The atp1BEGFHAC operon, which encodes subunits of the ATPase complex, is a typical example of a type II operon. A temporal increase of up to twofold was found for genes in the more distal section of the operon and in fact the induction level became more pronounced with distance from the promoter (Figure 7). These results were verified by qRT-PCR, which showed an even greater temporal increase in transcript levels for genes furthest from the promoter compared to microarray data (Additional file 2). The rise in transcript level occurred with a considerable delay and may be due to a physical block that is present within the transcription initiation region (Figure 7). Mechanisms for transcriptional interference have been investigated in great detail in E. coli (for a review see [42]) and may explain the phenomenon observed here. Shearwin et al. [42] provide three plausible explanations for the retardation of the polymerase: model 1, a protein complex of unknown nature sitting downstream of the ...
Order Recombinant Prochlorococcus marinus subsp pastoris Indole-3-glycerol phosphate synthase trpC 01015965649 at Gentaur Prochlorococcus marinus subsp. pastoris Indole-3-glycerol phosphate synthase (trpC)
Marine cyanobacteria of the genus Prochlorococcus represent numerically dominant photoautotrophs residing throughout the euphotic zones in the open oceans and are major contributors to the global carbon cycle. Prochlorococcus has remained a genetically intractable bacterium due to slow growth rates and low transformation efficiencies using standard techniques. Our recent successes in cloning and genetically engineering the AT-rich, 1.1 megabase (Mb) Mycoplasma mycoides genome in yeast encouraged us to explore similar methods with Prochlorococcus. Prochlorococcus MED4 has an AT-rich genome, with a GC content of 30.8%, similar to that of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (38%), and contains abundant yeast replication origin consensus sites (ACS) evenly distributed around its 1.66 Mb genome. Unlike Mycoplasma cells, which use the UGA codon for tryptophane, Prochlorococcus uses the standard genetic code. Despite this, we observed no toxic effects of several partial and 15 whole Prochlorococcus MED4 genome ...
Some unicellular marine cyanobacteria (assigned to the genera Synechococcus [45] and Synechocystis [84]) perform nitrogen fixation in the oceans. However, no Prochlorococcus isolate has been shown to utilize molecular nitrogen to date, in good agreement with the lack of nif genes (involved in nitrogen fixation) in the studied Prochlorococcus genomes (8, 65). This suggests that the evolutionary constraints that affect the genome size (70) and the low light energy available at depth in the oceans (14) prevented Prochlorococcus from utilizing this ubiquitous (4), but very expensive, nitrogen source.. The first unusual and probably most surprising traits of nitrogen assimilation in all studied strains of Prochlorococcus are their inability to utilize nitrate (9, 36, 47, 56, 63) and the fact that only some low-light-adapted isolates grow on nitrite (47), while most coexistent Synechococcus strains can assimilate both nitrogen sources (7, 13, 47, 67). Physiological studies have shown the lack of ...
Only seven up-regulated genes were common to both strains (blue lines with gene names in Fig. 2). Most are orthologs to Escherichia coli genes implicated in P scavenging, such as the response regulator (phoB) and the transport system for orthophosphate (pstABCS). A porin gene located just downstream from phoB (PMM0709 in MED4 and PMT0998 in MIT9313) was also induced in both strains, and we propose that this gene encodes phoE, which is known to facilitate transport of orthophosphate across the outer membrane in other organisms. In addition to known P-starvation genes, genes previously unassociated with P starvation were up-regulated in both strains (Fig. 2 and Tables 1 and 2). Only two of these genes were common to both MED4 and MIT9313: gap1, which encodes glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and mfs, which encodes a major facilitator superfamily transporter. Both genes are located just downstream from phoB, suggesting they play an important but unknown role in the P-starvation response, as ...
Only seven up-regulated genes were common to both strains (blue lines with gene names in Fig. 2). Most are orthologs to Escherichia coli genes implicated in P scavenging, such as the response regulator (phoB) and the transport system for orthophosphate (pstABCS). A porin gene located just downstream from phoB (PMM0709 in MED4 and PMT0998 in MIT9313) was also induced in both strains, and we propose that this gene encodes phoE, which is known to facilitate transport of orthophosphate across the outer membrane in other organisms. In addition to known P-starvation genes, genes previously unassociated with P starvation were up-regulated in both strains (Fig. 2 and Tables 1 and 2). Only two of these genes were common to both MED4 and MIT9313: gap1, which encodes glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and mfs, which encodes a major facilitator superfamily transporter. Both genes are located just downstream from phoB, suggesting they play an important but unknown role in the P-starvation response, as ...
Kana,T,M; Sullivan,M,B; Cornwell,J,C; Groszkowski,K,M. "Denitrification in estuarine sediments determined by membrane inlet mass spectrometry." LIMNOLOGY AND OCEANOGRAPHY. Vol. 43, no. 2. (March 1998.): 334-339.. Paul,J,H; Sullivan,M,B; Segall,A,M; Rohwer,F. "Marine phage genomics." COMPARATIVE BIOCHEMISTRY AND PHYSIOLOGY B-BIOCHEMISTRY & MOLECULAR BIOLOGY. Vol. 133, no. 4. (December 2002.): 463-476.. Sullivan,M,B; Waterbury,J,B; Chisholm,S,W. "Cyanophages infecting the oceanic cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus." NATURE. Vol. 424, no. 6952. (August 2003.): 1047-1051.. Rocap,G; Larimer,F,W; Lamerdin,J; Malfatti,S; Chain,P; Ahlgren,N,A; ARELLANO,A; Coleman,M; Hauser,L; Hess,W,R; Johnson,Z,I; Land,M; Lindell,D; Post,A,F; Regala,W; Shah,M; Shaw,S,L; Steglich,C; Sullivan,M,B; Ting,C,S; Tolonen,A; Webb,E,A; Zinser,E,R; Chisholm,S,W. "Genome divergence in two Prochlorococcus ecotypes reflects oceanic niche differentiation." NATURE. Vol. 424, no. 6952. (August 2003.): 1042-1047.. Lindell,D; Sullivan,M,B; ...
Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is a mechanism to recognize and repair bulky DNA damage caused by compounds, environmental carcinogens, and exposure to UV-light. In humans hereditary defects in the NER pathway are linked to at least three diseases: xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), Cockayne syndrome (CS), and trichothiodystrophy (TTD). The repair of damaged DNA involves at least 30 polypeptides within two different sub-pathways of NER known as transcription-coupled repair (TCR-NER) and global genome repair (GGR-NER). TCR refers to the expedited repair of lesions located in the actively transcribed strand of genes by RNA polymerase II (RNAP II). In GGR-NER the first step of damage recognition involves XPC-hHR23B complex together with XPE complex (in prokaryotes, uvrAB complex). The following steps of GGR-NER and TCR-NER are similar ...
Terpenoids, also known as isoprenoids, are a large class of natural products consisting of isoprene (C5) units. There are two biosynthetic pathways, the mevalonate pathway [MD:M00095] and the non-mevalonate pathway or the MEP/DOXP pathway [MD:M00096], for the terpenoid building blocks: isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP). The action of prenyltransferases then generates higher-order building blocks: geranyl diphosphate (GPP), farsenyl diphosphate (FPP), and geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP), which are the precursors of monoterpenoids (C10), sesquiterpenoids (C15), and diterpenoids (C20), respectively. Condensation of these building blocks gives rise to the precursors of sterols (C30) and carotenoids (C40). The MEP/DOXP pathway is absent in higher animals and fungi, but in green plants the MEP/DOXP and mevalonate pathways co-exist in separate cellular compartments. The MEP/DOXP pathway, operating in the plastids, is responsible for the formation of essential oil ...
ID PROMP_1_PE100 STANDARD; PRT; 555 AA. AC PROMP_1_PE100; Q7V3H5; DT 00-JAN-0000 (Rel. 1, Created) DT 00-JAN-0000 (Rel. 2, Last sequence update) DT 00-JAN-0000 (Rel. 3, Last annotation update) DE SubName: Full=L-aspartate oxidase; EC=1.4.3 16; (PROMP_1.PE100). GN Name=nadB; OrderedLocusNames=PMM0100; OS PROCHLOROCOCCUS MARINUS SUBSP. PASTORIS STR. CCMP1986. OC Bacteria; Cyanobacteria; Prochlorales; Prochlorococcaceae; OC Prochlorococcus. OX NCBI_TaxID=59919; RN [0] RP -.; RG -.; RL -.; CC -!- SEQ. DATA ORIGIN: Translated from the HOGENOM CDS PROMP_1.PE100. CC Prochlorococcus marinus subsp. pastoris str. CCMP1986, complete genome. CC genome. CC -!- ANNOTATIONS ORIGIN:Q7V3H5_PROMP CC -!- GENE_FAMILY: HOG000160476 [ FAMILY / ALN / TREE ] DR UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot; Q7V3H5; -. DR EMBL; BX548174; CAE18559.1; -; Genomic_DNA. DR RefSeq; NP_892221.1; NC_005072.1. DR HSSP; P83223; 1D4D. DR ProteinModelPortal; Q7V3H5; -. DR STRING; Q7V3H5; -. DR GeneID; 1725749; -. DR GenomeReviews; BX548174_GR; PMM0100. DR ...
The congruency of genomic and ITS phylogenies in Prochlorococcus at both coarse (4, 19) and fine resolution (Fig. 2) suggests that ITS-ribotype clusters coincide, in most cases, with distinct genomic backbones (15). This allowed us to estimate the number of coexisting backbone subpopulations in our samples through rarefaction analysis, revealing at least hundreds of coexisting subpopulations with distinct backbones (Fig. 4B) in each sample. These backbone subpopulations are estimated to have diverged at least a few million years ago (15), suggesting ancient, stable niche partitioning. That they have different alleles of genes associated with environmental interactions, carry a distinct set of flexible genes, and differ in relative abundance profiles as the environment changes suggests strongly that they are ecologically distinct.. Enormous population sizes and immense physical mixing probably played a role in the evolution of diverse genomic backbones in Prochlorococcus. A simple fluid mechanics ...
Flow cytometry (FCM) is a well established technique used for enumeration and characterization of marine biological particles, which fulfills the scientific demands of rapid cell counting automation. FCM allows the discrimination of pico- and nanoplankton populations regarding its abundance, cell size, and pigment content both by natural or induced fluorescence. The cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus is widespread in the euphotic zone of the tropical and subtropical oceans, and is considered the smallest and most abundant photosynthetic organism in the planet. Synechococcus, other important cyanobacterium genus present in the picoplankton, is highly diverse and is widely distributed in marine ecosystems from cold and mesotrophic, to warm, open ocean oligotrophic waters. Photosynthetic pico- and nanoeukaryotes display a range of physiologies and life strategies. Although its abundance is generally lower, the larger cell size leads to a significant contribution to the epipelagic community biomass. In this
Opens the Highlight Feature Bar and highlights feature annotations from the FEATURES table of the record. The Highlight Feature Bar can be used to navigate to and highlight other features and provides links to display the highlighted region separately. Links in the FEATURES table will also highlight the corresponding region of the sequence. More... ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Proteomics has great potential for studies of marine microbial biogeochemistry, yet high microbial diversity in many locales presents us with unique challenges. We addressed this challenge with a targeted metaproteomics workflow for NtcA and P-II, two nitrogen regulatory proteins, and demonstrated its application for cyanobacterial taxa within microbial samples from the Central Pacific Ocean. Using METATRYP, an open-source Python toolkit, we examined the number of shared (redundant) tryptic peptides in representative marine microbes, with the number of tryptic peptides shared between different species typically being 1% or less. The related cyanobacteria Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus shared an average of 4.8+1.9% of their tryptic peptides, while shared intraspecies peptides were higher, 13+15% shared peptides between 12 Prochlorococcus genomes. An NtcA peptide was found to target multiple cyanobacteria species, whereas a P-II peptide showed specificity to the high-light Prochlorococcus ...
His ongoing work with the genera Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus is leading to a much more detailed understanding of why these organisms dominate the worlds oceans. This has included, and in collaboration with other European research laboratories, the formal description and complete genome sequence of a Prochlorococcus isolate, an organism with the smallest known genome for a free-living photoautotroph, as well as the comparative genomic analysis of several marine Synechococcus isolates. The latter is revealing considerable differences in gene complement between closely related genotypes, a feature likely underpinning differences in the spatial partitioning of individual genetic lineages in situ.. ...
The simple CCM indicated by an analysis of Prochlorococcus spp. genomes implies that there should be straightforward relationships between the intracellular Ci pool, photosynthesis, and CO2 efflux. Without a CO2 recovery mechanism, CO2 efflux should be linearly related to the CO2 gradient between the carboxysome and the extracellular solution. Because the CO2 concentration in the carboxysome was always much greater than the CO2 in the external solution (maximum of 15 μm), to first order CO2 efflux should be directly related to the CO2 concentration in the carboxysome, which is proportional to the intracellular Ci pool. A linear relationship was observed between the CO2 efflux rate and the intracellular Ci pool, consistent with the simple CCM model (Fig. 3B). However, a closer examination of the data shows that there are two distinct regimes to the data. In the first regime (less than 200 μm external Ci), photosynthesis increases with external Ci while little to no CO2 efflux is observed and ...
General Information: Marine Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus are the most abundant photosynthetic organisms on earth and between them account for about half of the worlds photosynthesis. WH7803 was isolated from the Sargasso Sea, in mesotrophic water (rich in nutrient salts) and is the best physiologically characterized marine Synechococcus strain. ...
There is an exception with https://www.physicsforums.com/wiki/Cyanobacteria [Broken]. Marine cyanobacteria are the smallest known https://www.physicsforums.com/wiki/Photosynthesis [Broken] organisms; the smallest of all, https://www.physicsforums.com/wiki/Prochlorococcus [Broken], is just 0.5 to 0.8 micrometres across.[10] Prochlorococcus is possibly the most plentiful https://www.physicsforums.com/wiki/Species [Broken] on Earth: a single millilitre of surface seawater may contain 100,000 cells or more. Worldwide, there are estimated to be several https://www.physicsforums.com/wiki/Octillion [Broken] (~1027) individuals.[11] Prochlorococcus is ubiquitous between 40°N and 40°S and dominates in the https://www.physicsforums.com/wiki/Oligotroph [Broken] (nutrient poor) regions of the oceans.[12] The bacterium accounts for an estimated 20% of the https://www.physicsforums.com/wiki/Oxygen [Broken] in the Earths https://www.physicsforums.com/wiki/Atmosphere [Broken], and forms part of the base of ...
SWISS-MODEL Template Library (SMTL) entry for 2xcz.1. Crystal Structure of macrophage migration inhibitory factor homologue from Prochlorococcus marinus
Were beginning to get a picture of gene diversity and gene flow in Prochlorococcus," Chisholm said. "These photosynthesizing bacteria form an important part of the food chain in the oceans, supply some of the oxygen we breathe, and play a role in modulating climate. Its important that we understand what regulates their populations. Genetic diversity seems to be an important factor." In one report, Chisholm and scientist Maureen Coleman suggest that gene-swapping in ocean microbes resembles the flow of genes already known to occur among disease-causing bacteria. In an ocean habitat, the exchange offers marine microbes a diverse palette of potential gene combinations, each of which might be best suited for a particular environment. "This would allow the overall population to persist despite complex and unpredictable environmental changes," said Chisholm. A second report, by Zackary Johnson and Erik Zinser, compares where Prochlorococcus microbes are found with the conditions under which they ...
Lineage: cellular organisms; Bacteria; Terrabacteria group; Cyanobacteria/Melainabacteria group; Cyanobacteria; Synechococcales; Prochloraceae; Prochlorococcus; Prochlorococcus ...
FIG. 3. Leucine assimilation rates for Prochlorococcus (A and B) or Synechococcus (C and D) and prokaryotes other than cyanobacteria (Other prokaryotes). Cell samples were taken from depths corresponding to the 30% light level and incubated in the dark (B and D) or at 30% of surface light irradiance (A and C) with 20 nM [3H]leucine. Error bars indicate standard errors of three measurements. ...
MIT News June 22, 2017 David L. Chandler Researchers have discovered that Prochlorococcus varieties can each produce more than two dozen different peptides (molecules that are similar to proteins, but smaller). Image: Christine Daniloff/MIT. In marine bacteria, evolution of new specialized molecules follows a previously unknown path. Its one of the tiniest organisms on Earth,…
G Kettler, AC Martiny, K Huang, J Zucker, M Coleman, S Rodrigue, F Chen, A Lapidus, S Ferriera, J Johnson, C Steglich, G Church, P Richardson, and SW Chisholm. Implications of Gene Gain and Loss in the Evolution of Prochlorococcus. PLoS Genet. 2007 ...
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Marine cyanobacteria have been considered a rich source of secondary metabolites with potential biotechnological applications, namely in the pharmacological field. Chemically diverse compounds were found to induce cytoxicity, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial activities. The potential of marine cyanobacteria as anticancer agents has however been the most explored and, besides cytotoxicity in tumor cell lines, several compounds have emerged as templates for the development of new anticancer drugs. The mechanisms implicated in the cytotoxicity of marine cyanobacteria compounds in tumor cell lines are still largely overlooked but several studies point to an implication in apoptosis. This association has been related to several apoptotic indicators such as cell cycle arrest, mitochondrial dysfunctions and oxidative damage, alterations in caspase cascade, alterations in specific proteins levels and alterations in the membrane sodium dynamics. In the present paper a compilation of the described marine
Transitions in community genomic features and biogeochemical processes were examined in surface and subsurface chlorophyll maximum (SCM) microbial communities across a trophic gradient from mesotrophic waters near San Diego, California to the oligotrophic Pacific. Transect end points contrasted in thermocline depth, rates of nitrogen and CO2 uptake, new production and SCM light intensity. Relative to surface waters, bacterial SCM communities displayed greater genetic diversity and enrichment in putative sulfur oxidizers, multiple actinomycetes, low-light-adapted Prochlorococcus and cell-associated viruses. Metagenomic coverage was not correlated with transcriptional activity for several key taxa within Bacteria. Low-light-adapted Prochlorococcus, Synechococcus, and low abundance gamma-proteobacteria enriched in the,3.0-[mu]m size fraction contributed disproportionally to global transcription. The abundance of these groups also correlated with community functions, such as primary production or ...
DNA polymerase γ is a family A DNA polymerase responsible for the replication of mitochondrial DNA in eukaryotes. The origins of DNA polymerase γ have remained elusive because it is not present in any known bacterium, though it has been hypothesized that mitochondria may have inherited the enzyme by phage-mediated nonorthologous displacement. Here, we present an analysis of two full-length homologues of this gene which were found in the genomes of two bacteriophages which infect the chlorophyll-d containing cyanobacterium Acaryochloris marina. Phylogenetic analyses of these phage DNA polymerase γ proteins show they branch deeply within the DNA polymerase γ clade and therefore share a common origin with their eukaryotic homologues. We also found homologues of these phage polymerases in the environmental Community Cyberinfrastructure for Advanced Microbial Ecology Research and Analysis (CAMERA) database, which fell in the same clade. An analysis of the CAMERA assemblies containing the ...
We determined the taxonomic composition of the bacterioplankton of the epipelagic zone of the Atlantic Ocean along a latitudinal transect (51°S - 47°N) using Illumina sequencing of the V5-V6 region of the 16S rRNA gene and inferred co-occurrence networks. Bacterioplankon community composition was distinct for Longhurstian provinces and water depth. Free-living microbial communities (between 0.22-3 µm) were dominated by highly abundant and ubiquitous taxa with streamlined genomes (e.g. SAR11, SAR86, OM1, Prochlorococcus) and could clearly be separated from particle-associated communities which were dominated by Bacteroidetes, Planktomycetes, Verrucomicrobia and Roseobacters. From a total of 369 different communities we then inferred co-occurrence networks for each size fraction and depth layer of the plankton between bacteria and between bacteria and phototrophic micro-eukaryotes. The inferred networks showed a reduction of edges in the deepest layer of the photic zone. Networks comprised of free
Protein Of Unknown Function; Deletion Mutant Shows Strong Genetic Interaction With Cdc28-as1 Mutant In The Presence Of 1-NM-PP1; DCV1 Has A Paralog, YOL019W, That Arose From The Whole Genome Duplication
Use Bio-Rads PrimePCR assays, controls, templates for your target gene. Every primer pair is optimized, experimentally validated, and performance guaranteed.
Conserved Zinc-finger Domain Protein Involved In Pre-mRNA Splicing; Critical For Splicing Of Nearly All Intron-containing Genes; Required For Assembly Of U4 SnRNA Into The U4/U6 Particle
Use Bio-Rads PrimePCR assays, controls, templates for your target gene. Every primer pair is optimized, experimentally validated, and performance guaranteed.
ecotype: A subdivision of an ecospecies consisting of a population that is adapted to a particular set of environmental conditions.
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Plays a role in phycoerythrobilin biosynthesis, the red pigment chromophore photosynthetically active biliproteins of the host cyanobacteria. Uses a four-electron reduction to carry out the reactions catalyzed by two enzymes (EC 1.3.7.2 and EC 1.3.7.3) in host.
A plethora of structurally novel bioactive secondary metabolites have been reported from the prokaryotic filamentous marine cyanobacteria in the past few decades. In addition to the production of harm
Synechococcus foi identificado en concentracións que van dende un par de células por mL a atá 106 por mL, en, virtualmente, todas as rexión eufóticas oceánicas do planeta, agás no estreito de McMurdo e plataforma de xeo Ross da Antártida[8]. A concentración celular apareceu máis abundantemente en ambientes ricos que en sistemas oligotróficos e a capa fótica superficial das zonas eufóticas[10] Synechococcus tamén se observou a altas abundancias en ambientes con baixa salinidade e/ou baixas temperaturas. Synechococcus é, de xeito corrente, sobrepasado en número por Prochlorococcus en todos os ambientes onde aparecen os dous xéneros. As únicas áreas onde se incumpre o anterior é en rexión plenamente nutridas como en rexións de afloramento e en puntos de entrada de afluentes continentais[10]. Nos puntos oceánicos de escaseza de nutrientes por alto consumo, como nos xiros centrais, Synechococcus pare estar sempre presente malia que só a baixas concentracións que varían da ...
Microbes are key players in both healthy and degraded coral reefs. A combination of metagenomics, microscopy, culturing, and water chemistry were used to characterize microbial communities on four coral atolls in the Northern Line Islands, central Pacific. Kingman, a small uninhabited atoll which lies most northerly in the chain, had microbial and water chemistry characteristic of an open ocean ecosystem. On this atoll the microbial community was equally divided between autotrophs (mostly Prochlorococcus spp.) and heterotrophs. In contrast, Kiritimati, a large and populated (∼5500 people) atoll, which is most southerly in the chain, had microbial and water chemistry characteristic of a near-shore environment. On Kiritimati, there were 10 times more microbial cells and virus-like particles in the water column and these microbes were dominated by heterotrophs, including a large percentage of potential pathogens. Culturable Vibrios were common only on Kiritimati. The benthic community on Kiritimati had
Chisholm has been a faculty member at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology since 1976. Her research has focused on the ecology of marine phytoplankton.[2] Chisholms early work focused on the processes by which such plankton take up nutrients and the manner in which this affects their life cycle on diurnal time scales. This led her to begin using flow cytometry which can be used to measure the properties of individual cells. The application of flow cytometry to environmental samples led Chisholm and her collaborators (most notably R.J. Olson and H.M. Sosik) to the discovery that small plankton (in particular Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus) accounted for a much more substantial part of marine productivity than had previously been realized. Previously, biological oceanographers had focused on silicaceous diatoms as being the most important phytoplankton, accounting for 10-20 gigatons of carbon uptake each year. Chisholms work showed that an even larger amount of carbon was cycled through ...
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1997. In: Lehramtsprüfung 2000. Hrsg.: J.J. Beichel. 1996. S. 117-129 und in: Erziehungswissenschaft, Bildung, Philosophie. Hrsg.: B. Frischmann. Weinheim 1997. S. 149-166. (Studien zur Philosophie und Theorie der Bildung. 37.) ...