TY - JOUR. T1 - The effect of diabetes on prefrontal cortex activation patterns during active walking in older adults. AU - Holtzer, Roee. AU - George, Claudene J.. AU - Izzetoglu, Meltem. AU - Wang, Cuiling. N1 - Funding Information: This research was supported by the National Institutes on Aging grants ( R01AG036921 , R01AG044007 ), and by the NIH/National Center for Advancing Translational Science (NCATS) Einstein-Montefiore CTSA Grant Number KL2TR001071. Publisher Copyright: © 2018 Elsevier Inc.. PY - 2018/8. Y1 - 2018/8. N2 - Background: Gait alterations were documented in diabetic patients. However, the effect of diabetes on cortical control of gait has not been reported. We evaluated the effect of diabetes on prefrontal cortex (PFC) Oxygenated Hemoglobin (HbO2) levels during active walking in older adults. Methods: Of the total sample (n = 315; mean age = 76.84 ± 6.71ys; % female = 56.5) 43 participants (13.7%) had diabetes. The experimental paradigm consisted of two single tasks: ...
The effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on dorsolateral prefrontal cortex functions, such as working memory (WM), have been examined in a number of studies. However, much less is known about the behavioral effects of tDCS over other important WM-related brain regions, such as the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC). In a counterbalanced within-subjects design with 33 young healthy participants, we examined whether online and offline single-session tDCS over VLPFC affects WM updating performance as measured by a digit 3-back task. We compared three conditions: anodal, cathodal and sham. We observed no significant tDCS effects on participants accuracy or reaction times during or after the stimulation. Neither did we find any differences between anodal and cathodal stimulation. Largely similar results were obtained when comparing subgroups of high- and low-performing participants. Possible reasons for the lack of effects, including individual differences in responsiveness ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Imbalance between Left and Right Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex in Major Depression Is Linked to Negative Emotional Judgment. T2 - An fMRI Study in Severe Major Depressive Disorder. AU - Grimm, Simone. AU - Beck, Johannes. AU - Schuepbach, Daniel. AU - Hell, Daniel. AU - Boesiger, Peter. AU - Bermpohl, Felix. AU - Niehaus, Ludwig. AU - Boeker, Heinz. AU - Northoff, Georg. PY - 2008/2/15. Y1 - 2008/2/15. N2 - Background: Although recent neuroimaging and therapeutic transcranial magnetic cortex stimulation (TMS) studies suggest imbalance between left and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in major depressive disorder (MDD) the fundamental neuropsychological characterization of left DLPFC hypoactivity and right DLPFC hyperactivity in MDD remains poorly understood. Methods: We used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate neural activity in left and right DLPFC related to unattended (unexpected) and attended (expected) judgment of emotions. ...
Cannabidiol (CBD), a non-psychotomimetic component of Cannabis sativa plant, shows therapeutic potential in psychiatric disorders, including depression. The molecular mechanisms Larticle CBD modulates DNA methylation in mice prefrontal cortex and hippocampus of mice exposed to forced swim. est apparu en premier sur Cannabis Belgique.
Prefrontal cortex function has traditionally been associated with explicit executive function. Recently, however, evidence has been presented that lateral prefrontal cortex is also involved in high-level cognitive processes such as task set selection or inhibition in the absence of awareness. Here, we discuss evidence that not only lateral prefrontal cortex, but also rostral prefrontal cortex is involved in such kinds of implicit control processes. Specifically, rostral prefrontal cortex activation changes have been observed when implicitly learned spatial contingencies in a search display become invalid, requiring a change of attentional settings for optimal guidance of visual search.
This paper provides evidence that the ventral prefrontal cortex plays a role in the learning of tasks in which subjects must learn to associate visual cues and responses. Imaging with both positron-emission tomography (PET) and functional magnetic-resonance imaging (fMRI) reveals learning-related increases in activity when normal subjects learn visual associative tasks. Evidence is also presented from an event-related fMRI study that activity in this area is time-locked both to the presentation of the visual stimuli and also to the time of the motor response. Finally, it is shown in a study of monkeys that removal of the ventral prefrontal area 12 (including 45 A) impairs the ability of monkeys to relearn a visual associative task (visual matching), even though there were no demands on working memory. It is, therefore, proposed that the ventral prefrontal cortex constitutes part of the circuitry via which associations are formed between visual cues and the actions or choices that they specify. On the
TY - JOUR. T1 - Impact of anxiety on prefrontal cortex encoding of cognitive flexibility. AU - Park, Junchol. AU - Moghaddam, Bita. PY - 2017/3/14. Y1 - 2017/3/14. N2 - Anxiety often is studied as a stand-alone construct in laboratory models. But in the context of coping with real-life anxiety, its negative impacts extend beyond aversive feelings and involve disruptions in ongoing goal-directed behaviors and cognitive functioning. Critical examples of cognitive constructs affected by anxiety are cognitive flexibility and decision making. In particular, anxiety impedes the ability to shift flexibly between strategies in response to changes in task demands, as well as the ability to maintain a strategy in the presence of distractors. The brain region most critically involved in behavioral flexibility is the prefrontal cortex (PFC), but little is known about how anxiety impacts PFC encoding of internal and external events that are critical for flexible behavior. Here we review animal and human ...
The prefrontal cortex is important in regulating sleep and mood. Diurnally regulated genes in the prefrontal cortex may be controlled by the circadian system, by sleep:wake states, or by cellular metabolism or environmental responses. Bioinformatics analysis of these genes will provide insights into a wide-range of pathways that are involved in the pathophysiology of sleep disorders and psychiatric disorders with sleep disturbances.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Sleep spindles in human prefrontal cortex. T2 - An electrocorticographic study. AU - Nakamura, Motoaki. AU - Uchida, Sunao. AU - Maehara, Taketoshi. AU - Kawai, Kensuke. AU - Hirai, Nobuhide. AU - Nakabayashi, Tetsuo. AU - Arakaki, Hiroshi. AU - Okubo, Yoshiro. AU - Nishikawa, Toru. AU - Shimizu, Hiroyuki. PY - 2003/4/1. Y1 - 2003/4/1. N2 - To investigate the sleep spindle activity of the human prefrontal cortex (PFC), we simultaneously recorded whole nights of polysomnographic and electrocorticographic (ECoG) activities during the natural sleep of epileptic patients. Subjects were nine patients with intractable epilepsy who had subdural electrodes surgically attached to the orbital (seven cases), medial (three cases), or dorsolateral (two cases) PFC, and in one case to the frontal pole. To examine spindle frequencies, fast Fourier transformation (FFT) and auto-correlation analyses were performed on the PFC ECoG and Cz EEG data, primarily on epochs of stage 2 sleep. Lower sigma ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Instructed delay activity in the human prefrontal cortex is modulated by monetary reward expectation. AU - Ramnani, N.. AU - Miall, R. C.. N1 - 1047-3211 Journal Article. PY - 2003. Y1 - 2003. KW - Analysis of Variance Comparative Study Humans Prefrontal Cortex/physiology Psychomotor Performance/physiology Reaction Time/physiology Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt Reward. M3 - Article. VL - 13. SP - 318. EP - 327. JO - Cerebral Cortex. JF - Cerebral Cortex. SN - 1047-3211. IS - 3. ER - ...
Dive into the research topics of A role for right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex in reasoning about indeterminate relations. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
So you want your kids and students to pay better attention? Start with the prefrontal cortex.. What is the Prefrontal Cortex?. Aptly named, the prefrontal cortex is a small portion of the frontal lobe, located at the forward-most part of the skull. Its responsible for complex, high-functioning behaviors - like planning, decision-making, and personality expression - and its one of the last parts of the brain to develop in children and young adults.. Most of the development of the prefrontal cortex occurs due to natural physical growth and everyday experiences typical to the life of a child and adolescent. That being said, since kids learn just as much through observation and mimicry as they do through specific instruction, the best way to train your students to use their prefrontal cortices is to pay close attention to your own complex reasoning skills.. Use YOUR Prefrontal Cortex!. Thats right; the best way you can train your students to pay more attention and plan better is to use your own ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex contributes to successful relational memory encoding. AU - Murray, Linda J.. AU - Ranganath, Charan. PY - 2007/5/16. Y1 - 2007/5/16. N2 - Results from neuroimaging studies of long-term memory (LTM) encoding have contributed to the view that the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) contributes to successful LTM formation, whereas the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) does not.We hypothesized that the DLPFC does contribute to LTM, but under specific circumstances. That is, the DLPFC may be critical for building relationships between items during on-line processing, and this may promote LTM for associations between items. We used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to test this hypothesis by examining brain activity during sequential encoding of unrelated word pairs. During presentation of the second (target) word in each pair, subjects eithermadea semantic judgment specific to the target word (item-specific ...
The article below may contain offensive and/or incorrect content.. Theories of functioning in the medial prefrontal cortex are distinct across appetitively and aversively motivated procedures. In the appetitive domain, it is argued that the medial prefrontal cortex is important for producing adaptive behavior when circumstances change. This view advocates a role for this region in using higher-order information to bias performance appropriate to that circumstance. Conversely, literature born out of aversive studies has led to the theory that the prelimbic region of the medial prefrontal cortex is necessary for the expression of conditioned fear, whereas the infralimbic region is necessary for a decrease in responding following extinction. Here, the argument is that these regions are primed to increase or decrease fear responses and that this tendency is gated by subcortical inputs. However, we believe the data from aversive studies can be explained by a supraordinate role for the medial ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Interactive effects of age and estrogen on cognition and pyramidal neurons in monkey prefrontal cortex. AU - Hao, Jiandong. AU - Rapp, Peter R.. AU - Janssen, William G.M.. AU - Lou, Wendy. AU - Lasley, Bill L.. AU - Hof, Patrick R.. AU - Morrison, John. PY - 2007/7/3. Y1 - 2007/7/3. N2 - We previously reported that long-term cyclic estrogen (E) treatment reverses age-related impairment of cognitive function mediated by the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) in ovariectomized (OVX) female rhesus monkeys, and that E induces a corresponding increase in spine density in layer III dlPFC pyramidal neurons. We have now investigated the effects of the same E treatment in young adult females. In contrast to the results for aged monkeys, E treatment failed to enhance dlPFC-dependent task performance relative to vehicle control values (group young OVX+Veh) but nonetheless led to a robust increase in spine density. This response was accompanied by a decline in dendritic length, however, ...
Alterations in the density and size of pyramidal neurons in the prefrontal cortex have been described in schizophrenia and mood disorder. However, the changes are generally modest and have not always been replicated. We investigated the possibility that specific pyramidal neuron sub-populations, defined by their immunoreactivity with the anti-neurofilament antibodies SMI32, N200, and FNP7, are differentially affected in these disorders. First, we assessed the distribution and characteristics of pyramidal neurons labelled by the antibodies in the human dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (Brodmann areas 9, 32, 46), using single and double label immunocytochemistry and immunofluorescence. Three largely separate sub-populations of pyramidal neurons were identified, although with more substantial overlap between SMI32- and FNP7-positive neurons in lamina V. We then determined the density, size and shape of the three pyramidal neuron sub-populations in area 9 in patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or
Background and Objective: Working memory is the most basic pillar of memory for doing cognitive tasks. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on working memory in veterans and disabled athletes.   Material and Methods: The method of this study was ...
When looking at the brains impact on chronic pain, we have to look to the prefrontal cortex. 2020 review of the research says: Its predominant role in aversive learning and memory puts the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in a pole position as a hub for the development of mental comorbidities associated with chronic pain. The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) has a role in the emotional and cognitive aspects of pain, which we know are front and center with chronic pain. Chronic pain patients frequently develop and suffer from mental comorbidities such as depressive mood, impaired cognition, and other significant constraints of daily life, which can only insufficiently be overcome by medication. The emotional and cognitive components of pain are processed by the medial prefrontal cortex, which comprises the anterior cingulate cortex, the prelimbic, and the infralimbic cortex. All three subregions are significantly affected by chronic pain: magnetic resonance imaging has revealed gray matter loss ...
Anxiety is a debilitating symptom of most psychiatric disorders, including major depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, schizophrenia, and addiction. A detrimental aspect of anxiety is disruption of prefrontal cortex (PFC)-mediated executive functions, such as flexible decision making. Here we sought to understand how anxiety modulates PFC neuronal encoding of flexible shifting between behavioral strategies. We used a clinically substantiated anxiogenic treatment to induce sustained anxiety in rats and recorded from dorsomedial PFC (dmPFC) and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) neurons while they were freely moving in a home cage and while they performed a PFC-dependent task that required flexible switches between rules in two distinct perceptual dimensions. Anxiety elicited a sustained background hypofrontality in dmPFC and OFC by reducing the firing rate of spontaneously active neuronal subpopulations. During task performance, the impact of anxiety was subtle, but, consistent with human data, ...
In this study, we provide a deep characterization of the genomic locations of 5hmC in the human prefrontal cortex in a large sample. Using AbaSI-Seq, a high-throughput technique, we confirm previously published work using either low-throughput techniques or single samples. Furthermore, we extend the current knowledge of the role of 5hmC in the brain by linking stable 5hmC sites to enhancer regions and exon-intron junctions, both of which are involved in gene transcription. We also show the existence of regions of the genome that contain gender-specific 5hmC patterns, in addition to providing a putative mechanism for how certain genes escape X-inactivation. These data are of interest, as genomic mapping of 5hmC in the prefrontal cortex will likely be of reference for future studies investigating brain and mental disorders.. Inter-individual variability is common across many fields of study. This is especially true in epigenetics, where both the environment and the genetic landscape are ...
CiteSeerX - Document Details (Isaac Councill, Lee Giles, Pradeep Teregowda): Neuroimaging and neuropsychological studies have implicated left inferior prefrontal cortex (LIPC) in both semantic and phonological processing. In this study, functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to examine whether separate LIPC regions participate in each of these types of processing. Performance of a semantic decision task resulted in extensive LIPC activation compared to a perceptual control task. Phonological processing of words and pseudowords in a syllable-counting task resulted in activation of the dorsal aspect of the left inferior frontal gyrus near the inferior frontal sulcus (BA44/45) compared to a perceptual control task, with greater activation for nonwords compared to words. In a direct comparison of semantic and phonological tasks, semantic processing preferentially
Humans are noted for their capacity to over-ride self-interest in favor of normatively valued goals. We examined the neural circuitry that is causally involved in normative, fairness-related decisions by generating a temporarily diminished capacity for costly normative behavior, a deviant case, through non-invasive brain stimulation (repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation) and compared normal subjects functional magnetic resonance imaging signals with those of the deviant subjects. When fairness and economic self-interest were in conflict, normal subjects (who make costly normative decisions at a much higher frequency) displayed significantly higher activity in, and connectivity between, the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and the posterior ventromedial prefrontal cortex (pVMPFC). In contrast, when there was no conflict between fairness and economic self-interest, both types of subjects displayed identical neural patterns and behaved identically. These findings suggest that ...
This study examined whether brain regions associated with judging other peoples intentions would react differently in the face of altruistic versus selfish motives. Participants took part in an economic game during functional magnetic resonance imaging. When the game was described in terms of donations, ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) activation increased for inferring generous play and decreased for inferring selfish play.. ...
The hippocampus and prefrontal cortex have long been known to play a central role in various behavioral and cognitive functions. More recently, electrophysiological and functional imaging studies have begun to examine how interactions between the two structures contribute to behavior during various tasks. At the same time, it has become clear that hippocampal-prefrontal interactions are disrupted in psychiatric disease and may contribute to their pathophysiology. These impairments have most frequently been observed in schizophrenia, a disease that has long been associated with hippocampal and prefrontal dysfunction. Studies in animal models of the illness have also begun to relate disruptions in hippocampal-prefrontal interactions to the various risk factors and pathophysiological mechanisms of the illness. The goal of this review is to summarize what is known about the role of hippocampal-prefrontal interactions in normal brain function and compare how these interactions are disrupted in schizophrenia
Low-dose propofol-induced amnesia is not due to a failure of encoding: Left inferior prefrontal cortex is still active Academic Article ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - NMDA Receptors Subserve Persistent Neuronal Firing during Working Memory in Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex. AU - Wang, Min. AU - Yang, Yang. AU - Wang, Ching Jung. AU - Gamo, Nao J.. AU - Jin, Lu E.. AU - Mazer, James A.. AU - Morrison, John H.. AU - Wang, Xiao Jing. AU - Arnsten, Amy F.T.. N1 - Funding Information: This research was supported by NIH grants PO1 AG030004 and RL1 AA017536 within U54RR024350 to A.F.T.A., AG016765 and AG06647 to J.H.M., MH062349 to X.-J.W., and MH 09335401 to M.W., as well as a New Investigator Research Grant from the Alzheimers Association to M.W., and a gift to honor the memory of Percy S. Arnsten. We are grateful to L. Ciavarella, T. Sadlon, S. Johnson, and J. Thomas for their invaluable technical support and thank Dr. Bao-Ming Li, Dr. Naomi Dreisen, Dr. John Krystal, and Dr. Phil Corlett for their inspiration. PY - 2013/2/20. Y1 - 2013/2/20. N2 - Neurons in the primate dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) generate persistent firing in the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Proteomic analysis of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex indicates the involvement of cytoskeleton, oligodendrocyte, energy metabolism and new potential markers in schizophrenia. AU - Martins-de-Souza, Daniel. AU - Gattaz, Wagner F.. AU - Schmitt, Andrea. AU - Maccarrone, Giuseppina. AU - Hunyadi-Gulyás, E.. AU - Eberlin, Marcos N.. AU - Souza, Gustavo H M F. AU - Marangoni, Sérgio. AU - Novello, José C.. AU - Turck, Christoph W.. AU - Dias-Neto, Emmanuel. PY - 2009/7. Y1 - 2009/7. N2 - Schizophrenia is likely to be a consequence of serial alterations in a number of genes that, together with environmental factors, will lead to the establishment of the illness. The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (Brodmanns Area 46) is implicated in schizophrenia and executes high functions such as working memory, differentiation of conflicting thoughts, determination of right and wrong concepts, correct social behavior and personality expression. We performed a comparative proteome analysis using ...
Dive into the research topics of Characterization of dopamine release in the rat medial prefrontal cortex as assessed by in vivo microdialysis: Comparison to the striatum. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Humans have the capacity to evaluate the success of cognitive processes, known as metacognition. Convergent evidence supports a role for anterior prefrontal cortex in metacognitive judgements of perceptual processes. However, it is unknown whether metacognition is a global phenomenon, with anterior prefrontal cortex supporting metacognition across domains, or whether it relies on domain-specific neural substrates. To address this question, we measured metacognitive accuracy in patients with lesions to anterior prefrontal cortex (n = 7) in two distinct domains, perception and memory, by assessing the correspondence between objective performance and subjective ratings of performance. Despite performing equivalently to a comparison group with temporal lobe lesions (n = 11) and healthy controls (n = 19), patients with lesions to the anterior prefrontal cortex showed a selective deficit in perceptual metacognitive accuracy (meta-d/d, 95% confidence interval 0.28-0.64). Crucially, however, the anterior
Effects of aging on circadian patterns of gene expression in the human prefrontal cortex With aging, significant changes in circadian rhythms occur…
Prefrontal cortex is thought to be important in attention and awareness. Here we recorded the activity of prefrontal neurons in monkeys carrying out a focused attention task. Having directed attention to one location, monkeys monitored a stream of visual objects, awaiting a predefined target. Although neurons rarely discriminated between one non-target and another, they commonly discriminated between targets and non-targets. From the onset of the visual response, this target/non-target discrimination was effectively eliminated when the same objects appeared at an unattended location in the opposite visual hemifield. The results show that, in prefrontal cortex, filtering of ignored locations is strong, early and spatially global. Such filtering may be important in blindness to unattended signals--a conspicuous aspect of human selective attention.
Working memory is essential for many of our distinctly human abilities, including reasoning, problem solving, and planning. Research spanning many decades has helped to refine our understanding of this high-level function as comprising several hierarchically organized components, some which maintain information in the conscious mind, and others which manipulate and reorganize this information in useful ways. In the neocortex, these processes are likely implemented by a distributed frontoparietal network, with more posterior regions serving to maintain volatile information, and more anterior regions subserving the manipulation of this information. Recent meta-analytic findings have identified the anterior lateral prefrontal cortex, in particular, as being generally engaged by working memory tasks, while the posterior lateral prefrontal cortex was more strongly associated with the cognitive load required by these tasks. These findings suggest specific roles for these regions in the cognitive ...
Anatomical, neuroimaging and lesion studies indicate that prefrontal cortex (PFC) can be subdivided into different subregions supporting distinct aspects of decision making. However, explanations of neuronal computations within these subregions varies widely across studies. An integrated and mechanistic account of PFC function therefore remains elusive. Resolving these debates demands a rich dataset that directly contrasts neuronal activity across multiple PFC subregions within a single paradigm, whilst experimentally controlling factors such as the order, duration and frequency in which choice options are attended and compared. Here, we contrast neuronal population responses between macaque orbitofrontal (OFC), anterior cingulate (ACC) and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices (DLPFC) during sequential value-guided information search and choice. From the first fixation of choice-related stimuli, a strong triple dissociation of information encoding emerges in parallel across these PFC subregions. As further
Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) is a neuromodulation technique with promising results for enhancing cognitive information processes. So far, however, research has mainly focused on the effects of tDCS on cognitive control operations for non-emotional material. Therefore, our aim was to investigate the effects on cognitive control considering negative versus positive material. For this sham-controlled, within-subjects study, we selected a homogeneous sample of twenty-five healthy participants. By using behavioral measures and event related potentials (ERP) as indexes, we aimed to investigate whether a single session of anodal tDCS of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) would have specific effects in enhancing cognitive control for positive and negative valenced stimuli. After tDCS over the left DLPFC (and not sham control stimulation), we observed more negative N450 amplitudes along with faster reaction times when inhibiting a habitual response to happy compared to sad facial
In people with psychoses, Self-Reflectiveness may rely on the right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC). We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and a novel virtual reality paradigm to evaluate the role of the VLPFC for Self-Reflectiveness in 25 first-episode of schizophrenia (FES) participants and 24 controls. Participants first viewed 20 characters each paired with a unique object/location, and later completed source memory judgements during fMRI scanning. Self-Reflectiveness, measured with the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale, was significantly and positively correlated to activation in bilateral VLPFC in FES, but not in controls, providing further evidence that the VLPFC supports Self-Reflectiveness in FES.. ...
TY - CHAP. T1 - Nonlinear relationship between perception of deep pain and medial prefrontal cortex response is related to sympathovagal balance. AU - Sclocco, Roberta. AU - Loggia, M. L.. AU - Garcia, R. G.. AU - Edwards, R.. AU - Kim, J.. AU - Cerutti, S.. AU - Bianchi, A. M.. AU - Napadow, V.. AU - Barbieri, R.. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - Brain responses to evoked pain have been extensively investigated during the past years. Medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) has been identified as a region showing a nonlinear, quadratic response to increasing evoked deep pain. Concurrently, MPFC plays an important role as an autonomic mediator in pain perception. Therefore, we hypothesize that MPFC response to pain is directly correlated with autonomic outflow. In order to test our hypothesis, we integrated autonomic modulation with functional neuroimaging data (BOLD fMRI) obtained during evoked deep tissue pain. We selected the LF/HF ratio, estimated instantaneously through a point process approach, as a ...
An extensive body of evidence supports the notion that exposure to an enriched/impoverished environment alters brain functions via epigenetic changes. However, how specific modifications of social environment modulate brain functions remains poorly understood. To address this issue, we investigate the molecular and behavioral consequences of briefly manipulating social settings in young and middle-aged wild-type mice. We observe that, modifications of the social context, only affect the performance in socially related tasks. Social enrichment increases sociability whereas isolation leads to the opposite effect. Our work also pointed out specific miRNA signatures associated to each social environment. These miRNA alterations are reversible and found selectively in the medial prefrontal cortex. Finally, we show that miRNA modifications linked to social enrichment or isolation might target rather different intracellular pathways. Together, these observations suggest that the prefrontal cortex may be a key
The prefrontal cortex is critical for integrative cognitive function, although it is unlikely that this capacity resides in specialized modules in prefrontal regions. Rather, prefrontal cortex...
Introduction: Cognitive symptoms from Parkinsons disease cause severe disability and significantly limit quality of life. Little is known about mechanisms of cognitive impairment in PD, although aberrant oscillatory activity in basal ganglia-thalamo-prefrontal cortical circuits likely plays an important role. While continuous high-frequency deep brain stimulation (DBS) improves motor symptoms, it is generally ineffective for cognitive symptoms. Although we lack robust treatment options for these symptoms, recent studies with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), applying intermittent theta-burst stimulation (iTBS) to dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), suggest beneficial effects for certain aspects of cognition, such as memory or inhibitory control. While TMS is non-invasive, its results are transient and require repeated application. Subcortical DBS targets have strong reciprocal connections with prefrontal cortex, such that iTBS through the permanently implanted lead might represent a ...
Building on evidence for working memory (WM) coding of vibrotactile frequency information in monkey prefrontal cortex, recent electroencephalography studies found frequency processing in human WM to be reflected by quantitative modulations of prefrontal upper beta activity (20-30 Hz) as a function of the to-be-maintained stimulus attribute. This kind of stimulus-dependent activity has been observed across different sensory modalities, suggesting a generalized role of prefrontal beta during abstract WM processing of quantitative magnitude information. However, until now the available empirical evidence for such quantitative WM representation remains critically limited to the retention of periodic stimulus frequencies. In the present experiment, we used retrospective cueing to examine the quantitative WM processing of stationary (intensity) and temporal (duration) attributes of a previously presented tactile stimulus. We found parametric modulations of prefrontal beta activity during cued WM ...
DataMed is a prototype biomedical data search engine. Its goal is to discover data sets across data repositories or data aggregators. In the future it will allow searching outside these boundaries. DataMed supports the NIH-endorsed FAIR principles of Findability, Accessibility, Interoperability and Reusability of datasets with current functionality assisting in finding datasets and providing access information about them.
A large corpus of research indicates that exposure to stress impairs cognitive abilities, specifically executive functioning dependent on the prefrontal cortex (PFC). We collected structural MRI scans (n = 61), well-validated assessments of executive functioning, and detailed interviews assessing stress exposure in humans to examine whether cumulative life stress affected brain morphometry and one type of executive functioning, spatial working memory, during adolescence-a critical time of brain development and reorganization. Analysis of variations in brain structure revealed that cumulative life stress and spatial working memory were related to smaller volumes in the PFC, specifically prefrontal gray and white matter between the anterior cingulate and the frontal poles. Mediation analyses revealed that individual differences in prefrontal volumes accounted for the association between cumulative life stress and spatial working memory. These results suggest that structural changes in the PFC may ...
Successful choice under risk requires the integration of information about outcome probabilities and values and implicates a brain network including the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and posterior parietal cortex (pPAR). Damage to the vmPFC is linked to poor decision-making and increased risk-taking. Electrophysiological and neuroimaging data implicate the pPAR in the processing of reward probability during choice, but the causal contribution of this area has not been established. We compared patients with lesions to the pPAR (n = 13), vmPFC (n = 13), and healthy volunteers (n = 22) on the Roulette Betting Task, a measure of risk-sensitive decision-making. Both lesion groups were impaired in adjusting their bets to the probability of winning. This impairment was correlated with the extent of pPAR, but not vmPFC, damage. In addition, the vmPFC group chose higher bets than healthy controls overall, an effect that correlated with lesion volume in the medial orbitofrontal cortex. Both lesion groups
Where in the brain are the neural correlates of perceptual consciousness? Some leading theories of consciousness, including global workspace and higher-order thought theories, hold that these correlates centrally involve prefrontal cortex. Other leading theories, including first-order and integrated information theories, hold that these correlates centrally involve sensory cortices, with prefrontal cortex playing at most a secondary role. In recent years much experimental evidence has been brought to bear on both sides of the question.. In this debate, Hakwan Lau (UCLA) and Biyu Jade He (NYU) will defend the view that neural activity in prefrontal cortex is important for conscious perception, while Victor Lamme (Amsterdam) and Johannes Fahrenfort (Amsterdam) will argue that prefrontal activity is not important for conscious perception.. ...
Causal reasoning is a ubiquitous feature of human cognition. We continuously seek to understand, at least implicitly and often explicitly, the causal scenarios in which we live, so that we may anticipate what will come next, plan a potential response and envision its outcome, decide among possible courses of action in light of their probable outcomes, make midstream adjustments in our goal-related activities as our situation changes, and so on. A considerable body of research shows that the lateral PFC is crucial for causal reasoning, but also that there are significant differences in the manner in which ventrolateral PFC, dorsolateral PFC, and anterolateral PFC support causal reasoning. We propose, on the basis of research on the evolution, architecture, and functional organization of the lateral PFC, a general framework for understanding its roles in the many and varied sorts of causal reasoning carried out by human beings. Specifically, the ventrolateral PFC supports the generation of basic causal
This article might interest you. It discusses some of the anatomy, functions, and neuropsychological tests related to the prefrontal cortex (PFC).. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is a relatively big area and serves many functions, so theres not going to be a single test that evaluates PFC function. Some tests will look at inhibition (the ability to avoid an automatic or trained behavior), task switching (like the WCST mentioned above), attention (PFC is thought to be important for controlling directed attention), working memory (memory of a small set of items for a short period of time). Self control is a really important function served by the PFC, especially in modern society. Remember that everyone is different, so someone will a lack of inhibition might not necessarily fall into the category of having a brain disorder. A neuropsychologist will do their best to use the limited tools available to categorize you based on some generally agreed upon diagnostic criteria, and if you fall into a gray ...
The hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex are two areas of the brain that are fundamental for a wide range of cognitive processes. Studies of both human patients who have incurred damage to these regions, and animals with circumscribed lesions, have led to a variety of theories concerning their contributions to cognitive behaviours. The hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex are connected anatomically, but the behavioural sequelae of experimental lesions have been shown to be dissociable. This thesis investigates the roles of the hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex in the rat, with a focus on delayed matching working memory tasks. Chapter 4 reports on a study which demonstrated a delay-dependent deficit on retention of delayed matching to position (DMTP) in the Skinner box following prefrontal lesions hippocampal lesions left performance intact. Neither lesion impaired the ability to switch between matching and non-matching rules. Chapter 5 describes an experiment which revealed that neither ...
The classic case of earlier studies of prefrontal cortex function involved a railroad supervisor of construction-one Phineas Gage-who in 1848, despite a metal rod piercing his left cheek and exiting the top of his head, survived the incident and healed. After the event he had normal memory and abilities to walk and talk, but because of the prefrontal injury could no longer behave correctly, often getting into fights or acting shockingly. The remainder of his life was a tragedy of knowing what was right and wrong, but never choosing the right and instead always picking what sounded pleasurable and easy. Subsequent studies on patients with prefrontal injuries have shown that, in testing, they verbalize what the most appropriate social responses would be under certain circumstances, yet when actually performing, they will still pursue behavior which is aimed at immediate gratification even if they know the longer term results will be self-defeating. This data indicates that not only are skills of ...
Different kinds of decision making can be categorized by their differential effect on the agents current and future states as well as the computational challenges they pose. Here, we draw a distinction between within-state and state-change decision-making, and propose that a dedicated decision mechanism exists in dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) that is specialized for state-change decisions. We set out a formal framework in which state change decisions may be made on the basis of the integrated momentary reward rate, over the intended time to be spent in a state. A key feature of this framework is that reward rate is expressed as a function of continuous time. We argue that dmPFC is suited for this type of decision making partly due to its ability to track the passage of time. This proposed function of dmPFC is placed in contrast to other evaluative systems such as the orbitofrontal cortex, which is important for careful deliberation within a specific model-space or option-space and within a
TY - JOUR. T1 - Midline and intralaminar thalamic connections with the orbital and medial prefrontal networks in macaque monkeys. AU - Hsu, David T.. AU - Price, Joseph L.. PY - 2007/9/10. Y1 - 2007/9/10. N2 - Although the midline and intralaminar thalamic nuclei (MITN) were long believed to project nonspecifically, they are now known from rat studies to have restricted connections to the prefrontal cortex. This has not been studied thoroughly in primates, however, and it is not known how MITN are associated with the orbital and medial prefrontal networks. This study examined the connections of MITN in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). Experiments with retrograde and anterograde tracer injections into the orbital and medial prefrontal cortex (OMPFC) showed that MITN are strongly connected with the medial prefrontal network. The dorsal nuclei of the midline thalamus, including the paraventricular (Pa) and parataenial nuclei (Pt), had heavy connections with medial network areas 25, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Category-specific representations of social and nonsocial knowledge in the human prefrontal cortex. AU - Wood, J. N.. AU - Romero, S. G.. AU - Makale, M.. AU - Grafman, Jordan. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2008 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2003/2/15. Y1 - 2003/2/15. N2 - Complex social behavior and the relatively large size of the prefrontal cortex are arguably two of the characteristics that distinguish humans from other animals. Grafman presented a framework concerning how the prefrontal cortex (PFC) controls complex behavior using stored structured event complexes (SECs). We report behavioral and imaging data from a modified go/no-go paradigm in which subjects had to classify, words (semantic) and phrases (SEC) according to category. In experimental trials, subjects classified items according to social or nonsocial activity; in control trials, they classified items according to font. Subjects were faster to classify social than nonsocial semantic items, with the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Medial prefrontal cortex involvement in aesthetic appreciation of paintings. T2 - a tDCS study. AU - Cattaneo, Zaira. AU - Ferrari, Chiara. AU - Schiavi, Susanna. AU - Alekseichuk, Ivan. AU - Antal, Andrea. AU - Nadal, Marcos. PY - 2020/2. Y1 - 2020/2. N2 - Among the brain regions involved in the aesthetic evaluation of paintings, the prefrontal cortex seems to play a pivotal role. In particular, consistent neuroimaging evidence indicates that activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (mainly in the left hemisphere) and in medial and orbital sectors of the prefrontal cortex is linked to viewing aesthetically pleasing images. In this study, we focused on the contribution of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in mediating aesthetic decisions about paintings. We found that enhancing excitability in this region via anodal tDCS led participants to judge paintings as more beautiful. Although significant, the effects were moderate, possibly due to the neutral affective value of ...
The purpose of this study was to investigate neuronal mechanisms active during the percep-tion of forward postural limits in a standing po-sition and to specify fall-related brain activity using optical functional near-infrared spectros-copy. The study group included six right-handed, healthy female volunteers (range: 19, 20 years). The optical imaging device comprised 16 opto-des designed to provide 24-channel recording of changes in hemoglobin oxygenation. We meas-ured the changes of oxygenated hemoglobin levels in the frontal region when subjects per-ceived reachability in a standing position. Com- pared with those in other regions, the oxygen-ated hemoglobin levels in the right frontal region compatible with the right prefrontal cortex sig-nificantly increased. This result suggests that brain activities in the right prefrontal cortex are related to perception of reachability. Overesti-mation of postural limits has been reported as one of the risk factor for falling. This overesti-mation might be
TY - JOUR. T1 - Relation between Parametric Change of the Workload and Prefrontal Cortex Activity during a Modified Version of the Rock, Paper, Scissors Task. AU - Yamauchi, Yoshiki. AU - Kikuchi, Senichiro. AU - Miwakeichi, Fumikazu. AU - Matsumoto, Kenji. AU - Nishida, Masaki. AU - Ishiguro, Makio. AU - Watanabe, Eiju. AU - Kato, Satoshi. N1 - Publisher Copyright: Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel. Copyright: Copyright 2015 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2013. Y1 - 2013. N2 - Background/Aims: Modified rock, paper, scissors (RPS) tasks have previously been used in neuroscience to investigate activity of the prefrontal cortex (PFC). In this study, we investigated hemodynamic changes in the PFC using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) during a modified RPS task in which each subjects successful performance rate was equalized; the workload was increased parametrically in order to reveal the resulting pattern of PFC activation. Methods: The subjects were 20 healthy adults. During ...
We have recently identified up- or down-regulation of the olfactory (OR) and taste (TASR) chemoreceptors in the human cortex in several neurodegenerative diseases, raising the possibility of a general deregulation of these genes in neuropsychiatric disorders. In this study, we explore the possible deregulation of OR and TASR gene expression in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia. We used quantitative polymerase chain reaction on extracts from postmortem dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of subjects with chronic schizophrenia (n = 15) compared to control individuals (n = 14). Negative symptoms were evaluated premortem by the Positive and Negative Syndrome and the Clinical Global Impression Schizophrenia Scales. We report that ORs and TASRs are deregulated in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia. Seven out of eleven ORs and four out of six TASRs were down-regulated in schizophrenia, the most prominent changes of which were found in genes from the 11p15.4 locus. The expression
Although the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) plays a critical role in cocaine addiction, the effects of chronic cocaine on mPFC neurons remain poorly understood. Here, we performed visualized current-clamp recordings to determine the effects of repeated cocaine administration on the membrane excitability of mPFC pyramidal neurons in rat brain slices. Following repeated cocaine administration (15 mg/kg/day i.p. for 5 days) with a 3-day withdrawal, alterations in membrane properties, including increased input resistance, reduced intensity of intracellular injected currents required for generation of Na+-dependent spikes (rheobase), and an increased number of spikes evoked by depolarizing current pulses were observed in mPFC neurons. The current-voltage relationship was also altered in cocaine-pretreated neurons showing reduced outward rectification during membrane depolarization and decreased inward rectification during membrane hyperpolarization. Application of the K+ channel blocker Ba2+ ...
60 The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) has been implicated21 in the generation of an abstract representation of the rewarding value of a stimulus by attending to its context,61 and the learning of contingencies. based on the outcome of a rewarding situation.35 By contrast, lateral areas of the ventral prefrontal cortex may be less involved in hedonic emotions, responding to avcrsive rather than rewarding stimuli.62,63 Some other regions might have a more obvious role in negative and/or distressing emotions rather than hedonic experiences, such as the insula.64,65 Recall-generated sadness was associated with significantly greater increases in activity #www.selleckchem.com/products/CP-690550.html keyword# in the vicinity of the anterior insular cortex, suggesting that this region. participates in the emotional response to potentially distressing cognitive or interoceptive sensory stimuli. Neuropharmacology of anhedonia in major depressive disorder There is considerable evidence that ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Enhanced food-related responses in the ventral medial prefrontal cortex in narcolepsy type 1. AU - van Holst, Ruth Janke. AU - Janssen, Lieneke K.. AU - van Mierlo, Petra. AU - Jan Lammers, Gert. AU - Cools, Roshan. AU - Overeem, Sebastiaan. AU - Aarts, Esther. PY - 2018/12/1. Y1 - 2018/12/1. N2 - Narcolepsy type 1 is a chronic sleep disorder caused by a deficiency of the orexin (hypocretin) neuropeptides. In addition to sleep regulation, orexin is important for motivated control processes. Weight gain and obesity are common in narcolepsy. However, the neurocognitive processes associated with food-related control and overeating in narcolepsy are unknown. We explored the neural correlates of general and food-related attentional control in narcolepsy-type-1 patients (n = 23) and healthy BMI-matched controls (n = 20). We measured attentional bias to food words with a Food Stroop task and general executive control with a Classic Stroop task during fMRI. Moreover, using multiple ...
There is good evidence that the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is involved in different aspects of recognition memory. However, the mPFC is a heterogeneous structure, and the contribution of the prelimbic (PL) and infralimbic (IL) cortices to recognition memory has not been investigated. Similarly, the role of different neuromodulators within the mPFC in these processes is poorly understood. To this end, we tested animals with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesions of the PL and IL mPFC on three tests of object recognition memory that required judgments about recency, object location, and object identity. In the recency task, lesions to both PL and IL severely impaired animals ability to differentiate between old (earlier presented) and recently presented familiar objects. Relative to sham and PL animals, the IL lesion also disrupted performance on the object location task. However, both lesions left novel object recognition intact. These data confirm previous reports that the mPFC is not required ...
In order to clarify the mechanism through which extract of Ginkgo biloba leaves (EGb) improves cognitive function, we examined the effects of EGb on cerebral blood oxygenation in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and on performance during a working memory task, using near-infrared spectrometry (NIRS).. First, we evaluated differences in behavioral performance of the Sternberg working memory test (ST) and in the activation pattern of the PFC during ST between 15 young and 19 middle-aged healthy women. Then, we examined the effect of EGb (120 mg/day for 6 weeks) on ST performance and PFC activation pattern in the middle-aged group.. The middle-aged group exhibited a longer reaction time (RT) in ST than the young group and showed a different PFC activation pattern during ST, i.e., the middle-aged group showed bilateral activation while the young group showed right-dominant activation. In the middle-aged group, administration of EGb for 6 weeks shortened the RT of ST and changed the PFC activation pattern ...
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) dopamine system, which is critical for modulating PFC function, undergoes remodeling until at least young adulthood in primates. Catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT) alters extracellular dopamine levels in PFC, and its gene contains a functional polymorphism (Val(158)Met) that has been associated with variation in PFC function. We examined COMT enzyme activity and protein immunoreactivity in the PFC during human postnatal development. Protein was extracted from PFC of normal individuals from 6 age groups: neonates (1-4 months), infants (5-11 months), teens (14-18 years), young adults (20-24 years), adults (31-43 years), and aged individuals (68-86 years; n = 5-8 per group). There was a significant 2-fold increase in COMT enzyme activity from neonate to adulthood, paralleled by increases in COMT protein immunoreactivity. Furthermore, COMT protein immunoreactivity was related to Val(158)Met genotype, as has been previously demonstrated. The significant increase in COMT activity
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cognition and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex volume in corticosteroid- treated patients given lamotrigine. AU - Husain, Saira. AU - Kuzminski, Samuel. AU - Shad, Mujeeb U.. AU - Gabrielson, Barry. AU - Bret, Mary E.. AU - Osuji, I. Julian. AU - Brown, E. Sherwood. PY - 2011/2. Y1 - 2011/2. N2 - In addition to changes in declarative memory and the hippocampus, corticosteroid excess is associated with prefrontal cortex changes. We previously reported that patients receiving exogenous corticosteroid therapy had impaired performance on prefrontal cortex-related tasks, including working memory and executive functioning tasks. Glutamate release inhibitors attenuate corticosteroid-effects on the hippocampus in both animal and human models. Twenty-eight outpatients receiving chronic prednisone therapy for transplant rejection or other medical conditions were randomized to lamotrigine (a glutamate release inhibitor) or placebo for 24 weeks. Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) volume ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Dorsomedial prefrontal cortex contribution to behavioral and nucleus accumbens neuronal responses to incentive cues. AU - Ishikawa, Akinori. AU - Ambroggi, Frederic. AU - Nicola, Saleem M.. AU - Fields, Howard L.. PY - 2008/5/7. Y1 - 2008/5/7. N2 - Cue-elicited phasic changes in firing of nucleus accumbens (NAc) neurons can facilitate reward-seeking behavior. Here, we test the hypothesis that the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), which sends a dense glutamatergic projection to the NAc core, contributes to NAc neuronal firing responses to reward-predictive cues. Rats trained to perform an operant response to a cue for sucrose were implanted with recording electrodes in the core of the NAc and microinjection cannulas in the dorsal mPFC (dmPFC). The cue-evoked firing of NAc neurons was reduced by bilateral injection of GABAA and GABAB agonists into the dmPFC concomitant with loss of behavioral responding to the cue. In addition, unilateral dmPFC inactivation reduced ipsilateral cue ...
Negative symptoms in schizophrenia and core depressive symptoms share phenomenology and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a treatment modality for both conditions. The most common treatment site has been the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) but there might be more optimal targets. Furthermore, the implementation of the currently approved protocols is hampered by the long duration. More intense stimulation protocols such as the theta burst stimulation (TBS) are significantly shorter and may be as effective and safe.. The overall aim of this project is to evaluate the treatment effect of TBS on poor motivation and anhedonia in schizophrenia and depression and to explore the neurobiological correlates of these deficits.. The dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) is a key cortical area in networks associated with motivation and anhedonia and it is affected in both schizophrenia and depression. The dmPFC has recently been identified as a possible site of stimulation and is ...
Trends toward encephalization and technological complexity ∼1.8 million years ago may signify cognitive development in the genus Homo. Using functional near-infrared spectroscopy, we measured relative brain activity of 33 human subjects at three different points as they learned to make replicative Oldowan and Acheulian Early Stone Age tools. Here we show that the more complex early Acheulian industry recruits left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex when skills related to this task are first being learned. Individuals with increased activity in this area are the most proficient at the Acheulian task. The Oldowan task, on the other hand, transitions to automatic processing in less than 4 h of training. Individuals with increased sensorimotor activity demonstrate the most skill at this task. We argue that enhanced working memory abilities received positive selection in response to technological needs during the early Pleistocene, setting Homo on the path to becoming human.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Material-specific lateralization in the medial temporal lobe and prefrontal cortex during memory encoding. AU - Golby, Alexandra J.. AU - Poldrack, Russell A.. AU - Brewer, James B.. AU - Spencer, David. AU - Desmond, John E.. AU - Aron, Arthur P.. AU - Gabrieli, John D.E.. PY - 2001. Y1 - 2001. N2 - Numerous observations in patients with unilateral lesions of the medial temporal lobe (MTL) and the prefrontal cortex indicate that memory processes are lateralized according to content. Left-sided lesions interfere with verbal memory processes, whereas right-sided lesions interfere with visuospatial (non-verbal) memory processes. However, functional imaging studies have resulted in contradictory data, some studies showing lateralization in the prefrontal cortex determined by stage of processing (encoding versus retrieval) and others suggesting that lateralization is dependent on the type of material. Few studies have examined this issue in the MTL. In order to test the hypothesis ...
Real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rt-fMRI) neurofeedback can be used to train localized, conscious regulation of blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signals. As a therapeutic technique, rt-fMRI neurofeedback reduces the symptoms of a variety of neurologic disorders. To date, few studies have investigated the use of self-regulation training using rt-fMRI neurofeedback to enhance cognitive performance. This work investigates the utility of rt-fMRI neurofeedback as a tool to enhance human cognition by training healthy individuals to consciously control activity in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). A cohort of 18 healthy participants in the experimental group underwent rt-fMRI neurofeedback from the left DLPFC in five training sessions across two weeks while 7 participants in the control group underwent similar training outside the MRI and without rt-fMRI neurofeedback. Working memory (WM) performance was evaluated on two testing days separated by the five rt-fMRI neurofeedback
Background: Brain imaging studies suggest that volume reductions and compromised white matter integrity occur in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder (BD). However, the cellular correlates have not yet been identified. To address this issue we assessed oligodendrocyte, astrocyte and microglial populations in postmortem white matter from schizophrenia, BD and nonpsychiatric control samples. Methods: The density, areal fraction and spatial distribution of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-expressing astrocytes and ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule-1 (IBA-1)-expressing microglia as well as the density, nuclear size and spatial distribution of Nissl-stained oligodendrocytes were quantified in postmortem white matter adjacent to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (Brodmann area 9) in schizophrenia, BD and control samples (n = 20). In addition, the oligodendrocyte-associated proteins myelin basic protein and 2′,3′-cyclic-nucleotide 3′-phosphodiesterase (CNPase) were quantified in the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Reduced activation of intracellular signaling pathways in rat prefrontal cortex after chronic phencyclidine administration. AU - Molteni, Raffaella. AU - Pasini, Matteo. AU - Moraschi, Stefania. AU - Gennarelli, Massimo. AU - Drago, Filippo. AU - Racagni, Giorgio. AU - Riva, Marco A.. PY - 2008/4. Y1 - 2008/4. N2 - Evidence exists that schizophrenia is characterized by deficits in cell-cell communication and information processing. In the present study, we used the phencyclidine (PCP) animal model of schizophrenia to investigate possible defects in intracellular signaling proteins involved in neuroplasticity. Western Blot analysis has been performed to determine total and phospho-protein levels of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2), type II calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (αCaMKII) and cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB) in prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus (HIP) of rat chronically treated with PCP, whereas their mRNA levels were ...
Background: Previous studies have shown that the activity of the amygdala is elevated in people experiencing clinical and subclinical levels of anxiety and depression (negative affect). It has been proposed that a reduction in inhibitory input to the amygdala from the prefrontal cortex and resultant over-activity of the amygdala underlies this association. Prior studies have found relationships between negative affect and 1) amygdala over-activity and 2) reduced amygdala-prefrontal connectivity. However, it is not known whether elevated amygdala activity is associated with decreased amygdala-prefrontal connectivity during negative affect states. Methods: Here we used resting-state arterial spin labeling (ASL) and blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in combination to test this model, measuring the activity (regional cerebral blood flow, rCBF) and functional connectivity (correlated fluctuations in the BOLD signal) of one subregion of the amygdala ...
The STM was assessed using a spontaneous spatial alternation task in a T-maze. C57-Bl/6 J male mice were distributed in 4 groups according to treatment (0.1 nmol of NPS or vehicle intracerebroventricular injection) and to 20 h-SR. Immediately after behavioural testing, regional c-fos immunohistochemistry was performed and used as a neural activation marker for spatial short term memory (prefrontal cortex, dorsal hippocampus) and emotional reactivity (basolateral amygdala and ventral hippocampus). Anxiety-like behaviour was assessed using elevated-plus maze task ...
Alterations in the structure and physiology of interneurons in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) are important factors in the etiopathology of different psychiatric disorders. Among the interneuronal subpopulations, parvalbumin (PV) expressing cells appear to be specially affected. Interestingly, during development and adulthood the connectivity of these interneurons is regulated by the presence of perineuronal nets (PNNs), specialized regions of the extracellular matrix, which are frequently surrounding PV expressing neurons. Previous reports have found anomalies in the density of PNNs in the PFC of schizophrenic patients. However, although some studies have described alterations in PNNs in some extracortical regions of bipolar disorder patients, there are no studies focusing on the prefrontocortical PNNs of bipolar or major depression patients. For this reason, we have analyzed the density of PNNs in post-mortem sections of the dorsolateral PFC (DLPFC) from the Stanley Neuropathology Consortium, which
Our laboratory, along with others, has demonstrated abnormalities in brain structure and function associated with breast cancer chemotherapy, most consistently in the prefrontal cortex. The prefrontal cortex is critical for skills such as multi-tasking, attention, processing speed and memory; skills that are often impaired in patients who have undergone breast cancer chemotherapy. Because prefrontal cortex changes have also been observed in patients prior to chemotherapy treatment as well as in those treated with radiation and/or hormonal blockade, the specific effects of chemotherapy on prefrontal cortex remain unclear. It is also currently unknown why some patients treated with chemotherapy show improvement in cognitive function over time while others do not. The proposed research will examine prefrontal cortex structure and function as well as cognitive status in 50 patients with primary breast cancer scheduled for chemotherapy. These patients will be evaluated across the treatment course, ...
Subjects. Male Sprague Dawley CAMM rats (n = 6 per experiment) weighing 240-280 gm were paired and housed in filter frame cages. The rats were kept on a 12 hr light/dark cycle, and the experiments were conducted during the light phase. The animals were fed a diet of autoclaved Purina rat chow (17 gm/rat per day) immediately after behavioral testing. Water was available ad libitum. Rats were weighed weekly, and weights were maintained at ∼400-450 gm. Food rewards during cognitive testing were highly palatable miniature chocolate chips, thus minimizing the need for dietary regulation. Rats were assigned a single experimenter who handled them extensively before behavioral testing. The experimenter testing the animal was blind to the drug treatment conditions.. Delayed alternation. The delayed-alternation task was selected for comparison with previous studies of (1) PFC DA depletion and (2) stress, which similarly used this paradigm. The delayed-alternation task uses a number of processes ...
Author: Spitzer, Bernhard et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 2014-05; Keywords: Working memory; Tactile; fMRI; Connectivity; Stimulus coding; Title: Maintenance and manipulation of somatosensory information in ventrolateral prefrontal cortex
Conventional models of schizophrenia have tended to focus on cellular and behavioural manipulations of dopamine, as the dopaminergic system has been strongly implicated in the disease. However, typical and atypical antipsychotic drugs with D2 receptor antagonist properties that display activity in these models tend to have clinical efficacy limited to the positive symptoms of the disease. Hence, there is a need for improved models to enable the identification of new treatments. A variety of newer animal models are emerging, which include genetic, neurodevelopmental and pharmacological models (see Lipska, 2004; Morris et al., 2005; Arguello and Gogos, 2006; Enomoto et al., 2007). The validity and future success of these models will reside in their ability to detect new treatments that can treat the disease more effectively than the current antipsychotic drugs.. To date, relatively few models have focussed on prefrontal cortex pathophysiology and resultant behaviours. One neurodevelopmental model ...
Neuroimaging studies have implicated the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (LDLPFC), an area of the brain that plays an important role in the organization and planning of behavior including goal-oriented regulation of eating behavior and food choice, has been implicated in obesity.. Now Marci Gluck and colleagues, present a proof of concept study published in OBESITY, suggesting that effects of cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS)aimed at the LDLPFC may reduce energy intake and promote weight loss in individuals with obesity.. The randomised sham-controlled study was conducted in 9 (3m, 6f) healthy volunteers with obesity, who were admitted as inpatients for 9 days to a metabolic ward.. In a first study, following 5 days of a weight-maintaining diet, participants received cathodal or sham tDCS (2 mA, 40 min) on three consecutive mornings and then ate ad libitum from a computerized vending machine, which recorded energy intake.. In a second study participants repeated the 1st ...
The prelimbic (PL) and infralimbic (IL) medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) are thought to play opposing roles in drug-seeking behaviour. Specifically, the PL promotes drug-seeking whereas the IL is necessary for the inhibition of drug-seeking during extinction. We studied the roles of the PL, IL and dorsal peduncular PFC (DP) in the expression of context-induced reinstatement, reacquisition and extinction of alcoholic beer-seeking. In context-induced reinstatement (renewal), animals were trained to nosepoke for alcoholic beer (context A), extinguished (context B) and then tested in context A and B. In reacquisition, animals received the same instrumental training and extinction without any contextual manipulation. On test, alcoholic beer was again available and responding was compared with naive controls. Just prior to the test, rats received bilateral infusion of baclofen/muscimol into the PL, IL or DP. Reversible inactivation of the PL attenuated ABA renewal but augmented reacquisition. ...
If you have a question about this talk, please contact Louise White.. Please note, this talk will start at 4.15pm for virtual tea with talk starting at 4.30pm. Episodic memories contain information about our personal experiences. But memories would be useless if we could not retrieve them. Memory retrieval requires the correct selection of a particular trace to be expressed. However, many memories share cues, so how does the brain control interference between similar memories during retrieval? A system including the medial Prefrontal Cortex (mPFC) has been proposed to mediate response selection and control interference. Over the years we have studied how serotonin and particularly 5-HT2a receptors (5-HT2aR) modulates memory processes. By combining behavioral tasks with pharmacology and genetically modified mice we were able to show that mPFC 5-HT2aR are important for the retrieval of episodic like memories and their reconsolidation, some of the signaling cascade that appears to participate in ...
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Models of cognitive control posit a key modulatory role for the pontine locus coeruleus-norepinephrine (LC-NE) system. In nonhuman primates, phasic LC-NE activity confers adaptive adjustments in cortical gain in task-relevant brain networks, and in performance, on a trial-by-trial basis. This model has remained untested in humans. We used the pharmacological agent modafinil to promote low-tonic/high-phasic LC-NE activity in healthy humans performing a cognitive control task during event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Modafanil administration was associated with decreased task-independent, tonic LC activity, increased task-related LC and prefrontal cortex (PFC) activity, and enhanced LC-PFC functional connectivity. These results confirm in humans the role of the LC-NE system in PFC function and cognitive control and suggest a mechanism for therapeutic action of procognitive noradrenergic agents.. ...
In the vibrotactile comparison task (Machens et al., 2005), opponency in prefrontal coding was analyzed for the sensory continuum of vibration frequency. Evidence for opponent coding came from the finding of two groups of cells, one group with activity monotonically increasing with vibration frequency, the other with activity monotonically decreasing. For such sensory continua, opponency may be widespread in the nervous system; for example, in the same task, similar monotonic responses to stimulus frequency have been reported from secondary somatosensory cortex (Romo, Hernández, Zainos, Lemus, & Brody, 2002) to premotor cortex (Romo, Hernández, & Zainos, 2004). Here, we extended these observations to consider opponency in behavioral categories. For this purpose, we used a sequential target detection task based on previous studies of inferotemporal (Takeda, Naya, Fujimichi, Takeuchi, & Miyashita, 2005) and prefrontal (Kusunoki, Sigala, Gaffan, & Duncan, 2009) cortex. Each trial began with a cue ...
Mesencephalic dopamine (DA) projections are essential for cognitive and behavioral functions and believed to play a critical role during development and aging. The dopaminergic afferents of the rodent prefrontal cortex (PFC) show an extremely prolonged maturation which is very sensitive to epigenetic challenges. However, less is known about the long-term maturation and aging of these DA axons. Therefore, immunohistochemically stained DA fibres were quantitatively examined in the PFC of the Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) ranging from 6 to 24 months of age. Results show a decrease in DA fibre densities in the superficial layers of the PFC in 24 month old animals compared to 6 and 12 months ...
In active stimulation, the anode is placed over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the cathode is placed over the right prefrontal cortex. They are located five centimeters ventrally of the primary motor area, which are located five centimeters laterally of the central point of the scalp (which is located on the intersection of the sagittal and median curves). The device will deliver a charge of 2mA for 30 minutes.. Placebo pills are sugar pills having the same size and shape of the active pill ...
This work focuses on the memory functions of the medial prefrontal cortex (PFC). We have provided evidence that this region codes for affective representations of our environment (e.g., of familiar people and places) that can be flexibly engaged for the simulation of possible future events (Benoit et al., 2011; 2014; 2019; Paulus et al., under review). We currently seek to understand the interactions of this region with the medial temporal lobes, both in the service of retrieving individual episodic memories and for the formation of affective memory schemas. In addition, our research on suppression adds to our understanding of the lateral PFC by showing how its subregions influence processing in other parts of the brain, notably the hippocampus (Benoit & Anderson, 2012; Benoit et al., 2015). Further research is targeted at determining the functional organization of rostral prefrontal cortex, i.e., the most anterior part of the brain (e.g., Benoit, et al., 2010; 2012).. ...
Studies of prefrontal cortex (PFC) lesion patients suggest that information conveying high immediacy, certainty, or tangibility engages the more posterior part of the PFC, whereas information that is more abstract or complex engages the anterior part. We examined whether the anterior and posterior subdivisions of the PFC have distinct roles in processing temporal information during decision making in healthy individuals. We hypothesized that the more the locus of activation is in the posterior (as opposed to anterior) PFC, the more the decision maker will be affected by recent information at the expense of past outcomes. Participants performed a complex decision task while their PFC activity was monitored using fMRI. Results indicate that individual differences in the effect of recent outcomes correspond to differences in the locus of activation, with elevated recency associated with more posterior loci of activation. Copyright © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc ...
The present study examined whether the development in rats of behavioral sensitization to methamphetamine (MAP) is related to the development of neurotoxic morphological changes presumably induced in the medial prefrontal cortex (MFC). Male rats were intraperitonieally injected with MAP (5 mg/kg) on …
Author: Schwiedrzik, Caspar M. et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 2018-09; Title: Medial prefrontal cortex supports perceptual memory
Oishi, Y.; Williams, R.H.; Agostinelli, L.; Arrigoni, E.; Fuller, P.M.; Mochizuki, T.; Saper, C.B.; Scammell, T.E., 2013: Role of the medial prefrontal cortex in cataplexy
A high percentage of people who struggle with addictions also have ADD or ADHD. When left untreated, a person has less ability to control his or her impulses, setting them up for significant health problems, poor decisions, and early death. Natural ways to treat ADHD, include intense aerobic exercise, a very healthy diet, a multiple vitamin, fish oil, and supplements (such as green tea, rhodiola, l-tyrosine) or medication (such as Ritalin or Adderall) to enhance prefrontal cortex function ...
When you recite a phone number over and over while you search for a pen and paper to write it down, youre relying on your working memory. Activity in an area of the brains prefrontal cortex is thought to contribute to working memory ability, but the exact neural mechanisms are still a mystery. In a new study, researchers find the amount of a specific neurotransmitter in the prefrontal cortex may predict one aspect of working memory ability.
Abstract: Major depression is a heterogeneous condition, and the search for neural correlates specific to clinically defined subtypes has been inconclusive. Theoretical considerations implicate frontostriatal, particularly subgenual prefrontal cortex (PFC), dysfunction in the pathophysiology of melancholia--a subtype of depression characterized by anhedonia--but no empirical evidence has been found yet for such a link. To test the hypothesis that melancholic, but not nonmelancholic depression, is associated with the subgenual PFC impairment, concurrent measurement of brain electrical (electroencephalogram, EEG) and metabolic (positron emission tomography, PET) activity were obtained in 38 unmedicated subjects with DSM-IV major depressive disorder (20 melancholic, 18 nonmelancholic subjects), and 18 comparison subjects. EEG data were analyzed with a tomographic source localization method that computed the cortical three-dimensional distribution of current density for standard frequency bands, ...
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is thought to play an important role in cognitive processes that are negatively impacted by alcohol exposure. Compared to other brain regions, the neuronal connections of the PFC undergo a critical period of reorganization and refinement during adolescence that coincides with improvements in cognitive control and decision-making. Environmental insults that occur during this period may be particularly damaging to the PFC, resulting in aberrant neurodevelopment along with long-lasting effects on cognitive functioning that negatively impacts decision-making and behavioral control. Experimentation with alcohol typically begins during adolescence when it is often consumed in excessive binge-like episodes resulting in high levels of intoxication followed by a short period of abstinence. This dissertation addresses the hypothesis that binge-like adolescent alcohol (AIE) exposure alters the development of neurotransmitter systems in the prelimbic PFC (PrL-C) and as a result, ...