Objective: To assess evidence for residential mobility in childhood having an adverse association with health outcomes through the life course.. Methods: A systematic search of medical and social sciences literature was undertaken to identify research defining residential mobility as an independent variable and in which health outcomes were described and objectively measured. Studies were excluded that investigated international migration for asylum or were limited to educational outcomes. Two reviewers assessed each study using quality criteria with particular attention to the consideration of confounders and potential for bias. Data were extracted for analysis using a structured form.. Results: Twenty-two studies were included for this review. Outcomes identified in association with residential mobility included: higher levels of behavioural and emotional problems; increased teenage pregnancy rates; accelerated initiation of illicit drug use; adolescent depression; reduced continuity of ...
Results Consistent with previous research we find a positive association between cumulative residential mobility and cannabis use with conventional logistic regression models (Odds Ratio: 2.56, 95% Confidence Interval: 1.20-5.78), implying that adolescents who experience a residential change are more likely to use cannabis than those who remain residentially stable. However, decomposing this relationship into its between- and within-child components reveals that a conventional model is underspecified and misleading; we find that differences in cannabis use between mobile and non-mobile adolescents are due to underlying selection differences between these groups (between-child log odds: 3.56, standard error: 1.22), not by a change in status of residential mobility (within-child log odds: 1.33, standard error: 1.02). ...
Residential mobility among foreign-born persons living in Sweden is associated with lower mortality Björn Albin1,2, Katarina Hjelm1,2, Jan Ekberg3, Sölve Elmståhl41School of Health and Caring Sciences, Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden; 2Department of Health Sciences, Division of Geriatric Medicine, Lund University, Sweden; 3Centre of Labour Market Policy Research (CAFO), School of Management and Economics, Växjö University, Sweden; 4Department of Health Sciences, Division of Geriatric Medicine, Lund University, SwedenAbstract: There have been few longitudinal studies on the effect of within-country mobility on patterns of mortality in deceased foreign-born individuals. The results have varied; some studies have found that individuals who move around within the same country have better health status than those who do not change their place of residence. Other studies have shown that changing one’s place of residence leads to more self-reported health problems
Work looking at the interplay between residential mobility, deprivation, age, personal socioeconomic circumstance, and health outcomes.
This study investigates the magnitude and persistence of elevated post-separation residential mobility (i.e. residential instability) in five countries (Au
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Vision in these deer is determined by alleles in a single gene, with Q being the dominant allele. In this post, we share questions based on the new syllabus. Chapter 1: Population dynamics QUESTION 1: Cambridge IGCSE Geography 0460/11 Q1 June 2009 (a)Study Fig. . Such eco-evolutionary dynamics are likely to occur in modern humans and may influence population dynamics. GCSE Population dynamics. For the exam, you will get 55 of these type of questions. [6] World Population Prospects: The 2017 Revision; 1.09% is â ¦ We have a question bank with different types of MCQs for all Class 8 subjects, including Science, Mathematics, Hindi, English and Social Studies. REVIEW QUESTIONS FOR SECOND EXAM BIOLOGY 4253 ECOLOGY Chapter 11 (Population dynamics) Terms: demographic transition, demographic stochasticity, delayed density dependence, Allee affect, environmental stochasticity, source and sink populations, rescue effect 1. . Leaving Cert and Junior Cert exam paper questions and marking schemes listed by ...
Conference Proceeding: Bracciali A, Caravagna G & Ullah A (2013) Survival vs. Revenue: Modelling and Reasoning on Population Dynamics. In: Wainer G, Mosterman P, Barros F & Zacharewicz G (eds.) DEVS 13 Proceedings of the Symposium on Theory of Modeling & Simulation - DEVS Integrative M&S Symposium. Symposium on Theory of Modeling and Simulation (TMS 2013), San Diego, CA, USA, 07.04.2013-10.04.2013. San Diego, CA, USA: Society for Computer Simulation International. http://www.tms-devs.org/
article{9837a013-2002-40ce-93f0-0bf266da9173, abstract = {Within the paradigm of population dynamics a central task is to identify environmental factors affecting population change and to estimate the strength of these effects. We here investigate the impact of observation errors in measurements of population densities on estimates of environmental effects. Adding observation errors may change the autocorrelation of a population time series with potential consequences for estimates of effects of autocorrelated environmental covariates. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we compare the performance of maximum likelihood estimates from three stochastic versions of the Gompertz model (log-linear first order autoregressive model), assuming 1) process error only, 2) observation error only, and 3) both process and observation error (the linear state-space model on log-scale). We also simulated population dynamics using the Ricker model, and evaluated the corresponding maximum likelihood estimates for ...
The term stable population refers to a population with an unchanging (but possibly nonzero) rate of growth and an unchanging age composition (i.e., the population pyramid does not change in shape) as a result of age-specific birth rates and age-specific death rates that have remained constant for a sufficiently long time. A stable population may or may not have zero population growth. We can have stable populations that are growing, and we can also have stable populations that are declining. ...
Sandeel (mainly Ammodytes marinus) is a very important forage fish in the North Sea, because it constitutes the major food source for many predator fish, seabirds and marine mammals. Furthermore, the sandeel fishery is one of the largest single species fisheries in the North Sea. The abundance of sandeel varies from year to year, and thus, ecosystems can be highly sensitive to changes in the population dynamics of sandeel. While the impact on the ecosystem is well documented, the underlying processes and mechanisms behind the population dynamics of sandeel are still vaguely understood.. In his PhD thesis Ole Henriksen, DTU Aqua, unravels some of the most important factors driving the abundances of sandeel. The assemblage of knowledge gathered-on growth, density dependence, habitat, food availability, predation, fisheries, temperature, oceanography and broad-scale climate-provides a baseline and annotated bibliography for scientists. Furthermore, findings from four studies are highlighted, where ...
Demographic transition from primitive population stability to modern population stability is happening in developed countries There is need to ensure that this transition happens in developing countries also Primitive population stability of high birth rates were offset by high infant and childhood mortality has transitioned to a modern population stability of low infant and childhood mortality are balanced by low birth rates Epidemiologic transition: During primitive population stability CDR was high (,40) - receding fatal diseases, epidemics and famines reduced CDR to ~11 - now most people in developed countries die from cancer, cardiovascular diseases and other degenerative diseases Fertility transition: CBR in the developed countries declined from a high of 40-50 during primitive population stability to 8-12 of the modern population stability due to industrialization, economic development and social modernization Economic development and social modernization has been observed to bring about ...
The way that mothers provision their offspring can have important consequences for their offsprings performance throughout life. Models suggest that maternally induced variation in life histories may have large population dynamical effects, even perhaps driving cycles such as those seen in forest Lepidoptera. The evidence for large maternal influences on population dynamics is unconvincing, principally because of the difficulty of conducting experiments at both the individual and population level. In the soil mite, Sancassania berlesei, we show that there is a trade-off between a females fecundity and the per-egg provisioning of protein. The mothers position on this trade-off depends on her current food availability and her age. Populations initiated with 250 eggs of different mean sizes showed significant differences in the population dynamics, converging only after three generations. Differences in the growth, maturation and fecundity of the initial cohort caused differences in the ...
Many animal populations providing ecosystem services, including harvest, live in seasonal environments and migrate between seasonally distinct ranges. Unfortunately, two major sources of human-induced global change threaten these populations: climate change and anthropogenic barriers. Anthropogenic infrastructure developments present a global threat to animal migrations through increased migration mortality or behavioral avoidance. Climate change alters the seasonal and spatial dynamics of resources and therefore the effects of migration on population performance. We formulated a population model with ideal-free migration to investigate changes in population size and harvest yield due to barriers and seasonal dynamics. The model predicted an increasing proportion of migrants when the difference between areas in seasonality or carrying capacity increased. Both migration cost and behavioral avoidance of barriers substantially reduced population size and harvest yields. Not surprisingly, the ...
Many animal populations providing ecosystem services, including harvest, live in seasonal environments and migrate between seasonally distinct ranges. Unfortunately, two major sources of human-induced global change threaten these populations: climate change and anthropogenic barriers. Anthropogenic infrastructure developments present a global threat to animal migrations through increased migration mortality or behavioral avoidance. Climate change alters the seasonal and spatial dynamics of resources and therefore the effects of migration on population performance. We formulated a population model with ideal-free migration to investigate changes in population size and harvest yield due to barriers and seasonal dynamics. The model predicted an increasing proportion of migrants when the difference between areas in seasonality or carrying capacity increased. Both migration cost and behavioral avoidance of barriers substantially reduced population size and harvest yields. Not surprisingly, the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Apparent breeding success drives long-term population dynamics of a migratory swan. AU - Nuijten, Rascha. AU - Vriend, S.J.G.. AU - Wood, Kevin A.. AU - Haitjema, Trinus. AU - Rees, Eileen C.. AU - Jongejans, Eelke. AU - Nolet, B.A.. N1 - 7028, AnE; Data archiving: data archived in Dryad. PY - 2020. Y1 - 2020. N2 - The ability of a species to adapt to environmental change is ultimately reflected in its vital rates - i.e., survival and reproductive success of individuals. Together, vital rates determine trends in numbers, commonly monitored using counts of species abundance. Rapid changes in abundance can give rise to concern, leading to calls for research into the biological mechanisms underlying variations in demography. For the NW European population of Bewicks swan (Cygnus columbianus bewickii), there have been major changes in the population trends recorded during nearly five decades of monitoring (1970‐2016). The total number of birds increased to a maximum of c. 30,000 ...
This 2015 OECD Economic Survey of Belgium examines recent economic developments, policies and prospects. Special chapters cover integration of immigrants and the housing sector.. ...
By David Baker and William Smith[1] Widespread formal education is shaping population dynamics globally. From new trends in mortality and health disparities in the United States to demographic and epidemiological population transitions in less developed nations, access to schooling is proving to be one of demographys most potent causal factors. Research has repeatedly found education…
There is growing evidence that climate change causes an increase in variation in conditions for plant and animal populations. This increase in variation, e.g. amplified inter-annual variability in temperature and rainfall has population dynamical consequences because it raises the variation in vital demographic rates (survival, reproduction) in these populations. In turn, this amplified environmental variability enlarges population extinction risk. This paper demonstrates that currently used nature conservation policies, principles, and generic and specific design criteria have to be adapted to these new insights. A simulation shows that an increase in variation in vital demographic rates can be compensated for by increasing patch size. A small, short-lived bird species like a warbler that is highly sensitive to environmental fluctuations needs more area for compensation than a large, long-lived bird species like a Bittern. We explore the conservation problems that would arise if patches or ...
In this paper, we consider a reaction-diffusion model in population dynamics and study the impact of different types of Allee effects with logistic growth in the heterogeneous closed region. For strong Allee effects, usually, species unconditionally die out and an extinction-survival situation occurs when the effect is weak according to the resource and sparse functions. In particular, we study the impact of the multiplicative Allee effect in classical diffusion when the sparsity is either Show moreIn this paper, we consider a reaction-diffusion model in population dynamics and study the impact of different types of Allee effects with logistic growth in the heterogeneous closed region. For strong Allee effects, usually, species unconditionally die out and an extinction-survival situation occurs when the effect is weak according to the resource and sparse functions. In particular, we study the impact of the multiplicative Allee effect in classical diffusion when the sparsity is either positive or ...
Principles of Population Dynamics and Their Application PDF/EPUB ↠ of Population Dynamics MOBI ó Population Dynamics and Their eBook ð of Population Dynamics and Their ePUB ☆ Population Dynamics PDF Ê Principles of eBook ð This book provides an introduction to population dynamics exploring rules that govern change in any dynamic system and applying these gen.
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
We develop a biologically correct cost system for production systems facing invasive pests that allows the estimation of population dynamics without a priori knowledge of their true values. We apply that model to a data set for olive producers in Crete and derive from it predictions about the underlying populations dynamics. Those dynamics are compared to information on population dynamics obtained from pest sampling with extremely favorable results., Separable technologies, Pest population, Damage control, Olive farms, Greece, C31,Q21,Q22, Environmental Economics , Theory
TY - JOUR. T1 - Life-History variation predicts the effects of demographic stochasticity on avian population Dynamics. AU - Sæther, B-E.. AU - Engen, S.. AU - Møller, A.P.. AU - Weimerskirch, H.. AU - Visser, M.E.. AU - Fiedler, W.. AU - Matthysen, E.. AU - Lambrechts, M.M.. AU - Badyaev, A.. AU - Becker, P.H.. AU - Brommer, J.E.. AU - Bukacinski, D.. AU - Bukacinski, M.. AU - Christensen, H.. AU - Dickinson, J.. AU - du Feu, C.. AU - Gehlbach, F.R.. AU - Heg, D.. AU - Hötker, H.. AU - Merilä, J.. AU - Nielsen, J.T.. AU - Rendell, W.. AU - Robertson, R.J.. AU - Thomson, D.L.. AU - Török, J.. AU - van Hecke, P.. N1 - Reporting year: 2004 Metis note: 3354; CTE; PVD ; AnE; file:///L:/Endnotedatabases/NIOOPUB/pdfs/Pdfs2004/Saether_ea_3354.pdf. PY - 2004. Y1 - 2004. N2 - Comparative analyses of avian population fluctuations have shown large interspecific differences in population variability that have been difficult to relate to variation in general ecological characteristics. Here we show that ...
Population dynamics of a predator-prey system is usually simulated by the classical Lotka-Volterra models, which were successfully applied to the population dynamics of snowshoe hare and lynx and many other predator-prey systems. Attempts were made to apply them also to insect predator-prey systems, but in terms of biological control, they did not reveal the features of the predators that control the abundance of their prey. The most conspicuous example of failure of Lotka-Volterra models applied to insect predator-prey systems are ladybird-aphid systems, in which these models usually fail to fit empirical data. Because of their practical importance and because they are very well studied, we have chosen aphid-ladybird systems as a model. We summarize the results published on various aspects of the population dynamics of aphid-ladybird systems and present them in the context of empirical data. Using new data, we more closely specify the existing metapopulation model of aphid-ladybird ...
Kobayashi, Tsuyoshi, Ryder, Darren S., Ralph, Timothy J., Mazumder, Debashish, Saintilan, Neil, Iles, Jordan, Knowles, Lisa, Thomas, Rachael and Hunter, Simon. (2011) Longitudinal spatial variation in ecological conditions in an in-channel floodplain river system during flow pulses. River Research and Applications. 27, pp. 461 - 472. https://doi.org/10.1002/rra.1381 ...
ABSTRACT: In marine systems, empirical studies demonstrating effects of macroparasites on host population dynamics are relatively few. We tested the effects of a copepod macroparasite infecting the gills of a small coral reef fish, the bridled goby Coryphopterus glaucofraenum. Fish that were naturally infected and uninfected were tagged as individuals and tracked in the field for 5 mo. Parasitism was associated with an increase in gill ventilation rate, and a reduction in feeding. More importantly, parasitized fish showed significantly reduced growth (by 66%) and gonad mass (by 68%) compared to uninfected fish, and parasitism increased instantaneous mortality by a factor of 1.8. Since the prevalence of infection was higher in areas of high goby density, parasite-induced mortality is a possible cause of host density dependence. These results imply a major effect of parasitism on host population dynamics and suggest that parasitism warrants closer attention by marine ecologists. ...
FALL 2016 SEPTEMBER 2016 Jie Ma, Department of Economics, McGill University How High-Skilled Immigrants Affect Natives Occupational Choices. ...
A no-frills group of wildlife enthusiasts, scientists, photographers and local residents wishing to see wild boar and all other wildlife thrive in the Forest of Dean and elsewhere in the UK. Founded by David J Slater and Joyce Moss in the summer of 2011 as an independent conservation group with no prior affiliations. Hoping to promote understanding of wild boar and as a pressure group to produce a realistic and science-based management plan of wild boar in the UK. E-mail us via my complete profile below. Media enquirers only - please telephone 07999950697 ...
Like predation and competition, mutualism is now recognized as a consumer resource (C-R) interaction, including, in particular, bi-directional (e.g., coral, plant- mycorrhizae) and uni-directional (e.g., ant-plant defense, plant-pollinator) C-R mutualisms. Here, we develop general theory for the density-dependent population dynamics of mutualism based on the C-R mechanism of interspecific interaction. To test the influence of C-R interactions on the dynamics and stability of bi- and uni-directional C-R mutualisms, we developed simple models that link consumer functional response of one mutualistic species with the resources supplied by another. Phase-plane analyses show that the ecological dynamics of C-R mutualisms are stable in general. Most transient behavior leads to an equilibrium of mutualistic coexistence, at which both species densities are greater than in the absence of interactions. However, due to the basic nature of C-R interactions, certain density-dependent conditions can lead to C-R
1. Metapopulation microcosms were constructed to test the effect of four different types of habitat heterogeneity on the dynamics and dispersal in spatially extended systems; homogeneity, spatial heterogeneity, temporal heterogeneity and spatio-temporal heterogeneity. Resources were distributed across discrete habitat patches in bruchid beetle (Callosobruchus maculatus) metapopulations, and long-term time series were recorded. 2. Mathematical models were fitted to the long-term time series from the experimental systems using a maximum likelihood approach. Models were composed of separate birth, death, emigration and immigration terms all of which incorporated stochasticity drawn from different probability distributions. Models with density-dependent and density-independent birth, death and emigration terms were investigated and, in each case, the model that best described the empirical data was identified. 3. At the local scale, population sizes differed between patches depending on the type of
Population dynamics result from the interplay of density-independent and density-dependent processes. Understanding this interplay is important, especially for being able to predict near-term population trajectories for management. In recent years, the study of model systems-experimental, observational and theoretical-has shed considerable light on the way that the both density-dependent and -independent aspects of the environment affect population dynamics via impacting on the organisms life history and therefore demography. These model-based approaches suggest that (i) individuals in different states differ in their demographic performance, (ii) these differences generate structure that can fluctuate independently of current total population size and so can influence the dynamics in important ways, (iii) individuals are strongly affected by both current and past environments, even when the past environments may be in previous generations and (iv) dynamics are typically complex and transient due to
Habitat, Human Influences, Density-dependent Factors and Competition. Habitat, encompassing areal extent, topography, vegetation, forage quantity, forage quality and forage availability, is a key influence on the population ecology of all species. Total available habitat can be an important and obvious influence on population dynamics where density of humans is high. Topography affects vegetation as well as precipitation, wind, temperature and phenology, and thus plays an important role in caribou ecology. Vegetation is crucial because caribou must travel through, exist in and also consume it to survive. Caribou generally avoid dense brush because it is difficult to travel through, to detect predators in, and are low in forage quantity and quality in winter. Deciduous forests are avoided in winter for similar reasons. Forage quantity is critical for obvious reasons; if any animal cannot obtain sufficient forage they will fail to reproduce and/or die. While more subtle, forage quality is ...
My initial graduate work was on spatial population dynamics and specifically how spatial interaction fundamentally changes population dynamics and to what extent does it not fundamentally change populations dynamics. If it does fundamentally change dynamics, then how simple can that spatial model be? At what point can a uniform mixing model approximate the properties of a non-uniform mixing process? The papers Is diffusion too simple?, Basic epidemiological concepts in a spatial context, and Running from trouble were all exploring these ideas. I reviewed some of these ideas in Partial differential equation models in ecology. Later I taught a graduate course on spatial dynamics which tried to bring all these ideas together. My post-graduate work was focused on an experimental study of metapopulation dynamics using mosquitoes. This was a huge perturbation experiment to test some ideas about how metapopulation dynamics should change in response to variability in the environment. Since 1999, ...
The apparent failure of ecosystems to recover from increasingly widespread disturbance is a global concern. Despite growing focus on factors inhibiting resilience and restoration, we still know very little about how demographic and population processes influence recovery. Using inverse and forward demographic modelling of 531 post‐fire sagebrush populations across the western US, we show that demographic processes during recovery from seeds do not initially lead to population growth but rather to years of population decline, low density, and risk of extirpation after disturbance and restoration, even at sites with potential to support long‐term, stable populations. Changes in population structure, and resulting transient population dynamics, lead to a | 50% decline in population growth rate after disturbance and significant reductions in population density. Our results indicate that demographic processes influence the recovery of ecosystems from disturbance and that demographic analyses can be used
Northeastern Forest Experiment Station 1969. Forest insect population dynamics. Proceedings Forest Insect Population Dynamics Workshop. (4 of 4). Res. Pap. NE-125. Upper Darby, PA: U. S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 104-128 p. ...
This Population Dynamics Lesson Plan is suitable for 3rd - 5th Grade. Students watch a video on population dynamics. They conduct an experiment where they fill up a designated space with students.
TY - GEN. T1 - Population dynamics, life-history traidoffs and phenotypic fitness. AU - Kaitala, V.. PY - 1994. Y1 - 1994. KW - Fitness. KW - Genetic algorithms. KW - Life-history. KW - Population dynamics. KW - Fitness. KW - Genetic algorithms. KW - Life-history. KW - Population dynamics. KW - Fitness. KW - Genetic algorithms. KW - Life-history. KW - Population dynamics. M3 - Conference contribution. SP - 185. EP - 199. BT - Proc. of the Second Finnish Workshop on Genetic Algorithms and their Applications, Vaasa, Finland, March 17-18, 1994. ER - ...
This chapter evaluates various methods for inferring how phenotypes/genotypes influence population dynamics, including extensions of the year-by-year tracking approach used in analyzing the eco-to-evo side of eco-evolutionary dynamics. It provides a detailed outline of the various possibilities, including complexities that move beyond population dynamics. The chapter examines how maladaptation resulting from environmental change might decrease individual fitness and contribute to population declines, range contractions, and extirpations. It considers the extent to which contemporary evolution helps to recover individual fitness and population size, which might then make the difference between persistence versus extirpation and range expansion versus contraction. A final analysis asks how phenotypic variation within populations and species influences population dynamics.
Population dynamics is an important concept in ecology and refers to the ways in which a populations composition changes over time, both in the short-term and the long-term. Understanding the composition of a population is imperative to understanding growth trends and thus, a populations demography.. Population dynamics is not a novel term in ecology. In fact, studying population size goes far back in scientific research. Early research can be dated back to the 1600s. It was in 1662 that John Graunt was fascinated by mortality rates in Britain and made a treatise for the population of Britain to analyse what influenced the age of death.. Furthermore, population dynamics is a rather mathematical branch of ecology because it uses equations to model how a population may evolve over time. There is a simple equation which can be used to model how populations change over time. This equation considers BIDE dynamics:. Nt+1 = Nt + B + I - D - E. Variables:. Nt+1 = population size at some future ...
We conclude that the increasing spatial synchrony of metapopulation dynamics in 1993-2013 (figure 1c,d), reflected in the increasing amplitude of metapopulation fluctuations (figure 1a), is caused by increasing frequency of dry weather in July (figure 3b,c), which leads to withering of host plants and subsequent larval mortality. We discuss the effect of drought via host plant quality below, but observe meanwhile that, following a steep decline, the metapopulation is largely released from density-dependent regulatory processes (figure 3a), which has allowed rapid recovery and hence no long-term declining trend in the size of the metapopulation (figure 1a). The maximal fecundity of the Glanville fritillary is very high, as females may lay more than 1000 eggs [42], which allows, when conditions are favourable, rapid population increase. The related and biologically similar species Euphydryas aurinia used to exhibit outbreak population dynamics in the UK in the early part of the twentieth century ...
health and population dynamics would seem to represent different fields of study. Thus, when mention is made of health planning, the main preoccupation from the health point of view seem to be the provision of health infrastructure. In point of fact,health planning embraces population dynamics because the current structure and, feasible development of population in the future determine the health infrastructure required now and in future. It may be just as well to note that the argument is about public health, a term which embraces far more than health serious and staff. Population dynamics, the three majority of components of which are mortality, fertility and growth, offer a field of investigation in common with health. This is particularly so because health and population dynamics fall within the framework of development planning, and influence the various strategies adopted in national development plans ...
Looking for population dynamics? Find out information about population dynamics. The aggregate of processes that determine the size and composition of any population Explanation of population dynamics
Looking for Population Dynamics, Animal? Find out information about Population Dynamics, Animal. the regular patterns of change in the number of individuals in the population of a given species during the course of a year or a number of years ,... Explanation of Population Dynamics, Animal
Abstract: Abstract Background Methods for analyzing space-time variation in risk in case-control studies typically ignore residential mobility. We develop an approach for analyzing case-control data for mobile individuals and apply it to study bladder cancer in 11 counties in southeastern Michigan. At this time data collection is incomplete and no inferences should be drawn - we analyze these data to demonstrate the novel methods. Global, local and focused clustering of residential histories for 219 cases and 437 controls is quantified using time-dependent nearest neighbor relationships. Business address histories for 268 industries that release known or suspected bladder cancer carcinogens are analyzed. A logistic model accounting for smoking, gender, age, race and education specifies the probability of being a case, and is incorporated into the cluster randomization procedures. Sensitivity of clustering to definition of the proximity metric is assessed for 1 to 75 k nearest neighbors. Results ...
This chapter examines the dynamics of basic population models, with a particular focus on the general biological conditions under which population dynamics are stabilized, or destabilized, by increased population growth rates. Three classes of population models are discussed in relation to excitable and nonexcitable interactions: continuous logistic growth models, discrete equations, and continuous models with stage-structured lags. The chapter shows how increasing per capita growth rates tend to stabilize population models as a result of excitable interactions; that is, when dynamic trajectories monotonically approach an equilibrium after a localized perturbation. However, lags in population models tend to give rise to dynamics with oscillatory decays to equilibrium or sustained oscillations around the carrying capacity. Such oscillatory decays or sustained oscillations are only further destabilized by increased growth or production rates. The chapter concludes with a review of empirical evidence for
This book is an introduction to mathematical biology for students with no experience in biology, but who have some mathematical background. The work is focused on population dynamics and ecology, following a tradition that goes back to Lotka and Volterra, and includes a part devoted to the spread
Extreme climatic conditions and their ecological impacts are currently emerging as critical features of climate change. We studied extreme sea ice condition (ESIC) and found it impacts both life-history traits and population dynamics of an Antarctic seabird well beyond ordinary variability. The Southern Fulmar (Fulmarus glacialoides) is an ice-dependent seabird, and individuals forage near the ice edge. During an extreme unfavorable year (when sea ice area is reduced and distance between ice edge and colony is high), observed foraging trips were greater in distance and duration. As a result, adults brought less food to their chicks, which fledged in the poorest body condition. During such unfavorable years, breeding success was extremely low and population growth rate (λ) was greatly reduced. The opposite pattern occurred during extreme favorable years. Previous breeding status had a strong influence on life-history traits and population dynamics, and their responses to extreme conditions. ...
The post-doc position is part of the NWO-VICI project Adapting to a warmer world: phenology, physiology and fitness. In this project, we study selection on phenotypic plasticity in timing of reproduction in great tits in relation to global climate change. There are five integrated subprojects ranging from quantitative genetics, population dynamics and reproductive physiology to genomics. Four of these subprojects are underway and we are now looking for a post-doctoral candidate for the fifth subproject on population dynamics. This project will be carried out in collaboration with Prof Bernt-Erik Saether (NTNU, Trondheim, Norway) and Dr Stephanie Jenouvrier (CNRS, France & WHOI, USA ...