The effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on dorsolateral prefrontal cortex functions, such as working memory (WM), have been examined in a number of studies. However, much less is known about the behavioral effects of tDCS over other important WM-related brain regions, such as the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC). In a counterbalanced within-subjects design with 33 young healthy participants, we examined whether online and offline single-session tDCS over VLPFC affects WM updating performance as measured by a digit 3-back task. We compared three conditions: anodal, cathodal and sham. We observed no significant tDCS effects on participants accuracy or reaction times during or after the stimulation. Neither did we find any differences between anodal and cathodal stimulation. Largely similar results were obtained when comparing subgroups of high- and low-performing participants. Possible reasons for the lack of effects, including individual differences in responsiveness ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Imbalance between Left and Right Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex in Major Depression Is Linked to Negative Emotional Judgment. T2 - An fMRI Study in Severe Major Depressive Disorder. AU - Grimm, Simone. AU - Beck, Johannes. AU - Schuepbach, Daniel. AU - Hell, Daniel. AU - Boesiger, Peter. AU - Bermpohl, Felix. AU - Niehaus, Ludwig. AU - Boeker, Heinz. AU - Northoff, Georg. PY - 2008/2/15. Y1 - 2008/2/15. N2 - Background: Although recent neuroimaging and therapeutic transcranial magnetic cortex stimulation (TMS) studies suggest imbalance between left and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in major depressive disorder (MDD) the fundamental neuropsychological characterization of left DLPFC hypoactivity and right DLPFC hyperactivity in MDD remains poorly understood. Methods: We used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate neural activity in left and right DLPFC related to unattended (unexpected) and attended (expected) judgment of emotions. ...
Prefrontal cortex function has traditionally been associated with explicit executive function. Recently, however, evidence has been presented that lateral prefrontal cortex is also involved in high-level cognitive processes such as task set selection or inhibition in the absence of awareness. Here, we discuss evidence that not only lateral prefrontal cortex, but also rostral prefrontal cortex is involved in such kinds of implicit control processes. Specifically, rostral prefrontal cortex activation changes have been observed when implicitly learned spatial contingencies in a search display become invalid, requiring a change of attentional settings for optimal guidance of visual search.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Impact of anxiety on prefrontal cortex encoding of cognitive flexibility. AU - Park, Junchol. AU - Moghaddam, Bita. PY - 2017/3/14. Y1 - 2017/3/14. N2 - Anxiety often is studied as a stand-alone construct in laboratory models. But in the context of coping with real-life anxiety, its negative impacts extend beyond aversive feelings and involve disruptions in ongoing goal-directed behaviors and cognitive functioning. Critical examples of cognitive constructs affected by anxiety are cognitive flexibility and decision making. In particular, anxiety impedes the ability to shift flexibly between strategies in response to changes in task demands, as well as the ability to maintain a strategy in the presence of distractors. The brain region most critically involved in behavioral flexibility is the prefrontal cortex (PFC), but little is known about how anxiety impacts PFC encoding of internal and external events that are critical for flexible behavior. Here we review animal and human ...
The prefrontal cortex is important in regulating sleep and mood. Diurnally regulated genes in the prefrontal cortex may be controlled by the circadian system, by sleep:wake states, or by cellular metabolism or environmental responses. Bioinformatics analysis of these genes will provide insights into a wide-range of pathways that are involved in the pathophysiology of sleep disorders and psychiatric disorders with sleep disturbances.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Sleep spindles in human prefrontal cortex. T2 - An electrocorticographic study. AU - Nakamura, Motoaki. AU - Uchida, Sunao. AU - Maehara, Taketoshi. AU - Kawai, Kensuke. AU - Hirai, Nobuhide. AU - Nakabayashi, Tetsuo. AU - Arakaki, Hiroshi. AU - Okubo, Yoshiro. AU - Nishikawa, Toru. AU - Shimizu, Hiroyuki. PY - 2003/4/1. Y1 - 2003/4/1. N2 - To investigate the sleep spindle activity of the human prefrontal cortex (PFC), we simultaneously recorded whole nights of polysomnographic and electrocorticographic (ECoG) activities during the natural sleep of epileptic patients. Subjects were nine patients with intractable epilepsy who had subdural electrodes surgically attached to the orbital (seven cases), medial (three cases), or dorsolateral (two cases) PFC, and in one case to the frontal pole. To examine spindle frequencies, fast Fourier transformation (FFT) and auto-correlation analyses were performed on the PFC ECoG and Cz EEG data, primarily on epochs of stage 2 sleep. Lower sigma ...
So you want your kids and students to pay better attention? Start with the prefrontal cortex.. What is the Prefrontal Cortex?. Aptly named, the prefrontal cortex is a small portion of the frontal lobe, located at the forward-most part of the skull. Its responsible for complex, high-functioning behaviors - like planning, decision-making, and personality expression - and its one of the last parts of the brain to develop in children and young adults.. Most of the development of the prefrontal cortex occurs due to natural physical growth and everyday experiences typical to the life of a child and adolescent. That being said, since kids learn just as much through observation and mimicry as they do through specific instruction, the best way to train your students to use their prefrontal cortices is to pay close attention to your own complex reasoning skills.. Use YOUR Prefrontal Cortex!. Thats right; the best way you can train your students to pay more attention and plan better is to use your own ...
Alterations in the density and size of pyramidal neurons in the prefrontal cortex have been described in schizophrenia and mood disorder. However, the changes are generally modest and have not always been replicated. We investigated the possibility that specific pyramidal neuron sub-populations, defined by their immunoreactivity with the anti-neurofilament antibodies SMI32, N200, and FNP7, are differentially affected in these disorders. First, we assessed the distribution and characteristics of pyramidal neurons labelled by the antibodies in the human dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (Brodmann areas 9, 32, 46), using single and double label immunocytochemistry and immunofluorescence. Three largely separate sub-populations of pyramidal neurons were identified, although with more substantial overlap between SMI32- and FNP7-positive neurons in lamina V. We then determined the density, size and shape of the three pyramidal neuron sub-populations in area 9 in patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or
Background and Objective: Working memory is the most basic pillar of memory for doing cognitive tasks. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on working memory in veterans and disabled athletes.   Material and Methods: The method of this study was ...
In this study, we provide a deep characterization of the genomic locations of 5hmC in the human prefrontal cortex in a large sample. Using AbaSI-Seq, a high-throughput technique, we confirm previously published work using either low-throughput techniques or single samples. Furthermore, we extend the current knowledge of the role of 5hmC in the brain by linking stable 5hmC sites to enhancer regions and exon-intron junctions, both of which are involved in gene transcription. We also show the existence of regions of the genome that contain gender-specific 5hmC patterns, in addition to providing a putative mechanism for how certain genes escape X-inactivation. These data are of interest, as genomic mapping of 5hmC in the prefrontal cortex will likely be of reference for future studies investigating brain and mental disorders.. Inter-individual variability is common across many fields of study. This is especially true in epigenetics, where both the environment and the genetic landscape are ...
CiteSeerX - Document Details (Isaac Councill, Lee Giles, Pradeep Teregowda): Neuroimaging and neuropsychological studies have implicated left inferior prefrontal cortex (LIPC) in both semantic and phonological processing. In this study, functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to examine whether separate LIPC regions participate in each of these types of processing. Performance of a semantic decision task resulted in extensive LIPC activation compared to a perceptual control task. Phonological processing of words and pseudowords in a syllable-counting task resulted in activation of the dorsal aspect of the left inferior frontal gyrus near the inferior frontal sulcus (BA44/45) compared to a perceptual control task, with greater activation for nonwords compared to words. In a direct comparison of semantic and phonological tasks, semantic processing preferentially
Humans are noted for their capacity to over-ride self-interest in favor of normatively valued goals. We examined the neural circuitry that is causally involved in normative, fairness-related decisions by generating a temporarily diminished capacity for costly normative behavior, a deviant case, through non-invasive brain stimulation (repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation) and compared normal subjects functional magnetic resonance imaging signals with those of the deviant subjects. When fairness and economic self-interest were in conflict, normal subjects (who make costly normative decisions at a much higher frequency) displayed significantly higher activity in, and connectivity between, the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and the posterior ventromedial prefrontal cortex (pVMPFC). In contrast, when there was no conflict between fairness and economic self-interest, both types of subjects displayed identical neural patterns and behaved identically. These findings suggest that ...
This study examined whether brain regions associated with judging other peoples intentions would react differently in the face of altruistic versus selfish motives. Participants took part in an economic game during functional magnetic resonance imaging. When the game was described in terms of donations, ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) activation increased for inferring generous play and decreased for inferring selfish play.. ...
The hippocampus and prefrontal cortex have long been known to play a central role in various behavioral and cognitive functions. More recently, electrophysiological and functional imaging studies have begun to examine how interactions between the two structures contribute to behavior during various tasks. At the same time, it has become clear that hippocampal-prefrontal interactions are disrupted in psychiatric disease and may contribute to their pathophysiology. These impairments have most frequently been observed in schizophrenia, a disease that has long been associated with hippocampal and prefrontal dysfunction. Studies in animal models of the illness have also begun to relate disruptions in hippocampal-prefrontal interactions to the various risk factors and pathophysiological mechanisms of the illness. The goal of this review is to summarize what is known about the role of hippocampal-prefrontal interactions in normal brain function and compare how these interactions are disrupted in schizophrenia
TY - JOUR. T1 - Proteomic analysis of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex indicates the involvement of cytoskeleton, oligodendrocyte, energy metabolism and new potential markers in schizophrenia. AU - Martins-de-Souza, Daniel. AU - Gattaz, Wagner F.. AU - Schmitt, Andrea. AU - Maccarrone, Giuseppina. AU - Hunyadi-Gulyás, E.. AU - Eberlin, Marcos N.. AU - Souza, Gustavo H M F. AU - Marangoni, Sérgio. AU - Novello, José C.. AU - Turck, Christoph W.. AU - Dias-Neto, Emmanuel. PY - 2009/7. Y1 - 2009/7. N2 - Schizophrenia is likely to be a consequence of serial alterations in a number of genes that, together with environmental factors, will lead to the establishment of the illness. The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (Brodmanns Area 46) is implicated in schizophrenia and executes high functions such as working memory, differentiation of conflicting thoughts, determination of right and wrong concepts, correct social behavior and personality expression. We performed a comparative proteome analysis using ...
Effects of aging on circadian patterns of gene expression in the human prefrontal cortex With aging, significant changes in circadian rhythms occur…
Prefrontal cortex is thought to be important in attention and awareness. Here we recorded the activity of prefrontal neurons in monkeys carrying out a focused attention task. Having directed attention to one location, monkeys monitored a stream of visual objects, awaiting a predefined target. Although neurons rarely discriminated between one non-target and another, they commonly discriminated between targets and non-targets. From the onset of the visual response, this target/non-target discrimination was effectively eliminated when the same objects appeared at an unattended location in the opposite visual hemifield. The results show that, in prefrontal cortex, filtering of ignored locations is strong, early and spatially global. Such filtering may be important in blindness to unattended signals--a conspicuous aspect of human selective attention.
Working memory is essential for many of our distinctly human abilities, including reasoning, problem solving, and planning. Research spanning many decades has helped to refine our understanding of this high-level function as comprising several hierarchically organized components, some which maintain information in the conscious mind, and others which manipulate and reorganize this information in useful ways. In the neocortex, these processes are likely implemented by a distributed frontoparietal network, with more posterior regions serving to maintain volatile information, and more anterior regions subserving the manipulation of this information. Recent meta-analytic findings have identified the anterior lateral prefrontal cortex, in particular, as being generally engaged by working memory tasks, while the posterior lateral prefrontal cortex was more strongly associated with the cognitive load required by these tasks. These findings suggest specific roles for these regions in the cognitive ...
In people with psychoses, Self-Reflectiveness may rely on the right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC). We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and a novel virtual reality paradigm to evaluate the role of the VLPFC for Self-Reflectiveness in 25 first-episode of schizophrenia (FES) participants and 24 controls. Participants first viewed 20 characters each paired with a unique object/location, and later completed source memory judgements during fMRI scanning. Self-Reflectiveness, measured with the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale, was significantly and positively correlated to activation in bilateral VLPFC in FES, but not in controls, providing further evidence that the VLPFC supports Self-Reflectiveness in FES.. ...
The prefrontal cortex is critical for integrative cognitive function, although it is unlikely that this capacity resides in specialized modules in prefrontal regions. Rather, prefrontal cortex...
Causal reasoning is a ubiquitous feature of human cognition. We continuously seek to understand, at least implicitly and often explicitly, the causal scenarios in which we live, so that we may anticipate what will come next, plan a potential response and envision its outcome, decide among possible courses of action in light of their probable outcomes, make midstream adjustments in our goal-related activities as our situation changes, and so on. A considerable body of research shows that the lateral PFC is crucial for causal reasoning, but also that there are significant differences in the manner in which ventrolateral PFC, dorsolateral PFC, and anterolateral PFC support causal reasoning. We propose, on the basis of research on the evolution, architecture, and functional organization of the lateral PFC, a general framework for understanding its roles in the many and varied sorts of causal reasoning carried out by human beings. Specifically, the ventrolateral PFC supports the generation of basic causal
TY - JOUR. T1 - Prefrontal cortex dysfunction mediates deficits in working memory and prepotent responding in schizophrenia. AU - Perlstein, William M.. AU - Dixit, Neha K.. AU - Carter, Cameron S. AU - Noll, Douglas C.. AU - Cohen, Jonathan D.. PY - 2003/1/1. Y1 - 2003/1/1. N2 - Background: Schizophrenic patients show deficits in working memory (WM) and inhibition of prepotent responses. We examined brain activity while subjects performed tasks that placed demands on WM and overriding prepotent response tendencies, testing predictions that both processes engage overlapping prefrontal cortical (PFC) regions and that schizophrenic patients show reduced PFC activity and performance deficits reflecting both processes. Methods: Functional magnetic resonance imaging data were acquired while 16 schizophrenic and 15 healthy subjects performed the N-Back task that varied WM load and a version of the AX-CPT that required overriding a prepotent response tendency. Results: Both tasks engaged overlapping ...
The hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex are two areas of the brain that are fundamental for a wide range of cognitive processes. Studies of both human patients who have incurred damage to these regions, and animals with circumscribed lesions, have led to a variety of theories concerning their contributions to cognitive behaviours. The hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex are connected anatomically, but the behavioural sequelae of experimental lesions have been shown to be dissociable. This thesis investigates the roles of the hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex in the rat, with a focus on delayed matching working memory tasks. Chapter 4 reports on a study which demonstrated a delay-dependent deficit on retention of delayed matching to position (DMTP) in the Skinner box following prefrontal lesions hippocampal lesions left performance intact. Neither lesion impaired the ability to switch between matching and non-matching rules. Chapter 5 describes an experiment which revealed that neither ...
The classic case of earlier studies of prefrontal cortex function involved a railroad supervisor of construction-one Phineas Gage-who in 1848, despite a metal rod piercing his left cheek and exiting the top of his head, survived the incident and healed. After the event he had normal memory and abilities to walk and talk, but because of the prefrontal injury could no longer behave correctly, often getting into fights or acting shockingly. The remainder of his life was a tragedy of knowing what was right and wrong, but never choosing the right and instead always picking what sounded pleasurable and easy. Subsequent studies on patients with prefrontal injuries have shown that, in testing, they verbalize what the most appropriate social responses would be under certain circumstances, yet when actually performing, they will still pursue behavior which is aimed at immediate gratification even if they know the longer term results will be self-defeating. This data indicates that not only are skills of ...
It is proposed here, that the prefrontal cortex operates as a dynamic filtering mechanism that maintains selected neural activations and gates extraneous or irrelevant ones. According to this view, at any given moment cortical and subcortical activations involved in sensory and cognitive functioning produce a cacophony of neural signals. The prefrontal cortex, with its extensive projections to and from many cortical and subcortical regions, orchestrates these signals by means of a filtering mechanism that inhibits some signals and maintains activation of others. In essence, the prefrontal cortex acts to refine activity and increase signal-to noise ratios. This mechanism may be particularly involved in inhibiting or damping extraneous activity, or "noise." under conditions of extensive interferences ...
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorder (SUD) affect a combined 30 million Americans as of 2014 (Hedden et. al., 2015). An individual who is diagnosed with one has a greatly increased risk of being diagnosed with the other later in life. This suggests some type of biological link between the two. Unfortunately, it is difficult to study the molecular underpinnings of either disease in humans because of ethical concerns. Therefore it would be prudent to develop an animal model that allows for a standardized examination of both disorders. This investigation was designed as an attempt to create an animal model that encompasses both the mammalian stress response as well as substance abuse. Specifically, in the first Aim we investigated the effects of the predator odor 2,5-dihydro-2,4,5-trimethylthiazoline (TMT) on the mRNA levels of several genes in the rodent medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). In the second Aim we investigated TMT exposures ability to affect rodent cocaine ...
Neurophysiological deficits in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) have been described in positron emission tomography studies of schizophrenia and depression. In schizophrenia and depression this deficit has been associated with the syndromes of psychomotor poverty and psychomotor retardation, respectively. Such findings lead to a prediction that DLPFC dysfunction is symptom rather than disease related. This prediction was empirically tested in a retrospective study that pooled data from 40 patients meeting research diagnostic criteria for depression and 30 patients meeting DSM-III R criteria for schizophrenia. The patients were categorised into those with and without poverty of speech, a symptom that is an observable manifestation of psychomotor impairment. The profile of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), measured in all subjects under resting conditions, was subsequently compared in these two groups. Patients with poverty of speech had significantly lower rCBF in the left ...
The aim of this study was to explore the modulation by α7 nicotinic receptors (nAChRs) of dopamine and glutamate release in the rat prefrontal cortex where these receptors are implicated in attentional processes and are therapeutic targets for cognitive deficits. The presence of presynaptic α7 nAChRs on glutamate terminals is supported by the ability of the subtype-selective agonist Compound A to evoke [3H]D-aspartate release from synaptosomes: This response was potentiated by the selective allosteric potentiator PNU-120596 and blocked by αbungarotoxin. Compound A also evoked dopamine overflow in the prefrontal cortex in vivo, and this was potentiated by PNU-120596. α7 nAChR-evoked [3H]dopamine release from tissue prisms in vitro was blocked by antagonists of NMDA and AMPA receptors. These data are consistent with a model in which α7 nAChRs present on glutamate terminals increase glutamate release that (1) contributes to presynaptic facilitation and synaptic plasticity and (2) co-ordinately ...
View details for Does the Prefrontal Cortex perform a Behaviorally Specific Function? An Analysis of Firing Statistics across PFC-Dependent and -Independent tasks..
Weve previously reported sustained activation in the ventral prefrontal cortex while individuals ready to perform 1 of 2 jobs as instructed. got 2 syllables. The individuals either decided prior to the hold off which job they might perform or had been instructed by created cues. Evaluating the self-generated using the instructed tests, there is early job set activation through the hold off in the centre frontal gyrus. Alternatively, a conjunction analysis revealed sustained activation in the ventral polar and prefrontal cortex for both conditions. We claim that the ventral prefrontal cortex can be specialized for managing conditional rules it doesnt matter how the task guidelines were founded. Keywords: decision producing, fMRI, free of charge selection, prefrontal cortex, job set Intro In the lab, the task guidelines are provided from the guidelines given before tests. These can either become concrete, for instance, when demonstrated buy 2-HG (sodium salt) stimulus A press switch 1, or ...
Weve previously reported sustained activation in the ventral prefrontal cortex while individuals ready to perform 1 of 2 jobs as instructed. got 2 syllables. The individuals either decided prior to the hold off which job they might perform or had been instructed by created cues. Evaluating the self-generated using the instructed tests, there is early job set activation through the hold off in the centre frontal gyrus. Alternatively, a conjunction analysis revealed sustained activation in the ventral polar and prefrontal cortex for both conditions. We claim that the ventral prefrontal cortex can be specialized for managing conditional rules it doesnt matter how the task guidelines were founded. Keywords: decision producing, fMRI, free of charge selection, prefrontal cortex, job set Intro In the lab, the task guidelines are provided from the guidelines given before tests. These can either become concrete, for instance, when demonstrated buy 2-HG (sodium salt) stimulus A press switch 1, or ...
We review the plastic changes of the prefrontal cortex of the rat in response to a wide range of experiences including sensory and motor experience, gonadal hormones, psychoactive drugs, learning tasks, stress, social experience, metaplastic experiences, and brain injury. Our focus is on synaptic changes (dendritic morphology and spine density) in pyramidal neurons and the relationship to behavioral changes. The most general conclusion we can reach is that the prefrontal cortex is extremely plastic and that the medial and orbital prefrontal regions frequently respond very differently to the same experience in the same brain and the rules that govern prefrontal plasticity appear to differ for those of other cortical regions ...
The paper demonstrate a form of graded persistent activity activated by hyperpolarization. This phenomenon is modeled based on a slow calcium regulation of Ih, similar to that introduced earlier for thalamic neurons (see Destexhe et al., J Neurophysiol. 1996). The only difference is that the calcium signal is here provided by the high-threshold calcium current (instead of the low-threshold calcium current in thalamic neurons ...
Activation of dopaminergic neurotransmission in the medial prefrontal cortex by N-methyl-d-aspartate stimulation of the ventral hippocampus in ...
Stress signalling pathways that impair prefrontal cortex structure and function Amy F. T. Arnsten Abstract The prefrontal cortex (PFC) the most evolved brain region subserves our highest-order cognitive
Human brain oscillations occur in different frequency bands that have been linked to different behaviours and cognitive processes. Even within specific frequency bands such as the beta- (14-30 Hz) or gamma-band (30-100 Hz), oscillations fluctuate in frequency and amplitude. Such frequency fluctuations most probably reflect changing states of neuronal network activity, as brain oscillations arise from the correlated synchronized activity of large numbers of neurons. However, the neuronal mechanisms governing the dynamic nature of amplitude and frequency fluctuations within frequency bands remain elusive. Here we show that in acute slices of rat prefrontal cortex (PFC), carbachol-induced oscillations in the beta-band show frequency and amplitude fluctuations. Fast and slow non-harmonic frequencies are distributed differentially over superficial and deep cortical layers, with fast frequencies being present in layer 3, while layer 6 only showed slow oscillation frequencies. Layer 5 pyramidal cells and
Results presented here identify FXR1P as a substrate of GSK3β involved in the regulation of mood and emotional control. Our findings in animals indicate that inhibition of neuronal GSK3β either in GSK3β flox mice or following chronic treatment with valproate, lamotrigine, or lithium results in an increase of FXR1P levels that coincides with the mood-related effects of these drugs and of GSK3β inhibition. Overexpression of FXR1P in the mouse prefrontal cortex elicits relevant behavioral responses even in βARR2-KO mice, which are generally resistant to the behavioral effects of mood stabilizers. Consistently, results in humans indicate that the genetic interaction of functional variations in FXR1 and GSK3B is associated with activity of the amygdala, a brain area involved in emotion processing that is innervated and regulated by the prefrontal cortex (44, 45). Furthermore, FXR1/GSK3B interaction affects emotional behavior in healthy subjects in whom higher FXR1 expression is associated to ...
Author: Benoit, Roland G.; Genre: Talk; Title: Revealing the structure of affective schematic representations in the medial prefrontal cortex
Of all the neurotransmitters and hormones that may be involved in depression, serotonin and the hormones of. in the prefrontal cortex, and the right half.
The finding is obviously not good news for smokers, said the studys senior author, Edythe London, a professor of psychiatry at the Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior at UCLA.. "As the prefrontal cortex continues to develop during the critical period of adolescence, smoking may influence the trajectory of brain development and affect the function of the prefrontal cortex," London said…. Protracted development of the prefrontal cortex has been implicated as a cause of poor decision-making in teens, London said, caused by immature cognitive control during adolescence.. "Such an effect can influence the ability of youth to make rational decisions regarding their well-being, and that includes the decision to stop smoking," she said.. The key finding, London noted, is that "as the prefrontal cortex continues to develop during the critical period of adolescence, smoking may influence the trajectory of brain development, affecting the function of the prefrontal cortex. In turn, if ...
Subtype‐specific effects of dopaminergic D2 receptor activation on synaptic trains in layer V pyramidal neurons in the mouse prefrontal cortex. Authors: Jonna M. Leyrer‐Jackson, Mark P. Thomas. Cholesterol depletion does not alter the capacitance or Ca handling of the surface or t‐tubule membranes in mouse ventricular myocytes. Authors: Hanne C. Gadeberg, Cherrie H. T. Kong, Simon M. Bryant, Andrew F. James, Clive H. Orchard. Pregnancy‐adapted uterine artery endothelial cell Ca2+ signaling and its relationship with membrane potential. Authors: Roxanne E. Alvarez, Derek S. Boeldt, Bikash R. Pattnaik, Hannah L. Friedman, Ian M. Bird. MiR‐335 overexpression impairs insulin secretion through defective priming of insulin vesicles. Authors: Vishal A. Salunkhe, Jones K. Ofori, Nikhil R. Gandasi, Sofia A. Salö, Sofia Hansson, Markus E. Andersson, Anna Wendt, Sebastian Barg, Jonathan L. S. Esguerra, Lena Eliasson. Transport‐associated pathway responses in ovine fetal membranes to changes in ...
Subtype‐specific effects of dopaminergic D2 receptor activation on synaptic trains in layer V pyramidal neurons in the mouse prefrontal cortex. Authors: Jonna M. Leyrer‐Jackson, Mark P. Thomas. Cholesterol depletion does not alter the capacitance or Ca handling of the surface or t‐tubule membranes in mouse ventricular myocytes. Authors: Hanne C. Gadeberg, Cherrie H. T. Kong, Simon M. Bryant, Andrew F. James, Clive H. Orchard. Pregnancy‐adapted uterine artery endothelial cell Ca2+ signaling and its relationship with membrane potential. Authors: Roxanne E. Alvarez, Derek S. Boeldt, Bikash R. Pattnaik, Hannah L. Friedman, Ian M. Bird. MiR‐335 overexpression impairs insulin secretion through defective priming of insulin vesicles. Authors: Vishal A. Salunkhe, Jones K. Ofori, Nikhil R. Gandasi, Sofia A. Salö, Sofia Hansson, Markus E. Andersson, Anna Wendt, Sebastian Barg, Jonathan L. S. Esguerra, Lena Eliasson. Transport‐associated pathway responses in ovine fetal membranes to changes in ...
Classic physiological studies of visual working memory have identified the PFC as an important region for sensory signal maintenance (Goldman-Rakic, 1996; Compte et al., 2003). However, a number of recent studies linked the PFC to attention and response selection, rather than sensory maintenance (Curtis and DEsposito, 2003; Postle et al., 2003; Lebedev et al., 2004; Passingham and Sakai, 2004). Meanwhile, converging evidence supports extensive involvement of sensory areas in short-term storage of the stimulus dimensions they encode (Fuster, 1997; Pasternak and Greenlee, 2005; Postle, 2006).. The precise mechanisms for maintenance of sensory information during a memory delay are not known. Studies of inferotemporal and prefrontal cortices originally proposed that maintenance could be expressed through persistent elevated activity that was selective for the remembered object property or location (Fuster and Alexander, 1971; Kubota and Niki, 1971; Funahashi et al., 1989; Goldman-Rakic, 1990). More ...
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is known to be critical for inhibitory control of behavior, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Here, we propose that inhibitory control can be instantiated by an integral signal derived from working memory, another key function of the PFC. Specifically, we assume that an integrator converts excitatory input into a graded mnemonic activity that provides an inhibitory signal (integral feedback control) to upstream afferent neurons. We demonstrate this scenario in a neuronal-network model for a temporal discrimination task... See paper for details and more ...
Researchers at the RIKEN Brain Science Institute (BSI) in Japan have uncovered two brain signals in the human prefrontal cortex involved in how humans predict the decisions of other people. Their results suggest that the two signals, each located in distinct prefrontal circuits, strike a balance between expected and observed rewards and choices, enabling humans to predict the actions of people with different values than their own.. Every day, humans are faced with situations in which they must predict what decisions other people will make. These predictions are essential to the social interactions that make up our personal and professional lives. The neural mechanism underlying these predictions, however, by which humans learn to understand the values of others and use this information to predict their decision-making behavior, has long remained a mystery.. Researchers at the RIKEN Brain Science Institute (BSI) in Japan have now shed light on this mystery with a paper to appear in the June 21st ...
Researchers have shown for the first time, in mice, that naturally occurring gut bacteria are vital in the process that leads to proper development of the prefrontal cortex. The PFC is a major brain region that is the seat of cognition. Its function is impaired in some psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders, including schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder (ASD).. While most of us probably dont associate microbes in our digestive system with the functioning of our brain, the connection has been established in recent years using what scientists calls GF animal models - animals that are raised in a germ-free environment, and that are deficient in the myriad species of microbes that normally colonize the digestive tract. In experiments in GF animals, variations in the types and amounts of microbes have been observed to correlate with anxiety-related behaviors, impaired social cognition and the response to stress.. How exactly do tiny microbes affect the brain? Researchers based at ...
Differential expression of molecular markers of synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, and amygdala in response to spatial learning, predator exposure, and stress-induced amnesia Journal Article ...
recollection. It was shown that in amnesia implicit Memory-related brain activity was measured by com- memory functions involving classical conditioning, skill paring rCBF under task performance with a resting learning or priming are often preserved, suggesting baseline. The drug reduced memory-dependent activa- neuronally different processes or networks for implicit tions in right inferior temporal cortex which extended and explicit memory. The classification into explicit and into the cerebellum and right prefrontal cortex. The implicit memory is also interesting from a pharmaco- magnitude of rCBF reduction in prefrontal cortex cor- logical point of view. While cholinergic modulation of related with decreased reaction times. Cholinergic effects explicit memory has been shown behaviourally (Caine, were thus seen again in prefrontal cortex, the direction Weingartner, Ludlow, Cudahy, & Wehry, 1981; Curran, of these effects was however the same as that obtained Pooviboonsuk, Dalton, & Lader, ...
The prefrontal cortex is the most rostral region of the cortex. In other species, it is dedicated to voluntary motor control, but in primates, it has developed considerably. For many years, scientists believed that humans unequalled abilities for planning and abstract reasoning were attributable to their having a more developed prefrontal cortex than other primates. But studies conducted in the first few years of the new millennium have called this idea into question. Earlier studies had compared the human brain to those of other primates, but had not included most of the great apes. In these more recent studies, magnetic resonance imaging has been used to measure the relative size of the prefrontal cortex in all species of great apes, including humans. When this new method was applied to this broader range of species, the relative size of the prefrontal cortex was found to be almost the same in humans as in the great apes who are our closest cousins (chimpanzees, bonobos, gorillas, and ...