Product information: Human Anti-Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) IgG ELISA kit, 96 tests, Quantitative - Gentaur.com - Product info
OBJECTIVE:To investigate the effect of Duyiwei(lamiophlomis rotate) capsule on the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen(PCNA) in Wistar rats.METHODS:40 Wistar rats,half male half female,were randomly divided into 5 groups:model group,PTCA group,Duyiwei(Lamiophlomis rotate) capsule 0.50,1.25,2.50 g/kg,positive control group(salvia miltrorrhiza tablet 1.0 g/kg).Oral administration of drugs was performed in each group,continuously 5 days.Then all rats were treated by percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty(PTCA) for the establishment of carotid balloon injury model.Then drug treatment continued after PTCA for 28 days.Carotid artery segment underwent routine biopsy immunohistochemistry and PCNA expression determination.RESULTS:In the normal artery,these was low level or no expression of PCNA.In the arterial intima of the model groups,33.71%was PCNA-positivewith each dose of Duyiwei capsule group showing significant differences(P0.05).CONCLUSION:Duyiwei capsule significantly inhibited the
Define Proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen synonyms, Proliferating cell nuclear antigen pronunciation, Proliferating cell nuclear antigen translation, English dictionary definition of Proliferating cell nuclear antigen. also an·ti·gene n. A molecule that is capable of binding to an antibody or to an antigen receptor on a T cell, especially one that induces an immune...
Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is a versatile protein involved in all pathways of DNA metabolism. It is best known as a processivity factor for classical polymerases, which synthesize DNA on non-damaged templates during DNA replication (ex: pol δ). Non-classical polymerases, on the other hand, are those that synthesize DNA on damaged templates (ex: pol η). PCNA also functions in repair, recombination, and most other DNA-dependent cellular processes. A number of separation of function mutant PCNA proteins have been identified, suggesting that PCNA could be a valuable target to manipulate DNA metabolism. This thesis focuses on the study of PCNA mutant proteins that affect translesion synthesis (TLS) and mismatch repair (MMR). During TLS, the process by which DNA polymerases replicate through DNA lesions, PCNA recruits and stabilizes polymerases at the replication fork. TLS requires the monoubiquitylation of PCNA, and PCNA and ubiquitin-modified PCNA (Ub-PCNA) stimulate TLS by classical and
Anti-PCNA polyclonal antibody (STJ94982) was developed using a synthesized peptide derived from the Internal region of human PCNA at AA range: 30-110. This antibody is applicable for use in western blot, immunohistochemistry and ELISA protocol.
Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation in response to hyperglycemia is an important process in the development of arterial vessel hyperplasia. The shape change of mitochondria is dynamic and closely related to fission and fusion. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) was confirmed to have anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative effects. However, little it is known about its effects on mitochondrial morphology induced by hyperglycemia. The aim of the study is to demonstrate that H2S inhibits VSMC proliferation through regulating mitochondrial fission. We observe lower H2S levels as well as higher proliferative protein expression levels for proliferative cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and cyclin D1 and higher mitochondrial fusion-fission protein expression levels for dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp 1) in human kidney arteries and in db/db mouse aorta. Exogenous H2S (100 μM NaHS) inhibits vascular smooth muscle cells of human pulmonary aorta(HPASMC) proliferation and migration in response to high
Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation in response to hyperglycemia is an important process in the development of arterial vessel hyperplasia. The shape change of mitochondria is dynamic and closely related to fission and fusion. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) was confirmed to have anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative effects. However, little it is known about its effects on mitochondrial morphology induced by hyperglycemia. The aim of the study is to demonstrate that H2S inhibits VSMC proliferation through regulating mitochondrial fission. We observe lower H2S levels as well as higher proliferative protein expression levels for proliferative cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and cyclin D1 and higher mitochondrial fusion-fission protein expression levels for dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp 1) in human kidney arteries and in db/db mouse aorta. Exogenous H2S (100 μM NaHS) inhibits vascular smooth muscle cells of human pulmonary aorta(HPASMC) proliferation and migration in response to high
1VYJ: Structural and biochemical studies of human PCNA complexes provide the basis for association with CDK/cyclin and rationale for inhibitor design
The major transcription initiation site (cap site) of PCNA is localized 89 bp upstream from the ATG codon. Neither a TATA box nor a CAAT box is found within the 600-bp region upstream of the cap site. Clusters of 10 bp of sequence, similar to the binding sites for Drosophila proteins containing homeodomains, were found in the region from -127 to -413. DNase I footprint analysis reveals that the Drosophila homeodomain proteins coded by even-skipped and zerknullt genes can specifically bind to these sites. There are two sequences, starting at -52 and -39, of which 8 and 7 (respectively) of 10 nucleotides match the consensus sequence for HeLa cell transcription factor Sp 1 binding. These results suggest that the expression of the PCNA gene is under the control of genes coding for homeodomain proteins (Yamaguchi, 1990). The proliferating-cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) promoter function resides within a 192-bp region (-168 to +24 with respect to the transcription initiation site). Cotransfection with a ...
The effects of 20 μg/mL exogenous prostaglandin A2 (PGA2) were determined on Bax, Bcl-2 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression levels in MCF-7 cells. Flow cytometric analysis indicated a pronounced increase in the S phase and a decrease in the G1 phase, whereas a significant increase in the DNA content preceding the G0/G1 peak was also observed after 48 h of exposure to PGA2. Confirmation of apoptosis was determined after 12 h, 36 h and 48 h of PGA2 exposure employing the mitosensor reagent that detects potential changes in the mitochondrial membrane. Twenty-eight percent of PGA2-exposed cells were in apoptosis when compared to the 7.1% vehicle-treated cells after 48 h. PGA2 exposure led to statistically significant increase (1.25-fold) over vehicle-treated controls in Bax expression levels. Decreases in Bcl-2 (0.79-fold), as well as PCNA (0.69-fold) expression levels over vehicle-treated controls were observed. The Bax/Bcl-2 ratio for PGA2-exposed cells was 2.7. The present ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Author Summary DNA damage can block replication and lead to mutations, genomic instability, and cancer. In cases when the removal of DNA damage and restoration of the original sequence prior to replication is impossible, cells utilize DNA damage tolerance mechanisms, which help replication to bypass the lesions. A major universal tolerance mechanism is translesion DNA synthesis (TLS), in which specialized low-fidelity DNA polymerases elongate the DNA across the lesion. This is a double-edged sword because the price of completing replication is an increased risk of point mutations opposite the lesion. Thus, TLS regulation is critical for preventing an escalation in mutation rates. A key element in TLS regulation is the attachment of a small protein called ubiquitin to the PCNA protein, a sliding DNA clamp that tethers the DNA polymerases to DNA, which functions to recruit the TLS DNA polymerase to the damaged site in DNA. While in yeast this modification of PCNA is crucial for TLS, there is a debate
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In humans, at least a dozen proteins are known to dock with PCNA. Each of them docks with PCNA by inserting a kind of key known as a PCNA-interacting protein, or "PIP-box," which binds chemically to the PCNA and holds the docked protein on the DNA strand. "Each protein that binds with PCNA has its own version of the key, but all the keys fit into the same lock," said Shamoo. "There is a hierarchy among the PIP-box proteins, with some winning out and trumping others before they get a chance to bind. By deciphering the structure of two of these keys, while they were in the lock, we were able to determine their binding energies and find out how the strongest key -- the trump card -- blocks the others and shuts down DNA replication ...
Background: Alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) is an isoform of actin, positive in myofibroblasts and is an epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) marker. EMT is a process by which tumor cells develop to be more hostile and able to metastasize. Progression of tumor cells is always followed by cell composition and extracellular matrix component alteration. Increased α-SMA expression and collagen alteration may predict the progressivity of ovarian neoplasms. Objective: The aim of this research was to analyse the characteristic of α-SMA and collagen in tumor cells and stroma of ovarian neoplasms. In this study, PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen) expression was also investigated. Methods: Thirty samples were collected including serous, mucinous, endometrioid, and clear cell subtypes. The expression of α-SMA and PCNA were calculated in cells and stroma of ovarian tumors. Collagen was detected using Sirius Red staining and presented as area fraction. Results: The overexpressions of α-SMA in
Mouse polyclonal antibody raised against a full-length human PCNA protein. PCNA (NP_002583.1, 1 a.a. ~ 261 a.a) full-length human protein. (H00005111-B01P) - Products - Abnova
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Replicative DNA polymerases cannot insert efficiently nucleotides at sites of base lesions. This function is taken over by specialized translesion DNA synthesis (TLS) polymerases to allow DNA replication completion in the presence of DNA damage. In eukaryotes, Rad6- and Rad18-mediated PCNA ubiquitination at lysine 164 promotes recruitment of TLS polymerases, allowing cells to efficiently cope with DNA damage. However, several studies showed that TLS polymerases can be recruited also in the absence of PCNA ubiquitination. We hypothesized that the stability of the interactions between DNA polymerase δ (Pol δ) subunits and/or between Pol δ and PCNA at the primer/template junction is a crucial factor to determine the requirement of PCNA ubiquitination. To test this hypothesis, we used a structural mutant of Pol δ in which the interaction between Pol3 and Pol31 is inhibited. We found that in yeast, rad18Δ-associated UV hypersensitivity is suppressed by pol3-ct, a mutant allele of the POL3 gene ...
PCNA ubiquitination in response to DNA damage leads to the recruitment of specialized translesion polymerases to the damage locus. This constitutes one of the initial steps in translesion synthesis (TLS)-a critical pathway for cell survival and for maintenance of genome stability. The recent crystal structure of ubiquitinated PCNA (Ub-PCNA) sheds light on the mode of association between the two proteins but also revealed that paradoxically, the ubiquitin surface engaged in PCNA interactions was the same as the surface implicated in translesion polymerase binding. This finding implied a degree of flexibility inherent in the Ub-PCNA complex that would allow it to transition into a conformation competent to bind the TLS polymerase. To address the issue of segmental flexibility, we combined multiscale computational modeling and small angle X-ray scattering. This combined strategy revealed alternative positions for ubiquitin to reside on the surface of the PCNA homotrimer, distinct from the position ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Looking for nuclear antigen? Find out information about nuclear antigen. see immunity immunity, ability of an organism to resist disease by identifying and destroying foreign substances or organisms. Although all animals have... Explanation of nuclear antigen
ウサギ・ポリクローナル抗体 ab15497 交差種: Ms,Rat,Hu 適用: WB,IHC-P,IHC-Fr,ICC/IF…PCNA抗体一覧…画像、プロトコール、文献などWeb上の情報が満載のアブカムの Antibody 製品。国内在庫と品質保証制度も充実。
The hMPBD motif resembles a sequence in the tumor suppressor p21WAF1. This sequence (KRRQTSMTDFYHSKRRLIFS, corresponding to codons 141 to 160 of p21WAF1) binds tightly to PCNA and inhibits the in vitro replication of SV40 DNA (8). We therefore compared the ability of the synthetic peptides corresponding to wtWPBD (wild-type p21WAF1-PCNA binding domain), wtMPBD, and a chimeric MPBD-WPBD (Fig. 4B) to disrupt the MPBD-PCNA interaction. Less rPCNA bound to immobilized GST-MPBD after pretreatment of rPCNA with wtWPBD relative to pretreatment with wtMPBD (Fig. 4B). Similar results were observed when the wtWPBD and wtMPBD peptides were added to preformed GST-MPBD and PCNA complex (Fig. 4B). Because the chimeric peptide failed to compete, this result suggests that residues within the NH2- and COOH-termini of WPBD and MPBD are noninterchangeable and may contain unique PCNA-binding determinants.. What is the relation among MCMT, PCNA, and p21WAF1 in intact cells? Surprisingly, analysis of asynchronous ...
RNase H2B is a non-catalytic subunit of RNase H2, which removes both misincorporated ribonucleotides and R-loops from DNA. RNase H2B contains a PIP-box PCNA interaction motif and is responsible for nuclear localisation and interaction of RNase H2 with the DNA replication and repair machinery. We show that RNase H2 subunits are differentially expressed in several cancers. In colorectal cancer (CRC) tissues and cell lines, about 20% of cases have high RNase H2B expression, which correlates with decreased disease-free survival. We have generated RNase H2B- overexpressing CRC cells lines and show that RNase H2B overexpression reduces replication fork stalling and increases cell survival in response to replication stress ...
Rectal mucosal proliferation has been promoted as an intermediate marker for risk of colorectal neoplasia. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunohistochemistry has become a standard method to measure cell proliferation. Whole-crypt dissection may provide a technically simpler method for determining proliferation within an entire crypt. We conducted a study to assess the reliability (reproducibility) of whole-crypt dissection in 10 subjects. Reliability of whole-crypt dissection with the subject as the unit of observation was excellent. The intraclass correlation coefficient for subjects was 0.93. Biopsy-to-biopsy reliability was lower (r=0.86) and crypt-to-crypt reliability lower still (r = 0.35). There was poor correlation between measures of proliferation index using the two techniques (Kendalls tau = 0.13; P = 0.08). Compartment analysis based on the percentage of the total number of labeled cells appearing in each crypt quartile also did not demonstrate a significant correlation ...
We sell ELISA, IFA, RIA kits, antibody/antibodies for many antigens and hosts, IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, IgM. Antibody application for WB, ELISA, IHC-P, IF, FCM.
Proliferating cell nuclear antigen antibody to detect human Proliferating cell nuclear antigen . Validated on up to 12 cell lysates for western blotting.
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
Proliferating cell nuclear antigen; This protein is an auxiliary protein of DNA polymerase delta and is involved in the control of eukaryotic DNA replication by increasing the polymerases processibility during elongation of the leading strand (266 aa ...
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-PCNA Antibody (3A9). Proliferation Marker. Validated: WB, ELISA, ICC/IF. Tested Reactivity: Human. 100% Guaranteed.
Crystal Structure of the Shrimp Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Structural Complementarity with WSSV DNA Polymerase PIP-Box Jesus S. Carrasco-Miranda, Alonso A. Lopez-Zavala, Aldo A. Arvizu-Flores, Karina D. Garcia-Orozco, Vivian Stojanoff, Enrique Rudiño-Piñera, Luis G. Brieba ,Rogerio R. Sotelo-Mundo PLoS ONE 9(4): e94369. ...
Differential posttranslational modification of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) by ubiquitin or SUMO plays an important role in coordinating the processes of DNA replication and DNA damage tolerance. Previously it was shown that the loss of
Characterization of a large form of DNA polymerase delta from HeLa cells that is insensitive to proliferating cell nuclear antigen.
Rabbit polyclonal antibody raised against recombinant PCNA. Recombinant protein corresponding to human PCNA. (PAB12722) - Products - Abnova
1W60: Structural and Biochemical Studies of Human Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen Complexes Provide a Rationale for Cyclin Association and Inhibitor Design
Cerberus291957d ago Frank doesnt really go into detail about the large scale battles. He just mentions that there are some in the campaign. He also talks about Spartan Ops a little bit and there being a little less emphasis on vehicles in MP due to the addition of sprint. ...
The post-operative recovery period varies based on the particular surgery. Generally, it is recommended patients take two weeks off work to recover from any surgery and to resume light duty following resumption of work. Your surgeon will give you specific instructions to follow for a successful recovery.. ...
In mammalian cells, DNA damage increases the levels of the nuclear tumour-suppressor p53, resulting in elevated synthesis of p21, an inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK). p21 may also directly block DNA replication by inhibiting the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), an essential DNA replication protein. However, PCNA is also required for nucleotide-excision repair of DNA, an intrinsic part of the cellular response to ultraviolet irradiation. Using an in vitro system, we now show that p21 does not block PCNA-dependent nucleotide-excision repair, in contrast to its inhibition of simian virus 40 DNA replication. Furthermore, the short gap-filling DNA synthesis by PCNA dependent DNA polymerases δ and ε is less sensitive to inhibition by p21 than is long primer-extension synthesis. The ability of p21 to inhibit the role of PCNA in DNA replication but not in DNA repair rationalizes in vivo data showing that genetic damage leads to inactivation of chromosomal replication while ...
Bone marrow mononuclear cell (BMMC) transplantation is a promising therapy for cerebral ischemia; however, little is known if its therapeutic efficacy may be improved by co-administration of potential modulatory factors in vivo. To explore this possibility, the present study examined the effect of BMMCs and G-CSF on cell proliferation, early neuronal development and neurological function recovery in experimental cerebral ischemia relative to controls that received neither treatment. Ischemia/infarct area was significantly reduced in BMMCs+G-CSF group relative to animal groups treated with BMMCs only, G-CSF only or saline. Transplanted BMMCs were found to colocalize with the proliferative cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and the immature neuronal marker doublecortin (DCX). The BMMCs+G-CSF group showed increased numerical density of cells expressing PCNA and DCX, improved performance in adhesive sticker removal test and reduced neurological function severity scores relative to other groups in a time-dependent
Bone marrow mononuclear cell (BMMC) transplantation is a promising therapy for cerebral ischemia; however, little is known if its therapeutic efficacy may be improved by co-administration of potential modulatory factors in vivo. To explore this possibility, the present study examined the effect of BMMCs and G-CSF on cell proliferation, early neuronal development and neurological function recovery in experimental cerebral ischemia relative to controls that received neither treatment. Ischemia/infarct area was significantly reduced in BMMCs+G-CSF group relative to animal groups treated with BMMCs only, G-CSF only or saline. Transplanted BMMCs were found to colocalize with the proliferative cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and the immature neuronal marker doublecortin (DCX). The BMMCs+G-CSF group showed increased numerical density of cells expressing PCNA and DCX, improved performance in adhesive sticker removal test and reduced neurological function severity scores relative to other groups in a time-dependent
TY - JOUR. T1 - Prognostic role of cyclin d1 in lung cancer relationship to proliferating cell nuclear antigen. AU - Caputi, Mario. AU - Groeger, Angela M.. AU - Esposito, Vincenzo. AU - Dean, Charity. AU - De Luca, Antonio. AU - Pacilio, Carmen. AU - Muller, Michael R.. AU - Giordano, Giovan G.. AU - Baldi, Feliciano. AU - Wolner, Ernst. AU - Giordano, Antonio. PY - 1999. Y1 - 1999. N2 - We developed an immunohistochemical assay specific for cyclin D1 and suitable for formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded sections, to evaluate cyclin D1 expression in a group of 135 surgically resected lung-cancer patients for the purpose of investigating the prognostic role of this protein in lung cancer. In addition, we compared cyclin D1 expression with the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), considered to be a reliable index of the proliferation rate. We found cyclin D1 expressed in more than 60% of the neoplastic cells in 26.5% of our specimens. A total of 24.5% of the specimens showed ...
p21CDKN1A does not interfere with loading of PCNA at DNA replication sites, but inhibits subsequent binding of DNA polymerase delta at the G1/S phase transition.
Granulocytes of the epigonal and Leydig organs of Rhizoprionodon lalandii were identified and classified into three different cell types, type I and type II eosinophils and neutrophils. the development of these cells in the haematopoietic tissues was dynamic, demonstrated by nuclear immunopositivity for the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) proteins and was regulated by various cytokines, including the transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGFbeta(1)). the expression pattern of these cells was heterogeneous among individual cells and TGFbeta(1)-immunostaining was found principally in the cytoplasm of immature granulocytes. the presence of TGFbeta(1) in cells about to divide was demonstrated suggesting that modulation of differentiation and proliferation occurs in the haematopoietic tissues of this species of elasmobranch. (C) 2002 the Fisheries Society of the British Isles. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved ...
Chromosome cohesion factor involved in sister chromatid cohesion and fidelity of chromosome transmission. Component of one of the cell nuclear antigen loader complexes, CTF18-replication factor C (CTF18-RFC), which consists of CTF18, CTF8, DCC1, RFC2, RFC3, RFC4 and RFC5. The CTF18-RFC complex binds to single-stranded and primed DNAs and has weak ATPase activity that is stimulated by the presence of primed DNA, replication protein A (RPA) and by proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). The CTF18-RFC complex catalyzes the ATP-dependent loading of PCNA onto primed and gapped DNA. It also interacts with and stimulates DNA polymerase POLH ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A mammalian bromodomain protein, Brd4, interacts with replication factor C and inhibits progression to S phase. AU - Maruyama, Tetsuo. AU - Farina, Andrea. AU - Dey, Anup. AU - Cheong, JaeHun. AU - Bermudez, Vladimir P.. AU - Tamura, Tomohiko. AU - Sciortino, Selvaggia. AU - Shuman, Jon. AU - Hurwitz, Jerard. AU - Ozato, Keiko. PY - 2002/9. Y1 - 2002/9. N2 - Brd4 belongs to the BET family of nuclear proteins that carry two bromodomains implicated in the interaction with chromatin. Expression of Brd4 correlates with cell growth and is induced during early G1 upon mitogenic stimuli. In the present study, we investigated the role of Brd4 in cell growth regulation. We found that ectopic expression of Brd4 in NIH 3T3 and HeLa cells inhibits cell cycle progression from G1 to S. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments showed that endogenous and transfected Brd4 interacts with replication factor C (RFC), the conserved five-subunit complex essential for DNA replication. In vitro analysis showed ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Identification of a novel protein, PDIP38, that interacts with the p50 subunit of DNA polymerase δ and proliferating cell nuclear antigen. AU - Liu, Li. AU - Rodriguez-Belmonte, Esther M.. AU - Mazloum, Nayef. AU - Xie, Bin. AU - Lee, Marietta Y.W.T.. PY - 2003/3/21. Y1 - 2003/3/21. N2 - The yeast two-hybrid screening method was used to identify novel proteins that associate with human DNA polymerase δ (pol δ). Two baits were used in this study. These were the large (p125) and small (p50) subunits of the core pol δ heterodimer. p50 was the only positive isolated with p125 as the bait. Two novel protein partners, named PDIP38 and PDIP46, were identified from the p50 screen. In this study, the interaction of PDIP38 with pol δ was further characterized. PDIP38 encodes a protein of 368 amino acids whose C terminus is conserved with the bacterial APAG protein and with the F box A protein. It was found that PDIP38 also interacts with proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). The ...
Following publication of the original article [1], it was reported that Figs. 4 and 5 were not updated during the production process.
Our laboratory previously reported the identification of an acidic isoform of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (caPCNA) in various cancer cells, which appears to be associated, at least in part, with malignant transformation of cells. The current studies show the expression of caPCNA in BXPC-3, Paca-2 and Capan-1 pancreatic cancer cells. Since Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) is involved in DNA replication and repair in prokaryote and eukaryote cells, we hypothesize that caPCNA is likely to perform similar functions specifically in cancer cells. Antibodies developed against caPCNA showed growth inhibition activity in cancer cells suggesting caPCNA is related to the proliferation of malignant cells. In order to begin to understand the function of caPCNA in cellular malignant transformation, we have investigated the interaction of caPCNA with its binding partners including flap structure-specific endonuclease 1(Fen-1) and xeroderma pimentosum complementation group G (XPG). We have ...
Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the United States, making it a major public health issue. Due to increased efficiency in detecting and treating cancer, primary tumors account for only 10% of cancer mortalities. Today, the majority of cancer related deaths are due to metastasis and relapse after therapy, which current cancer treatments fail to prevent. Recently, cancer stem cells (CSCs) have emerged as being responsible for metastasis and relapse. CSCs are cancerous cells with stem cell characteristics including self renewal and the ability to evade chemotherapy and elimination by the immune system. A part of the innate immune system, Natural Killer (NK) cells provide the first line of defense against cancerous cells. NK cells kill cancerous cells through release of cytotoxic granules, a process regulated by activating and inhibitory receptors at the NK cell surface recognizing specific surface molecules on a tumor. Of the NK cell receptors, signaling via NKp44 is pivotal in determining
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