Prevalence Over Time and Risk Factors for Sexually Transmissible Infections Among Newly Arrived Female Sex Workers in Timika, Indonesia, at TheBody.com, the complete HIV/AIDS resource.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Population-based prevalence of smoking in psychiatric inpatients. T2 - a focus on acute suicide risk and major diagnostic groups. AU - Lineberry, Timothy W.. AU - Allen, Josiah D.. AU - Nash, Jessica. AU - Galardy, Christine W.. PY - 2009/11. Y1 - 2009/11. N2 - Objective: The aim of the study was to define the extent of current and lifetime smoking by diagnostic groups and suicide risk as reason for admission in a geographically defined psychiatric inpatient cohort. Design: The study used a population-based retrospective chart review. Methods: Smoking status and discharge diagnoses for Olmsted County, Minnesota, inpatients aged 18 to 65 admitted for psychiatric hospitalization in 2004 and 2005 were abstracted from the electronic medical record. Diagnostic groups were compared to each other using χ2 tests and Fisher exact test to analyze smoking status within the inpatient sample with significance defined as P ≤ .05. Results: Eighty percent (80.41) of our sample of 776 patients ...
People spend a considerable amount of time at work over the course of their lives, which makes the workplace important to health and aging. However, little is known about the potential long-term effects of work-related stress on late-life health. This study aims to examine work-related stress in late midlife and educational attainment in relation to serious health problems in old age. Data from nationally representative Swedish surveys were used in the analyses (n = 1,502). Follow-up time was 20-24 years. Logistic regressions were used to examine work-related stress (self-reported job demands, job control, and job strain) in relation to serious health problems measured as none, serious problems in one health domain, and serious problems in two or three health domains (complex health problems). While not all results were statistically significant, high job demands were associated with higher odds of serious health problems among women but lower odds of serious health problems among men. Job control was
BACKGROUND: Hypertension has become a global health challenge given its high prevalence and but low awareness and detection. Whether the actual prevalence of hypertension has been estimated is important, especially for the poor. This study aimed to measure tested prevalence and self-reported prevalence of hypertension and compare the inequity between them in China. METHODS: Data were derived from China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) conducted in 2011. By using the multistage, stratified, random sampling method, 12,168 respondents aged 18 or older were identified for analysis. Both tested prevalence (systolic blood pressure ≥ 140 mmHg or/and diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90 mmHg or /and current use any of antihypertensive medication) and self-reported prevalence (ever diagnosed with hypertension by a doctor) were used to measure the prevalence of hypertension. The concentration index was employed to measure the extent of inequality in tested prevalence and self-reported prevalence. A ...
This is a list of countries (and some territories) by the annual prevalence of cocaine use as percentage of the population aged 15-64 (unless otherwise indicated). The primary sources of information are the World Drug Report 2014 (WDR 2014), and the World Drug Report 2006 (WDR 2006), published by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). The indicator is the annual prevalence rate which is the percentage of the youth and adult population who have consumed the drug at least once in the past year. List of countries by prevalence of cocaine use by percentage of population List of Countries by Prevalence of Opiates Use List of Countries by Prevalence of Cannabis Use World Drug Report 2014 (interactive map). United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. 2014. World Drug Report 2006 (interactive map). United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. 2006. [1] [2] SENDA, National study of drug use in the general population, pg. 18. StatAnnex-Consumption (PDF ...
HIV prevalence at any given age is the difference between the cumulative numbers of people that have become infected with HIV up to this age minus the number who have died, expressed as a percentage of the total number alive at this age. At older ages, changes in HIV prevalence are slow to reflect changes in the rate of new infections (HIV incidence) because the average duration of infection is long. Declines in HIV prevalence can reflect saturation of infection among those individuals who are most vulnerable, and rising mortality, rather than behaviour change. Increases in HIV prevalence can reflect increasing numbers of individuals receiving antiretroviral therapy, and living longer. However at younger ages, trends in HIV prevalence are a better indication of recent trends in HIV incidence and risk behaviour since young people are likely to only recently have initiated sexual or injecting drug behaviours. In addition, young people who have recently been infected with HIV are not likely to have ...
The aim of this study was to analyze the prevalence of chronic diseases in women of childbearing age and investigate the influence of these diseases on pregnancy and birth. This analysis is the first population-based study in which all chronic diseases could be taken into consideration. In the SNiP, every fifth pregnant woman suffers from at least one chronic disease, and higher prevalence rates have been reported in the literature. In an American study analyzing 6.294 women of childbearing age, 26.6% of the participants had one of the more prevalent chronic diseases. In contrast, 39.1% of all women who were not pregnant reported that they were chronically ill [8]. The population-based prevalences rates in the SNiP data are consistently lower than those found in the literature. However, in this study the prevalence rates in young mothers have been contrasted to all women in childbearing age. The prevalence of some chronic diseases is lower during pregnancy (e.g., epilepsy, asthma, and some other ...
Diabetes represents a major health problem and a significant burden on healthcare systems and societies overall. This is particularly the case in countries like Mexico, where the prevalence of diabetes among the population 20-79 years old was 15.9% in 2011. This was the highest in the The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)1 and ranked number 9 worldwide.2 According to the national estimates in Mexico, the self-reported prevalence of diabetes among the population aged 60 and older was 24% in 2012, and in the period between 2000 and 2012, the prevalence doubled among those aged 70 and older from 10% to 20%, and among those aged 60-69 the prevalence grew 1.5 times, going from 18% to 26%.3 Population ageing and the growing prevalence of diabetes raise concerns about the increased burden on social, health and family systems because of the known consequences of this disease. People with diabetes may experience additional health complications,4 5 greater social needs,6 loss ...
Diabetes prevalence data for adults (≥20 years of age) were derived from studies meeting the following criteria: a defined, population-based sample and diagnosis of diabetes based on optimal WHO criteria (a venous plasma glucose concentration of ,11.1 mmol/l 2 h after a 75-g glucose tolerance test). The exceptions to the latter criterion were the study in China, for which a test meal was used (4), and the study in Tanzania (5), in which fasting glucose alone gave a higher prevalence of diabetes than a previous study that used the optimal WHO criteria.. Prevalence estimates for type 1 diabetes for people ,20 years of age for individual countries were estimated from available incidence data using methods described in the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) Diabetes Atlas 2000 (6). Population-based data are not available for type 2 diabetes in people ,20 years of age, and this group has been excluded from these estimates.. Age- and sex-specific estimates for diabetes prevalence were ...
This study provides a global estimate of the prevalence of DR and the severe stages of DR (PDR, DME) using individual-level data from population-based studies worldwide. On the basis of the data from all 35 studies on more than 20,000 participants with diabetes, we estimated that among individuals with diabetes, the overall prevalence of any DR was 34.6%, PDR was 7.0%, DME was 6.8%, and VTDR was 10.2%. Analyses confined only to studies with similar methodologies and ophthalmologic definitions showed that the age-standardized prevalence of any DR was 35.4%, PDR was 7.2%, DME was 7.4%, and VTDR was 11.7%, among individuals with diabetes. The prevalence estimates of any DR and VTDR were similar in men and women and were highest in African Americans and lowest in Asians. Prevalence rates were substantially higher in those with type 1 diabetes and increased with duration of diabetes, and values for HbA1c, blood pressure, and cholesterol. Extrapolated to the world diabetes population in 2010, we ...
Click on the links below for summary of survey findings. Instructions. 1)Scroll the mouse to the state/bar/line chart to obtain prevalence figure. 2)Use the scroller at the right side of the dashboard to obtain state prevalence figures according to years The change of shading on the map indicate a change in state prevalence between the years when the NHMS survey is conducted.Moving the scroller bar will also lead to the display of a new bar chart to its respective year. 3)Click on the noncommunicable diseases in the text boxes above the map/chart. 4)Highlight specific region/bar and click to obtain specific prevalence data. ...
This study is among the first systematic attempts to estimate the prevalence of COPD across the world regions using spirometry-based data. The estimates presented here are based on the age range starting from 30 years, while many of the previous reviews were based on people aged 40 years or older. An appreciable prevalence of COPD has been reported in younger population groups, adding to uncertainties over the current epidemiological situation globally.. In the current study, we estimated a global prevalence of 10.7% (7.3%-14.0%) in 1990 and 11.7% (8.4%-15.0%) in 2010, corresponding to 227 and 384 million of affected cases in 1990 and 2010, respectively. This estimate is an order of magnitude higher than the one presented in the 2001 World Health Report, estimating a world-wide prevalence of COPD of 10.1 per 1000 population (12.1 per 1000 men and 8.1 per 1000 women) [157]. A 2006 global review conducted by Halbert and colleagues reported a pooled prevalence of 9.2% (7.2-11.0), based on 26 ...
In South Africa, persistence of the HIV epidemic and associated gender and racial disparities is a major concern after more than 20 years of democratic dispensation and efforts to create a more healthy and equal society. This paper profiles HIV prevalence and related factors among Black African men and women compared to other race groups in South Africa using the 2012 population-based national household HIV survey. This secondary data analysis was based on the 2012 population-based nationally representative multi-stage stratified cluster random household sample. Bivariate and multiple logistic regression analysis were used to assess the relationship between HIV prevalence and associated factors by gender and racial profile. Overall HIV prevalence was significantly higher (p | 0.001) among both Black African males (16.6%; 95% CI: 15.0-18.4) and females (24.1%; 95% CI: 22.4-26.0) compared to their counterparts from other races. Among Black African males, increased risk of HIV was significantly associated
Due to the wide range of reported prevalence of Molar-Incisor-Hypomineralisation (MIH) found in regional studies, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of MIH in school children at different areas in Germany and to compare the findings to other studies. In the compulsory dental school examination, the first permanent molars, permanent incisors and second primary molars were examined for the presence of MIH according to EAPD criteria (Lygidakis et al., 2010; Weerheijm et al., 2003) in 2395 children attending 2nd to 4th grade (mean age 8.1 ±0.8 years, range 7- 10 years) in four regions in Germany. Examinations were performed by five calibrated examiners (Kappa| 0.9) on clean teeth after brushing. The MIH prevalence at the four regions differed considerably (Düsseldorf 14.6 %, Hamburg 14.0 %, Heidelberg 6.0 %, Greifswald 4.3%) with a mean prevalence of 10.1 % (10.7 % boys, 9.5 % girls, χ2-test: p= 0.57). The caries prevalence was low in general, but children with MIH exhibited
This study demonstrated statistically significant differences in the sensitivities, specificities and positive likelihood ratios between the high- and low-prevalence populations (table 2), providing evidence that the diagnostic performance of junior doctors in interpreting x-rays does vary with prevalence. There was evidence that the sensitivity depended on the x-rays being interpreted, and although such dependence could not be demonstrated for individual x-ray types (due to sample size), it was demonstrated for broader categories of x-rays. Since the x-ray type is an indicator of the type of target disorder and therefore patient, this implies that the diagnostic performance does depend to some degree on both the type of x-ray being interpreted and the target disorder being sought.. However, this was an independent effect: analysis of the interaction between prevalence and x-ray group was not significant. The effect of the junior doctors performance varying with prevalence occurred irrespective ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Workplace bullying in the UK NHS: a questionnaire and interview study on prevalence, impact and barriers to reporting. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Global prevalence and determinants of mortality among patients with COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis. AU - Abate, Semagn Mekonnen. AU - Checkol, Yigrem Ali. AU - Mantefardo, Bahiru. PY - 2021/4/1. Y1 - 2021/4/1. N2 - Background: The challenge of COVID-19 is very high globally due to a lack of proven treatment and the complexity of its transmission. The prevalence of in-hospital mortality among patients with COVID-19 was very high which ranged from 1 to 52% of hospital admission. The prevalence of mortality among intensive care patients with COVID-19 was very high which ranged from 6% to 86% of admitted patients. Methods: A three-stage search strategy was conducted on PubMed/Medline; Science direct Cochrane Library. The Heterogeneity among the included studies was checked with forest plot, χ2 test, I2 test, and the p-values. Publication bias was checked with a funnel plot and the objective diagnostic test was conducted with Eggers correlation, Beggs regression ...
Period prevalence is frequently measured in studies based on administrative data such as that from health maintenance organizations. For example, treated prevalence and drug utilization prevalence are important measures that are typically defined in relationship to a specified time period. Often one wishes to compare administrative data with...
The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) was designed to compare prevalence of asthma and allergy between populations in different countries and trends over time. Phase I showed considerable variations in the prevalence of current wheeze and in this months Thorax Pearce and colleagues report phase III of the ISAAC study where the phase I survey was repeated after an interval of 5-10 years. The results of phase III show that international differences in asthma symptom prevalence have reduced, especially in the 13-14 age group, with decreases in Western Europe and in English speaking countries. There was an increase in prevalence in regions where previously there was low prevalence, such as Latin America. This important and intriguing study shows that there is still an overall rise in the global burden of asthma probably due to increased awareness, although prevalence differences have lessened ...
The data needs to be interpreted with caution, especially for the less frequent conditions, as the uncertainty intervals associated with these figures is quite wide.. A decline is observed in prevalence of visual impairment for each of the eye conditions except Diabetic Retinopathy and the various eye conditions collated under the Other category, where the crude prevalence increased. The considerable increase in the prevalence of diabetes in recent years has contributed to this and the data suggests that eye health services are not managing to keep up with the rising prevalence of diabetes.. The decline in the prevalence of Trachoma is particularly encouraging over the 25-year period. In contrast, given that Uncorrected Refractive Error is the major cause of visual impairment, one would have wished for a greater decline in the prevalence of this condition - the Myopia epidemic is likely to be slowing this rate of decline.. ...
HIV prevalence in Kenya increased to 7.8% in 2007, a slight increase from the 6.7% prevalence recorded in 2003, according to a survey released by the ...
Adult, Age Distribution, Asia; Southeastern/epidemiology, Bangladesh/epidemiology, Chronic Disease/*epidemiology, Educational Status, Female, Health Surveys, Humans, India/epidemiology, Male, Middle Aged, Prevalence, Sex Distribution ...
Latest global prevalence data shows 253 million people with visual impairment-and a staggering 1.1 billion people with near vision impairment--in 2015.
World Health Organization. (‎2008)‎. Worldwide prevalence of anaemia 1993-2005 : WHO global database on anaemia. / Edited by Bruno de Benoist, Erin McLean, Ines Egli and Mary Cogswell. World Health Organization. https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/43894 ...
Discussion. The effects of social context on the nutritional status of populations We attempted to build explanatory models of wasting prevalence in children under 5 years of age for Africa, Latin America, and Asia using secondary datasets. The results suggested that explanatory models of wasting prevalence must differ across regions. In Asia, measures of the population disease burden (incidence of measles as an immediate factor, measures of environmental health (percentage of the population with access to safe water as an underlying factor), and measures of the presence of basic health services and mother- and child- caring practices (LBW as an underlying factor), explained 64% of the variability in wasting prevalence. More distal determinants of malnutrition, representing the distribution of resources in a society, were not predictive of wasting prevalence in Asia.. In Africa and Latin America, there seemed to be a time trend in wasting prevalence. In Africa, wasting prevalence approximately ...
Despite a marked increase in submitted data, there are still numerous countries lacking national prevalence data. There is a need to inform and motivate governments and agencies to collect, and report to WHO, national data on the prevalence of deficiency and, whenever possible, vitamin A programme coverage conditions prevailing at the time that population assessment data were collected. We hope that readers will find this report useful and feel free to share any comments with us ([email protected]). We also hope that this information will contribute to our common goal to eliminate vitamin A deficiency as a public health problem. ...
California autism prevalence trends from 1931-2014 and comparison to national ASD data from IDEA and ADDM authored by Mark Blaxill, Cindy Nevison and Walter Zahorodny was published last night in the Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders (JADD). The paper...
Definition of prevalence rate in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is prevalence rate? Meaning of prevalence rate as a legal term. What does prevalence rate mean in law?
The 2008 South Africa National HIV Prevalence, Incidence, Behavior and Communication Survey is the third in a series of national population-based surveys conducted for surveillance of the HIV epidemic in South Africa. The previous two surveys were conducted in 2002 and 2005. It was designed to investigate the overall HIV prevalence and incidence as well as HIV-related behaviour and health. It enables the measurement of trends and changes in the epidemic over time, and presentation of essential data for national indicator reporting. A total of 23,369 individuals were sampled for the 2008 survey.. ...
Health,Exceeding rates observed in previous research a new study found four ...Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a common sexually transmitt...Participation in the study involved quarterly visits to a primary c...During the course of the study 49 of 60 subjects tested positive f...,Very,high,prevalence,of,virus,linked,to,cervical,cancer,found,in,adolescent,women,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
Estimation of pre-immunisation prevalence of HPV and distribution of HPV types is fundamental to understanding the subsequent impact of HPV vaccination. We describe the type specific prevalence of HPV in females aged 20-21 in Scotland who attended or defaulted from cervical screening using three specimen types; from attenders liquid based cytology and from defaulters urine or self-taken swabs. Residual liquid based cytology samples (n = 2148), collected from women aged 20-21 attending for their first smear were genotyped for HPV. A sample (n = 709) from women who had defaulted from screening was also made available for HPV testing through the use of postal testing kits (either urine samples (n = 378) or self-taken swabs (n = 331)). Estimates of prevalence weighted by deprivation, and for the postal testing kit, also by reminder status and specimen type were calculated for each HPV type. The distribution of HPV types were compared between specimen types and the occurrence of multiple high-risk infections
1) Cocaine, any form.. (2) For Belgium National 2001 and for Metropolitan France 1995: amphetamine and ecstasy.. (3) For Spain: ecstasy and other synthetic drugs.. (4) The most recent general population survey reported by Italy display a wide variation in results compared with the previous surveys which may reflect methodological differences. The data is provided for information, but given the lack of comparability between surveys should be treated with caution.. (5) The most recent General population surveys reported by the Netherlands display a wide variation in results compared with 2005 which may reflect methodological differences. The data is provided for information, but given the lack of comparability between surveys should be treated with caution.. This table aims to provide an overview of national surveys. Exceptionally, some relevant regional surveys are presented. Some city surveys reported by countries were not included as they tend to produce higher prevalence estimates, which are ...
1) Cocaine, any form.. (2) For Belgium National 2001 and for Metropolitan France 1995: amphetamine and ecstasy.. (3) For Spain: ecstasy and other synthetic drugs.. (4) The most recent general population survey reported by Italy display a wide variation in results compared with the previous surveys which may reflect methodological differences. The data is provided for information, but given the lack of comparability between surveys should be treated with caution.. (5) The most recent General population surveys reported by the Netherlands display a wide variation in results compared with 2005 which may reflect methodological differences. The data is provided for information, but given the lack of comparability between surveys should be treated with caution.. This table aims to provide an overview of national surveys. Exceptionally, some relevant regional surveys are presented. Some city surveys reported by countries were not included as they tend to produce higher prevalence estimates, which are ...
OBJECTIVE: To assess the trends in the incidence and prevalence rates of type 1 diabetes (T1D) among children and adolescents in the Netherlands. METHODS: A population-based cohort study was conducted in the Dutch PHARMO record linkage system (1998-2011). All children and adolescents aged ≤19 yr with at least one insulin dispensing ... read more (as a proxy for T1D) were identified and the numbers of incident and prevalent cases (numerators) were calculated. Overall age-adjusted (0-19 yr) incidence and prevalence rates together with age- and sex-specific rates of T1D and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using data from the Dutch Central Bureau of Statistics as denominator. Trends over time were assessed using Joinpoint regression software (National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD, USA). RESULTS: In 2011, the overall age-adjusted incidence and prevalence rates of T1D were 25.2/100 000 (95% CI, 23.7-26.8) person-years (PY) and 174.4/100 000 (95% CI, 170.2-178.5) children, ...
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is an important endocrine disorder of dogs. The objectives of this study were to estimate prevalence and incidence of DM in dogs, and to explore risk factors for DM and the survival of DM cases in primary-care clinics in the UK. A case-control study nested in the cohort of dogs (n = 480,469) aged ≥3 years presenting at 430 VetCompass clinics was used to identify risk factors for DM, using multivariable logistic regression. Overall 409 new and 863 pre-existing DM cases (total 1272) were identified in 2016, giving an apparent annual prevalence of 0.26% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.25-0.28%), and an annual incidence risk of 0.09% (95%CI: 0.08-0.09%) in dogs aged ≥3 years. Factors associated with increased odds for DM diagnosis were all age categories | 8 years, female entire dogs (odds ratio (OR): 3.03, 95% CI 1.69-5.44, p | 0.001) and male neutered dogs (OR: 1.99, 95% CI 1.18-3.34, p = 0.010) compared to male entire dogs, Border Terriers (OR: 3.37, 95% CI 1.04-10.98, p = 0
The results of this study demonstrated prevalence of CKD stage 3 and 4-5 in patients with hypertension to be 33.2 and 4.3%, respectively. A decline in GFR in patients with hypertension was independently associated with cardiac and vascular complications which included CAD, stroke, PAD, and heart failure.. Prevalence of CKD has increased over the past 20 years [1] as a result of greater proportion of older people in the population and a corresponding increase in the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, such as diabetes and hypertension [1]. Uncontrolled hypertension is a major risk factor for CKD and patients with CKD have an increased risk of hypertension not only from related stiffening of arteries, but also related to volume overload. A world-wide study showed that the prevalence of CKD significantly increases in patients at high risk for cardiovascular disease such as hypertension [15]. Prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy was as high as 50% in patients with GFR less than 30 ...
The following dashboard provides figures for observed (or limited duration) cancer prevalence in England. This observed prevalence counts the number of people that were diagnosed with a cancer between 1995 and 2017 and were still alive on the 31st December 2017. Cancer prevalence is useful to understand how many people in the population are living with a cancer diagnosis. There are different ways to measure different types of cancer prevalence - a summary of the different methods is available here . Cancer prevalence is a product of both cancer incidence and survival and should be interpreted with these factors in mind, especially if making comparisons across tumour groups or populations. For example, a cancer with high incidence but poor survival outcomes could have similar prevalence to a tumour type with lower incidence but high survival rates. The dashboard presents prevalence counts and rates for Clinical Commissioning Groups, Sustainability and Transformation Partnerships and Cancer ...
Self reported prevalence and health-seeking behavior for chronic conditions was compared with a similar survey conducted three years ago in the same population. We found that the prevalence rates of overall self-reported chronic conditions and that of diabetes and hypertension increased significantly in the last three years. Similar to the earlier study, the majority of the patients sought care from private sector and in fact we found significant increase in proportions of patients seeking care from private sector over the time.. The already high and rising prevalence of self-reported chronic conditions among poor is of great concern. Studies in India show that many chronic conditions (like, diabetes and hypertension) remains undiagnosed, and hence the actual prevalence of these conditions in population could be much higher [20, 22]. The awareness provided by the community health assistants about chronic conditions, diabetes and hypertension among people and healthcare providers in KG Halli over ...
2016. This dataset is a de-identified summary table of vision and eye health data indicators from VSP, stratified by all available combinations of age group, race/ethnicity, gender, and state. VSP claims for VEHSS provides a convenience sample of vision insurance members representing approximately more than 1 in 4 of the U.S. population. VSP uses a web-based claims submissions system to collect and process claims. The denominator of the rates represents persons with VSP benefits as reported by employers, and is subject to some uncertainty. VSP data for VEHSS include Service Utilization and Eye Health Condition indicators. Certain ophthalmic conditions and procedures are covered by health insurance and are not covered by managed vision insurance, claims based eye disease prevalence may therefore be expected to undercount true prevalence. Person level claims and person counts are not publically available. Reported rates were suppressed for de-identification to ensure protection of patient privacy. ...
Calculating prevalences and incidences Page 1 of c:\data\hs161\pre-inc-key -points.wpd calculating prevalences and incidences 1. prevalence = no. of cases population size a. prevalence can be...Incidence, prevalence, and cost of sexually transmitted ... Cdc act sht. incidence, prevalence, and cost of sexually transmitted infections in the united states. february 2013. national center for hiv/aids, viral hepatitis...
Morbidity is the condition of being ill, diseased, or unhealthy. Both prevalence, as well as incidence, have significance for doctors and scientists and they analyze the figures of both to decide … The quality of being morbid; morbidness. morbidity: [ mor-bid´ĭ-te ] a diseased condition or state. See also morbidity rate . n 1. the state of being morbid 2. Prevalence vs Incidence Knowing the difference between prevalence and incidence can be of use due to the fact that prevalence and incidence are terms used in medical terminology to indicate how widespread a disease may be as well as the rate of its occurrence. The rate of incidence of a disease. This can include acute illnesses (which have a sudden onset and improve or worsen in a short period of time), as well as chronic illnesses (which can present and progress slowly over a long period of time). Incidence is often confused with prevalence. The easy way to remember the difference is that prevalence is the proportion of cases in the ...
This report includes data from MEASURE DHS surveys. It is an update of the 2008 and 2010 documents of the same name. The data are cross-sectional and provide a snapshot of the current situation in HIV prevalence in the 34 countries that included HIV testing in their surveys. The first section gives a summary of surveys with HIV prevalence. Followed by HIV testing in MEASURE DHS Surveys among others. The report covers all the continents of the world and sometimes individual countries.. ...
A high overall prevalence of psychological distress (32.9 % and 81 % according to the K-10 score ≥28 and K-10 score ≥16, respectively) was found in this large sample of tuberculosis public primary care patients in South Africa. Caseness of psychological distress or common mental disorder was assessed using two different cut-offs (K-10 score ≥28 and K-10 score ≥16), as found in two different previous validation studies in South Africa [26, 27]. The uncertainty regarding the correct K-10 cut-off for this study group is a major limitation of this study.. Several studies showed that the K-10 had good psychometric properties [25, 26] and can discriminate between cases and non-cases reported in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) [15, 34]. The finding of 32.9 % to 81 % (using cut off scores of 28 and 16 respectively) the prevalence of psychological distress in this study is in line with the prevalence rates of depression or common mental disorders in most other ...
hi every one. could some one list for me the prevalence of gynaecological tumors. commonest to least common. where is ovarian cancer rated.in percentages?. thnx. This discussion is related to |a href...
Results Prevalence of MDRD CKD stage 3-5 was 6% (5% in males, 7% in females). It varied with age, ranging from 1% of males and 2% of females aged 16-54 to 31% of males and 36% of females aged 75 and over. There was an inverse socio-economic gradient. CKD stage 4-5 (eGFR,30) was rare. Prevalence of CKDEPi was slightly lower especially in females and at younger ages. Prevalence of albuminuria was 9%, higher in males (10% vs 8%) and with a strong inverse socio-economic gradient in males. The overall prevalence of CKD stages 1-5 was 14% in males and 13% in females. Only 1.5% of males and 1.3% of females reported being told by a doctor they had CKD.. ...
The high rates of smoking in men found in this study signal an urgent need for smoking prevention and cessation efforts; tobacco control initiatives are needed to maintain or decrease the currently low smoking prevalence in women.
With each sexual encounter, they face a greater chance of encountering an infected partner than those in lower prevalence settings.2 Acknowledging the inequity in STD rates by race or ethnicity is one of the first steps in empowering affected communities to organize and focus on this problem. With each sexual encounter, they face a greater chance of encountering an infected partner than those in lower prevalence settings.2 Acknowledging the inequity in STD rates by race or ethnicity is one of the first steps in empowering affected communities to organize and focus on this problem. Early treatment decreases the chance that you will infect others. With each sexual encounter, they face a greater chance of encountering an infected partner than those in lower prevalence settings.2 Acknowledging the inequity in STD rates by race or ethnicity is one of the first steps in empowering affected communities to organize and focus on this problem. Most people infected with HSV-2 are not aware of their ...
Today, NHS Digital published the findings of a new Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey. But what does that mean and is it important? Our director, Carol Povey, explains in the video and blog below.
The predictive value of a model can be confirmed by comparing its forecasts with real-world observations. The model was calibrated using HCV prevalence by age and gender in the year 2000, as reported by NHANES.[1] The incidence was back-calculated and the model was used to fit reported prevalence in 2000. Total prevalence in other years, prevalence and incidence by sequelae, and mortality were calculated. A 2010 incidence of 16,020 (13,510-19,510) was forecasted versus the reported incidence of 17,000.[29] The wide CI for incidence was driven by the large uncertainty in reported prevalence.[1] According to the study by Davis et al.,[15] HCV incidence peaked in 1989 when it was 11.5 times higher than the incidence in 1950. This corresponded to a peak incidence of 274,000 in a single year. A 2010 prevalence of 2.5 (2.1-3.2) million cases was estimated, matching the most recent NHANES data that showed 2.5 million cases in the 2009-2010.[30] In comparison, Davis et al.[15] reported an HCV prevalence ...
Men who have sex with men (MSM) represent the fastest growing key population for incident HIV cases in China. We examined five consecutive years of HIV and syphilis prevalence and risk factors data among MSM in Guangxi Province with the second highest estimated number of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs) in China in 2011. We collected demographic and behavioral data from national sentinel surveillance and HIV/syphilis blood samples in five annual cross-sectional surveys from 2008 to 2012. We analyzed HIV and syphilis prevalence trends stratified by social/behavioral characteristics. HIV prevalence climbed steadily from 1.7% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.0 to 3.0) in 2008 to 3.7% (95% CI: 3.0 to 5.0) in 2012. Syphilis prevalence increased steadily from 5.1% (95% CI: 4.0 to 6.0) in 2008 to 8.4% (95% CI: 7.0 to 10.0) in 2012. HIV prevalence rose notably among MSM who were ≤25 years of age, never married, did not engage in sexual intercourse with women in the past six months, and had not been tested
Men who have sex with men (MSM) represent the fastest growing key population for incident HIV cases in China. We examined five consecutive years of HIV and syphilis prevalence and risk factors data among MSM in Guangxi Province with the second highest estimated number of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs) in China in 2011. Methods: We collected demographic and behavioral data from national sentinel surveillance and HIV/syphilis blood samples in five annual cross-sectional surveys from 2008 to 2012.. We analyzed HIV and syphilis prevalence trends stratified by social/behavioral characteristics. Results: HIV prevalence climbed steadily from 1.7% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.0 to 3.0) in 2008 to 3.7% (95% CI: 3.0 to 5.0) in 2012. Syphilis prevalence increased steadily from 5.1% (95% CI: 4.0 to 6.0) in 2008 to 8.4% (95% CI: 7.0 to 10.0) in 2012.. HIV prevalence rose notably among MSM who were ,=25 years of age, never married, did not engage in sexual intercourse with women in the past six ...
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BACKGROUND: Trachoma prevalence surveys provide the evidence base for district and community-wide implementation of the SAFE strategy, and are used to evaluate the impact of trachoma control interventions. An economic analysis was performed to estimate the cost of trachoma prevalence surveys conducted between 2006 and 2010 from 8 national trachoma control programs in Africa.
Background: Hypertension is one of the common medical conditions observed among patients aged 50 years and elder living with HIV (EPLWH) and to date no systematic review has estimated its global prevalence. Purpose: To conduct a systematic review to estimate the global prevalence of hypertension among EPLWH. Data Sources: PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and Global Health databases for relevant publications up till May 25, 2018. Study Selection: Observational studies (cohort or cross-sectional studies) that estimated the prevalence of hypertension among EPLWH. Data Extraction: Required data were extracted independently by three reviewers and the main outcome was hypertension prevalence among EPLWH. Data Synthesis: The 24 (n = 29,987) eligible studies included were conducted in North America, Europe, Africa, and Asia. A low level bias threat to the estimated hypertension prevalence rates was observed. The global prevalence of hypertension among EPLWH was estimated at 42.0% (95% CI ...
The aims of this survey were (1) to estimate the prevalence of known diabetes mellitus in 1988 in Casale Monferrato (Northern Italy); (2) to validate different data sources available in Italy; (3) to...
PURPOSE: Following a first phase of trachoma mapping in Malawi with the Global Trachoma Mapping Project, we identified and mapped trachoma districts previously suspected to be non-endemic, although adjacent to districts with estimated trachoma prevalences indicating a public health problem.
The prevalence of HIV in our first national biobehavioural surveillance survey of FSW was 4.5%, considerably higher than the no infections (0.0%) and 2.7% prevalence measured in previous surveys among FSW in Iran.8 In a recent survey among FSW in Shiraz using respondent driven sampling, HIV prevalence was reported at 4.7%9 which is comparable to what we observed in our study. It is of concern that we have documented high levels of drug use and injection drug use in this population. The high rate of drug injection in this sample illustrates a link between FSW and PWID; the population most severely affected by HIV in Iran. HIV prevalence among FSW who injected drugs was more than three times that among those who did not inject drugs, and it was comparable to HIV prevalence among PWID in Iran (15.1%).2 The high prevalence of injection drug use in our study was also similar to another study among FSW in Iran,10 corroborating the role of drug injection in the spread of HIV among and between other ...
Multidrug resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MDRSA) has become a global problem and it makes the patient management very difficult. Hence, the knowledge of current trend of MDRSA in hospital environment as well as in the community is necessary. The objective of this retrospective study was to isolate Staphylococcus aureus and to determine the prevalence rate of MDRSA in a tertiary care hospital in Navi Mumbai, India. The samples were collected from various departments. Standard microbiological procedures were carried out for isolation and culture. The overall prevalence rate of 18.6% MDRSA was observed among varied samples. The highest numbers of MDRSA were isolated from pus and wound swabs. We also analyzed antimicrobial susceptibility to various antibiotics in the isolated strains. We observed a lower rate of MDRSA prevalence in our study as compared to various other studies. The knowledge of prevalence and antimicrobial resistance will be helpful to select the appropriate antibiotic
TY - JOUR. T1 - Prevalence and risk factors for stroke in Type 2 diabetic patients in Taiwan. T2 - A cross-sectional survey of a national sample by telephone interview. AU - Tseng, Chin Hsiao. AU - Chong, C. K.. AU - Sheu, J. J.. AU - Wu, T. H.. AU - Tseng, C. P.. PY - 2005/4. Y1 - 2005/4. N2 - Aims: To determine the prevalence and risk factors for stroke in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and the age-specific prevalence odds ratios (POR) in comparison with the general population in Taiwan. Methods: A total of 16 994 T2DM patients were randomly selected for telephone interview from a group covered by the National Health Insurance programme. Lifetime prevalence of stroke was calculated and various risk factors were analysed. Age-specific POR was calculated using previously reported prevalence of stroke in the general population from a nationwide survey across Taiwan. Standardized prevalence and POR were also calculated using the 2000-2025 population of the World Health Organization. ...
The point prevalence survey of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) and antimicrobial use organized by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC-PPS) and the Global Point Prevalence Survey of antimicrobial consumption (Global-PPS) were simultaneously performed in Belgian acute care hospitals in 2017. Belgian acute care hospitals were invited to participate in either the ECDC or Global-PPS. Hospital/ward/patient-level data were collected between September-December 2017. All patients present in the wards at 8 a.m. on the day of the PPS were included. The data of the ECDC and Global-PPS on antimicrobial consumption were pooled. Detailed data on HAIs were analysed for ECDC-PPS. Overall, 110 Belgian acute care hospital sites participated in the ECDC and Global-PPS (countrywide participation rate: 81.4%, 28,007 patients). Overall, a crude prevalence of patients with at least one antimicrobial of 27.1% (95% confidence interval (CI) 26.5-27.6%) was found. The most frequently reported
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The global prevalence of physiologically described chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in adults aged 40 yr is approximately 9-10 %. (compelled expiratory quantity in 1 sec) to FVC (compelled vital capability) proportion 0.70. COPD is normally seen as a an accelerated drop in FEV1. Co morbidities connected with COPD are cardiovascular disorders (coronary artery disease and persistent heart failing), hypertension, metabolic illnesses (diabetes mellitus, metabolic symptoms and weight problems), bone tissue disease (osteoporosis and osteopenia), heart stroke, lung cancers, cachexia, skeletal muscles weakness, anaemia, unhappiness and cognitive drop. The evaluation of COPD must determine the severe nature of the condition, its effect on the health position and the chance of future occasions (in 196415 in rural Delhi. The prevalence was 3.36 % in men and 2.54 % in females within this study. Viswanathan in 196616 reported 2.12 % prevalence in men and 1.33 % in females in Patna. Radha and ...
Search and download thousands of Swedish university dissertations (essays). Full text. Free. Dissertation: Epidemiology of osteoarthritis in Sweden. Register and cohort studies on prevalence and mortality.
Congenital heart disease (CHD) is the commonest birth defect. Studies estimating the prevalence of CHD in school-age children could therefore contribute to quantifying unmet health needs for diagnosis and treatment, particularly in lower-income countries. Data at school age are considerably sparser, and individual studies have generally been of small size. We conducted a literature-based meta-analysis to investigate global trends over a 40-year period. Studies reporting on CHD prevalence in school-age children (4-18 years old) from 1970 to 2017 were identified from PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science and Google Scholar. According to the inclusion criteria, 42 studies including 2,638,475 children, reporting the prevalence of unrepaired CHDs (both pre-school diagnoses and first-time school-age diagnoses), and nine studies including 395,571 children, specifically reporting the prevalence of CHD first diagnosed at school ages, were included. Data were combined using random-effects models. The prevalence of
|i|Background|/i|. In China, the prevalence of diabetes has increased significantly over recent decades, owing to the county’s rapidly aging population. Although many studies have examined the prevalence of diabetes worldwide, there has been little analysis of the inequalities in its prevalence and treatment among middle-aged and elderly people. |i|Objectives|/i|. This study evaluates influence factors and inequality in respect to the prevalence of diabetes and medication treatment among middle-aged and elderly Chinese adults. |i|Methods|/i|. Data were obtained from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study, a nationally representative household survey of middle-aged and elderly people (i.e., 45 years of age or older). Logistic regression models and the concentration index were used to estimate socioeconomic factors and inequalities in diabetes prevalence and treatment. |i|Results|/i|. The prevalence of self-reported diabetes among middle-aged and elderly Chinese adults was 8.4%;
According to health department deputy director general Yogan Pillay the increase in HIV prevalence could be due to the governments rapidly expanding antiretroviral treatment (ART) programme. The study has found that about two million (31.5%) of the 6.4-million HIV infected people in SA is now on ART. ART makes people live longer, so we now have more HIV-infected people who survive and thus a bigger proportion of people with HIV, he said. Pillay, however, pointed out that we would only be able to fully understand the reasons behind the increase in infections once we have results on the HIV incidence [the rate at which new HIV infections have increased]. The household survey will only release HIV incidence results later this year. The study also found that, while more people are aware of their HIV status, condom use has declined in all age groups. In 2008 85.2% of males between 15 and 24 said they were using a condom during their last sexual encounter, but only 67.4% reported doing so in ...
Objective: Until recently, HIV prevalence has been based on estimates from antenatal sentinel surveys which have been found to overestimate HIV prevalence among the general population. Multiple studies have shown women to be disproportionately affected by HIV and AIDS epidemic. Design: Data for this study were based on the first Nigerian population household-based HIV biomarker survey of 2007, which used a multi-stage probability sampling technique. Methods: Respondents were selected through probability sampling (male age 15 - 64 years and female 15 - 49 years). This paper, therefore, examined the correlates of marital status and HIV prevalence among women in Nigeria. Results: A descriptive analysis of the data showed that HIV prevalence of women that were formerly married: divorced, separated or widowed were more than double that of those who were currently married/cohabiting with a sexual partner; and more than three times those that were never married. Bivariate and multivariate levels of
Background and Purpose-The estimates on the prevalence and the risk of rupture of intracranial saccular aneurysms vary widely between studies. We conducted a systematic review on prevalence and risk of rupture of intracranial aneurysms and classified the data according to study design, study population, and aneurysm characteristics.. Methods-We searched for studies published between 1955 and 1996 by means of a MEDLINE search and a cumulative review of the reference lists of all relevant publications. Two authors independently assessed eligibility of all studies and extracted data on study design and on numbers and characteristics of patients and aneurysms.. Results-For data on prevalence we found 23 studies, totalling 56 304 patients; 6685 (12%) of these patients were from 15 angiography studies. Prevalence was 0.4% (95% confidence interval, 0.4% to 0.5%) in retrospective autopsy studies, 3.6% (3.1 to 4.1) for prospective autopsy studies, 3.7% (3.0 to 4.4) in retrospective angiography studies, ...
Results show that the overall self-reported obesity prevalence in the U.S. was 26.7 percent, an increase of 1.1 percentage points from 2007.
The sample size was determine using the formula for prevalence study described in Lwanga and Lemeshow [13]. The critical value of specified confidence interval of 95 % is 1.96. Anticipated population prevalence of PAD was taken as 3.5 % and the absolute precision required on either side of the proportion (1.0 %). Since cluster sampling method was adopted the effect of clustering was overcome by making a correction for design effect. The design effect was taken as 2.0. An additional 12 % was added to account for non response among participants. Thus, the minimum sample size required to detect the expected prevalence of PAD in the community with 95 % confidence interval and with 1 % precision was 2912.. A prevalidated, interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to obtain data. Socio-demographic characteristics such as age, sex, ethnicity, religion, level of education, and monthly household income were obtained. The age was verified by supportive documents. Medical history and duration of ...
We have presented detailed age specific prevalences of dementia and dementia subtypes that indicate Alzheimers disease as the main contribution to the exponential increase of dementia with age. Our data also show a consistent trend of a higher risk of dementia with lower educational level. This effect of educational status could not be explained by a confounding effect of cardiovascular disease.. All recent population based studies on the prevalence of dementia with standardised diagnostic criteria show an exponential increase with age and a predominance of Alzheimers disease as the cause of the dementia. However, age specific prevalences vary considerably between studies. This may be due to study design, population sampling methods, or real geographical variations.. Our study is the largest European study of its kind, allowing more precise estimates of prevalence. Compared with a pooled reanalysis of 12 European studies,3 our study showed slightly lower prevalences below the age of 75 and ...
A study released by University at Buffalo was able to use artificial intelligence to establish trends in the United States pertaining to type 2 diabetes.. Published in Scientific Reports, the research group of the study used machine learning, a form of artificial intelligence, to establish the prevalence of type 2 diabetes among the general population.. According to the journal report in Nature: Our results indicate that a non-parametric GW-RF model shows a high potential for explaining spatial heterogeneity of, and predicting, T2D prevalence over traditional local and global models when inputting six major risk factors. Some of these predictions, however, are marginal.. The authors continued by stating, These findings of spatial heterogeneity using GW-RF demonstrate the need to consider local factors in prevention approaches. Spatial analysis of T2D and associated risk factor prevalence offers useful information for targeting the geographic area for prevention and disease ...
Our survey has shown that type 2 diabetes has a minimum UK prevalence of 0.21/100 000 children under 16 years, and has significant clinical differences compared to both type 1 diabetes and MODY. This is the first reported survey of childhood type 2 diabetes to provide case definitions, national minimum prevalence estimates, and comparisons with other diabetes types.. Our crude minimum prevalence estimates for type 2 diabetes show that we are still in a low prevalence type 2 diabetes child population. The national prevalence of 0.21/100 000 is far lower than the prevalence of 3.8/100 000 that we previously reported in Birmingham children.16 This suggests that there may be large regional variations in type 2 diabetes prevalence which may reflect differences in regional ethnic composition. The reported prevalence of type 2 diabetes in North America is 5-45% of diabetic children; our prevalence of 0.16% of diabetic children is far lower than this.17. Our survey almost certainly underestimates type 2 ...
Dr. Rossitza Vatcheva-Dobrevska (Head of the National Reference Centre for Healthcare-Associated Infections) and Dr. Emma Keuleyan (APUA-Bulgaria President) gave an overview of infection control measures being implemented in Bulgaria. The incidence of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) dropped from 12.7% in 2007 to 11.2% in 2008, and 10.2% in 2009. Over the past five years, the recorded incidence decreased by approximately 3%. From 1999 to 2009, the incidence decreased by approximately 10% (21.1% to 10.2%). In a national point prevalence survey conducted in 2006 among 23 acute-care hospitals in Bulgaria, the overall prevalence rate of HAI was 2.43%. Highest prevalence rates were found in intensive care units (15.2%) and surgical wards (4.1%). Of all HAIs, the most common types were surgical site infections (43.18%), pneumonia (27.27%), urinary tract infections (20.45%), and primary bloodstream infection (9.09%). Dr. Keuleyan cites lack of resources within current practice to handle AMR ...
Demographics: In 2016, 26.5 million people had asthma; 60% were female and 23% were aged younger than 18 years. Among children, asthma was more prevalent in boys, but among adults, more women than men had asthma. Although asthma was more common in women across ethnic groups, there were disparities in prevalence: non-Hispanic black women had the highest prevalence (11.8%), followed by non-Hispanic white (10.6%), Hispanic (9.1%), and other non-Hispanic women (8.4%). Prevalence initially decreased between ages 15 to 19 years and 25 to 34 years, but increased in non-Hispanic black and white women aged 35 to 64 years. In other non-Hispanic and Hispanic women, however, prevalence increased from age 15 to 19 years to age 20 to 24 years; declined in those aged 25 to 34 years; and increased in those aged 35 to 64 years.. Lifetime Prevalence: The 2016 National Health Interview Survey reported 43.3 million lifetime asthma cases; 21.6% were children (,18 years), most aged 5 to 14 years. Overall, across age ...
OBJECTIVES: To assess and compare the prevalence of parkinsonism and Parkinsons disease in five European populations that were surveyed with similar methodology and diagnostic criteria. METHODS: Joint analysis of five community surveys--Gironde (France), eight centres in Italy, Rotterdam (The Netherlands), Girona (Spain), and Pamplona (Spain)--in which subjects were screened in person for parkinsonism. Overall, these surveys comprised 14,636 participants aged 65 years or older. RESULTS: The overall prevalence (per 100 population), age adjusted to the 1991 European standard population, was 2.3 for parkinsonism and 1.6 for Parkinsons disease. The overall prevalence of parkinsonism for the age groups 65 to 69, 70 to 74, 75 to 79, 80 to 84, and 85 to 89 years was respectively, 0.9, 1.5, 3.7, 5.0, and 5.1. The corresponding age specific figures for Parkinsons disease were 0.6, 1.0, 2.7, 3.6, and 3.5. After adjusting for age and sex, the prevalence figures did not differ significantly across ...
In our nationwide prevalence study, we found that over one-fifth of sampled duodenoscopes were contaminated according to AM20 definition, with 39% of Dutch ERCP centres having at least one contaminated duodenoscope intended to be ready for patient use. Furthermore, MGO were cultured on 15% of the sampled duodenoscopes, indicating the presence of organic residue of previously treated patients. Our observations coincide with worldwide reported outbreaks indicating that exogenous transmission of bacteria and associated infections and even viral infections related to contaminated duodenoscopes continue to threaten patients undergoing ERCP.1-4 20 Therefore, stringent measures are required to lower the number of contaminated duodenoscopes in order to minimise the risk of interpatient microbial transmission during ERCP and to prevent future outbreaks.. The prevalence of duodenoscope contamination in this study was in line with reports from several retrospective single tertiary centre studies.18 21 22 ...
Officials from the United Nations Joint Programme on HIV/AIDS report that Cambodia now has the highest HIV prevalence rate in Asia, with about 1.5% of the nations population infected with the virus, the San Francisco Chronicle reports. Among female sex workers in the country, the prevalence rate is estimated to be 40%. Government officials have launched a multifaceted campaign to fight HIV in the country, including a national law requiring sex workers in brothels, which are legal in the country, to use condoms. About 20 Cambodians become infected with HIV every day. ...
Discussion The overall prevalence of MS among adult men from Oaxaca was higher than in Mexican-Americans (41.2% vs 31.9%, respectively), who have the highest prevalence of MS in the USA.32 Using the NCEP ATP-III definition, Aguilar-Salinas et al.33 found a national MS prevalence of 26.6% in Mexican men and women aged 20-69 years. In a recent population-based study in Mexico City, a higher MS prevalence rate was observed (39.9%).34 The prevalence of MS in the present study is high but no previous studies on MS in rural or urban areas in Oaxaca are available for comparison. We found a significant association between family history of type 2 diabetes and MS. A family history of diabetes is a marker of genetic predisposition to components of MS, as shown by Hunt et al.35 who reported that in non-obese subjects, the odds ratios were 2.5 (95% CI:1.1 6.1) and 2.9 (95% CI:1.2 7.0) for history of diabetes and hypertension. These and other results may imply that family history is associated with the ...
The purpose of the present study was to assess the prevalence of pressure ulcers and the use of Dutch guidelines for the prevention and treatment of pressure ulcers. A survey of 16,344 patients in 89 health care institutions on 1 day showed a mean prevalence of pressure ulcers of 23.1%. It was found that Dutch guidelines on some aspects of prevention and treatment of pressure ulcers were not being followed. Only 53% of the patients who should have been positioned on a support surface were positioned on such a device. Fewer than one-third of the patients who should have been repositioned, should have received nutritional support, or should have been educated received these interventions, and only 33.6% of all pressure ulcers were dressed as recommended. More attention to the dissemination and implementation of the guidelines is needed to reduce this high prevalence of pressure ulcers ...
We expected DES subjects to show greater lifetime psychopathology and poorer social functioning than controls. Both groups showed high rates of lifetime depression, lifetime alcoholism, and current psychiatric symptoms in excess of community norms.. The only diagnosis on which DES subjects exceeded their unexposed brothers was Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). DES-exposed men had almost twice the prevalence of at least one episode of MDD and had significantly more recurrent episodes.. The relatively small number of subjects with concomitant lack of statistical power may have contributed to the difficulty obtaining significant effects. ...
Background. This study sets out to estimate the prevalence and the degree of severity of bronchial obstruction in an adult population with three different diagnostic criteria: the European Respiratory Society (ERS), the American Thoracic Society (ATS), and the World Health Organization (WHO) defined as Global Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD). Methods. 1514 subjects underwent complete medical evaluation and spirometry. Results. The prevalence of bronchial obstruction was respectively 27.5% (ERS), 33% (GOLD), and 47.3% (ATS). The prevalence of bronchial obstruction in the smoker group was 33.4% (ERS), 38.1% (GOLD), and 52.3% (ATS). The prevalence of obstruction in the ex-smoker group was 33% (ERS), 41.4% (GOLD), and 57.1% (ATS). The prevalence of obstruction in the non-smoker group was 21.1% (ERS), 24.9% (GOLD), and 38.6% (ATS). Conclusions. The results show that the prevalence of airway obstruction increases proportionally with age; the cigarette smoking represents an important conditioning ...
Background: This paper brings together data from a variety of reports to provide a basis for assessing future steps for responding to and monitoring the HIV epidemic in Zimbabwe.. Method: Data reported from four antenatal clinic (ANC) surveys conducted between 2000 and 2004, two small local studies in Zimbabwe conducted from 1997 through 2003, four general population surveys from 1999 through 2003, and service statistics covering 1990 through 2004 were used to describe recent trends in HIV prevalence and incidence, behaviour change, and programme provision.. Results: HIV prevalence among pregnant women attending ANCs declined substantially from 32.1% in 2000 to 23.9% in 2004. The local studies confirmed the decline in prevalence. However, prevalence continued to be high. Sexual behaviour data from surveys suggests a reduction in sexual experience before age 15 years among both males and females age 15-19 years, and in the proportions of males and females aged 15-29 years reporting non-regular ...
Os acromiale (OA) results from a failure of consolidation between the ossification centers of the acromial epiphysis. Its prevalence and its interactions with ancestry, gender, laterality, and side have been variously reported in the literature. The aims of this review are to provide an accurate estimate of OA prevalence and to investigate its association with other variables in an attempt to comprehend its etiology. Twenty‐three studies met the inclusion criteria. The results of meta‐analyses of large‐sample studies revealed: (a) a crude overall prevalence of 7.0%, (b) a crude cadaveric prevalence of 7.6%, (c) a crude archeological (skeletal) prevalence of 5.6%, (d) a crude radiological prevalence of 4.2%, (e) a true anatomical prevalence of 9.6%, (f) a significantly higher frequency in persons of black ancestry than in persons of white, Native American and Middle Eastern ancestries (OR ≈ 3), (g) significantly higher unilateral and bilateral frequencies in black ancestry (OR of 2 and 4, ...
This systematic review examined trends in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and identified its risk factors among adults in Vietnam. PubMed, Web of Science, Wiley Online Library, and Scopus databases were searched to identify relevant literature. The search yielded 10 studies, including 2 national surveys and 8 regional investigations. National prevalence estimates of T2DM were 2.7% in 2002 and 5.4% in 2012. The estimates for the northern region were 1.4% in 1994 and 3.7% in 2012 and those for the southern region were 3.8% in 2004, 7.0% in 2008, and 12.4% in 2010. The major determinants of T2DM included older age, urban residence, high levels of body and abdominal fat, physical inactivity, sedentary lifestyle, genetic factors, and hypertension. The prevalence rate by gender was variable in both national and regional studies. There was insufficient information available on some potentially important risk factors such as smoking, dietary intake, income, and educational level. Our ...
Nosocomial infection is one of the leading problems in the health system, therefore it is directly related to increased costs and hospitalization time. The prevalence rate of nosocomial infection in terms of geographic region, type of hospital, the patient, and the calculating method even in various regions of the country is different. According to the WHO report, the prevalence of the nosocomial infection in developed countries is below 5%, however, in developing countries, this rate is different (6). In this study, the incidence of nosocomial infection is about 1.1%, which is not comparable to the global statistics in developing countries; a study conducted in Benin, in 2012, patients from the same ward were studied in the same day in each hospital for real estimation of nosocomial infection, and data showed that the prevalence rate of nosocomial infection was 19.1% (10). Other studies, especially from developing countries, reported the prevalence rate of 13.9% - 17.9% (11, 12). The prevalence ...
Urban-rural comparisons of the prevalence of diabetes were made in a cohort of 2567 rural and 6190 urban participants aged 45 to 64, in the Puerto Rico Heart Health Program. The prevalence of diabetes in the urban population was more than double that in the rural. Consistent with this, blood glucose concentrations were significantly higher in urban than in rural populations.. The prevalence of diabetes increased with age and relative weight. It was associated with elevations of serum cholesterol, blood pressure, and fasting serum triglycerides. A positive family history was found more commonly in diabetics than in nondiabetics. If there was a history in both a sibling and a parent, there was at least a threefold increased prevalence over those with no family history.. The reason for the higher prevalence of diabetes in the urban than in the rural area is elusive. In obese men, the urban and rural prevalence rates are the same, but, among relatively lean men, the prevalence in the urban area is ...
Author summary Trachoma is a bacterial infection, which, with repeated infections over time, can lead to blindness. The WHO is aiming to eliminate trachoma as a public health problem by 2020, however at low prevalence levels the relationship between infection and disease prevalence is non-linear, making the interpretation of data from the two diagnostic tests challenging. However, it is hard to know if this is an expected outcome or a biological inconsistency. Sero-surveillance is being considered as an additional tool to understand transmission when infection and disease prevalence data provide different information. We highlight, through mathematical modelling, that a lack of strong correlation between infection and disease prevalence data at low levels of transmission seen in epidemiological data is not unexpected and demonstrate that multiple sero-surveillance surveys should be conducted from at least 2 different age groups in order to accurately estimate epidemiological parameters that will help to
TY - JOUR. T1 - Prevalence of Perceived Experiences of Emotional, Physical, Sexual, and Health Care Abuse in a Swedish Male Patient Sample. AU - Swahnberg, Katarina. AU - Hearn, Jeff. AU - Wijma, Barbro. PY - 2009. Y1 - 2009. N2 - The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of and current suffering from emotional abuse (EA), physical abuse (PA), and sexual abuse (SA) and abuse in health care (AHC) among male Swedish patients and compare prevalences of abuse between female and male patients at a Swedish university hospital. For data collection we used the NorVold Abuse Questionnaire, which has been validated in a female sample and in the present study. The lifetime prevalences were EA = 12.8%, PA = 45.7%, SA = 3.8%, and AHC = 8.1%. Current suffering from abuse among participants was 1% to 9%. The women reported higher rates than men of current suffering from all kinds of abuse and more severe forms of abuse, such as life-threatening PA. Health care staff should be aware of the ...
Urgency. Multiple studies have addressed issues of CHF epidemiology both in Russia and abroad; however obtained data are inconsistent, largely due to different methods for evaluation of CHF prevalence. Aim. To study CHF prevalence based on standardized evaluation of clinical symptoms and echoCG. Materials and methods. A representative sample was studied in the Ryazan region including 953 families, 2098 people with mean age of 44.8±0.01 years. Patients with suspected CHF were identified by the presence of cardiovascular disease with dyspnea, asthenia, tachycardia and edema. 222 patients with suspected CHF underwent an in-patient examination with measurement of CHF FC by clinical condition scale (CCS) and evaluation of the LV structure and function condition using echoCG. Results. Prevalence of suspected I-IV FC CHF was 11.1% in the Ryazan region. After the in-patient examination the diagnosis of CHF was verified in 167 people. Most patients with CHF had disturbed LV diastolic function, often ...
A recent report in news health documents sentiments from top university researchers who criticize people and governments for being supremely arrogant in ignoring the importance of sleep. The researchers from Oxford, Cambridge, Harvard, Manchester and Surrey universities told BBCs Day of the Body Clock that lack of sleep was leading to serious health problems. The …. Top Universities Criticize Society for Neglecting Sleep Read More ». ...
2. Vaccines. I really dislike writing anything about vaccines, mostly because regardless of how factual I aimed to be, any mention of vaccines is usually followed by a dozen of friendly emails. But Ive received several emails asking how the CDC numbers affect the vaccine theory. The CDC study does not address this issue at all, and the data say little about this theory. However, some reasonable conclusions can be made.. - If the increases in diagnoses among 8 year olds from 2002 to 2006 are due to real increases in true prevalence. and. - If vaccines play a role in the incidence of autism. - Then a 50% increase in the prevalence during the 4 year period should be accompanied by a noticeable change in vaccination practices during key years.. Specifically, the 2002 CDC study was based on children born in 1994 and the new CDC study was done with children born in 1998. Thus, given the striking increases in prevalence rates among the 1998 children, you would expect that compared to those born in ...
A cross-sectional study was conducted from March 2016 to May 2016 at Guto Gida District, Nekemte, Ethiopia to determine the prevalence of bovine schistosomosis. Simple random sampling method was used to select the study animals and sedimentation technique was applied for finding Schistosoma eggs from fresh fecal samples. Out of 384 fecal samples examined, 22 were found positive indicating an overall prevalence of 5.7% schistosomosis in the study area. The prevalence of bovine schistosomosis was higher in Jirenga kebele (9.1%) than Gaarii kebele (4.6%) and Dalo kebele (3.7%). However, no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of bovine schistosomiasis in relation to origin was found. Similarly, there was no statistically significant difference observed between both sexes (P>0.05). The prevalence in body condition category was reported relatively higher in poor body condition (8.4%) and lower in good body condition (3.8%). However, no statistically significant differences appreciated
Physical inactivity is a leading risk factor for cardiovascular and other noncommunicable diseases in high-, low- and middle-income countries. Nepal, a low-income country in South Asia, is undergoing an epidemiological transition. Although the reported national prevalence of physical inactivity is relatively low, studies in urban and peri-urban localities have always shown higher prevalence. Therefore, this study aimed to measure physical activity in three domains-work, travel and leisure-in a peri-urban community and assess its variations across different sociodemographic correlates. ...
Our survey results showed that the AD prevalence rate ranged between 26.2% and 35.9%. Children living in polluted areas (near industrial and central urban areas) had about 10% higher prevalence of AD than those living in coastal or suburban areas. The chi-square test demonstrated that this local difference was statistically significant before and after adjustment of major confounder such as parental AD history and education. The results of the logistic regression analysis showed that AD prevalence was significantly associated independently with socio-economic indices and indoor/outdoor environmental factors. The multivariate analysis indicated that statistically significant and robust association between several environmental factors (ventilation status, exposure to diesel exhaust, and outdoor PM10/O3 pollution) and the prevalence of AD was found after adjustment by confounders. The adjusted odd ratios for the AD prevalence were 1.24 (95% CI: 1.03-1.49) and 1.79 (95% CI: 1.17-2.75) with increase ...