A high rate of co-occurring mental health disorders have been documented in children with prenatal alcohol exposure. Investigators have demonstrated that alcohols impact on the developing fetal brain, combined with environmental factors, is the source of this problem. However, more recent research has begun to focus on factors embedded in the child welfare system, preventable factors that can be an important determinant for risk of mental health problems in children. State Child Protective Services departments can develop policies that reduce mental health morbidity for children in the systems care who have been prenatally exposed to alcohol or illicit drugs.
The Maternal Lifestyle Study (MLS) was the largest of the NIH longitudinal studies of children with prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE). MLS was a longitudinal multi-site observational study of the long-term effects of in-utero exposure to cocaine on child development. MLS was conducted at four geographically diverse, collaborating university centers (Wayne State University, University of Tennessee at Memphis, University of Miami, and Brown University). Participants were identified during the newborn period while in the hospital. The MLS began enrollment of a longitudinal birth cohort of 1,388 infant/mother dyads in 1993. Subjects in the follow-up were seen from 1 month of age through 16 years of age. The overall purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of drug use during pregnancy on acute neonatal events and long-term physical health, social, behavioral and neurodevelopmental outcomes. The study included five phases of data collection. The first phase examined acute effects of maternal ...
The Maternal Lifestyle Study (MLS) was the largest of the NIH longitudinal studies of children with prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE). MLS was a longitudinal multi-site observational study of the long-term effects of in-utero exposure to cocaine on child development. MLS was conducted at four geographically diverse, collaborating university centers (Wayne State University, University of Tennessee at Memphis, University of Miami, and Brown University). Participants were identified during the newborn period while in the hospital. The MLS began enrollment of a longitudinal birth cohort of 1,388 infant/mother dyads in 1993. Subjects in the follow-up were seen from 1 month of age through 16 years of age. The overall purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of drug use during pregnancy on acute neonatal events and long-term physical health, social, behavioral and neurodevelopmental outcomes. The study included five phases of data collection. The first phase examined acute effects of maternal ...
Background: Antidepressant use during pregnancy and the peripartum period is common despite the absence of clear evidence-based guidelines to direct clinical use of these compounds. Method: We compared obstetrical and neonatal outcomes as recorded in medical records among 84 pregnant women with major depressive or anxiety disorders (DSM-IV criteria) who took antidepressants during pregnancy (cases) versus a 2:1 age- and parity-matched control group of 168 unexposed women. Women in the case group had sought psychiatric consultation regarding the use of medication from the Perinatal and Reproductive Psychiatry Program at the Massachusetts General Hospital between 1996 and 2000. Results: There were no significant differences among cases versus controls and their offspring, with respect to various neonatal and obstetrical outcomes, including gestational age and weight, although 1-minute Apgar scores were slightly lower in exposed infants. Admissions to the special care nursery were more frequent, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A review of maternal prenatal exposures to environmental chemicals and psychosocial stressors-implications for research on perinatal outcomes in the ECHO program. AU - on behalf of program collaborators for Environmental influences on Child Health Outcomes. AU - Padula, Amy M.. AU - Monk, Catherine. AU - Brennan, Patricia A.. AU - Borders, Ann. AU - Barrett, Emily S.. AU - McEvoy, Cindy T.. AU - Foss, Sophie. AU - Desai, Preeya. AU - Alshawabkeh, Akram. AU - Wurth, Renee. AU - Salafia, Carolyn. AU - Fichorova, Raina. AU - Varshavsky, Julia. AU - Kress, Amii. AU - Woodruff, Tracey J.. AU - Morello-Frosch, Rachel. PY - 2020/1/1. Y1 - 2020/1/1. N2 - Exposures to environmental chemicals and psychosocial stressors during pregnancy have been individually associated with adverse perinatal outcomes related to birthweight and gestational age, but are not often considered in combination. We review types of psychosocial stressors and instruments used to assess them and classes of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Influence of gestational age at exposure on the prenatal effects of γ-radiation. AU - Uma Devi, P.. AU - Baskar, R.. PY - 1996/8/16. Y1 - 1996/8/16. N2 - The abdominal region of pregnant Swiss albino mice was exposed to single dose of 0.5 Gy γ-radiation at gestation days from 1.5 to 17.5 days post-coitus (p.c.). The animals were sacrificed on day 18 p.c. and foetuses were examined for resorption and embryonic death, foetal death, growth retardation, small head, low brain weight, microphthalmia and any other gross morphological abnormalities. The period of maximum sensitivity for each effect varied. The only demonstrable effect of irradiation during the preimplantation period was an increase in prenatal mortality. Resorptions were maximal after exposure between days 2 and 4 p.c. The pre-implantation irradiated embryos which survived did not show any major foetal abnormalities. These results confirm earlier mouse studies using higher doses of X-rays. Small head, low brain weight ...
AMHERST, Mass. - Some studies indicate that early life exposure to pollutants such as PCBs and phthalates can predispose people to disease. Now environmental scientist Alicia Timme-Laragy at the University of Massachusetts Amherst has received a five-year, $1.7 million grant from the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences for a multi-level study of early life exposure to environmental contaminants and aberrant pancreas development, which may predispose one to diabetes.. Disease may result from environmental contaminant exposure in early life via oxidative stress, disrupted signaling pathways controlling embryo growth, or via subtle structural or functional changes to insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells, she notes. Results of this work will be relevant to public health officials concerned about such exposures as well as molecular biologists studying signaling pathways to gain a mechanistic understanding of disease processes very early in life.. The researchers will study toxic ...
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Previous research has provided inconclusive evidence regarding the neuropsychological difficulties of children born to mothers partaking in opioid or poly-drug use during pregnancy. Little is known about how these children fare as they get older. The present longitudinal study includes follow-up data on 45 children born to mothers who used heroin and poly-drugs and a group of 48 children without prenatal drug exposure. Most of the drug-exposed youths were placed in permanent foster or adoptive homes before one year of age. The youths (ages 17 to 21) were administered 10 neuropsychological tests. The drug-exposed youths had cognitive and fine motor functions within the normal range compared to population norms but performed significantly worse than the non-exposed group. There were indications of generally lower cognitive functions rather than specific problems with executive functioning. Lower mean birthweight in the risk group (619 grams mean difference, p < .001) only partially mediated the ...
Review a bibliography of major literature in the field of perinatal and family services on issues related to prenatal exposure and the effects on children.
Semantic Scholar extracted view of Effects of prenatal exposure to 2,4-D/2,4,5-T mixture on postnatal changes in rat brain glutamate, GABA, protein, and nucleic acid levels. by Fouad Kasim Mohammad et al.
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects: The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.
RISK AND REALITY: THE IMPLICATIONS OF PRENATAL EXPOSURE TO ALCOHOL AND OTHER DRUGS By Joanne P. Brady, Marc Posner, Cynthia Lang and Michael J. Rosati The Education Development Center, Inc. 1994.
Bioethicists question medical practices surrounding a widely prescribed prenatal drug treatment to fix sex-organ deformities in babies with a congenital disorder
This is the first follow up study carried out in a developing country to assess the interactions between infections, predisposing factors, and environmental variables in the onset of wheezing. We have found that children were more likely to experience wheezing at the age of 4 if they had a prenatal exposure to malaria, low levels of total IgE at birth, and maternal asthma, and also clinical episodes of LRTI during infancy. However, a diagnostic bias may explain the association between LRTI and wheezing. Neither a history of clinical malaria nor the incidence of malaria was associated with wheezing. Among the environmental factors, only the number of people in the home was moderately associated with wheezing. Finally, indoor allergens were not associated with wheezing, although measurement error in dust collection could explain the lack of association.. Bacterial and possible viral infection during early life has been considered as a promoter or suppressor of asthma onset via the immune ...
Amaç: Prenatal ultrasonografi izlemlerinin yaygınlaşması ile intrauterin dönemde saptanan over kisti sayısı giderek artmaktadır. Prenatal saptanan over kistlerinin prenatal ve postnatal tedavisi ile ilgili deneyimlerimizi sunmak istiyoruz. Gereç ve Yöntem: 2002-2009 yılları arasında prenatal USde over kisti saptanan 12 hastanın kayıtları geriye dönük olarak incelendi. Kistlerin komplike olup olmadığı, prenatal ve postnatal boyutları, postnatal semptomları ve US izlemleri değerlendirildi. Bulgular: Serimizde 2 hastada basit over kisti, 9 hastada komplike over kisti ve 1 hastada bir tarafta basit over kisti, kontralateral tarafta komplike over kisti saptandı. Basit over kistlerin ortalama boyutu 3,3 ± 2,5 cm (1,0 - 6,0 cm) ve komplike over kistlerinin ortalama boyutu 4,5 ± 0,8 cm (3,2 - 5,5 cm) olarak ölçüldü. Basit over kistlerinden prenatal dönemde çapı 1 ve 3 cm ölçülen iki hastanın kisti doğum sonrası sırası ile 4 ve 6 hafta takip sonrası regrese ...
It is known that the development and plasticity of the neuroendocrine system can be affected by many factors, and that adverse events during the prenatal period can result in long-lasting changes in adulthood. This study was aimed at evaluating the p
What do you do if you find out youre pregnant and could have a girl born with what looks like a small penis? For two decades, expectant mothers in thi ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Huai-Cai Zeng, Qing-Zhi He, Yuan-Yuan Li, Cheng-Qiu Wu, Yi-Mou Wu, Shun-Qing Xu].
The history of advances in the understanding of the toxic effects of lead over the past 20 years is an outstanding example of how knowledge learned from research can impact public health. Measures that have had the greatest impact on reducing exposur
Ageing arises with the exhaustion of SC pools, with respect to both the amount of SCs and, importantly, SC functionality (Rossi et al, 2008). Hence, one explanation for the prenatal effect on ageing could be that the stress to which the embryos are exposed limits SC function, thereby also limiting the regenerative capacity of the tissues of the offspring. In this manner, the path to ageing would be shortened ab initio. The stress could directly affect the SCs, SC niches or both. In the particular case of replicative damage, it is probable that the niches would be the affected target, rather than the SCs, owing to the low cycling activity of SCs-a feature which is frequently used as a characteristic to identify them in vivo (Fuchs, 2009). Accordingly, the bone marrow of Seckel animals can reconstitute the haematopoietic pool of irradiated wild‐type animals to a large extent, whereas the opposite is not true. This means that there is an inherent dysfunction of the Seckel haematopoietic SC niche, ...
Brain-age: Impact of Prenatal Stress on brain ageing. Fetal programming, undernutrition and stress. Our project will determine structural and functional indicators of brain age.
Prenatal development of mammals can be divided into ovum, embryonic, and fetal phases. The fetal phase represents over 80% of the prenatal period, and extends from the embryonic phase until birth. The fetal period begins when the specific species becomes identifiable. At the onset of the fetal phase, organs and systems are identifiable, but varying extents of tissue differentiation and development occur during the fetal period. The majority of the prenatal increase in body size and maturation of tissues and organs characterizes the fetal phase.. ...
目前科學界尚未就同性戀、雙性戀、異性戀的形成原因達成共識[42]。不過他們相信性傾向是由生物因子(包括基因)[43][44]和環境因子(包括出生順序、接觸特定的產前激素[45][46]、母親的產前壓力(英语:prenatal stress))的共同作用所促成[47][48][49]。 ...
In the modern womens changing world, often an association is made between alcohol and fetus - to be exact, the use of alcohol during pregnancy and prenatal
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Prenatal ages and stages-measures and errors.: The continuing confusion concerning prenatal age is shown to be unnecessary once the ambiguous and superfluous te
If youre pregnant or considering getting pregnant, prenatal care should be at the top of your to do list. Learn more about prenatal testing.
Prenatal development is both complicated and fast paced. In only 40 weeks, a single fertilized egg matures into a baby. We explore: when does life begin?
People differ in the size and composition of their chromosomes, which can affect the test results Prenatal blood screening for extra or missing chromosomes in
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Budding Ideas is an afternoon showcase of the exciting research ideas to come from a cross section of early and mid career researchers. The May program featured the five researchers listed below, with links to their Budding Ideas talks. ...
Consequential differences exist between the male and female immune systems ability to respond to pathogens, environmental insults or self-antigens, and subsequent effects on immunoregulation. In general, females when ...
This document contains useful information for those taking this medication. It is not intended, in any way, to replace the advice of a trained health professional. For more information, consult the manufacturers literature, where you will find additional information about uncommon side effects as well as contraindications associated with this product.. ...
Dear Annie, Thanks for your terrific response. You write that you have come to see the notion of fetal origins-the idea that very early influences and ...
Dealing with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of adult diseases and skilled in the management of patients who have undifferentiated or multi-system disease processes. ...
Dealing with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of adult diseases and skilled in the management of patients who have undifferentiated or multi-system disease processes.. ...
Effects of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure on Central Nervous System DevelopmentPrenatal exposure to alcohol (ethanol) results in a continuum of physical, neurological, behavioral, and learning defects collectively grouped under the heading Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD).
Choline is a crucial nutrient that contributes to several biological functions and serves as a precursor molecule to the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Choline is integral to the development and function of the central nervous system, and its availability during the prenatal period has lasting and protective effects on neural function. Researchers have found that prenatal choline supplementation in the rat enhances learning and memory processes later in life, especially those involving spatial memory. Researchers have also demonstrated that choline protects against a number of physical stressors to the neural environment, such as prenatal alcohol exposure, induced seizures, and chronic stress-induced exposure to corticosteroids. Compared to the study of these types of physical stressors, relatively little research has examined the influence of prenatal choline exposure on psychological stress later in life. In an attempt to contribute to this field, the present study examined the effects of prenatal
Maternal Immune Activation Leads to Activated Inflammatory Macrophages in Offspring. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24566386 Several epidemiological studies have shown an association between infection or inflammation during pregnancy and increased risk of autism in the child. In addition, animal models have illustrated that maternal inflammation during gestation can cause autism-relevant behaviors in the offspring; so called maternal immune activation…
The foregoing section provides a foundation from which to speculate on the possible role of estrogen and testosterone in both schizophrenia and autism. The authors current paper describes the increased susceptibility to acute infection by T. gondii caused by estrogen. Some human studies suggest that "latent" toxoplasmosis results from high prenatal testosterone rather than estrogen due to finding low second to fourth finger digit ratios in T. gondii infected subjects . Second to fourth finger digit ratios, or so-called 2D:4D ratios, are proposed markers of prenatal androgen exposure.. Low 2D:4D ratios reflect higher prenatal testosterone exposure and high ratios indicate low testosterone compared to estrogen exposure. Low ratios or high prenatal testosterone are often associated with autism and high ratios or relatively higher prenatal estrogen with schizophrenia. Recent research has cast doubt on the reliability of digit ratio to predict individual prenatal androgen exposure although a modest ...
Schizophrenia patients typically exhibit cognitive impairments that directly affect their daily functioning, but are not effectively treated by current antipsychotics. Maternal immune activation (MIA) during pregnancy, which can be triggered by a variety of infectious agents, has been associated with the development of schizophrenia in adult offspring. Epidemiological evidence indicates that elevated maternal levels of the chemokine interleukin- 8 (IL-8) during MIA contribute to the neurodevelopmental alterations underlying the disorder. The present experiments used an animal model of neurodevelopmental disorders to study the effects of MIA and chemokine receptor antagonism on the behavior of rat offspring, with behavioral tests chosen to examine cognitive functions that are typically impaired in human schizophrenia patients. The viral mimetic polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (polyI:C) (4.0 mg/kg, i.v.) was injected into pregnant Long-Evans (LE) dams on gestational day (GD) 15. Dams were also ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Prenatal exposure to fever is associated with autism spectrum disorder in the boston birth cohort. AU - Brucato, Martha. AU - Ladd-Acosta, Christine Marie. AU - Li, Mengying. AU - Caruso, Deanna. AU - Hong, Xiumei. AU - Kaczaniuk, Jamie. AU - Stuart, Elizabeth. AU - Fallin, Daniele Daniele. AU - Wang, Xiaobin. PY - 2017/11/1. Y1 - 2017/11/1. N2 - Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is phenotypically and etiologically heterogeneous, with evidence for genetic and environmental contributions to disease risk. Research has focused on the prenatal period as a time where environmental exposures are likely to influence risk for ASD. Epidemiological studies have shown significant associations between prenatal exposure to maternal immune activation (MIA), caused by infections and fever, and ASD. However, due to differences in study design and exposure measurements no consistent patterns have emerged revealing specific times or type of MIA exposure that are most important to ASD risk. No prior ...
Maternal smoking during pregnancy increases the risk of Sudden Infant Death. A defect in cardiorespiratory control has been suggested. Chronic exposure to nicotine during fetal development of rat induced postnatal developmental disorders on central neural pathways [1], autonomic function [2], carotid body chemorecep-tors [3], ventilatory response to hyperoxia [4]. The interrelation between all these sparse data has to be investigated. We hypothesized that exposure to nicotine might impair or delay the development of respiratory control pathways, ie, of the carotid body chemoafferent pathway, causing an abnormal response to ventila-tory challenges. On the 5th day of gestation, pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats received a transdermal patch delivering, either 50 mg of nicotine free base over 21 days, or excipient. At birth, male pups were selected and analysed at postnatal day 3, 7, 11, 14, 21 and 68. The in vivo tyrosine hydroxylase activity was determined in offspring carotid bodies and brainstem ...
We previously showed that maternal cocaine administration resulted in a decrease in fetal rat body weight [9]. The present study demonstrated that the maternal cocaine treatment caused a significant decrease in fetal brain weight, as compared with the saline control group. This finding is consistent with the previous report in pregnant C57BL/6 mice, in which maternal subcutaneous administration of cocaine from gestation days 12-18 produced significant decreases in fetal body and brain weight [27]. The pair-fed studies demonstrated that maternal undernutrition was not a likely mediator of the effects caused by cocaine [27, 28]. Moreover, our data indicate that cocaine decreases fetal brain/body weight ratio, suggesting that cocaine have higher affinity toxic effects on the fetal brain than the body. Dow-Edwards [29] reported that fetal brain had between 26-42% more concentration of cocaine than fetal plasma after 90 min following either 30 or 60 mg/kg cocaine given via intragastric intubation to ...
Abstract. Chronic psychological stress is a risk factor for osteoporosis. Maternal active mastication during prenatal stress attenuates stress response. The aim of this study is to test the hypothesis that maternal active mastication influences the effect of prenatal stress on bone mass and bone microstructure in adult offspring. Pregnant ddY mice were randomly divided into control, stress, and stress/chewing groups. Mice in the stress and stress/chewing groups were placed in a ventilated restraint tube for 45 minutes, 3 times a day, and was initiated on day 12 of gestation and continued until delivery. Mice in the stress/chewing group were allowed to chew a wooden stick during the restraint stress period. The bone response of 5-month-old male offspring was evaluated using quantitative micro-CT, bone histomorphometry, and biochemical markers. Prenatal stress resulted in significant decrease of trabecular bone mass in both vertebra and distal femur of the offspring. Maternal active mastication ...