Transcriptomic Profiling of the Allorecognition Response to Grafting in the Demosponge Amphimedon queenslandica. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
The species-specific cell adhesion in the marine sponge Microciona prolifera involves the interaction of an extracellular proteoglycan-like macromolecular complex, otherwise known as aggregation factor. In the interaction, two highly polyvalent functional domains play a role: a cell-binding and a self-interaction domain. The self-recognition has been characterized as a Ca2+-dependent carbohydrate-carbohydrate ... read more interaction of repetitive low affinity carbohydrate epitopes. One of the involved epitopes is the pyruvated trisaccharide b-D-Galp4,6(R)Pyr-(1→4)-b-D-GlcpNAc-(1→3)-LFucp. To evaluate the role of this trisaccharide in the proteoglycan-proteoglycan self-recognition, b-D-Galp4,6(R)Pyr-(1→4)-b-D-GlcpNAc-(1→3)-a-L-Fucp-(1→O)(CH2)3S(CH2)6SH was synthesized, and partially converted into gold glyconanoparticles. These mimics are being used to explore the self-interaction phenomenon for the trisaccharide epitope, via TEM aggregation experiments (gold glyconanoparticles) and ...
Chondrilla (es); Сайсагызган (ky); Chondrilla (ast); Chondrilla (ca); Knorpellattiche (de-ch); Knorpellattiche (de); Chondrilla (sq); قندرون (fa); 粉苞苣属 (zh); ულეწელა (ka); 粉苞苣屬 (zh-hk); Chondrilla (sv); Chondrilla (oc); Chondrilla (la); 粉苞苣屬 (zh-hant); 粉苞苣属 (zh-cn); Piiskasalaatit (fi); Жерсағыз (kk); Chondrilla (en-ca); radyk (cs); Chondrilla (it); Chondrilla (fr); Cihora mala (hr); Chondrilla (ceb); Chondrilla (pt); Chondrilla (en-gb); قندرون (ar); Chondrilla (ga); Chondrilla (vi); Хандрыла (be); Chondrilla (bg); Chondrilla (pt-br); 粉苞苣属 (zh-sg); Chondrilla (war); Chondrilla (pl); Хондрилла (ru); Chondrilla (az); 粉苞苣屬 (zh-tw); Chondrilla (nl); Chondrilla (ro); Chondrilla (uk); Chondrilla (en); Мөөрслү өвсн (xal); 粉苞苣属 (zh-hans); խիժաճարճատուկ (hy) género de plantas (es); উদ্ভিদের গণ (bn); genre de plantes (fr); biljni rod iz porodice ...
Deep sequencing of the transcriptome of the demosponge, A. queenslandica, as it develops from a pelagic larva to a benthic adult, revealed genome-wide transcriptional events accompanying this major life history transition. While metamorphosis is widespread throughout the animal kingdom, it is thought to have evolved several times in metazoans, thus there are likely to be different regulatory mechanisms controlling metamorphosis in various taxa [1]. For example, the metamorphic transition in marine invertebrates occurs rapidly compared to insects and other arthropods, making the period immediately after settlement, when the larva is most vulnerable, as brief as possible [73, 74]. In this study, we discovered that competent A. queenslandica larvae retain a similar transcriptome profile to the precompetent larvae, but differentially express many transcription factors and regulators. This suggests that swimming sponge larvae already possess most of the gene products required at the pelagobenthic ...
Weak recognition processes: Weak calcium-mediated carbohydrate-carbohydrate interactions have been detected by DOSY and TRNOESY NMR methods by employing a gold glyconanoparticle as a multivalent system. In addition, 3D models of trisaccharide-CaII-trisaccharide complexes based on results from molecular dynamics simulations are proposed. Diffusion-ordered NMR spectroscopy (DOSY-NMR) and TR-NOESY-NMR experiments are used to detect ligand binding to macromolecular receptors. These techniques have been applied to detect weak carbohydrate-carbohydrate self-recognition in solution, making use of sugar-decorated gold nanoparticles as the macromolecule and the same carbohydrate as the ligand. Changes in the diffusion coefficient of the free carbohydrate in the presence of the glyconanoparticle (only with CaII ions in the sample solution), as well as changes in the sign of the sugar NOE peaks-positive for the free sugar (in the presence or absence of CaII) and negative for the sugar only in the ...
Because sponges (Porifera) are generally the dominant group of multicellular animals found in the marine benthos they are key animals for the testing of biomarkers in this biotope. Previously, it was shown that the heat shock protein hsp70 from the marine sponge Geodia cydonium is a useful biomarker for following biological responses to selected physical and chemical stressors. One protein which is critical for hsp70 function in other organisms is the DnaJ-like protein. In this study we therefore isolated and characterized a cDNA encoding the DnaJ-like protein from G. cydonium designated GCDNAJ. GCDNAJ is 1476 base pairs (bp) long with a 1236 bp open reading frame encoding a protein of 45542 daltons. Northern blot analysis revealed a transcript size of 1.5 kilobase (kb). The deduced amino acid (aa) sequence of GCDNAJ contains motifs characteristic of most prokaryotic and eukaryotic DnaJ family members. In response to a 7°C temperature increase, expression of the transcripts encoding hsp70 and ...
Domain combinations containing the Bcl-2 inhibitors of programmed cell death superfamily in Amphimedon queenslandica. Domain architectures illustrate each occurrence of the Bcl-2 inhibitors of programmed cell death superfamily.
Cloning of a heat-inducible biomarker, the cDNA encoding the 70 kDa heat shock protein, from the marine sponge Geodia cydonium:response to natural ...
Carbohydrate-carbohydrate interactions (CCIs) have been shown to be an important interaction in molecular recognition. These interactions present characteristics such as the synergistic effect with other interactions e.g. protein-protein interactions, specificity, polyvalency and in some cases requirement of divalent cations. CCIs remain insufficiently documented due to the weakness of such an interaction, which is difficult to probe by classical techniques and study at the molecular level in a monovalent system has not been performed. In order to study the CCI, a peptide based on alanine and lysine has been designed. Carbohydrates have been ligated to this peptide and changes in a-helix and random coil conformations are examined using CD spectroscopy. This system was shown to function as a reporter for CCls through changes in the conformations of the peptide. A second system that will be employed to study eCls is utilising the thiol-thioester exchange reaction. This involves a reaction between ...
BCX 1470 methanesulfonate 1). Fig. 4 Behavior from the intestinal Mouse monoclonal to CD15.DW3 reacts with CD15 (3-FAL ), a 220 kDa carbohydrate structure, also called X-hapten. CD15 is expressed on greater than 95% of granulocytes including neutrophils and eosinophils and to a varying degree on monodytes, but not on lymphocytes or basophils. CD15 antigen is important for direct carbohydrate-carbohydrate interaction and plays a role in mediating phagocytosis, bactericidal activity and chemotaxis mucosal microcirculatory factors. a complete vascular thickness. b Perfused vascular thickness. c Percentage of perfused vessels. d Microvascular BCX 1470 methanesulfonate stream index. e Crimson bloodstream cell speed. f Heterogeneity stream index Fig. 5 Behavior from the intestinal serosal microcirculatory factors. a complete vascular denseness. b Perfused vascular denseness. c Percentage of perfused vessels. d Microvascular BCX 1470 methanesulfonate movement index. e Crimson bloodstream cell speed. f ...
Prior to pigment spot formation, there is no distinctive cell population found specifically at the future position of the posterior ciliated cells (Figure8A). By spot stage, cells just anteriolateral to the pigment spot are distinguished from the surrounding epithelial cells due to their columnar morphology and alignment (Figure8A), coincident with the spatial expression of AmqNotch and AmqDelta4 at this stage (Figures 5B and7B). In late ring embryos, these cells have further elongated internally, and are polarized; nuclei are basal, cilia are apical and the cells are in small clusters (Figure8A). The expression of AmqNotch and AmqDelta4 is now also seen in a narrower domain that lies just below the surface of the embryo (Figures 5D,D and 7E). The larval expression of AmqDelta4 remains in the region under the pigment ring, the presumptive location of the nuclei of the cells bearing the long posterior cilia (Figure5E).. At the anterior pole of the A. queenslandica larva is a cluster of ...
Several lipophilic fractions from H. sitiens at 10 μg/mL decreased secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-12p40 and IL-6 by the DCs, with maximum inhibition being 64% and 25%, respectively. In addition, fractions B3b3F and B3b3J decreased the ability of DCs to induce T cell secretion of IFN-γ. Fraction B3b3 induced morphological changes in DCs, characterized by extreme elongation of dendrites and cell clustering. Chemical screening revealed the presence of glycerides and some minor unknown constituents in the biologically active fractions. One new glyceride, 2,3-dihydroxypropyl 2-methylhexadecanoate (1), was isolated from one fraction and two known compounds, 3-[(1-methoxyhexadecyl)oxy]propane-1,2-diol (2) and monoheptadecanoin (3), were identified in another, but none of them had immunomodulatory activity. ...
Collagen, isolated from the sponge Geodia cydonium in the absence of denaturing agents, had the typical amino acid composition and was associated with the carbohydrates galactose and glucose. The resulting individual fibrils with a diameter of 23 nm, displayed a 19.5 nm periodicity with one intraperiod band. A collagen assembly factor (CAF) was identified in and partially purified from the extracellular space. The CAF reacted with antibodies against intact Geodia cells but not with antibodies against Geodia lectin and Geodia aggregation factor. In the presence of the CAF, the collagen fibrils reconstituted collagen bundles in an ordered sequence of events, which were followed by electron-microscopical and biochemical methods. Bundle formation was not dependent on the presence of the homologous lectin, glycoconjugates or aggregation factor. Homologous cells (Geodia archaeocytes) were determined to attach only to those Geodia collagen substrates that contained CAF. The attachment of these cells ...
22-12-2015: Demosponge CO1 and 28S data of Erpenbeck et al. Molecular biodiversity of Red Sea demosponges. Marine Pollution Bulletin (2016) added.. 20-12-2015: Calcarea data of Voigt et al. (2016) A short LSU rRNA fragment as a standard marker for integrative taxonomy in calcareous sponges (Porifera: Calcarea) added.. 10-08-2015: Antarctic sponge data of Vargas et al. (2015) Diversity in a Cold Hot-Spot: DNA - Barcoding Reveals Patterns of Evolution among Antarctic Demosponges (Class Demospongiae, Phylum Porifera), PLoS ONE added.. 22-07-2015: New Holotype data added as References: Heteroxya corticata (#1152), Narrabeena lamellata (#1160), Stelletta anthastra (#1161). from Erpenbeck et al. (2015) Nothing in (sponge) biology makes sense - except when based on holotypes.. 01-05-2015: Data of Schuster et al. (2015) Deceptive Desmas: Molecular Phylogenetics Suggests a New Classification and Uncovers Convergent Evolution of Lithistid Demosponges added. 20-02-2015: New References: Isabella ...
22-12-2015: Demosponge CO1 and 28S data of Erpenbeck et al. Molecular biodiversity of Red Sea demosponges. Marine Pollution Bulletin (2016) added.. 20-12-2015: Calcarea data of Voigt et al. (2016) A short LSU rRNA fragment as a standard marker for integrative taxonomy in calcareous sponges (Porifera: Calcarea) added.. 10-08-2015: Antarctic sponge data of Vargas et al. (2015) Diversity in a Cold Hot-Spot: DNA - Barcoding Reveals Patterns of Evolution among Antarctic Demosponges (Class Demospongiae, Phylum Porifera), PLoS ONE added.. 22-07-2015: New Holotype data added as References: Heteroxya corticata (#1152), Narrabeena lamellata (#1160), Stelletta anthastra (#1161). from Erpenbeck et al. (2015) Nothing in (sponge) biology makes sense - except when based on holotypes.. 01-05-2015: Data of Schuster et al. (2015) Deceptive Desmas: Molecular Phylogenetics Suggests a New Classification and Uncovers Convergent Evolution of Lithistid Demosponges added. 20-02-2015: New References: Isabella ...
The earliest evidence for animal life comes from the fossil record of 24-isopropylcholestane, a sterane found in Cryogenian deposits, and whose precursors are found in modern demosponges, but not choanoflagellates, calcisponges, hexactinellids or eumetazoans. However, many modern demosponges are also characterized by the presence of siliceous spicules, and there are no convincing demosponge spicules in strata older than the Cambrian. This temporal disparity highlights a problem with our understanding of the Precambrian fossil record - either these supposed demosponge-specific biomarkers were derived from the sterols of some other organism and are simply retained in modern demosponges, or spicules do not primitively characterize crown-group demosponges. Resolving this issue requires resolving the phylogenetic placement of another group of sponges, the hexactinellids, who make a spicule thought to be homologous to the spicules of demosponges, but who also make their first appearance near the ...
Van Soest, R.W.M.; Boury-Esnault, N.; Hooper, J.N.A.; Rützler, K.; de Voogd, N.J.; Alvarez, B.; Hajdu, E.; Pisera, A.B.; Manconi, R.; Schönberg, C.; Klautau, M.; Kelly, M.; Vacelet, J.; Dohrmann, M.; Díaz, M.-C.; Cárdenas, P.; Carballo, J.L.; Ríos, P.; Downey, R.; Morrow, C.C. (2021). World Porifera Database. Mycale (Aegogropila) syrinx (Schmidt, 1862). Accessed at: http://www.marinespecies.org/porifera/porifera.php?p=taxdetails&id=168549 on 2021-03-02 ...
Understanding why some transplant patients reject their new organs req... ...The red beard sponge (Microciona prolifera) has a cell-to-cell recogni...In experiments carried out on these sponges this summer Dr. Fernndez-...Fernndez-Busquets has also been researching the role of the molecule c...,Simple,sea,sponge,helps,scientists,understand,tissue,rejection,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
Overview  Considered to be plants until  Diversity: three major groups  1. Calcarea: Calcareous sponges  Calcium carbonate (calcite) spicules  Primarily shallow water and tropical (some exceptions) Photo:
Invertebrates: Phylum Porifera. Sponges Multicellular; body a loose aggregate of cells All aquatic, mostly marine Body with pores ( ostia ), canals, and chambers for circulation of water Epidermis of flat cells, some with contractile fibers Slideshow 2208557 by dympna
Discovered and developed by Eisai, eribulin is a synthetic analog of halichondrin B, a natural product that was isolated from the marine sponge Halichondria okadai. First in the halichondrin class, Halaven is a microtubule dynamics inhibitor. Eribulin is believed to work primarily via a tubulin-based mechanism that causes prolonged and irreversible mitotic blockage, ultimately leading to apoptotic cell death. Additionally, in preclinical studies of human breast cancer, eribulin demonstrated complex effects on the tumor biology of surviving cancer cells, including increases in vascular perfusion resulting in reduced tumor hypoxia, and changes in the expression of genes in tumor specimens associated with a change in phenotype, promoting the epithelial phenotype, opposing the mesenchymal phenotype. Eribulin has also been shown to decrease the migration and invasiveness of human breast cancer cells.. Important Safety Information for Halaven (eribulin mesylate) Injection. Warnings and ...
In this study, thirteen sponge-derived terpenoids, including five linear furanoterpenes: furospinulosin-1 (1), furospinulosin-2 (2), furospongin-1 (3), furospongin-4 (4), and demethylfurospongin-4 (5); four linear meroterpenes: 2-(hexaprenylmethyl)-2-methylchromenol (6), 4-hydroxy-3-octaprenylbenzoic acid (7), 4-hydroxy-3-tetraprenyl-phenylacetic acid (8), and heptaprenyl-p-quinol (9); a linear triterpene, squalene (10); two spongian-type diterpenes dorisenone D (11) and 11β-acetoxyspongi-12-en-16-one (12); a scalarane-type sesterterpene; 12-epi-deoxoscalarin (13), as well as an indole alkaloid, tryptophol (14) were screened for their in vitro activity against four parasitic protozoa; Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, Trypanosoma cruzi, Leishmania donovani and Plasmodium falciparum. Cytotoxic potential of the compounds on mammalian cells was also assessed. All compounds were active against T. brucei rhodesiense, with compound 8 being the most potent (IC50 0.60 μg/mL), whereas 9 and 12 were the most
There is a need for novel classes of antimicrobials to be discovered in order to tackle the growing challenges of antimicrobial resistance. Deep-sea sponges are drawing much attention due to the phylogenetically diverse and dense communities of microbes that live within their tissues. Bioprospecting these sponges offers the possibility of exploring a niche environment that could contain novel classes of antimicrobials. To assess the suitability of Pheronema carpenteri (class Hexactinellida, order Amphidiscosida) and Rhabdodictyum sp. (class Hexactinellida, order Lyssacinosida) as a source of antimicrobials, cultivation-dependent strategies were employed. We assess the culturability of sponge-associated bacterial from P. carpenteri (n=3) and Rhabdodictyum sp. (n=2) using8 treatments; 4 temperature incubation treatments (4, 15, 22-25 and 28 °C), nutritional additives (Sponge spicule extract and a low nutrient heterotrophic media additive), and finally a 24 h enrichment stage. Recovered isolates were
Van Soest, R.W.M.; Boury-Esnault, N.; Hooper, J.N.A.; Rützler, K.; de Voogd, N.J.; Alvarez, B.; Hajdu, E.; Pisera, A.B.; Manconi, R.; Schönberg, C.; Klautau, M.; Kelly, M.; Vacelet, J.; Dohrmann, M.; Díaz, M.-C.; Cárdenas, P.; Carballo, J.L.; Ríos, P.; Downey, R.; Morrow, C.C. (2019). World Porifera Database. Acarnus Gray, 1867. Accessed at: http://www.marinespecies.org/porifera/porifera.php?p=taxdetails&id=167337 on 2020-10-21 ...
Several bacterial cultures were isolated from sponge Halichondria sp., collected from the Gujarat coast of the Indo Pacific region. These bacterial cultures were fermented in the laboratory (100 mL) and the culture filtrate was assayed for antibiotic activity against 16 strains of clinical pathogens. Bacillus sp. (SAB1), the most potent of them and antagonistic to several clinically pathogenic Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria and the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus was chosen for further investigation. Analysis of the nucleotide sequence of the 16S rDNA gene of Bacillus sp. SAB1 showed a strong similarity (100%) with the 16S rDNA gene of Bacillus licheniformis HNL09. The bioactive compounds produced by Bacillus licheniformis SAB1 (GenBank accession number: DQ071568) were identified as indole (1), 3-phenylpropionic acid (2) and a dimer 4,4′-oxybis[3-phenylpropionic acid] (3) on the basis of their Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Electrospray Ionization Mass
Little information on sponge longevity and resilience exists. Reproduction can be asexual (e.g. budding) or sexual (Naylor, 2011) and individual sponges are usually hermaphrodites (Hayward & Ryland, 1994). Short-lived ciliated larvae are released via the aquiferous system of the sponges and metamorphosis follows settlement. Growth and reproduction are generally seasonal (Hayward & Ryland, 1994). Rejuvenation from fragments is also considered an important form of reproduction (Fish & Fish, 1996). Some sponges are known to be highly resilience to physical damage with an ability to survive severe damage, regenerate and reorganize to function fully again, however, this recoverability varies between species (Wulff, 2006).. Marine sponges often harbour dense and diverse microbial communities, which can include bacteria, archaea and single-celled eukaryotes (fungi and microalgae), and can comprise up to 40% of sponge volume, which may have a profound impact on host biology (Webster & Taylor, 2012). ...
A resource on protein phosphatases, a key class of regulatory proteins. Includes genomic and evolutionary analyses (phosphatomes), classification, disease associationa and an extensive database of protein phosphatase genes.
A resource on protein phosphatases, a key class of regulatory proteins. Includes genomic and evolutionary analyses (phosphatomes), classification, disease associationa and an extensive database of protein phosphatase genes.
Definition: position of an organism in a food web. May be described verbally with descriptors including primary producer, herbivore or carnivore. If described numerically, 1 indicates a primary producer, 2 a herbivore, and so on up the food web ...
The sponge, which was not recognized as an animal until the 19th century, is now the simplest and most ancient group of animals to have their genome sequenced.. In a paper appearing in the August 5 issue of the journal Nature, a team of researchers led by Daniel Rokhsar of the University of California, Berkeley, and the Department of Energys Joint Genome Institute (JGI), report the draft genome sequence of the sea sponge Amphimedon queenslandica and several insights the genome gives into the origins of both the first animals and cancer.. All living animals are descended from the common ancestor of sponges and humans, which lived more than 600 million years ago. A sponge-like creature may have been the first organism with more than one cell type and the ability to develop from a fertilized egg produced by the merger of sperm and egg cells that is, an animal.. Our hypothesis is that multicellularity and cancer are two sides of the same coin, said Rokhsar, program head for computational ...
On the basis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences, 11 isolates belonging to the genus Mycobacterium were recovered from a specimen of A. queenslandica. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene showed that four isolates - AQ4GA8, AQ1M16, AQ1M04, and AQ11356 - were identical to M. poriferae, a species isolated previously from a North Atlantic sponge, based on a 100% similarity value (Padgitt & Moshier, 1987). The remaining isolates - AQ1GA1, AQ1M06, AQ1GA3, AQ1GA4, AQ4GA9, AQ1GA10, and AQ4GA22 - from A. queenslandica were also most closely related to M. poriferae, having similarity values between 99.0% and 99.3% to M. poriferae. Because the Amphimedon specimen had developed a few spots of tissue necrosis after transfer into an aquaculture environment, we hypothesized that the presence of mycobacteria might be a result of primary or secondary infection. However, mycobacteria could be isolated only from healthy tissue, but not from the affected tissue or aquaculture water. It is estimated that ...
Marine sponges (phylum Porifera) are a diverse, phylogenetically deep-branching clade known for forming intimate partnerships with complex communities of microorganisms. To date, 16S rRNA gene sequencing studies have largely utilised different extraction and amplification methodologies to target the microbial communities of a limited number of sponge species, severely limiting comparative analyses of sponge microbial diversity and structure. Here, we provide an extensive and standardised dataset that will facilitate sponge microbiome comparisons across large spatial, temporal, and environmental scales. Samples from marine sponges (n = 3569 specimens), seawater (n = 370), marine sediments (n = 65) and other environments (n = 29) were collected from different locations across the globe. This dataset incorporates at least 268 different sponge species, including several yet unidentified taxa. The V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene was amplified and sequenced from extracted DNA using standardised ...
Porifera includes very primitive multi-cellular animals having only the cellular level of body organization with no tissues and organs. In Porifera (sponges), only cells show division of labor for the purpose of performing specialized functions. All Poriferans, animals of the phylum Porifera, are aquatic with most of them being marine. Sponges are sessile (not mobile) organisms including both solitary and colony-forming types ...
Porifera includes very primitive multi-cellular animals having only the cellular level of body organization with no tissues and organs. In Porifera (sponges), only cells show division of labor for the purpose of performing specialized functions. All Poriferans, animals of the phylum Porifera, are aquatic with most of them being marine. Sponges are sessile (not mobile) organisms including both solitary and colony-forming types ...
Q: Are sponges animals of the phylum Porifera? ¶. A: Yes, They are multicellular organisms that have bodies full of pores and channels allowing water to circulate through them, consisting of jelly-like mesohyl sandwiched between two thin layers of cells.. Q: Are sponges the sister group to the rest of animals? ¶. A: Yes.. Q: Are sponges the sister group to the rest of animals? ¶. A: Yes.. Q: Are sponges known for regenerating from fragments that are broken off? ¶. A: Yes, although this only works if the fragments include the right types of cells.. Q: Are sponges demosponges? ¶. A: Yes, and fossilized remains of this type are less common than those of other types because their skeletons are composed of relatively soft spongin that does not fossilize well.. Q: Are sponges absent from the fossil record until the Cambrian? ¶. A: Yes, although one unsubstantiated report exists of spicules in rocks dated around 750 million years ago, although this appears unlikely based on the above ...
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The emergence of antibiotic resistant microorganisms has led to an increased need for the discovery and development of novel antimicrobial compounds. Frequent rediscovery of the same natural products (NPs) continues to decrease the likelihood of the discovery of new compounds from soil bacteria. Thus, efforts have shifted toward investigating microorganisms and their secondary metabolite biosynthesis potential, from diverse niche environments, such as those isolated from marine sponges. Here we investigated at the genomic level two Streptomyces spp. strains, namely SM17 and SM18, isolated from the marine sponge Haliclona simulans, with previously reported antimicrobial activity against clinically relevant pathogens; using single molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing. We performed a series of comparative genomic analyses on SM17 and SM18 with their closest terrestrial relatives, namely S. albus J1074 and S. pratensis ATCC 33331 respectively; in an effort to provide further insights into potential
Micro RNAs (miRNAs) and piwi interacting RNAs (piRNAs), along with the more ancient eukaryotic endogenous small interfering RNAs (endo-siRNAs) constitute the principal components of the RNA interference (RNAi) repertoire of most animals. RNAi in non-bilaterians - sponges, ctenophores, placozoans and cnidarians - appears to be more diverse than that of bilaterians, and includes structurally variable miRNAs in sponges, an enormous number of piRNAs in cnidarians and the absence of miRNAs in ctenophores and placozoans. Here we identify thousands of endo-siRNAs and piRNAs from the sponge Amphimedon queenslandica, the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi and the cnidarian Nematostella vectensis using a computational approach that clusters mapped small RNA sequences and annotates each cluster based on the read length and relative abundance of the constituent reads. This approach was validated on 11 small RNA libraries in Drosophila melanogaster, demonstrating the successful annotation of RNAi-associated loci with
Many animals have as many or more CYP genes than humans do. Reported numbers range from 35 genes in the sponge Amphimedon queenslandica to 235 genes in the cephalochordate Branchiostoma floridae.[30] Mice have genes for 101 CYPs, and sea urchins have even more (perhaps as many as 120 genes).[31] Most CYP enzymes are presumed to have monooxygenase activity, as is the case for most mammalian CYPs that have been investigated (except for, e.g., CYP19 and CYP5). Gene and genome sequencing is far outpacing biochemical characterization of enzymatic function, though many genes with close homology to CYPs with known function have been found, giving clues to their functionality. The classes of CYPs most often investigated in non-human animals are those either involved in development (e.g., retinoic acid or hormone metabolism) or involved in the metabolism of toxic compounds (such as heterocyclic amines or polyaromatic hydrocarbons). Often there are differences in gene regulation or enzyme function of CYPs ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Carbohydrate-Carbohydrate Binding of Ganglioside to Integrin α 5 Modulates α5β1 Function. AU - Wang, Xiaoqi. AU - Sun, Ping. AU - Al-Qamari, Abbas. AU - Tai, Tadashi. AU - Kawashima, Ikuo. AU - Paller, Amy S.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2008 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2001/3/16. Y1 - 2001/3/16. N2 - Gangliosides GT1b and GD3, components of keratinocyte membranes, inhibit keratinocyte adhesion to fibronectin. Although ganglioside sialylation is known to be important, the mechanism of inhibition is unknown. Using purified insect recombinant α5 and β1 proteins and α 5β1 integrin from lysed keratinocyte-derived SCC12 cells, we have shown that GT1b and GD3 inhibit the binding of α 5β1 to fibronectin. Co-immunoprecipitation of GT1b and α5β1 from SCC12 cells and direct binding of GT1b and GD3 to affinity-purified α5β15 from SCC12 cells and insect recombinant α5β1, particularly the α5 subunit, further suggest interaction between ganglioside and α5β1. The ...
Two new benzophenones, acredinones A (1) and B (2), were isolated from a marine-sponge-associated Acremonium sp. fungus. Their chemical structures were elucidated on the interpretation of spectroscopic data. The structure of 1 was confirmed by palladium-catalyzed hydrogenation, followed by spectroscopic data analysis. Acredinones A (1) and B (2) inhibited the outward K+ currents of the insulin secreting cell line INS-1 with IC50 values of 0.59 and 1.0 mu M, respectively ...
Porifera is a 3D-printed ceramic and brass jewelry collection inspired by the forms of deep-sea dwelling glass sponges. These ancient sponges form reefs of glass with complex, porous architectures that are home to many species. The jewelry designs are computationally generated by custom software which creates minimal surface networks along cellular scaffolds that adapt to different volumes and densities ...
i) Agar plate cultures.Nineteen different agar media were used for the cultivation of sponge-associated bacteria, and they were assigned numbers as follows: medium 1, basic agar (1 liter natural seawater [NSW]); 2, marine agar 2216 (Difco); 3, actinomycete isolation agar (1 liter NSW, 1 g peptone from casein, 0.1 g asparagine, 4 g sodium propionate, 0.5 g K2HPO4, 0.1 g MgSO4, 1 mg FeSO4·7H2O, 1 ml glycerol); 4, raffinose-histidine agar (1 liter NSW, 2 g raffinose, 0.2 g histidine) (modified from reference 46); 5, 60:40 agar (600 ml NSW, 400 ml ddH2O); 6, glycerol-arginine agar (1 liter NSW, 2 ml glycerol, 0.3 g arginine) (35); 7, chitosan agar (1 liter NSW, 2 g chitosan); 8, peptone-starch agar (1 liter NSW, 2 g starch, 0.2 g peptone from casein) (modified from reference 32); 9, fluid thioglycolate agar (1 liter NSW, 1 g peptone from casein, 0.3 g yeast extract, 0.3 g d-glucose, 0.05 g l-cystine, 0.5 g sodium thioglycolate); 10, mucin agar (1 liter NSW, 1 g mucin) (36); 11, Delicious agar (1 ...
Signal transduction pathways mediated by G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and their intracellular coupling partners, the heterotrimeric G proteins, are crucial for several physiological functions in eukaryotes, including humans. This thesis describes a broad genomic survey and extensive comparative phylogenetic analysis of GPCR and G protein families from a wide selection of eukaryotes. A robust mining of GPCR families in fungal genomes (Paper I) provides the first evidence that homologs of the mammalian families of GPCRs, including Rhodopsin, Adhesion, Glutamate and Frizzled are present in Fungi. These findings further support the hypothesis that all main GPCR families share a common origin. Moreover, we clarified the evolutionary hierarchy by showing for the first time that Rhodopsin family members are found outside metazoan lineages. We also characterized the GPCR superfamily in two important model organisms (Amphimedon queenslandica and Saccoglossus kowalevskii) that belong to different ...
Bannister, R, Hoogenboom, M, Anthony, K, Battershill, C, Whalan, S, Webster, N and de Nys, R (2011). Incongruence between the distribution of a common coral reef sponge and photosynthesis. Marine Ecology Progress Series 423: 95-100 ...
Boggs, J.M., Myelin Basic Protein: A Multifunctional Protein. Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 63 (2006) 1945-61. Boggs, J. M., Rangaraj, G., Gao, W., and Heng, Y-M., Effect of phosphorylation of myelin basic protein by MAPK on its interactions with actin and actin binding to a lipid membrane in vitro, Biochemistry 45 (2006) 391-401 Musse, A. A., Boggs, J. M., and Harauz, G., Deimination of membrane-associated myelin basic protein in multiple sclerosis exposes an immunodominant epitope, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103 (2006) 4422-4427 co-SRA . Comment by C. Husted, Structural insight into the role of myelin basic protein in multiple sclerosis, pp. 4339-4340.. Boggs, J. M., Gao, W., and Hirahara Y., Myelin glycosphingolipids, galactosylceramide and sulfatide, participate in carbohydrate-carbohydrate interactions between apposed membranes and may form glycosynapses between oligodendrocyte and/or myelin membranes. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1780 (2008) 445-455 . Polverini, E., Rangaraj, G., Libich, D., Boggs, ...
Phylogenetic studies, particularly those based on rDNA sequences from plant roots and basidiomata, have revealed a strikingly high genetic diversity in the Sebacinales. However, the factors determining this genetic diversity at higher and lower taxonomic levels within this order are still unknown. In this study, we analysed patterns of genetic variation within two morphological species, Sebacina epigaea and S. incrustans, based on 340 DNA haplotype sequences of independent genetic markers from the nuclear (ITS + 5.8S + D1/D2, RPB2) and mitochondrial (ATP6) genomes for 98 population samples. By characterising the genetic population structure within these species, we provide insights into species boundaries and the possible factors responsible for genetic diversity at a regional geographic scale. We found that recombination events are relatively common between natural populations within Sebacina epigaea and S. incrustans, and play a significant role in generating intraspecific genetic diversity.
Sterols are required by almost all eukaryotes, but their structural diversity varies across different lineages. It is unclear if there are any systematic variations in sterol structures between metazoa and their unicellular relatives. MIT graduate student Jonathan Grabensatter analyzed sterols from four unicellular relatives of metazoa. For comparison, sterols from the basal metazoans hexactinellid sponges and ctenophores were analyzed as well. Sterols were identified by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Choanoflagellate sterol profiles are largely similar, containing two or three C27 compounds with 2, 3 and 4 double bonds and one C28 with three double bonds. Ichthyospora are dominated by a C27Δ5, 24 but also produce cholesterol, three C28 sterols and two 4-methyl C27 sterols. Capsaspora produce cholesterol, a tetraunsaturated C27 and two C28 sterols. The hexactinellid sponges and ctenophores were dominated by cholesterol. Genomic searches were performed to identify changes in genes ...
Xu, J. and Kjer, J. and Sendker, J. and Wray, V. and Guan, H. and Edrada-Ebel, R.A. and Mueller, W.E.G. and Bayer, M. (2009) Cytosporones, coumarins, and an alkaloid from the endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis sp. isolated from the Chinese mangrove plant Rhizophora mucronata. Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry, 17 (20). pp. 7362-7367. Kjer, J. and Wray, V. and Edrada-Ebel, R.A. and Ebel, R. and Pretsch, A. and Lin, W.H. and Proksch, P. (2009) Xanalteric acid I and II and the related phenolic compounds from endophytic Alternaria sp. isolated from mangrove plant Sonneratia alba. Journal of Natural Products, 72 (11). pp. 2053-2057. ISSN 0163-3864 Kumlung, Tantima and Harvey, Linda and McNeil, Brian and Edrada-Ebel, Ruangelie (2009) Cultivation and production of bioactive secondary metabolites from the marine-derived fungus Trichoderma pseudokoningii. In: 42nd IUPAC Congress, 2009-08-02 - 2009-08-07, Scottish Exhibition and Conference Centre (SECC). Ebada, S. and Wray, V. and Edrada-Ebel, R.A. and ...
Sponges (Phylum Porifera) are sessile aquatic metazoans that are found in all aquatic habitats and have important roles in marine ecological processes. Fossil records dating back to the Late Cambrian era 509 million years ago show that sponges have survived largely unchanged in their general structural organization [1]. So far about 7,000 extant species are described [2]. As filter feeders, sponges filter food particles from the water pumped through their body and bacteria are the main component of the sponge diet [3, 4].. Photosynthetic sponges are very diverse in terms of the taxonomy of hosts and symbionts and their biogeography, occurring around the world in tropical and temperate oceans. They occupy a similar niche to hard corals, being filter-feeding benthic primary producers that provide food and shelter for a range of reef organisms. Photosynthetic symbionts include cyanobacteria, dinoflagellates, rhodophytes, chlorophytes and diatoms [5-7]. These symbionts provide photosynthates [8-10] ...
Introduction.. Classification of Organisms; Evolutionary Relationsihips and Tree Diagrams; Patterns of Organization.. Animal-Like Protists; The Protozoa.. Evolutionary Perspective; Life Within a Single Plasma Membrane: Symbiotic Life-styles. Protozoan Taxonomy: (upto phyla,subphyla, superclasses, wherever applicable).Pseudopodia and Amoeboid Lecomotion; Cilia and Other Pellicular Structurews; Nutrition Genetic Control and Reproduction; Symbiotic Ciliates;Further Phylogenetic Consideeration.. Multicellular and Tissue Levels of Organization.. Evolutionary Perspective;Origins of Multicellularity; Animal Origins.Phylum Porifera: Cell Types,Body Wall, and Skeletons; Water Currents and Body Forms; Maintenance Functions;Reproduction.Phylum Cnidaria(Coelenterata). The body Wall and Nematocysts: Alternation of Generations; Maintenance Functions: Reproductin and Classification up to class.Phylum Gtenophora; Further Phylogenetic Considerations. The Triploblastic_Acoelomate Body Plan.. Evolutionary ...
An endoskeleton is a skeleton that is on the inside of a body. The endoskeleton develops within the skin or in the deeper body tissues. The vertebrate endoskeleton is basically made up of two types of tissues (bone and cartilage). During early embryonic development the endoskeleton is composed of notochord and cartilage. The notochord in most vertebrates is replaced by the vertebral column and cartilage is replaced by bone in most adults. In three phyla and one subclass of animals, endoskeletons of various complexity are found: Chordata, Echinodermata, Porifera, and Coleoidea. An endoskeleton may function purely for support (as in the case of sponges), but often serves as an attachment site for muscle and a mechanism for transmitting muscular forces. A true endoskeleton is derived from mesodermal tissue. Such a skeleton is present in echinoderms and chordates. The poriferan skeleton consists of microscopic calcareous or siliceous spicules or a spongin network. The Coleoidae do not have a true ...
Parasoa, she shenn fo-reeriaght Animalia eh, as keeayll yn ennym rish ny beiyn. She organeyn bioag gyn craue drommey tayn.. Ta killaghyn parasoagh er nyn gur da obbyr er lheh, as myr shen, cha nel ad gollrish ny shennayryn choanoflagellatagh oc. Ny yei shen, cha nel ny killaghyn er nyn reaghey ayns organeyn, as myr shen, cha nel y possah shoh casley rish ny feer animalia (Eumetasoa), as adsyn ny .. Cha nel parasoa er mayrney agh thoagyn ny marrey, sy phylum Porifera. Ta kuse dy oayllee cur maroo y phylum Placosoa; cha nel agh un dooie ayn, as shen Trichoplax adhaerens. Cha nel coardailys ayn my vel y phylum shoh ny olteyr jeh Parasoa ny dyn.. ...
Marine sponges are a rich source of natural bioactive compounds. One of the most abundant valuable products is collagen/gelatin, and therefore, presents an interesting alternative source for pharmaceutical and biomedical applications. We have previously proposed an innovative green technology for the extraction of collagen/gelatin from marine sponges based in water acidified with carbon dioxide. In this work, we have optimized the process operating conditions towards high yields and collagen quality as well as to reduce extraction procedure duration and energy consumption. The process extraction efficiency is higher than 50%, corresponding to a yield of approximately 10% of the sponge dry mass, obtained for mild operating conditions 10 bars and 3h. The extracted material was characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Rheology, Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Circular Dichroism (CD), Aminoacid Analysis and SDS-PAGE. The extracts were found to be composed of highly pure ...
The sea sponges arenâ t move. Most are easily mistaken for coral or plants due to their stationary nature and rigid structure. Sciences, Culinary Arts and Personal In the tropical waters off the coasts of Florida, the Bahamas and Caribbean, shallow water sponges are common sights on reefs. Most sea sponges do not hunt, do not sleep, and do not move to catch prey. Do Children Soak Up Language Like Sponges? Sponges are in the shape of a big U. As sessile organisms, once they have established themselves, they anchor to whatever substrate they have landed on. recent questions recent answers. Many can close their openings/holes. Sponges the animal can move. Sponges do not move at all. WIN #7 $10,000 #6 WIN $10,000.000.00; WIN #2 $10,000 Anonymous729069. Asexual reproduction is often a survival mechanism that allows a sponge to release small colonies of cells. Members of this group include glass sponges, demosponges, and calcareous sponges. They are relatively unique among animals due to their lack ...
The objective of this study was primarily to determine the structure and biochemical characteristics of the NmeGp1Sd in order to gain a deeper insight into the evolution of metazoan Nme proteins and their functions.. Sponge Group I Nme genes are intron-rich and these introns are relatively short. The same has been found for introns in several other sponge genes [42, 43] and recently in A. queenslandica genome where median intron size is 80 bp [32]. The fourth intron (Figure 1) is likely the most ancient because it is also found in a choanoflagellate Group I Nme homolog. We conclude that the ancestral metazoan Group I Nme gene was intron-rich and probably had all four introns that are still present in most extant basal metazoan homologs. The ancestral gene structure is also well preserved in vertebrate homologs with three out of four introns present. D. melanogaster has only one of the ancestral introns and C. elegans lost all ancestral introns and gained two new ones which likely reflect ...
Harburn, Jonathan (2001) Approaches to the synthesis of some tyrosine-derived marine sponge metabolites: Synthesis of verongamine and purealidin N. Journal of Organic Chemistry, 66 (9). pp. 3111-3118. ISSN 00223263 Full text not available from this repository ...
Xin YJ,QU Junge,XU Junyi,et al. Lysobacter hymeniacidonis sp. nov., Isolated from a Crude Oil-Contaminated Marine Sponge[J]. Journal of Ocean University of China,2016,14(6):1019 ...
Hydro Sponge 3 PRO Aquarium Filter - At AquaCave, we offer Best Prices, 5% Back, and Free Shipping on Hydro Sponge 3 PRO Aquarium Filter. - Buy Hydro Sponge 3 PRO Aquarium Filter - Now Only $9.95 - Hydro Sponge 3 PRO Aquarium Filter The Hydro-Sponge Pro is the newest product line among our family. The Hydro-Sponge Pro like the Hydro-Sponge is made in all the same sizes but unlike the Hydro-Sponge line it uses reticulated foam. This gives the sponge itself almost double the efficiency as compared to the Hydro-Sponge. The Hydro-Sponge PRO aquarium filters provides both mechanical and biological filtration. Aerobic bacteria colonize the sponge, providing a bacterial substrate to facilitate the nitrogen cycle. In addition, the Hydro-Sponge traps larger waste particles, mechanically cleaning the water without trapping the baby fish. Four Sizes Available: - Hydro Sponge PRO II, up to 20 gal. - Hydro Sponge PRO III, up to 30 gal. - Hydro Sponge PRO IV, up to 80 gal. - Hydro-Sponge PRO V, up to 120 gal.  
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Members of the class Demospongiae are hermaphroditic. Life cycle: The zygote develops into parenchymella larva (free-swimming) before settling down on a substrate where it grows into a young sponge (Ref. 833). ...
Members of the class Demospongiae are hermaphroditic. Life cycle: The zygote develops into parenchymella larva (free-swimming) before settling down on a substrate where it grows into a young sponge (Ref. 833). ...
Marian Blanca Ramírez from the CSIC in Spain has been studying the effects of LRRK2, a protein associated with Parkinsons disease, on cell motility. A Travelling Fellowship from Journal of Cell Science allowed her to spend time in Prof Maddy Parsons lab at Kings College London, learning new cell migration assays and analysing fibroblasts cultured from individuals with Parkinsons. Read more on her story here. Where could your research take you? The deadline to apply for the current round of Travelling Fellowships is 23rd Feburary 2018. Apply now!. ...
Members of the class Demospongiae are hermaphroditic. Life cycle: The zygote develops into parenchymella larva (free-swimming) before settling down on a substrate where it grows into a young sponge (Ref. 833). ...
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The sponge-associated actinomycetes were isolated from the marine sponge Dendrilla nigra, collected from the southwest coast of India. Eleven actinomycetes
Cancer is a major health problem worldwide and killing millions of people each year. The use of natural products as chemotherapeutic agents is well established, however, many of the currently available drugs are associated ...
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Simone P. de Lira; Mirna H. R. Seleghim; David E. Williams; Frederic Marion; Pamela Hamill; Fran ois Jean; Raymond J. Andersen; Eduardo Hajdu; Roberto G. S. Berlinck. How to cite this article Lira SP, Seleghim MHR, Williams DE, Marion F, Hamill P, Jean F, et al. A SARS-Coronovirus 3CL Protease Inhibitor Isolated from the Marine Sponge Axinella cf. corrugata: Structure Elucidation and Synthesis. J. Braz. Chem. Soc. 2007;18(2):440-443 ...
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Definition of sponge in the Get a Grip America. Meaning of sponge with illustrations and photos. Pronunciation of sponge and its etymology. Related words - sponge synonyms, antonyms, hypernyms and hyponyms. Example sentences containing sponge
The soft, elastic skeletal systems of such sponge species as Spongia officinalis and Spongia graminea have resulted in their commercial exploitation for thousands of years.
There has been a long debate in the scientific community over the oldest surviving metazoan lineage. Traditionally it has been taught that Porifera, the sponges, occupy that nitche possessing a diploblastic body plan without true organs; however recent phylogentic analysis has suggests that Ctenophora may truly be the ...
Jasplakinolide, Jaspis johnstoni - CAS 102396-24-7 - Calbiochem Jasplakinolide, Jaspis johnstoni, CAS 102396-24-7, is a cell-permeable F-actin probe. Induces actin polymerization and stabilization. Blocks activation of store-mediated Ca2+ entry into cells. - Find MSDS or SDS, a COA, data sheets and more information.
Porifera is a new jewelry collection by Nervous System inspired by the forms of deep-sea glass sponges and made in a new 3D-printed ceramic material. It is the result of […]. ...
1. Write an essay on sporangiophores?. 2. What are meristems? How are they classified on the basis of their mode of origin, position and function?. 3. Comment on :. (a) Gemmules. (b) Heteronereis. (c) Salient features of porifera.. 4. Define translation and protein biosynthesis.. 5. Why is digestion important? How food is digested?. 6. Write notes on:. (a) functions of taste buds. (b) transmission of taste signals into the central nervous system.. 7. What is the Calvin cycle and what is its relationship to autotrophy? What is the key enzyme involved in autotrophic CO2 fixation in most organisms?. 8. Give an account of microbial enzymes and biotransformation. ...
Wool sea sponges (also called lambs wool sponges), are super soft and absorbent, and are perfect for everyday use in the bath or shower. They are soft and gentle enough for washing babies and children, and when used with a natural soap or body wash, they create a rich, luxurious lather, and rinse out easily and comple
Biology Assignment Help, Classification of multicellular animals - coelom, Classification of Multicellular Animals - Coelom We know earlier that the pseudocoel gave animals specific selective benefits. Among other things, this fluid-tilled space worked as a hydrostatic skeleton increasing the efficiency of burrowing.