A high rate of co-occurring mental health disorders have been documented in children with prenatal alcohol exposure. Investigators have demonstrated that alcohols impact on the developing fetal brain, combined with environmental factors, is the source of this problem. However, more recent research has begun to focus on factors embedded in the child welfare system, preventable factors that can be an important determinant for risk of mental health problems in children. State Child Protective Services departments can develop policies that reduce mental health morbidity for children in the systems care who have been prenatally exposed to alcohol or illicit drugs.
Obesity is an escalating health problem worldwide, and hence the causes underlying its development are of primary importance to public health. There is growing evidence that suboptimal intrauterine environment can perturb the metabolic programing of the growing fetus, thereby increasing the risk of developing obesity in later life. However, the link between early exposures in the womb, genetic susceptibility, and perturbed epigenome on metabolic health is not well understood. In this study, we shed more light on this aspect by performing a comprehensive analysis on the effects of variation in prenatal environment, neonatal methylome, and genotype on birth weight and adiposity in early childhood. In a prospective mother-offspring cohort (N = 987), we interrogated the effects of 30 variables that influence the prenatal environment, umbilical cord DNA methylation, and genotype on offspring weight and adiposity, over the period from birth to 48 months. This is an interim analysis on an ongoing cohort study.
The Maternal Lifestyle Study (MLS) was the largest of the NIH longitudinal studies of children with prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE). MLS was a longitudinal multi-site observational study of the long-term effects of in-utero exposure to cocaine on child development. MLS was conducted at four geographically diverse, collaborating university centers (Wayne State University, University of Tennessee at Memphis, University of Miami, and Brown University). Participants were identified during the newborn period while in the hospital. The MLS began enrollment of a longitudinal birth cohort of 1,388 infant/mother dyads in 1993. Subjects in the follow-up were seen from 1 month of age through 16 years of age. The overall purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of drug use during pregnancy on acute neonatal events and long-term physical health, social, behavioral and neurodevelopmental outcomes. The study included five phases of data collection. The first phase examined acute effects of maternal ...
The Maternal Lifestyle Study (MLS) was the largest of the NIH longitudinal studies of children with prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE). MLS was a longitudinal multi-site observational study of the long-term effects of in-utero exposure to cocaine on child development. MLS was conducted at four geographically diverse, collaborating university centers (Wayne State University, University of Tennessee at Memphis, University of Miami, and Brown University). Participants were identified during the newborn period while in the hospital. The MLS began enrollment of a longitudinal birth cohort of 1,388 infant/mother dyads in 1993. Subjects in the follow-up were seen from 1 month of age through 16 years of age. The overall purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of drug use during pregnancy on acute neonatal events and long-term physical health, social, behavioral and neurodevelopmental outcomes. The study included five phases of data collection. The first phase examined acute effects of maternal ...
Background: Antidepressant use during pregnancy and the peripartum period is common despite the absence of clear evidence-based guidelines to direct clinical use of these compounds. Method: We compared obstetrical and neonatal outcomes as recorded in medical records among 84 pregnant women with major depressive or anxiety disorders (DSM-IV criteria) who took antidepressants during pregnancy (cases) versus a 2:1 age- and parity-matched control group of 168 unexposed women. Women in the case group had sought psychiatric consultation regarding the use of medication from the Perinatal and Reproductive Psychiatry Program at the Massachusetts General Hospital between 1996 and 2000. Results: There were no significant differences among cases versus controls and their offspring, with respect to various neonatal and obstetrical outcomes, including gestational age and weight, although 1-minute Apgar scores were slightly lower in exposed infants. Admissions to the special care nursery were more frequent, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A review of maternal prenatal exposures to environmental chemicals and psychosocial stressors-implications for research on perinatal outcomes in the ECHO program. AU - on behalf of program collaborators for Environmental influences on Child Health Outcomes. AU - Padula, Amy M.. AU - Monk, Catherine. AU - Brennan, Patricia A.. AU - Borders, Ann. AU - Barrett, Emily S.. AU - McEvoy, Cindy T.. AU - Foss, Sophie. AU - Desai, Preeya. AU - Alshawabkeh, Akram. AU - Wurth, Renee. AU - Salafia, Carolyn. AU - Fichorova, Raina. AU - Varshavsky, Julia. AU - Kress, Amii. AU - Woodruff, Tracey J.. AU - Morello-Frosch, Rachel. PY - 2020/1/1. Y1 - 2020/1/1. N2 - Exposures to environmental chemicals and psychosocial stressors during pregnancy have been individually associated with adverse perinatal outcomes related to birthweight and gestational age, but are not often considered in combination. We review types of psychosocial stressors and instruments used to assess them and classes of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Influence of gestational age at exposure on the prenatal effects of γ-radiation. AU - Uma Devi, P.. AU - Baskar, R.. PY - 1996/8/16. Y1 - 1996/8/16. N2 - The abdominal region of pregnant Swiss albino mice was exposed to single dose of 0.5 Gy γ-radiation at gestation days from 1.5 to 17.5 days post-coitus (p.c.). The animals were sacrificed on day 18 p.c. and foetuses were examined for resorption and embryonic death, foetal death, growth retardation, small head, low brain weight, microphthalmia and any other gross morphological abnormalities. The period of maximum sensitivity for each effect varied. The only demonstrable effect of irradiation during the preimplantation period was an increase in prenatal mortality. Resorptions were maximal after exposure between days 2 and 4 p.c. The pre-implantation irradiated embryos which survived did not show any major foetal abnormalities. These results confirm earlier mouse studies using higher doses of X-rays. Small head, low brain weight ...
AMHERST, Mass. - Some studies indicate that early life exposure to pollutants such as PCBs and phthalates can predispose people to disease. Now environmental scientist Alicia Timme-Laragy at the University of Massachusetts Amherst has received a five-year, $1.7 million grant from the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences for a multi-level study of early life exposure to environmental contaminants and aberrant pancreas development, which may predispose one to diabetes.. Disease may result from environmental contaminant exposure in early life via oxidative stress, disrupted signaling pathways controlling embryo growth, or via subtle structural or functional changes to insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells, she notes. Results of this work will be relevant to public health officials concerned about such exposures as well as molecular biologists studying signaling pathways to gain a mechanistic understanding of disease processes very early in life.. The researchers will study toxic ...
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Previous research has provided inconclusive evidence regarding the neuropsychological difficulties of children born to mothers partaking in opioid or poly-drug use during pregnancy. Little is known about how these children fare as they get older. The present longitudinal study includes follow-up data on 45 children born to mothers who used heroin and poly-drugs and a group of 48 children without prenatal drug exposure. Most of the drug-exposed youths were placed in permanent foster or adoptive homes before one year of age. The youths (ages 17 to 21) were administered 10 neuropsychological tests. The drug-exposed youths had cognitive and fine motor functions within the normal range compared to population norms but performed significantly worse than the non-exposed group. There were indications of generally lower cognitive functions rather than specific problems with executive functioning. Lower mean birthweight in the risk group (619 grams mean difference, p < .001) only partially mediated the ...
Review a bibliography of major literature in the field of perinatal and family services on issues related to prenatal exposure and the effects on children.
Semantic Scholar extracted view of Effects of prenatal exposure to 2,4-D/2,4,5-T mixture on postnatal changes in rat brain glutamate, GABA, protein, and nucleic acid levels. by Fouad Kasim Mohammad et al.
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects: The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.
RISK AND REALITY: THE IMPLICATIONS OF PRENATAL EXPOSURE TO ALCOHOL AND OTHER DRUGS By Joanne P. Brady, Marc Posner, Cynthia Lang and Michael J. Rosati The Education Development Center, Inc. 1994.
Risk of childhood asthma following prenatal exposure to negative life events and job stressors: A nationwide register-based study in Denmark ...
Bioethicists question medical practices surrounding a widely prescribed prenatal drug treatment to fix sex-organ deformities in babies with a congenital disorder
This is the first follow up study carried out in a developing country to assess the interactions between infections, predisposing factors, and environmental variables in the onset of wheezing. We have found that children were more likely to experience wheezing at the age of 4 if they had a prenatal exposure to malaria, low levels of total IgE at birth, and maternal asthma, and also clinical episodes of LRTI during infancy. However, a diagnostic bias may explain the association between LRTI and wheezing. Neither a history of clinical malaria nor the incidence of malaria was associated with wheezing. Among the environmental factors, only the number of people in the home was moderately associated with wheezing. Finally, indoor allergens were not associated with wheezing, although measurement error in dust collection could explain the lack of association.. Bacterial and possible viral infection during early life has been considered as a promoter or suppressor of asthma onset via the immune ...
Amaç: Prenatal ultrasonografi izlemlerinin yaygınlaşması ile intrauterin dönemde saptanan over kisti sayısı giderek artmaktadır. Prenatal saptanan over kistlerinin prenatal ve postnatal tedavisi ile ilgili deneyimlerimizi sunmak istiyoruz. Gereç ve Yöntem: 2002-2009 yılları arasında prenatal USde over kisti saptanan 12 hastanın kayıtları geriye dönük olarak incelendi. Kistlerin komplike olup olmadığı, prenatal ve postnatal boyutları, postnatal semptomları ve US izlemleri değerlendirildi. Bulgular: Serimizde 2 hastada basit over kisti, 9 hastada komplike over kisti ve 1 hastada bir tarafta basit over kisti, kontralateral tarafta komplike over kisti saptandı. Basit over kistlerin ortalama boyutu 3,3 ± 2,5 cm (1,0 - 6,0 cm) ve komplike over kistlerinin ortalama boyutu 4,5 ± 0,8 cm (3,2 - 5,5 cm) olarak ölçüldü. Basit over kistlerinden prenatal dönemde çapı 1 ve 3 cm ölçülen iki hastanın kisti doğum sonrası sırası ile 4 ve 6 hafta takip sonrası regrese ...
An epidemic in our country has spiraled out of control. According to the Arizona Task Force on Preventing Prenatal exposure to alcohol and other drugs, each year, an estimated 400,000 -440,000 infants (10-11% of all births) are affected by prenatal alcohol or illicit drug exposure (http://azprenatal.wixsite.com/taskforce/exposure). Prenatal exposure to alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drugs has the potential to cause a full spectrum of physical, emotional, and developmental problems for these infants. The harm caused to the child can be significant and long-lasting, especially if the exposure is not detected and the effects are not treated as soon as possible. ...
It is known that the development and plasticity of the neuroendocrine system can be affected by many factors, and that adverse events during the prenatal period can result in long-lasting changes in adulthood. This study was aimed at evaluating the p
What do you do if you find out youre pregnant and could have a girl born with what looks like a small penis? For two decades, expectant mothers in thi ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Huai-Cai Zeng, Qing-Zhi He, Yuan-Yuan Li, Cheng-Qiu Wu, Yi-Mou Wu, Shun-Qing Xu].
The history of advances in the understanding of the toxic effects of lead over the past 20 years is an outstanding example of how knowledge learned from research can impact public health. Measures that have had the greatest impact on reducing exposur
These studies explore how genetics, prenatal environments, delivery modes and early postnatal environments including feeding method affect the infant microbiome and lifelong health.
Ageing arises with the exhaustion of SC pools, with respect to both the amount of SCs and, importantly, SC functionality (Rossi et al, 2008). Hence, one explanation for the prenatal effect on ageing could be that the stress to which the embryos are exposed limits SC function, thereby also limiting the regenerative capacity of the tissues of the offspring. In this manner, the path to ageing would be shortened ab initio. The stress could directly affect the SCs, SC niches or both. In the particular case of replicative damage, it is probable that the niches would be the affected target, rather than the SCs, owing to the low cycling activity of SCs-a feature which is frequently used as a characteristic to identify them in vivo (Fuchs, 2009). Accordingly, the bone marrow of Seckel animals can reconstitute the haematopoietic pool of irradiated wild‐type animals to a large extent, whereas the opposite is not true. This means that there is an inherent dysfunction of the Seckel haematopoietic SC niche, ...
Brain-age: Impact of Prenatal Stress on brain ageing. Fetal programming, undernutrition and stress. Our project will determine structural and functional indicators of brain age.
Brain-age: Impact of Prenatal Stress on brain ageing. Fetal programming, undernutrition and stress. Our project will determine structural and functional indicators of brain age.
Prenatal development of mammals can be divided into ovum, embryonic, and fetal phases. The fetal phase represents over 80% of the prenatal period, and extends from the embryonic phase until birth. The fetal period begins when the specific species becomes identifiable. At the onset of the fetal phase, organs and systems are identifiable, but varying extents of tissue differentiation and development occur during the fetal period. The majority of the prenatal increase in body size and maturation of tissues and organs characterizes the fetal phase.. ...
目前科學界尚未就同性戀、雙性戀、異性戀的形成原因達成共識[42]。不過他們相信性傾向是由生物因子(包括基因)[43][44]和環境因子(包括出生順序、接觸特定的產前激素[45][46]、母親的產前壓力(英语:prenatal stress))的共同作用所促成[47][48][49]。 ...
In the modern womens changing world, often an association is made between alcohol and fetus - to be exact, the use of alcohol during pregnancy and prenatal
Your baby experiences a lot of prenatal changes as he/she prepares to meet you for the first time. Read this article to know what those changes are.
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Prenatal ages and stages-measures and errors.: The continuing confusion concerning prenatal age is shown to be unnecessary once the ambiguous and superfluous te
If youre pregnant or considering getting pregnant, prenatal care should be at the top of your to do list. Learn more about prenatal testing.
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Prenatal development is both complicated and fast paced. In only 40 weeks, a single fertilized egg matures into a baby. We explore: when does life begin?
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People differ in the size and composition of their chromosomes, which can affect the test results Prenatal blood screening for extra or missing chromosomes in
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TY - CHAP. T1 - Influence of prenatal nicotine exposure on development of neurotransmission in central respiratory neurons. AU - Fregosi, Ralph F.. PY - 2008/1/1. Y1 - 2008/1/1. N2 - This chapter considers the influence of prenatal nicotine exposure on the development of neurotransmission in central respiratory neurons. Neonatal mammals that are nicotine exposed in utero show abnormalities in central ventilatory control, such as reduced ventilatory output (1,2), altered breathing pattern (2-4), increased apnea frequency (2,4) and duration (5), delayed arousal in response to hypoxia (6,7), decreased sensitivity to hypoxia (1,4,5,8-11), and diminished capacity for autoresuscitation following severe hypoxic exposure (12,13). Although these findings provide substantial evidence that development of central ventilatory control is altered by prenatal nicotine exposure, the mechanism of nicotines action on respiratory-related neurons has not been identified. Identifying these mechanisms is important ...
Effects of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure on Central Nervous System DevelopmentPrenatal exposure to alcohol (ethanol) results in a continuum of physical, neurological, behavioral, and learning defects collectively grouped under the heading Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD).
Choline is a crucial nutrient that contributes to several biological functions and serves as a precursor molecule to the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Choline is integral to the development and function of the central nervous system, and its availability during the prenatal period has lasting and protective effects on neural function. Researchers have found that prenatal choline supplementation in the rat enhances learning and memory processes later in life, especially those involving spatial memory. Researchers have also demonstrated that choline protects against a number of physical stressors to the neural environment, such as prenatal alcohol exposure, induced seizures, and chronic stress-induced exposure to corticosteroids. Compared to the study of these types of physical stressors, relatively little research has examined the influence of prenatal choline exposure on psychological stress later in life. In an attempt to contribute to this field, the present study examined the effects of prenatal
Maternal Immune Activation Leads to Activated Inflammatory Macrophages in Offspring. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24566386 Several epidemiological studies have shown an association between infection or inflammation during pregnancy and increased risk of autism in the child. In addition, animal models have illustrated that maternal inflammation during gestation can cause autism-relevant behaviors in the offspring; so called maternal immune activation…
The foregoing section provides a foundation from which to speculate on the possible role of estrogen and testosterone in both schizophrenia and autism. The authors current paper describes the increased susceptibility to acute infection by T. gondii caused by estrogen. Some human studies suggest that latent toxoplasmosis results from high prenatal testosterone rather than estrogen due to finding low second to fourth finger digit ratios in T. gondii infected subjects . Second to fourth finger digit ratios, or so-called 2D:4D ratios, are proposed markers of prenatal androgen exposure.. Low 2D:4D ratios reflect higher prenatal testosterone exposure and high ratios indicate low testosterone compared to estrogen exposure. Low ratios or high prenatal testosterone are often associated with autism and high ratios or relatively higher prenatal estrogen with schizophrenia. Recent research has cast doubt on the reliability of digit ratio to predict individual prenatal androgen exposure although a modest ...
Schizophrenia patients typically exhibit cognitive impairments that directly affect their daily functioning, but are not effectively treated by current antipsychotics. Maternal immune activation (MIA) during pregnancy, which can be triggered by a variety of infectious agents, has been associated with the development of schizophrenia in adult offspring. Epidemiological evidence indicates that elevated maternal levels of the chemokine interleukin- 8 (IL-8) during MIA contribute to the neurodevelopmental alterations underlying the disorder. The present experiments used an animal model of neurodevelopmental disorders to study the effects of MIA and chemokine receptor antagonism on the behavior of rat offspring, with behavioral tests chosen to examine cognitive functions that are typically impaired in human schizophrenia patients. The viral mimetic polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (polyI:C) (4.0 mg/kg, i.v.) was injected into pregnant Long-Evans (LE) dams on gestational day (GD) 15. Dams were also ...
University of North Carolina researchers studied the effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on newborn brains. See what they found.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Prenatal exposure to fever is associated with autism spectrum disorder in the boston birth cohort. AU - Brucato, Martha. AU - Ladd-Acosta, Christine Marie. AU - Li, Mengying. AU - Caruso, Deanna. AU - Hong, Xiumei. AU - Kaczaniuk, Jamie. AU - Stuart, Elizabeth. AU - Fallin, Daniele Daniele. AU - Wang, Xiaobin. PY - 2017/11/1. Y1 - 2017/11/1. N2 - Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is phenotypically and etiologically heterogeneous, with evidence for genetic and environmental contributions to disease risk. Research has focused on the prenatal period as a time where environmental exposures are likely to influence risk for ASD. Epidemiological studies have shown significant associations between prenatal exposure to maternal immune activation (MIA), caused by infections and fever, and ASD. However, due to differences in study design and exposure measurements no consistent patterns have emerged revealing specific times or type of MIA exposure that are most important to ASD risk. No prior ...
Water maze experience and prenatal choline supplementation differentially promote long-term hippocampal recovery from seizures in adulthood.
Maternal smoking during pregnancy increases the risk of Sudden Infant Death. A defect in cardiorespiratory control has been suggested. Chronic exposure to nicotine during fetal development of rat induced postnatal developmental disorders on central neural pathways [1], autonomic function [2], carotid body chemorecep-tors [3], ventilatory response to hyperoxia [4]. The interrelation between all these sparse data has to be investigated. We hypothesized that exposure to nicotine might impair or delay the development of respiratory control pathways, ie, of the carotid body chemoafferent pathway, causing an abnormal response to ventila-tory challenges. On the 5th day of gestation, pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats received a transdermal patch delivering, either 50 mg of nicotine free base over 21 days, or excipient. At birth, male pups were selected and analysed at postnatal day 3, 7, 11, 14, 21 and 68. The in vivo tyrosine hydroxylase activity was determined in offspring carotid bodies and brainstem ...
We previously showed that maternal cocaine administration resulted in a decrease in fetal rat body weight [9]. The present study demonstrated that the maternal cocaine treatment caused a significant decrease in fetal brain weight, as compared with the saline control group. This finding is consistent with the previous report in pregnant C57BL/6 mice, in which maternal subcutaneous administration of cocaine from gestation days 12-18 produced significant decreases in fetal body and brain weight [27]. The pair-fed studies demonstrated that maternal undernutrition was not a likely mediator of the effects caused by cocaine [27, 28]. Moreover, our data indicate that cocaine decreases fetal brain/body weight ratio, suggesting that cocaine have higher affinity toxic effects on the fetal brain than the body. Dow-Edwards [29] reported that fetal brain had between 26-42% more concentration of cocaine than fetal plasma after 90 min following either 30 or 60 mg/kg cocaine given via intragastric intubation to ...
Abstract. Chronic psychological stress is a risk factor for osteoporosis. Maternal active mastication during prenatal stress attenuates stress response. The aim of this study is to test the hypothesis that maternal active mastication influences the effect of prenatal stress on bone mass and bone microstructure in adult offspring. Pregnant ddY mice were randomly divided into control, stress, and stress/chewing groups. Mice in the stress and stress/chewing groups were placed in a ventilated restraint tube for 45 minutes, 3 times a day, and was initiated on day 12 of gestation and continued until delivery. Mice in the stress/chewing group were allowed to chew a wooden stick during the restraint stress period. The bone response of 5-month-old male offspring was evaluated using quantitative micro-CT, bone histomorphometry, and biochemical markers. Prenatal stress resulted in significant decrease of trabecular bone mass in both vertebra and distal femur of the offspring. Maternal active mastication ...
Objective: Determine the effectiveness of an intervention to reduce prenatal alcohol exposure in the Congo. Methods: We utilized a screening tool validated in the Congo to identify women who were drinking during pregnancy. The intervention was implemented by prenatal care providers comparing 162 women receiving the intervention with 58 (controls) who did not. The study endpoints were proportion of women who quit drinking, drinking days per week, drinks per drinking day, most drinks on any day, and number of binge episodes per week. Results: In the control group 36% of the women quit drinking compared to 54% in the intervention group (Chi-square 5.61; p = 0.02). The number of drinking days per week for the controls decreased by 50.1% compared to 68% for the intervention group (p = 0.008); drinks per drinking day for the controls decreased by 37% compared to 60.1% for the intervention group (p = 0.001); and most drinks on any occasion in the controls decreased by 38% compared to 61% for the ...
Background Prenatal substance use screening is recommended. The 4 Ps Plus screener includes questions on perceived problematic substance use in parents and partner that are not considered in risk stratification. Objectives This research examined the: (1) prevalence of self-reported problematic parental and partner substance use and associations with biochemically-verified prenatal substance use; (2) utility of self-reported perceptions of parent/partner substance use as proxies for prenatal substance use; and (3) degree to which the sensitivity of the 4Ps Plus can be augmented with consideration of parent/partner questions in risk stratification. Methods A convenience sample of 500 pregnant women was recruited between January 2017 and January 2018. Participants completed the 4Ps Plus and provided urine for drug testing. Diagnostic utility of problematic parent/partner substance use questions was assessed, then compared to the 4Ps Plus used as designed, and to the 4Ps Plus used with these 2 ...
A social- skills intervention called Childrens Friendship Training can lead to a decrease in hostile attributions or perceptions of children with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE)
Canadian researchers have identified several specific white matter regions and deep grey matter regions in the brain that seem to be sensitive to prenatal alcohol exposure.
The persistence of neurobehavioral effects in female rats (Mol:WIST) exposed to 500 ppm technical xylene (dimethylbenzene, GAS-no 1330-20-7) for 6 hours per day on days 7-20 of prenatal development was studied. The dose level was selected so as not to induce maternal toxicity or decreased viability of offspring. Investigations of learning and memory abilities were performed using a Morris water maze. This task requires rats to spatially navigate, using distal extramaze cues to locate a small platform under the surface of the water in a large pool. At the age of 16 weeks, the exposed offspring showed impairments when the platform was relocated in the pool. Impaired performances after platform relocation were also observed in exposed offspring at 28 and 55 weeks of age, although the difference was not statistically significant at 55 weeks. These data could indicate that the effect was partly reversible, although over a long time period. However, another explanation could be that the animals became ...
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Here, we show that male, but not female, offspring that were exposed to prenatal hypoxia develop altered circulatory and vascular function that implicates the ET-1 system. To summarize, we found the following: (1) IUGR males had increased conversion of bET-1 to active ET-1 compared with controls, and this effect was partially normalized with L-NAME treatment; (2) no differences in bET-1 conversion to active ET-1 were observed between aged control and IUGR female offspring; (3) no differences in ET-1 interaction with its receptors were observed between control and IUGR offspring in either male or female offspring; (4) male IUGR offspring were hypertensive, and this increase in BP was partially mitigated by treatment with the dual ETA/B receptor antagonist tezosentan; (5) female IUGR offspring were not hypertensive compared with control offspring, and tezosentan treatment had little effect in either female treatment group. These results suggest that the ET-1 system, and possibly the conversion of ...
Ahmed S, Atlas E. 2016. Bisphenol S- and bisphenol A-induced adipogenesis of murine preadipocytes occurs through direct peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma activation. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 40(10):1566-1573, PMID: 27273607, 10.1038/ijo.2016.95. Alonso-Magdalena P, Quesada I, Nadal Á. 2015. Prenatal exposure to BPA and offspring outcomes. Dose Response 13(2):1559325815590395, PMID: 26676280, 10.1177/1559325815590395. Alonso-Magdalena P, Vieira E, Soriano S, Menes L, Burks D, Quesada I, et al. 2010. Bisphenol A exposure during pregnancy disrupts glucose homeostasis in mothers and adult male offspring. Environ Health Perspect 118(9):1243-1250, PMID: 20488778, 10.1289/ehp.1001993. Anderson OS, Peterson KE, Sanchez BN, Zhang Z, Mancuso P, Dolinoy DC. 2013. Perinatal bisphenol A exposure promotes hyperactivity, lean body composition, and hormonal responses across the murine life course. FASEB J 27(4):1784-1792, PMID: 23345456, 10.1096/fj.12-223545. Angle BM, Do RP, Ponzi D, ...
Methods We conducted a Mendelian randomization study to examine the association between maternal iron status with offspring adiposity and BP in adulthood. Instrumental variable (IV) analysis, using maternal C282Y as a genetic instrument for mothers ferritin, was performed. IV analysis uses the proportion of the variation in maternal ferritin that is explained by C282Y to provide an unconfounded estimate of the relationship with offspring outcomes. The results were compared to the results of multivariable ordinary least squares (OLS) regression examining the same relationship. Male and female offspring of mothers from the UK Women Cohort Study (UKWCS) were approached, of whom 348 with mean age of 41 years completed the study. About half were offspring of C282Y carriers. Offsprings BP, height and weight were measured at their local medical practice. Participants were also asked to self-measure their WC at home.. ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Prenatal nicotine exposure alters medullary nicotinic and AMPA-mediated control of respiratory frequency in vitro. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Prenatal exposure to androgens as a factor of fetal programming. Sergio E. Both epidemiological and clinical evidence suggest a relationship between the prenatal environment and the risk of developing diseases during adulthood. The first observations about this relationship showed that prenatal growth retardation or stress conditions during fetal life were associated to cardiovascular, metabolic and other diseases in later life. However, not only those conditions may have lasting effects after birth.. Growing evidence suggests that prenatal exposure to steroids either of fetal or maternal origin could be another source of prenatal programming with detrimental consequences during adulthood. We have recently demonstrated that pregnant women with polycystic ovary syndrome exhibit elevated androgen levels compared to normal pregnant women, which could provide an androgen excess for both female or male fetuses.. We have further tested this hypothesis in an animal model of prenatal androgenization, ...
Whether intrauterine cocaine exposure (IUCE) explains unique variance in psychiatric functioning among school age children, even after controlling
Since the opioid epidemic was officially declared a federal public health emergency in October 2017, states have undertaken a wide range of activities to address opioid-related harms. In February 2019, ASTHO surveyed its members to understand how data is being utilized to address these harms in their jurisdictions. This brief summarizes the results of this survey and highlights data-based approaches used to address four types of opioid-related harms: prenatal substance exposure, neonatal abstinence syndrome, adverse childhood experiences, and injection drug use-associated infections.Read More ». ...
More than 17 percent of pregnant women between the ages of 15 and 44 smoke, according to the 2002 National Survey on Drug Use and Health.
(Medical Xpress)-Prenatal exposure to alcohol severely disrupts major features of brain development that potentially lead to increased anxiety and poor motor function, conditions typical in humans with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Anxiety-like behaviour and associated neurochemical and endocrinological alterations in male pups exposed to prenatal stress. AU - Laloux, Charlotte. AU - Mairesse, Jérôme. AU - Van Camp, Gilles. AU - Giovine, Angela. AU - Branchi, Igor. AU - Bouret, Sebastien. AU - Morley-Fletcher, Sara. AU - Bergonzelli, Gabriela. AU - Malagodi, Marithé. AU - Gradini, Roberto. AU - Nicoletti, Ferdinando. AU - Darnaudéry, Muriel. AU - Maccari, Stefania. PY - 2012/10. Y1 - 2012/10. N2 - Epidemiological studies suggest that emotional liability in infancy could be a predictor of anxiety-related disorders in the adulthood. Rats exposed to prenatal restraint stress ( PRS rats ) represent a valuable model for the study of the interplay between environmental triggers and neurodevelopment in the pathogenesis of anxious/depressive like behaviours. Repeated episodes of restraint stress were delivered to female Sprague-Dawley rats during pregnancy and male offspring were studied. Ultrasonic ...
In a prospective study (Morrow, Bandstra, Anthony, Ofir et al., 2001), a range of subtle deficits across the spectrum of neurobehavioural functioning were observed within the first postnatal week in infants with cocaine exposure. These deficits were partly correlated with reduced foetal growth. The deficits in functioning were larger as the number of trimesters of exposure increased. The authors suggest that prenatal cocaine exposure may produce more problematic effects in infants born prematurely and that cocaine exposed full-term infants may be more resilient. Other authors also suggest that any effect of cocaine on longer-term development is an indirect association, mediated by reduced birth weight, head circumference, other drug use or other prenatal issues (Behnke, Eyler, Garvan, Wobie & Hou, 2002; Bendersky & Lewis, 1999). In addition, one controlled study reports that mothers in a cocaine-exposed group had less frequent emotional contact with their infant and tended to have maladaptive ...
Researchers have known for years: what happens to mom in pregnancy affects the baby. That holds true with prenatal exposure to air pollution, which has lingering cardiovascular effects, such as birth defects and a higher risk of obesity, explained Jeanette Stingone, PhD, of Mount Sinai Health System.
The low activity allele of the maternal polymorphism, 5HTTLPR, in the serotonin transporter, SLC6A4, coupled with prenatal stress is reported to increase the risk for children to develop autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Similarly, maternal Slc6a4 knock-out and prenatal stress in rodents results in offspring demonstrating ASD-like characteristics. The present study uses an integrative genomics approach to explore mechanistic changes in early brain development in mouse embryos exposed to this maternal gene-environment phenomenon. Restraint stress was applied to pregnant Slc6a4 +/+ and Slc6a4 +/− mice and post-stress embryonic brains were assessed for whole genome level profiling of methylome, transcriptome and miRNA using Next Generation Sequencing. Embryos of stressed Slc6a4 +/+ dams exhibited significantly altered methylation profiles and differential expression of 157 miRNAs and 1009 genes affecting neuron development and cellular
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Prenatal alcohol exposure affects up to 2 to 5 percent of the US population. Children and adults with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) struggle with life-long learning and behavioral problems. Without appropriate supports, individuals with FASD are at high risk for secondary conditions, such as mental health problems, trouble with the law, school disruption, and substance abuse. An early diagnosis and appropriate services can help prevent these secondary problems.. The FASD Diagnostic and Evaluation Clinic is a multidisciplinary clinic created in partnership through Mt. Hope Family Center and Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics at Golisano Childrens Hospital within the University of Rochester Medical Center. The Clinic currently serves children and adolescents from infancy through age 16 years old. Services available include FASD diagnostic evaluations and neuropsychological assessments to identify the child or adolescents strengths and weaknesses to aid in treatment ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Approaches for strengthening causal inference regarding prenatal risk factors for childhood behavioural and psychiatric disorders. AU - Lewis, Sarah J.. AU - Relton, Caroline. AU - Zammit, Stanley. AU - Smith, George Davey. PY - 2013/10. Y1 - 2013/10. N2 - BackgroundThe risk of childhood behavioural and psychiatric diseases could be substantially reduced if modifiable risk factors for these disorders were identified. The critical period for many of these exposures is likely to be in utero as this is the time when brain development is most rapid. However, due to confounding and other limitations of traditional epidemiological studies, identification of causal risk factors has proved challenging and on the whole research in this area has not been fruitful.ScopeIn this review, we highlight several alternative approaches including; comparisons across settings, the use of negative controls and natural experiments, which includes migration studies, studies of individuals conceived ...
This investigation was undertaken in order to know whether the postnatal tactile/kinesthetic stimulation is effective in reversing the Prenatal Stress, in the cytoarchitecture of the CA3 region of the hippocampus, in female pups. 12 pups of female rats from the Sprague-Dawley strain were distributed to Control Group (GC), the Prenatal Maternal Stress by restriction group (EP) and Prenatal Maternal Stress with postnatal tactile/ kinesthetic stimulation Group (EP-ETK). The Prenatal Maternal Stress in female pups increased neuronal density in CA3b and CA3c areas (p,0.001). When compared to Prenatal Maternal Stress, pups prenatal stress who received early tactile/kinesthetic stimulation showed a decrease in neuronal density in CA3b and CA3c areas (p , 0,001). Postnatal tactile/kinesthetic stimulation was shown to successfully reverse the Prenatal Maternal Stress effects by decreasing neuronal density in CA3b and CA3c hippocampal areas. ...
The details of bibliography - Exploring the potential to use data linkage for investigating the relationship between birth defects and prenatal alcohol exposure
Teens whose mothers drank alcohol regularly throughout the first trimester of pregnancy have a threefold increased risk of developing severe behavior problems,
Background: New measures of exposure prevention activity were used to evaluate the effectiveness of a 16 month management focused intervention addressing hazardous substance exposures in manufacturing work settings. Methods: Exposure prevention efforts were assessed using a previously published rating scheme developed for this study.1 The rating scheme yields a set of measures of exposure potentia
Results for hazardous substances exposure equipment from BreathSpec, Depth-Clear, Honeywell NORTH and other leading brands. Compare and contact a supplier near ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Acute in utero exposure to lipopolysaccharide induces inflammation in the pre- and postnatal brain and alters the glial cytoarchitecture in the developing amygdala. AU - OLoughlin, Elaine. AU - Pakan, Janelle M.P.. AU - Yilmazer-Hanke, Deniz. AU - McDermott, Kieran W.. N1 - Funding Information: This project was funded by the Health Research Board (HRB), Ireland (Project HRA_POR/2010/159). Publisher Copyright: © 2017 The Author(s).. PY - 2017/11/2. Y1 - 2017/11/2. N2 - Background: Maternal immune activation (MIA) is a risk factor for neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism and schizophrenia, as well as seizure development. The amygdala is a brain region involved in the regulation of emotions, and amygdalar maldevelopment due to infection-induced MIA may lead to amygdala-related disorders. MIA priming of glial cells during development has been linked to abnormalities seen in later life; however, little is known about its effects on amygdalar biochemical and cytoarchitecture ...
In 2001, researchers Leonie Welberg and Jonathan Seckl published the literature review Prenatal Stress, Glucocorticoids, and the Programming of the Brain, in which they report on the effects of prenatal stress on the development of the fetal brain. The fetus experiences prenatal stress while in the womb, or in utero. In discussing the effects of prenatal stress, the authors describe prenatal programming, which is when early environmental experiences permanently alter biological structure and function throughout life.. Format: Articles Subject: Publications, Theories ...
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Two experiments examined the psychological and biological antecedents of hierarchical differentiation and the resulting consequences for productivity and conflict within small groups. In Experiment 1, which used a priming manipulation, hierarchically differentiated groups (i.e., groups comprising 1 high-power-primed, 1 low-power-primed, and 1 baseline individual) performed better on a procedurally interdependent task than did groups comprising exclusively either all high-power-primed or all low-power-primed individuals. There were no effects of hierarchical differentiation on performance on a procedurally independent task. Experiment 2 used a biological marker of dominance motivation (prenatal testosterone exposure as measured by a digit-length ratio) to manipulate hierarchical differentiation. The pattern of results from Experiment 1 was replicated; mixed-testosterone groups achieved greater productivity than did groups comprising all high-testosterone or all low-testosterone individuals. ...
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... Washington DC Sons of male mice exposed to prenatal stress ar...Tracy Bale PhD of the University of Pennsylvania and colleagues pre... This study shows that the effects of maternal stress in mice are pass...In general female mice tend to respond more to stress than do males. ...,Effects,of,prenatal,stress,passed,across,generations,in,mice,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
For my course project, I have chosen the challenge area of prenatal risk factors with the subtopic of health. Prenatal health is a factor in a childs development and affects their school readiness and their learning. American babies, compared with those from other developed nations, are receiving inadequate prenatal care and less time at home with their parents during the first year of life (Lally, 2010). I am interested in assisting the women in my community receive quality prenatal care so that they have a safe pregnancy and so that their child has the best opportunity to be healthy, happy, and successful. In addition, I believe early childhood education is the foundation to a childs overall education and a mom who has quality prenatal care and has assistance for their childs development and learning from age birth to three, their child will be successful and ready to enter Pre-K or K. It is during the first few years of life that early experience starts shaping the foundational learning ...
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Researchers looked at internalizing and externalizing behaviors in children at 0.5, 1.5, and 3 years of age, comparing children exposed to benzodiazepines and sedative-hypnotics during pregnancy to unexposed children.
Prenatal and early childhood exposure to the chemical solvent tetrachloroethylene (PCE) found in drinking water may be associated with long-term visual impairments, particularly in the area of colour discrimination, according to a new study.