Consumption of whole grains has been heavily endorsed by both government and major health agencies, as evidenced in Health Canadas Food Guide, the US Department of Agricultures Food Pyramid, and the Heart and Stroke Foundations healthy eating guide. Whole grains have been championed for their proposed cardioprotective and weight control effects as suggested by epidemiological studies. The health benefits of whole grain products may be attributable to their nutrient composition, which contains dietary fibre, protein and several essential nutrients. There has also been a concurrent increase in seed consumption. Seeds have a similar and potentially superior nutritional composition to whole grains and they are rich in mammalian lignans and polyunsaturated fats, especially the highly valued omega-3 fatty acids. Preliminary studies on seeds have shown that they impart health benefits similar to those imparted by whole grains. Consumer choices regarding seed consumption may be based on their ...
THE EFFECTS OF DIETARY DIACYLGLYCEROLS ON POSTPRANDIAL LIPEMIA COMPARED TO TRIACYLGLYCEROLS IN COLLEGE AGED MALES AND FEMALES.. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the difference in postprandial triglyceride response of subjects to triacylglycerols [canola oil] compared to diacylglycerols [Enova oil] to determine if consumption of diacylglycerols produces a lower postprandial triglyceride response. Background: Postprandial lipemia is an increase in duration and magnitude of triglycerides in the blood. An elevated postprandial response to lipids is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome, and metabolic syndrome independently increases the risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. The greater the magnitude of lipemia, the greater the risk. In a double-blind study on male subjects, consumption of 10-44g (about 2 tsp to 3 tbsp) of diacylglycerol oil compared to triacylglycerol oil resulted in a decreased serum TG response. The most ...
Title: Assessment and Clinical Relevance of Non-Fasting and Postprandial Triglycerides: An Expert Panel Statement. VOLUME: 9 ISSUE: 3. Author(s):Genovefa D. Kolovou, Dimitri P. Mikhailidis, Jan Kovar, Dennis Lairon, Borge G. Nordestgaard, Teik Chye Ooi, Pablo Perez-Martinez, Helen Bilianou, Katherine Anagnostopoulou and George Panotopoulos. Affiliation:Cardiology Department, Onassis Cardiac Surgery Center, 356 Sygrou Avenue, 176 74 Athens, Greece.. Keywords:Postprandial triglycerides, non-fasting triglycerides, chylomicron remnants, very low density lipoprotein remnants, fat tolerance test, cardiovascular disease, statins, fibrates, nicotinic acid, type IIb hyperlipidemia. Abstract: An Expert Panel group of scientists and clinicians met to consider several aspects related to non-fasting and postprandial triglycerides (TGs) and their role as risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). In this context, we review recent epidemiological studies relevant to elevated non-fasting TGs as a risk ...
Title: Assessment and Clinical Relevance of Non-Fasting and Postprandial Triglycerides: An Expert Panel Statement. VOLUME: 9 ISSUE: 3. Author(s):Genovefa D. Kolovou, Dimitri P. Mikhailidis, Jan Kovar, Dennis Lairon, Borge G. Nordestgaard, Teik Chye Ooi, Pablo Perez-Martinez, Helen Bilianou, Katherine Anagnostopoulou and George Panotopoulos. Affiliation:Cardiology Department, Onassis Cardiac Surgery Center, 356 Sygrou Avenue, 176 74 Athens, Greece.. Keywords:Postprandial triglycerides, non-fasting triglycerides, chylomicron remnants, very low density lipoprotein remnants, fat tolerance test, cardiovascular disease, statins, fibrates, nicotinic acid, type IIb hyperlipidemia. Abstract: An Expert Panel group of scientists and clinicians met to consider several aspects related to non-fasting and postprandial triglycerides (TGs) and their role as risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). In this context, we review recent epidemiological studies relevant to elevated non-fasting TGs as a risk ...
The acute effect of high-intensity interval training versus moderate-intensity continuous training on postprandial blood glucose regulation
The acute effect of high-intensity interval training versus moderate-intensity continuous training on postprandial blood glucose regulation
Consuming a high-fat meal (HFM) may lead to postprandial lipemia (PPL) and inflammation. Postprandial exercise has been shown to effectively attenuate PPL. However, little is known about the impact of postprandial exercise on systemic inflammation and whether PPL and inflammation are associated. The purpose of this study was to determine whether moderate intensity exercise performed 60 min following a true-to-life HFM would attenuate PPL and inflammation. Thirty-nine young adults (18-40 year) with no known metabolic disease were randomized to either a control group (CON) who remained sedentary during the postprandial period or an exercise (EX) group who walked at 60 % VO2peak to expend ≈ 5 kcal/kgbw one-hour following the HFM. Participants consumed a HFM of 10 kcal/kgbw and blood draws were performed immediately before, 2 h and 4 h post-HFM. At baseline, there were no differences between EX and CON groups for any metabolic or inflammatory markers (p > 0.05). Postprandial triglycerides (TRG) increased
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OBJECTIVE: Different factors such as exercise habits and alcohol consumption may modulate postprandial lipid metabolism. What are the effects of alcohol on postprandial metabolism in untrained and trained individuals? METHODS: The postprandial lipid
Purpose: There is conflicting evidence whether a single bout of resistance exercise performed the day before a test meal can lower postprandial triacylglycerol (TAG) concentrations. The present study examined the effect of a single session of resistance exercise, performed the same day as a test meal, on postprandial TAG concentrations in resistance-trained males.. Methods: Ten healthy males aged 25 (SD 2.6) yr performed two trials at least 1 wk apart in a counterbalanced, randomized design. In each trial, participants consumed a test meal (0.89 g of fat, 1.23 g of carbohydrate, 0.4 g of protein, 60 kJ.kg-1 body mass). Before one meal, participants performed a 90-min bout of resistance exercise. Before the other meal, participants were inactive (control trial). Resistance exercise was performed using free weights and included three sets of 12 repetitions of each of 10 exercises. Sets were performed at 80% of 12-repetition maximum with a 3-min work and rest interval. Venous blood samples were ...
The aim of this study was to investigate postprandial effects of two Chinese liquors on s elected cardiovascular disease risk factors in humans. Sixteen healthy men were randomized into three groups in a three-way crossover study: tea-flavor liquor (TFL), traditional Chinese liquor (TCL) and water control (WC). Every subject consumed 60 mL of either liquor (45% (v/v) ethanol) or water together with a high-fat meal, respectively. Compared with baseline, serum uric acid was significantly increased in TFL group (0.5-hour: P = 0.012; 1-hour: P = 0.001; 2-hour: P = 0.008) and it was significantly decreased in WC group (1-hour: P = 0.001; 2-hour: P = 0.001; 4-hour: P | 0.001), while uric acid was non-significantly increased in the TCL group. High-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) was significantly increased in the TCL (P = 0.014) and WC (P = 0.008) groups at postprandial 4 hours compared with baseline. There was no significant difference between groups during the postprandial period for these two
This phase I, placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind, two-period, crossover study assessed the pharmacodynamics of liraglutide following a high-fat meal
The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 11 weeks of low-volume resistance training (LVRT) and high-volume resistance training (HVRT) on muscle strength, muscle thickness (MT), and postprandial lipaemia (PPL) in postmenopausal women. Thirty-six healthy and untrained postmenopausal women (age, 58.9 ± 5.8 years; 68.6 ± 10.3 kg; and BMI, 26.9 ± 4.8 kg · m(-2)) participated in resistance training 3× per week for 11 weeks (HVRT = 12; LVRT = 13; and control group = 11). Biochemical variables, both pretraining and post-training, were evaluated 16 h after the administration of an oral fat tolerance test (OFTT) and metabolic variable during [energy expenditure (EE)] and after training session [excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC ...
We thank Mikhail and Cope (1) for their comments on our study (2). Mikhail and Cope are correct in noting that the decrease in 2-h postprandial glucose was much larger for the inhaled human insulin (INH) group compared with metformin. As the authors suggest, this could have contributed to the lower HbA1c (A1C) level in the INH arm. A1C is the sum of both fasting and postprandial glucose excursions. From work by Monnier et al. (3), it is known that there is a variable relationship between fasting and postprandial glucose based on current A1C levels, such that the influence of fasting and postprandial glucose is equivalent when the A1C is ∼8.4%. However, the lower the A1C, the greater the contribution of postprandial glucose and the higher the A1C, the greater the contribution of the fasting glucose. Thus, all components (postprandial glucose, fasting glucose, and A1C) must be treated for optimal glycemic control (3).. Mikhail and Cope draw comparisons between our trial and a three-arm study by ...
The objective of this study was to determine whether Acylation Stimulating Protein (ASP) is generated in vivo by human adipose tissue during the postprandial period. After a fat meal, samples from 12 subjects were obtained (up to 6 h) from an arterialized hand vein and an anterior abdominal wall vein that drains adipose tissue. Veno-arterial (V-A) gradients across the subcutaneous adipose tissue bed were calculated. The data demonstrate that ASP is produced in vivo (positive V-A gradient) with maximal production at 3-5 h postprandially. The plasma triacylglycerol (TAG) clearance was evidenced by a negative V-A gradient. It increased substantially after 3 h and remained prominant until the final time point. There was, therefore, a close temporal coordination between ASP generation and TAG clearance. In contrast, plasma insulin and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) had an early (1-2 h) postprandial change. Fatty acid incorporation into adipose tissue (FIAT) was calculated from V-A glycerol and ...
Findings from the present study highlight underlying differences between IER and CER with respect to their effects on postprandial glucose and lipid metabolism following matched 5 % weight loss. These data are novel and as such, there are no directly comparative data in the literature.. In our previous work we have reported that acutely, 1 d of substantial 75 % ER reduced incremental TAG responses by approximately 60 %( 11 ). Chronically, the present study found approximately 40 % reduction in incremental responses following 5 % weight loss achieved through IER. This finding has the potential to be of clinical importance based on evidence from large prospective cohort studies highlights an independent link between elevated postprandial TAG and CVD risk( 22 - 24 ). Moreover, postprandial TAG responses have also been shown to predict the presence of coronary artery disease, with one study in adult males finding that the magnitude of lipaemia was approximately 41 % greater among cases v. controls( ...
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The differential effects of isoenergetic high carbohydrate and high fat meals on exercise tolerance in patients with chronic stable angina are both intriguing and difficult to explain. Because of the noninvasive nature of the current experiment, we can only speculate as to the mechanisms underlying the different exercise responses between meals. The onset of myocardial ischemia is determined by an imbalance between myocardial oxygen demand and supply. The high carbohydrate meal led to a small increase in myocardial oxygen demand, estimated indirectly using the rate-pressure product, but it is unlikely that this alone would account for the marked differences in time to onset of ischemia and maximal exercise between meals. In addition, the measurable determinants of myocardial oxygen demand, that is, change in heart rate and cardiac output, were no different between meals (this study did not estimate myocardial wall tension). What is more likely is that the meals had different effects on ...
OBJECTIVE - Observational studies show breaking up prolonged sitting has beneficial associations with cardiometabolic risk markers, but intervention studies are required to investigate causality. We examined the acute effects on postprandial glucose and insulin levels of uninterrupted sitting compared with sitting interrupted by brief bouts of light- or moderate-intensity walking. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - Overweight/obese adults (n = 19), aged 45-65 years, were recruited for a randomized three-period, three-treatment acute crossover trial: 1) uninterrupted sitting; 2) seated with 2-min bouts of light-intensity walking every 20 min; and 3) seated with 2-min bouts of moderate-intensity walking every 20 min. A standardized test drink was provided after an initial 2-h period of uninterrupted sitting. The positive incremental area under curves (iAUC) for glucose and insulin (mean [95%CI]) for the 5 h after the test drink (75 g glucose, 50 g fat) were calculated for the respective treatments. RESULTS -
Public health guidelines suggest 30 min of PA every day (13,14). Even half the recommended PA has been shown to improve mortality rate (15). In patients with cardiovascular disease, rehabilitation with moderate PA has been shown to improve overall quality of life (16). Therefore, PA has well-documented health-associated benefits. PA has a direct impact on glucose excursions. We wanted to quantify the effect of PA on GV in the postprandial state. The results from this study indicate that performing low-grade PA after meals, such as immediately attending to dishes and chores of daily living, equivalent to taking a short walk, has a potential benefit in participants by lowering postprandial glucose excursions.. Past studies examining the effect of PA on glucose control often use %VO2 max as a predictive measure of PA. Aerobic capacity as measured by %VO2 max, although precise, is not practical in quantifying daily free-living activities (17,18). Accelerometers constitute a practical way to quantify ...
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a high fat or high carbohydrate breakfast on postprandial lipid profile in healthy subjects with or without family history of type 2 diabetes mellitus. A single blind, controlled clinical trial with parallel groups was performed in 20 healthy subjects; 10 subjects with family history of type 2 diabetes mellitus and 10 individuals without that background. Each group was randomized to receive a high fat or high carbohidrate breakfast. A metabolic profile that included fasting and postprandial lipids, as well as, the assessment of insulin sensitivity were performed ...
Thought should be given towards the addition of prandial or mealtime insulin coverage when sizeable postprandial glucose excursions (e.g., to >10.0 mmol/L [>180 mg/dL]) take place. This can be advised if the fasting glucose is at focus on but the HbA1c stays over objective immediately after 3-6 months of basal insulin titration (91). The identical would apply if substantial drops in glucose take place throughout right away hrs or between foods, given that the basal insulin dose is greater. With this state of affairs, the basal insulin dose would clearly should be at the same time lowered as prandial insulin is initiated ...
Added report from EASD of new study showing tight correlation between A1c and heart attack risk in normal people at A1c ranges of 5%, though 2 hour OGTT values are not predictive. Explained why OGTT results in people with 5% A1cs will NOT match post-meal blood sugar values due to the the tests artificial use of fast acting glucose. I speculate that looking at post-meal blood sugar values in people with 5% A1cs given a high carb meal would show a correlation between 1 hour values and heart attack risk ...
This study establishes that while acute, intermittent, and prolonged infusions of exogenous GLP-1 all slow gastric emptying substantially in health, the magnitude of this effect is attenuated during prolonged stimulation, which reduces the effect of GLP-1 on postprandial glycemic excursions.. These observations were anticipated and are consistent with the notion that short-acting agonists appear to have a substantial, and sustained, effect to slow gastric emptying, whereas the acute effects of long-acting agonists on gastric emptying diminish with ongoing use (6,9,10,16). Indeed, while prolonged stimulation with exenatide once a week lowers postprandial glycemia, the magnitude of lowering is greater when exenatide twice daily is administered (6).. While a similar effect on gastric emptying was suggested by both Nauck et al. (11) and Näslund et al. (8) there were limitations with both studies. In both studies, the methods used to measuring measure gastric emptying were less than optimal and, in ...
This is a time we enjoy our family and friends, eat more, stress more, sleep less and change our routines. While you are around family and friends...
Halil Coskun, MD, Suleyman Bozkurt, MD, Naim Memmi, MD, Gokhan Cipe, MD, Yeliz Emine Ersoy, MD, Oguzhan Karatepe, MD, Mustafa Hasbahceci, MD, Erhan Aysan, MD, Adem Akcakaya, MD, Mahmut Muslumanoglu, MD. Bezmialem Vakif University School of Medicine Department of Surgery, Istanbul Turkey. Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a global health problem worldwide especially in obese population. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of laparoscopic mini-gastric bypass in obese T2DM patients.. Material and Methods: Twenty-four consecutive patients with BMI ,35 kg/m2 plus T2DM underwent LMGB at our hospital from January 2010 to January 2012. Preoperative T2DM related data including glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting and 2 h postprandial glucose, C-peptide levels were compared with data collected at 1, 3 and 6 postoperative months.. Results: Eighteen patients were female. Mean age was 39.9 years (range 27-58 years), mean preoperative BMI was 39.2 kg/m2 (range ...
There are two studies that are not randomized or blinded (20,21), but they were included due to the number of patients. The dose of fat used in the OFLT was variable, with about 28 grams (25) to 60 grams per square meter of body surface (27). In many studies, the exact dose of fat used is not clearly defined. In this regard, studies are not comparable. However, the dose of Orlisat used was always 120 mg, as a single dose or in short treatment (before breakfast, lunch and dinner). In most studies, TGL area under the curve (AUC) was calculated. Meta-analysis was not considered because test meals, duration of observation in the postprandial state, and the type of patients differ within the study.. HEALTHY VOLUNTEERS. We found that 3 studies were done with a single dose of orlistat in healthy volunteers (18-20), which make up 68 individuals in all.. The response to the OFLT was homogeneous in all patients with a reduced postprandial triglyceride AUC compared to placebo. In addition, a significant ...
The so-called lentil effect or second meal effect describes the remarkable effect of beans to help control blood sugar levels hours, or even the next day, after consumption.
In part 1 of this exclusive ADA interview, Anthony Cincotta discusses the mechanistic science behind the development of Cycloset, and why preclinical and clinical findings suggest the therapy may reset clock mechanisms governing postprandial glucose metabolism.
The Homburg Cream and Sugar (HCS) study was designed to determine whether the measurement of postprandial triglyceride in addition to the assessment of glucose tolerance and traditional risk factors might improve the prediction ...
In addition to its sweetening properties, d-allulose may also aid in weight management by enhancing post-meal fat oxidation and decreasing carbohydrate oxidation, according to researchers in Japan.
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Background: Postprandial hypertriglyceridemia (PHTG) is caused by the accumulation of chylomicron and chylomicron remnants and has been shown to be associated with metabolic syndrome and the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. In our previous studies, we showed that the intestinal cholesterol transporter inhibitor, ezetimibe, attenuates PHTG and postprandial elevation of FFAs in patients with type IIb hyperlipidemia (Eur J Clin Invest 2009), however the mechanisms for this have not been elucidated yet.. Methods and Results: We investigated the effect of ezetimibe on PHTG in wild-type (WT) mice fed a western diet and CD36KO mice fed a normal chow diet, which is an animal model of PHTG which was due to the intestinal over-production of chylomicrons. Ezetimibe significantly reduced TG levels at 3 hours after oral fat load using olive oil in both WT and CD36KO mice (from 375±41 to 252±19 mg/dl. 457±114 to 383±93 mg/dl, respectively). The analysis of lipoprotein profiles by ...
Preservation of skeletal muscle mass is of great importance for maintaining both metabolic health and functional capacity. Muscle mass maintenance is regulated by the balance between muscle protein breakdown and synthesis rates. Both muscle protein breakdown and synthesis rates have been shown to be highly responsive to physical activity and food intake. Food intake, and protein ingestion in particular, directly stimulates muscle protein synthesis rates. The postprandial muscle protein synthetic response to feeding is regulated on a number of levels, including dietary protein digestion and amino acid absorption, splanchnic amino acid retention, postprandial insulin release, skeletal muscle tissue perfusion, amino acid uptake by muscle, and intramyocellular signaling. The postprandial muscle protein synthetic response to feeding is blunted in many conditions characterized by skeletal muscle loss, such as aging and muscle disuse. Therefore, it is important to define food characteristics that modulate
Background/Objective: To determine the glycemic index (GI) of RNR15048 rice variety and study its effectiveness in reducing postprandial blood glucose levels and the regulation of lipid profile in patients with type 2 diabetes. Subjects/Methods: The GI of RNR15048 rice was measured in 54 healthy subjects in the age group of 30-50 years. The dietary intervention study was conducted in 80 subjects with diabetes in the age group of 40-60 years where 40 test subjects replaced their regular rice with RNR 15048 rice variety for 3 months. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters, HbA1c, fasting blood glucose, lipid profile, insulin were determined before and after the study. Results: The glycemic index (GI) of RNR 15048 rice variety was observed to be low with GI of 51.72 ± 3.39. The dietary intervention study in type 2 diabetic subjects revealed significant decrease in fasting blood glucose (158.4 ± 9.30 vs 140.2 ± 8.87 mg/dL) and HbA1c levels (7.1 ± 0.34 vs 6.1 ± 0.33 %) with an increase in HDL levels
In agreement with a range of previous studies we report that a single session of moderate intensity exercise decreases fasting triacylglycerol concentration on the subsequent day. There was a trend towards a significant decrease in postprandial triacylglycerol concentration following the moderate fat mixed meal; however when postprandial triacylglycerol concentrations were corrected for their corresponding fasting concentration, no decrease was observed. Despite the improvement in triacylglycerol concentration there was no reduction in fasting or postprandial chylomicron particle number. Insulin sensitivity, measured by HOMA score, and NEFA levels in either the fasting or postprandial states were also not altered in this group of subjects.. The extent of the reduction in fasting triacylglycerol concentration observed in the present study was 16% which is comparable to that reported in other studies [9-12]. In the fasting state the majority of circulating triacylglycerol resides associated with ...
2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Objective The triglyceride (TG) response to a high-fat meal (postprandial lipemia, PPL) affects cardiovascular disease risk and is influenced by genes and environment. Genes involved in lipid metabolism have dominated genetic studies of PPL TG response. We sought to elucidate common genetic variants through a genome-wide association (GWA) study in the Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network (GOLDN). Methods The GOLDN GWAS discovery sample consisted of 872 participants within families of European ancestry. Genotypes for 2,543,887 variants were measured or imputed from HapMap. Replication of our top results was performed in the Heredity and Phenotype Intervention (HAPI) Heart Study (n = 843). PPL TG response phenotypes were constructed from plasma TG measured at baseline (fasting, 0 hour), 3.5 and 6 hours after a high-fat meal, using a random coefficient regression model. Association analyses were adjusted for covariates and principal components, ...
Objective:To investigate whether a moderate increase in dietary sucrose intake induces different serum lipid responses in normolipidemic subjects with the ɛ2 allele compared with subjects without the ɛ2 allele.Design:Controlled, parallel study.Subjects:There were 15 subjects with the apolipoprotein E (APOE)3/2 genotype and 19 subjects with the APOE3/3 or 3/4 genotype, whose mean±s.d. age was 48±14 and 35±10 years, respectively. All subjects had normal glucose metabolism.Interventions:The subjects were instructed to increase their sucrose intake by 40 g/day for 8 weeks and to decrease the intake of saturated and unsaturated fat to maintain energy balance. Dietary adherence was monitored using food records and the actual increase in sucrose intake was 39.8±18.4 g/day. Sixteen subjects (nine with APOE3/2 genotype, seven with APOE3/3 or 3/4 genotypes) participated also in an 8 h oral fat tolerance test at the beginning and at the end of the intervention.Results:Body weight ...
Background: The aim of the prospective Homburg Cream & Sugar study was to compare risk prediction by fasting and postprandial serum triglycerides (TG) in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) on guideline-recommended medication.. Methods & Results: N=514 consecutive patients with angiographically confirmed, clinically stable CAD (median age 68 years, 83% male, 95% on a statin, median LDL-C 105mg/dl) received a sequential oral triglyceride (OTT, 75g cream fat) and glucose tolerance test (OGT, 75g glucose) to obtain standardized measurements of postprandial TG and glucose kinetics. Lipid and glucose parameters were measured at fasting, 3, 4, and 5 hours after the OTT/OGT.. Fasting TG were strongly associated with the area under the curve (AUC) of the postprandial TG increase (R=0.93, p,0.0001). Compared to the lowest tertile of fasting TG (,106mg/dl), patients in the highest tertile (,150mg/dl) were younger, more obese, more were smoking, they had a higher blood pressure, lower HDL- and ...
Effect of Fructose on Postprandial Triglycerides: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Controlled Feeding Trials Academic Article ...
The current study was designed to examine whether the deceleration of gastric emptying by GLP-1 is subject to rapid tachyphylaxis and how this would affect postprandial glucose homeostasis. We report that the GLP-1-induced deceleration of gastric emptying is significantly diminished already after 5 h of continuous infusion compared with its initial effects. This attenuation of GLP-1 efficacy leads to increased postprandial concentrations of glucose, insulin, and glucagon, as well as changes in the concentration time pattern of GIP.. A deceleration of gastric emptying by GLP-1 has been demonstrated in patients with type 2 diabetes and healthy individuals (5,8,14). In line with these studies, the GLP-1-induced delay in gastric emptying not only prevented the postprandial increase in glycemia but also led to a marked reduction in insulin and C-peptide levels. The GLP-1-induced reduction in postprandial glycemia and insulin secretion was less pronounced during the second meal course, when the delay ...
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Emerging research, recently published through the American Diabetes Association, has revealed a potentially new approach to nutrition for patients with type 2 diabetes. Existing evidence strongly correlates carbohydrate consumption to increased glycaemic response, however limited data is currently available on the effects of food order on postprandial glycaemia in type 2 diabetic patients. Consequently one study aimed to pursue the effects of food order, modelled on a typical Western meal (incorporating vegetables, protein and carbohydrate) on postmeal glucose levels in type 2 diabetic patients, and investigate how comparable the findings were to typical pharmaceutical interventions. The pilot study tested 11 type 2 diabetic subjects (6 female, 5 male). Patients were required to fast overnight (12-h) prior to the consumption of an isocaloric meal of identical composition; scheduled on two separate days, one week apart. Blood was sampled for analysis at baseline (before ingestion) and at 30, 60 ...
If you have questions about postprandial, aka post meal, blood glucose levels and whats considered normal, youll find all the answers here.
Purpose: : Insulin resistance and altered insulin release are the pathogenetic mechanisms underlying the development of hyperglycemia in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Microvascular complications, such as retinopathy, arise as a consequence of chronic hyperglycemia, eventually leading to blindness. Initially, the natural history of T2DM includes a period of normal or near-normal fasting plasma glucose levels and marked postprandial glycemic excursions. The impact of these glycemic spikes on retinal function is still matter of controversy. The aim of the present study was to develop a model of mild type 2 diabetes in rats (combining diet-induced insulin resistance and a slight β-cell secretory impairment) in order to study early retinopathic changes in rodents with slight fasting hyperglycemia and markedly elevated postprandial glucose levels. Methods: : Adult male Wistar rats received tap water and citrate buffer i.p. (Group 1), tap water with 30% w/v sucrose and citrate buffer ...
Science & Technology, Life Sciences & Biomedicine, Endocrinology & Metabolism, ENDOCRINOLOGY & METABOLISM, human metabolism, insulin resistance, integrative physiology, NEFA, postprandial metabolism, systems physiology, HUMAN ADIPOSE-TISSUE, PROLIFERATOR-ACTIVATED RECEPTOR, LIPOPROTEIN-LIPASE ACTIVITY, IMPROVES GLYCEMIC CONTROL, SKELETAL-MUSCLE, GENE-EXPRESSION, BLOOD-FLOW, POSTPRANDIAL LIPEMIA, INSULIN SENSITIVITY, PPAR-GAMMA ...
Various botanical and structural characteristics of starchy foods are considered to modify the rate of starch digestion and the glycaemic responses in humans. The main objective of the study was to examine the impact of fermented barley and oat microstructure on the rate of in vitro starch hydrolysis. A dynamic gastrointestinal model was used to estimate the degree of starch hydrolysis during in vitro digestion of fermented whole grain cereal meals. Light microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy were used to study the microstructural changes. In parallel to the in vitro studies, the impact of fermented barley and oats on postprandial plasma glucose responses was evaluated in a human study. Micrographs were taken during in vitro digestion experiments with fermented whole grains and compared with micrographs of boiled barley (undigested). Images showed that most of the oat starch granules were degraded after 120 min of digestion, whereas barley starch granules were less degraded, even ...
Cabello-Moruno, R and Sinausia, L and Montero, E and Botham, K M and Avella, M A and Perona, J S (2015) Minor components of pomace olive oil enhance VLDL-receptor expression in macrophages when treated with postprandial triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. GRASAS Y ACEITES, 66 (4). Bentley, C and Hathaway, N and Widdows, J and Bejta, F and De Pascale, C and Avella, M A and Wheeler-Jones, C P D and Botham, K M and Lawson, C (2011) Influence of chylomicron remnants on human monocyte activation in vitro. NUTRITION METABOLISM AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES, 21 (11). pp. 871-878. Lopez-Soldado, I and Avella, M A and Botham, K M (2009) Differential influence of different dietary fatty acids on very low-density lipoprotein secretion when delivered to hepatocytes in chylomicron remnants. Metabolism-Clinical and Experimental, 58 (2). pp. 186-195. Lopez-Soldado, I and Avella, M A and Botham, K M (2009) Suppression of VLDL secretion by cultured hepatocytes incubated with chylomicron remnants enriched in n-3 ...
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