The identification and understanding of structure-activity relationships is vital for rational catalyst design. A kinetic study of the hydrogen-deuterium exchange reaction of cyclohexanone in aqueous solution, as catalyzed by proline derivatives, has revealed valuable structure-activity relationships. In phosphate-buffered solution, cis-4-fluoroproline is more active than the trans isomer, a distinction that appears to originate from a destabilizing interaction between the fluorine atom and phosphate anion during general acid-catalyzed dehydration of the carbinolamine intermediate. trans-4-Ammoniumprolines are exceptionally active catalysts owing to favorable Coulombic interactions involving the ammonium group and the alkoxide moiety formed upon 1,2-addition of the proline derivative to the ketone. These results could be used for the optimization of proline catalysts, especially in transformations where the formation of the putative iminium ion is rate-limiting ...
Read "Effect of Mutations in Genes PH085 and PH04 on Proline Utilization in Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Russian Journal of Genetics" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Salt stress is one of the important abiotic stress factors. Proline is generally thought to play an important role in the improvement of salt tolerance in plants. In the present study, we discussed the relationship between free proline accumulation and the expression patterns of the genes that play roles in proline metabolism (P5CS, P5CR, PDH, P5CDH) under 90 mM NaCl stress. We used three salt tolerant M3 generation soybean mutant plants (Ataem-7/150-68, S04-05/150-2 and S04-05/150-114). The mutants belonging to M3 generation are determined as tolerant to 90 mM NaCl. The free proline contents of the salt-tolerant mutants were measured at the upper phase of the extract with respect to toluene. We observed 1.96-, 2.43- and 1.14-fold increases in the free proline accumulation of Ataem-7/150-68, S04-05/150-2 and S04-05/150-114 mutant plants after 7 days of salt treatment in accordance with control groups, respectively. The expression analyses were performed using specific primers designed for ...
Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli can utilize proline as a sole carbon or nitrogen source. Proline utilization requires the expression of the two genes in the put operon: the putP gene, which encodes proline permease, and the putA gene, which encodes a bifunctional membrane-associated dehydrogenase that degrades proline to glutamate. The PutA protein also autogenously regulates transcription of the put operon. Induction of the put operon requires proline, oxygen (or another terminal electron acceptor), and available membrane binding sites. A simple model explains the regulation: under inducing conditions the PutA protein binds to the membrane where it is enzymatically active, but when the intracellular concentration of proline is low or when few functional membrane binding sites are available, the PutA protein accumulates in the cytoplasm where it represses transcription of the put operon. This change in cellular localization seems to be at least partly induced by changes in the redox ...
The largest differences among strains were observed in the reactions mediated by the malic enzymes and the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, the TCA cycle, and the fluxes related to proline metabolism and hydroxylation. As the ΔputA_pET strain was not able to catabolize proline, proline addition did not have an impact on the flux distribution, which resembled that of the wt_pET strain grown on glucose only. However, the ΔputA_pET strain virtually substituted endogenous proline biosynthesis with the uptake of extracellular proline. In contrast, proline addition increased the acetate secretion rate by almost 25%, in the wt_pET strain, reversed the flux between α-KG and glutamate towards α-KG synthesis, increased the TCA flux from α-KG to succinate by almost 40%, and activated the conversion of malate to pyruvate. In all other cases, independently of proline addition, this gluconeogenetic reaction was not active. The oxidative decarboxylation of malate catalyzed by the malic enzymes ScfA ...
The content of the free proline in roots of Xingjiang poplar,dryland willow,Chinese scholar tree,and four-season cloves inundated with sea water was tested.The result indicated that the quantity of the free proline in the roots varied.
250 µCi quantities of L-[2,3-3H]-Proline are available for your research. Application of [3H]Proline can be found in: IMD (Intermedin, 1-53) inhibiting rat cardiac fibroblast activation induced by angiotensin II in cardiovascular research, integrative cartilage repair (adhesive strength correlated with collagen deposition) in orthopaedic research, interaction between isolated human myocardial mast cells and cultured fibroblasts in surgical research, amino acid derivatives as substrates or non-transported inhibitors of the amino acid transporter PAT2, etc. ...
Catalyzes the sodium-dependent uptake of extracellular L-proline. Since most S.aureus strains are L-proline auxotrophs, this transporter may aid the bacterial persistence during an infection of tissues with low proline concentrations.
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To assess the ameliorative effects of exogenous proline application on salinity stress, 20, 35 and 50-day old seedlings of two lupine varieties (i.e., Giza 1 and Giza 2) grown on a saline soil (i.e., 6.35 - 6.45 dS m-1) were sprayed with 0 (tap water as a control), 3, 6 or 9mM proline. This study was conducted in two seasons of 2012/2013 and 2013/2014. All proline levels caused a significant incre ...
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proline transport protein: MW 100-KDa peptide; facilitates transport of proline in cytoplasmic membrane vesicles; RefSeq NM_053996 (rat); NM_201353 (mouse)
In many plants, free proline accumulates in response to the imposition of a wide range of biotic and abiotic stresses. Controversy has surrounded the extent to which this shift in nitrogen metabolism
The Proline Racing Mid-Atlantic Showdown presented by: Line-X, was the third race of the 2020 racing schedule for the PDRA series. 13 Pro Boost entries showed up to qualify in the hot summer temperatures, added to that was the humidity and everyone in the pits had trouble keeping cool!. When qualifying was done at 8.12 pm on July 24th, 2020, Proline Racing customers were placed in 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 8th qualifying spots. John Strickland shot to the top in the last qualifying session with his 3.68 and 200.69 mph, followed by Kevin Rivenbark (3.695), John Camp (3.706), Jason Harris (3.713) and Randy Weatherford (3.746).. All 5 Proline customers got through Round 1. Randy Weatherford lost to John Strickland in Round 2, which left the 4 entries of Strickland, Rivenbark, Camp, and Harris in an all Proline Racing semi-final.. John Strickland red-lit against Jason Harris low .70s pass which catapulted Harris to his first final in Pro Boost since switching from Pro Nitrous late in 2019.. John Camp ...
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... " is a new book by Dr. Keith Woodford which helps to clarify some of these issues. Dr. Thomas Cowan wrote the books forward, in which he talks about the type of cows that are used for milk today. Our milk comes from Holstein and Friesian cows; these cows give milk that contain beta-casein type A1, which behaves like an opiate and which epidemiological studies have implicated in heart disease, diabetes, autism and schizophrenia. Beta-casein is a protein. A protein is a long chain of amino acids with many branches. Old fashioned cows such as Jerseys have a beta-casein chain of amino acids with the amino acid proline at number 67 (these cows are called A2). Thousands of years ago, a mutation occurred in this proline amino acid converting it to the amino acid histidine. Cows that have this mutation are called A1, which include the Holsteins where we get milk from today. The side chain that comes off either the histidine or proline amino acid is called BCM 7, which is a powerful ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A novel nonopioid action of enkephalins. T2 - Competitive inhibition of the mammalian brain high affinity L-proline transporter. AU - Fremeau, Robert T.. AU - Velaz-Faircloth, Maria. AU - Miller, Joshua W.. AU - Henzi, Victor A.. AU - Cohen, Susan M.. AU - Nadler, J. Victor. AU - Shafqat, Saad. AU - Blakely, Randy D.. AU - Domin, Barbara. PY - 1996/6. Y1 - 1996/6. N2 - The high affinity L-proline transporter (PROT) is a member of the family of Na+ (and Cl-)-dependent plasma membrane transport proteins that comprises transporters for several neurotransmitters, osmolytes, and metabolites. The brain-specific expression of PROT in a subset of putative glutamatergic pathways implies a specialized function for this novel transporter and its presumed natural substrate L-proline in excitatory synaptic transmission. However, definitive studies of the physiological role(s) of high affinity L-proline uptake have been precluded by the lack of specific uptake inhibitors. Here, we report that ...
Proline has been grafted onto silica supports in a single step by reacting trans-4-hydroxy-l-proline with chloropropyl tethers, without the use of protecting groups for the proline amine and carboxylic acid functional groups. The resulting catalysts have been characterised to show that grafting is through re Catalysis on Chiral Surfaces: From Fundamental Aspects to Application
Just like many previous studies, results of our study also demonstrated that both ADG and ADFI decreased after LPS challenge, which likely resulted from the impaired intestinal and immune functions (Wang et al., 2008). In this study, dietary supplementation with proline had a tendency to increase ADG, indicating a beneficial effect of supplemental appropriate proline on growth performance in piglet. However, Samuels (1989) reported that dietary supplementation with 1.0% to 1.5% proline had no effect on the performance in piglets from 1 to 10 d of age, suggesting that the requirement of proline in neonatal pig might be more than in young pigs.. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is a 53-amino acid single-chain polypeptide. Its role in stimulating intestinal epithelium proliferation, differentiation, and intestinal maturation has been documented (Dignass and Sturm, 2001). Previous studies had reported that LPS induced the release of EGF (Ohyama et al., 2001). However, in the present study, LPS ...
預計在今年(2011)暑假通過 FDA 核准的 C 型肝炎強效新藥,Merck 藥廠的 boceprevir 與 Vertex Pharmaceuticals Inc. 藥廠的 telaprevir,FDA諮詢委員會(advisory committee)在四月27日與28日分別舉行會議,對藥物的安全性進行評估。. Telaprevir 與 Boceprevir 皆為針對第一基因型慢性 C 型肝炎的藥物,適用於未曾接受過治療、或對先前治療無效、但肝臟仍舊具有執行功能的患者(compensated stage)。. 與目前 C 型肝炎的臨床治療藥物相較之下,Telaprevir與Boceprevir有更強的治療效果,不過,卻也有較嚴重的副作用。現行的 C 肝藥物多半只會引起類似流感的副作用,而 Boceprevir 的潛在副作用則包括貧血、以及多個出現精神疾患的案例,精神疾患包括有自殺或殺人的傾向。. 由於使用 Boceprevir 治療 C 型肝炎的處方中,必須同時搭配使用長效型干擾素(peginterferon ...
1LHH: Role of proline residues in human lysozyme stability: a scanning calorimetric study combined with X-ray structure analysis of proline mutants.
Case 1: V The National Institutes of Health/Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/Infectious Diseases Society of America guidelines for the prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections in HIV-infected adults and adolescents (www.cdc.gov/mmwr/pdf/rr/rr5804.pdf) recommend Bactrim be administered to HIV-injected patients such as PJ whose CD4 counts fall below 200 cells/mcL to prevent PCP. The preferred regimen listed in the guidelines is 1 double-strength tablet daily; however, 1 double-strength tablet 3 times weekly and 1 single-strength tablet daily are noted as also likely being effective. The latter is also touted as having better tolerability than the preferred regimen. Therefore, the pharmacist should not be concerned with PJs dose of Bactrim (as he is getting the preferred regimen), nor worry that the previous patient was getting an ineffective dose for PCP prophylaxis.. Case 2: Two new nonstructural protein 3 (NS3)/4A serine protease inhibitors (boceprevir [Victrelis] and ...
1. The metabolism by the bovine lens of nine 14C-labelled l-amino acids was studied. These were: alanine, aspartate, glutamate, leucine, lysine, proline, serine, tyrosine and tryptophan. 2. All were taken up by the tissue and incorporated into protein. 3. Aspartate and glutamate, although poorly taken up, were readily metabolized to CO2. Radioactivity from glutamate was also found in glutathione, glutamine, proline and ophthalmic acid. Aspartate was converted into glutamate, glutathione, proline, alanine and lactate. 4. Alanine was largely converted into lactate, which was released into the medium, but incorporation of radioactivity into CO2, glutamate, glutathione, aspartate and lipids also occurred. 5. Radioactivity from leucine was detected in CO2, lipids, glutamate, glutathione, proline and glutamine. 6. Lysine was only slightly broken down by the bovine lens; radioactivity was observed in CO2, glutamate, glutathione, proline and two unidentified compounds. 7. Proline was metabolized to ...
The hinge region is a flexible area on the immunoglobulin molecule which contains many residues of the amino acid proline and is where the Fc fragment j...
Cardio-C™ (Pauling-therapy) drink mix provides Linus Paulings specific vitamin C and lysine recommendations for the prevention and treatment of chronic scurvy (aka cardiovascular disease.). Cardio-C™s vitamin C is China-FREE™ Quali-C® and includes the important amino acid proline. No excipients.. The pleasant tasting Cardio-C™ drink mix is easier to swallow than pills. Add one or two scoops to a tall glass of water and make a pleasant tasting drink. Cardio-C™ drink mix powder provides 30 servings and a scoop.. Add one or two scoops to a tall glass of water. Two jars provides Nobelist Linus Paulings minimum therapeutic amounts of both vitamin C and lysine.. ...
Cardio-C™ (Pauling-therapy) drink mix provides Linus Paulings specific vitamin C and lysine recommendations for the prevention and treatment of chronic scurvy (aka cardiovascular disease.). Cardio-C™s vitamin C is China-FREE™ Quali-C® and includes the important amino acid proline. No excipients.. The pleasant tasting Cardio-C™ drink mix is easier to swallow than pills. Add one or two scoops to a tall glass of water and make a pleasant tasting drink. Cardio-C™ drink mix powder provides 30 servings and a scoop.. Add one or two scoops to a tall glass of water. Two jars provides Nobelist Linus Paulings minimum therapeutic amounts of both vitamin C and lysine.. ...
Proline was synthesized in 1900 by Richard Martin Willstatter (1872-1942) . One year later it was isolated from natural source (casein) by Hermann Emil Fischer (1852-1919). In 1904 Fischer proposed the term "proline" as the previous one (α-pyrrolidin-carbonsaure) was too long for use. ...
MetabolismTransport and binding proteinsAmino acids, peptides and aminesglycine betaine/L-proline transport ATP binding subunit (TIGR01186; HMM-score: 11.4) ...
MetabolismTransport and binding proteinsAmino acids, peptides and aminesglycine betaine/L-proline transport ATP binding subunit (TIGR01186; HMM-score: 32.2) ...
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Here, we present a structural and dynamic description of CBP-ID4 at atomic resolution. ID4 is the fourth intrinsically disordered linker of CREB-binding protein (CBP). In spite of the largely disordered nature of CBP-ID4, NMR chemical shifts and relaxation measurements show a significant degree of α-helix sampling in the protein regions encompassing residues 2-25 and 101-128 (1852-1875 and 1951-1978 in full-length CBP). Proline residues are uniformly distributed along the polypeptide, except for the two α-helical regions, indicating that they play an active role in modulating the structural features of this CBP fragment. The two helical regions are lacking known functional motifs, suggesting that they represent thus-far uncharacterized functional modules of CBP. This work provides insights into the functions of this protein linker that may exploit its plasticity to modulate the relative orientations of neighboring folded domains of CBP and fine-tune its interactions with a multitude of ...
Requires iron(II) for activity. Unlike the proline hydroxylases involved in collagen biosynthesis [EC 1.14.11.2 (procollagen-proline dioxygenase) and EC 1.14.11.7 (procol
use strict; #use warnings; use Encode; for my $file (@ARGV) { open my $fh, ,:encoding(UTF-8), $file; my $input = join q{}, ,$fh,; close $fh; while ( $input =~ /(^,.*?\w?)$([^,]*)/smxg ) { my $name = $1; my $seq = $2; $seq =~ s/\n//smxg; my $trans = codon2aa($seq); print $name\t$trans\n; } } sub codon2aa { my($codon) = @_; $codon = uc $codon; my(%genetic_code) = ( TCA =, S, # Serine TCC =, S, # Serine TCG =, S, # Serine TCT =, S, # Serine TTC =, F, # Phenylalanine TTT =, F, # Phenylalanine TTA =, L, # Leucine TTG =, L, # Leucine TAC =, Y, # Tyrosine TAT =, Y, # Tyrosine TAA =, _, # Stop TAG =, _, # Stop TGC =, C, # Cysteine TGT =, C, # Cysteine TGA =, _, # Stop TGG =, W, # Tryptophan CTA =, L, # Leucine CTC =, L, # Leucine CTG =, L, # Leucine CTT =, L, # Leucine CCA =, P, # Proline CCC =, P, # Proline CCG =, P, # Proline CCT =, P, # Proline CAC =, H, # Histidine CAT =, H, # Histidine CAA ...
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In 2006 Proline unveiled their first carbon handles featuring the patent pending Reverse Radius Technology. The first handle that actually improves your riding by making handle passes easier has only been made better for 2007. We have improved the construction and look for this year. Each handle comes with an extra grip to help customize your ride. ...
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Boceprevir is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. A list of US medications equivalent to Boceprevir is available on the Drugs.com website.