensity score weights and treatment effects for binary treatments.
Despite evidence that first-birth timing influences womens health, the role of marital status in shaping this association has received scant attention. Using multivariate propensity score matching, we analyze data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 to estimate the effect of having a first birth in adolescence (prior to age 20), young adulthood (ages 20-24), or later ages (ages 25-35) on womens midlife self-assessed health. ...
Q-Q plot using Normal distribution and the Benard Score method. Observed values are plotted on the X axis with expected values on the Y axis ...
A method for presenting a user selected status of an object in a three dimensional graphic display is disclosed. The method includes the step of receiving a request to select a property of an object for display. The method further includes the step of displaying at least one property which may be displayed for the object. A selection of a property is received and the value of the selected property for the object is determined. The method further includes the step of generating a status indicator based on the value of the selected property. The status indicator is then displayed relative to the object. In a preferred embodiment, the form of the status indicator is automatically determined by the system. An apparatus for implementing the method is also disclosed.
Its funny that you mention Randall D. Knight because I quite frankly think that his Physics for Scientists and Engineers is really among the best science books I have ever read (not finished yet, but Im working on it!). Granted he does drag it out a bit sometimes, but Id rather have a book too thorough than a book too short and hasty; you can always glimpse through passages if youre sure that you got the idea, however you cannot with your imagination fill in segments of a textbook that is heavily concentrated. Several of my friends didnt like it, but I love the way he writes, the examples and approach to the whole thing. Now we just need those teaching concepts taken to the next level for more advanced stuff and more calculus and advanced mathematics. This is the only point where I really find the book a bit lacking, its the absence of more advanced calculus. But its already more than 1300 pages, so the idea for Knight would be to write a sequal and take the whole thing to the next ...
Results-Among 1252 hemorrhagic strokes (626 prestroke SSRI users and 626 propensity score-matched nonusers), prestroke SSRI use was associated with an increased risk of the strokes being severe (adjusted propensity score-matched odds ratios, 1.41; confidence interval, 1.08-1.84) and an increased risk of death within 30 days (adjusted propensity score-matched odds ratios, 1.60; confidence interval, 1.17-2.18). Among 8956 patients with ischemic stroke (4478 prestroke SSRI users and 4478 propensity score-matched nonusers), prestroke SSRI use was not associated with the risk of severe stroke or death within 30 days.. ...
HRT use among female patients with AF enrolled in AFFIRM use was not independently associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes, major bleeding, or mortality. Indeed, HRT use did not increase risk of the composite primary end point, nor end points of all-cause death, ischemic stroke, major bleeding, or the composite of MI, pulmonary embolism, and systemic embolism-even in a propensity score-matched cohort. This analysis, investigating the impact of HRT on stroke risk in women with AF, is the largest of its kind.. In these subjects, independent predictors of the primary end point were age, diabetes mellitus, prior stroke, and heart failure. Age, diabetes mellitus, and prior stroke are well-validated risk factors for stroke.4 Data for heart failure are less consistent, but moderate-to-severe systolic impairment5 and recent decompensated heart failure increase stroke risk irrespective of ejection fraction.6. Notwithstanding the benefits of HRT on osteoporosis and menopausal symptoms, the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Survival benefit of postoperative radiotherapy for ductal carcinoma in situ after breast-conserving surgery. T2 - a Korean population-based cohort study. AU - Kim, Byoung Hyuck. AU - Ko, Byung Kyun. AU - Bae, Jeoung Won. AU - Nam, Seokjin. AU - Park, Min Ho. AU - Jeong, Joon. AU - Lee, Hyouk Jin. AU - Chang, Ji Hyun. AU - Kim, Suzy. AU - Hwang, Ki Tae. PY - 2019/11/1. Y1 - 2019/11/1. N2 - Purpose: It has been accepted that radiation therapy (RT) for ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) has no survival benefit despite increasing local control. However, a recent large database study reported a small but significant benefit. Using a Korean population-based large database, we examined the survival benefit of RT for DCIS after breast-conserving surgery (BCS) and analyzed which subgroup might derive benefit from it. Methods: Data from 6038 female DCIS patients who underwent BCS with or without RT between 1993 and 2012 were included in this study. We used propensity score analysis to control ...
Several limitations of this study need to be addressed. First, beta-blocker and diltiazem treatments were not randomly assigned to veterans: medications were chosen by the providers presumably based on the clinical profile and medical history of the veteran. We found evidence of preferential use of diltiazem in our data among veterans with COPD and heart failure, and less use among veterans who had undergone a revascularization procedure. Diltiazem users seemed to be less healthy than beta-blocker users based on these retrospective data. Observational studies of this nature may produce spurious associations if confounding by either drug indication or disease severity is not accounted for in the analysis. We attempted to minimize potential confounding by propensity score adjustments and by restriction to subgroups without relative contraindications to beta-blocker treatment. Empirically, both methods produced similar results. We cannot, however, rule out the possibility of confounding by factors ...
The characteristics of the study population were analyzed using descriptive statistics. We matched the ESRD and comparison groups using propensity score matching. The propensity scores were estimated by logistic regression analysis for the prediction of ESRD occurrence after controlling for age, sex, household income, and year of enrollment. Matching was performed using the greedy macro with the estimated propensity score. An 8-to-1 digit greedy matching algorithm was then used to identify a unique matched control for each ESRD patient according to the propensity score. If a match could not be found, the algorithm sequentially proceeded to the next highest digit match in the propensity score to create "next-best" matches in a hierarchical sequence, until no more matches could be made. Once a match was made, it was not considered again. We identified the association between ESRD and the subsequent incidence of RVO using univariable and multiple conditional Cox proportional hazards regression ...
When estimating causal effects, typically one binary treatment is evaluated at a time. This thesis aims to extend the causal inference framework using the potential outcomes scheme to a situation in which it is of interest to simultaneously estimate the causal effects of two treatments, as well as their interaction effect. The model proposed is a 22 factorial model, where two methods have been used to estimate the generalized propensity score to assure unconfoundedness of the estimators. Of main focus is the inverse probability weighting estimator (IPW) and the doubly robust estimator (DR) for causal effects. Also, an estimator based on linear regression is included. A Monte Carlo simulation study is performed to evaluate the proposed estimators under both constant and variable treatment effects. Furthermore, an application on an empirical study is conducted. The empirical application is an assessment of the causal effects of two social factors (parents educational background and students ...
Background: Mild aortic regurgitation (AR) is common in older adults, often attributed to aging and is considered harmless. We studied if baseline mild AR is associated with incident HF among community-dwelling adults ≥65 years in the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS).. Methods: In the original CHS cohort, 4895 participants were free of prevalent HF at baseline, of whom 4873 had echocardiographic data on type and grade of valvular heart disease (VHD). Of these, 372 (8%) had mild AR (AR jet height to left ventricular outflow tract diameter ratio ,24%). After excluding those with moderate (n=505), moderately severe (n=36) or severe (n=16) AR, the final sample size was 4316. We used propensity scores for mild AR, estimated for each of the 4316 participants, to match 353 (95% of 372) of those with mild AR with 1048 of those without AR, thus assembling a cohort of 1401 participants who were balanced on 56 baseline traditional cardiovascular risk factors including hypertension and blood pressure, ...
Optimal Caliper Width for Propensity Score Matching of Three Treatment Groups: A Monte Carlo Study. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
The foundation of this dissertation is built upon the belief that treatment effects are often heterogeneous. Thus, different patients experience different outcomes on the same medication. The existence of such heterogeneity gives indication that the current clinical evidence may not be appropriate. This becomes increasingly evident when heterogeneous treatment effects (HTE) prove to be qualitative. Thus basing clinical decisions on averages could have implications on the patients well-being, the cost of healthcare to society, and the availability of medications in the marketplace.; Hence, the Prognostic Propensity Score (PPS) method was developed with three goals in mind; (1) To identify if HTE are present, (2) To identify if HTE are quantitative or qualitative, and (3) To identify unique patient characteristics or tailoring variables when qualitative HTE are present. Accomplishing these goals will provide physicians and other decision makers with evidence that will allow them to treat patients ...
Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG)-the two main indications for are for relief of symptoms, usually angina and/or breathlessness, that persist even with optimal medical therapy (OMT), and/or prognosis. There is a prognostic benefit of CABG in patients with large volumes of ischaemia (i.e. affecting >12% of the ventricular mass), and the benefit of revascularization increases with increasing volumes of ischaemia. The overall mortality for elective CABG in the United Kingdom is around 1% and has continued to fall over the last decade despite an increasingly adverse risk profile of patients undergoing surgery. In randomized trials and large propensity-matched cohort registries CABG, in comparison to percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) even with drug-eluting stents, has been shown to improve survival and to reduce the subsequent risk of myocardial infarction and recurrent angina. Approximately 80% of patients are alive a decade after surgery of whom around 70% are still free from angina....
RESULTS Of sulfonylurea users under study (N = 519,272), 60.3% were female and 34.9% non-Hispanic Caucasian, and the median age was 58.0 years. In 176,889 person-years of sulfonylurea exposure, we identified 632 SCA/VA events (50.5% were immediately fatal) for a crude incidence rate of 3.6 per 1,000 person-years. Compared with glipizide, propensity score-adjusted hazard ratios for SCA/VA were 0.82 (95% CI 0.69-0.98) for glyburide and 1.10 (0.89-1.36) for glimepiride. Numerous secondary analyses showed a very similar effect estimate for glyburide; yet, not all CIs excluded the null. ...
BACKGROUND Heart failure (HF) is a common and serious complication in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The prognosis of ischemic HF and impact of revascularization in such patients have not been investigated fully in a patient population representing everyday practice. OBJECTIVES This study examined the impact of ischemic versus nonischemic HF and previous revascularization on long-term prognosis in an unselected population of patients with and without T2DM. METHODS Patients stratified by diabetes status and ischemic or nonischemic HF and history of revascularization in the Swedish Heart Failure Registry (SwedeHF) from 2003 to 2011 were followed up for mortality predictors and longevity. A propensity score analysis was applied to evaluate the impact of previous revascularization. RESULTS Among 35,163 HF patients, those with T2DM were younger, and 90% had 1 or more associated comorbidities. Ischemic heart disease (IHD) occurred in 62% of patients with T2DM and 47% of those without T2DM, of whom ...
Eligible were 162 patients with sepsis-induced DIC; 68 patients received rhTM and 94 did not. Patients receiving rhTM had higher severity of illness according to baseline characteristics. After adjusting for these imbalances by stratified propensity score analysis, treatment with rhTM was significantly associated with reduced in-hospital mortality (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.45; 95 % confidential interval, 0.26-0.77; p = 0.013). An association between rhTM treatment and higher numbers of intensive care unit-free days, ventilator-free days, and vasopressor-free days were observed. DIC scores were significantly decreased in the rhTM group compared with the control group in the early period after rhTM treatment, whereas the incidence of bleeding-related adverse events did not differ between the two groups.. ...
I use SAS and R on a daily basis. Each has strengths and weaknesses, and using both of them gives the advantage of being able to do almost anything when it comes to data manipulation, analysis, and graphics. If you use both SAS and R on a regular basis, get this book. If you know one of the packages and are learning the other, you may need more than this book, but get this book, too. ...
The study assessed the impact of Child and Family Teams (CFT) on functional outcomes, for children enrolled in Arizonas public behavioral health system. The curren..