Risk assessment is considered to be an effective scientific tool which enables decisionmakers to manage hazardous waste-contaminated sites in a cost-effective manner while preserving public health. However, the current risk assessment framework proposed by the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) has limitations in addressing the true variability of population characteristics. This study proposed a methodology that is different from the existing framework by accounting for the true variability of population characteristics. The key differences of the proposed methodology and the existing framework are the (1) use of the transient exposure concentration; (2) use of the entire population rather than a representative ideal individual; (3) use of age- and gender-based population subgroups to represent population characteristics; (4) use of a population growth model to represent growth dynamics; and (5) presentation of risk through a risk profile with risk summarized through a single indicator,
KUBÁTOVÁ, A. - ŠTOCHLOVÁ, K. - ŽÁČKOVÁ, M. - JŮNKOVÁ VYMYSLICKÁ, P. - GRÚŇOVÁ, M. - GLONEKOVÁ, M. - ŠVEJCAROVÁ, M. - BRANDLOVÁ, K. - ČERNÁ BOLFÍKOVÁ, B.Zasahovat či nezasahovat do reprodukce malých populací? Případová studie zaměřená na dva druhy antilop rodu Taurotragus v rezervaci Bandia v Senegalu. 2016, Zoologické dny 2016 - České Budějovice. NERADILOVÁ, S. - SMETANOVÁ, M. - HULVA, P. - ČERNÁ BOLFÍKOVÁ, B.Genový tok v rámci plemene český fousek. 2016, . ŠTOCHLOVÁ, K. - KUBÁTOVÁ, A. - BRANDLOVÁ, K. - ČERNÁ BOLFÍKOVÁ, B.Phylogeny and population characteristics of Derby eland (Taurotragus derbianus). 2016, . WOZNICOVÁ, V. - ČERNÁ BOLFÍKOVÁ, B. - SMETANOVÁ, M. - KUTAL, M. - HULVA, P.Genetický status vlka obecného v České republice v kontextu středoevropských populací. 2016, konference Zoologické dny České Budějovice 2016. ČERNÁ BOLFÍKOVÁ, B. - HEJCMANOVÁ, P. - BRANDLOVÁ, K. Podtyp: Příspěvek ve sborníku (mimo ...
A persistent barrier to documenting health disparities is the lack of data on certain population characteristics. All of the reports in this supplement (n=29) examined differences by race/ethnicity. The next most frequent population characteristics that were examined were age (n=24), sex (n=24), education (n=17), poverty (n=14), place of birth (n=11), and disability (n=nine). The least frequently reported characteristics were the language spoken at home (n=four) and sexual orientation (n=one). Only the paper on HIV infection reported rates by sexual orientation. Some data sources used in this report have very limited information on social and demographic characteristics. For example, death certificates do not have information on sexual orientation, poverty level, or disability (4). Some national health surveys have begun to collect data on sexual orientation, but there are issues that affect the usability of this data. In many instances, the sample sizes are too small to provide meaningful ...
The Health System Measurement Project tracks government data on critical US health system indicators. The project focuses on 10 critical dimensions of the ever-changing health care system and the availability, quality, and cost of care, in addition to the overall health of Americans. The project examines the evolution of these aspects of the system over time and assesses the status of the dimensions of the system with respect to subgroups of the population, with a particular emphasis on vulnerable populations. An All Measures page lists every measure available in the system. Users can browse measures by population characteristics, by an alphabetic index, or by the audience the data might interest.. Developed by the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), the project aims to ensure a robust monitoring system through which people inside and outside the government can assess how the health care system is doing and identify areas that need improvement. One important purpose of the project is ...
This data collection provides information on the demographic, social, economic, political, and civil characteristics of selected municipalities with populations of 25,000 or more in the United States during the 1960s. Information is provided on population characteristics, such as the number of native-born persons residing in the state of birth, percentage of persons aged 5 years and older who were migrants, percentages in 1962 of non-white, foreign-born, and native-born populations of foreign or racially mixed parentage, median school years completed by those aged 25 years and older, percentage of elementary school children in private school, median income of families, number of full-time city employees per 1,000 population, percentage of civilian labor force that was unemployed in 1960, percentage of employed persons in white-collar occupations and in manufacturing industries, and percentage of the employed civilian labor force that was professional and that were managers, officials, and ...
Downloadable! Discusses three major problems of the food distribution industry in Brazil: quality control, storage and transportation and population characteristics.
2800.3 P438 -158-R 2/05-1/08 FINAL PERFORMANCE REPORT State: Oklahoma Grant Number: W-158-R Grant Program: Wildlife Restoration Grant Title: Status and population characteristics of the northern river otter (Lontra canadensis) in central and eastern Oklahoma Grant Period: February 1, 2005 - January 31, 2008 Report Period: February 1. 2007 - January 31, 2008 Project Leader: David M. Leslie Objective: To evaluate current distribution and population status of the northern river otter where they have been reportedly observed in the past 20 years, mamly in central and eastern Oklahoma. Summary of Progress: Attached Masters Thesis serves as our final report. Prepared by: Dominic Barrett Date: March 31, 2008 Approved by: Wildlife Division Admini ation Oklahoma Department of Wildlife Conservation J D. Staford ed ral Aid Coordinator ahoma Department of Wildlife Conservation STATUS AND POPULATION CHARACTERISTICS OF THE NORTHERN RIVER OTTER (LONTRA CANADENSIS) IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN OKLAHOMA Thesis ...
2800.3 P438 -158-R 2/05-1/08 FINAL PERFORMANCE REPORT State: Oklahoma Grant Number: W-158-R Grant Program: Wildlife Restoration Grant Title: Status and population characteristics of the northern river otter (Lontra canadensis) in central and eastern Oklahoma Grant Period: February 1, 2005 - January 31, 2008 Report Period: February 1. 2007 - January 31, 2008 Project Leader: David M. Leslie Objective: To evaluate current distribution and population status of the northern river otter where they have been reportedly observed in the past 20 years, mamly in central and eastern Oklahoma. Summary of Progress: Attached Masters Thesis serves as our final report. Prepared by: Dominic Barrett Date: March 31, 2008 Approved by: Wildlife Division Admini ation Oklahoma Department of Wildlife Conservation J D. Staford ed ral Aid Coordinator ahoma Department of Wildlife Conservation STATUS AND POPULATION CHARACTERISTICS OF THE NORTHERN RIVER OTTER (LONTRA CANADENSIS) IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN OKLAHOMA Thesis ...
Gammarus pulex were sampled from five English streams during April 1992. The population density, number of precopula pairs and incidence of parasitic infection were recorded, and the biomass was estim
The invention described herein solves the challenges encountered in searching for medical/clinical information from multiple data sources. Systems, methods, and devices of the invention allow a user to search a number of dissimilar information sources simultaneously, and view, process, and perform correlations on the information. The invention uses faceted search to process clinical values, subject characteristics, and population characteristics, thereby providing a user with an array of information useful for monitoring or improving the state of health of a patient or a patient population. The invention enables a user to evaluate information in a patient-centric way, and analyze information at either the individual or the population level.
This detailed study of 578 disturbances in France in the period 1830-1860 and 1930-1960 provides information on the geographic, economic, political, demographic, and historical background for each of the communes involved in the disturbances. Data for the formations, a collective of forces comprising of at least 50 persons in each collective, provide information on their social, economic, and political background, population characteristics, type of formation, age-sex distribution of the formations, and the political party affiliation of its members. The antecedent history of the disturbances is also given, including public memory of previous conflicts, forms of and responses to violence, interactions with other formations, character and clarity of objectives, and extent of territory controlled. Data on the organization of each formation is provided for the leadership, coordination, segmentation, stratification, and differentiation of the formation, as well as the extent of participation in ...
Population data is available by various characteristics and can be grouped around the following topics:. Ageing and population structure: based on the data available ageing trends can be followed throughout the past decades. Information on age groups and their share in the total population are available by country and at EU, Eurozone, EFTA and EEA aggregate levels. Indicators such as the age dependency ratio are calculated on the basis of the population structure. More on this subject.. Population characteristics: population figures by educational attainment, marital status, citizenship and country of birth are available. (Data availability is subject to the completeness of reporting by the countries.). Population density: is computed for each NUTS 3 region using the data on surface area. It is one of the several indicators computed at regional level for which more information can be found here.. Population change: by comparing the population on 1 January of two consecutive years, the change in ...
Free Online Library: Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) population characteristics and recruitment in two Nebraska Sandhill lakes. by Transactions of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences; Science and technology, general Aquatic ecosystems Analysis Aquatic sciences Closed ecological systems Closed experimental ecosystems Fish hatcheries Fishes Freshwater ecology Glacial lakes Mesocosms Natural areas Nature reserves Ponds Water quality
Overview Students admitted to the University of Kentucky College of Medicine are eligible to apply to the combined MD / MPH program. The combined degree will provide well-trained physicians with additional skills and knowledge in public health policies and procedures, enabling them to provide service to individuals within the context of a healthy community and its unique population characteristics. The MD and MPH program is designed for completion in five years.
but one with the happy consequence that the synthetic cohort would never hear of Monica Lewinsky. What happens to that synthetic cohort never happens to a real birth cohort, but it does capture the population characteristics of 1997. You can find the U.S. period life table for 1997 online in a PDF file, with absolutely no mention of Monica Lewinsky. (There is much Im omitting in this description of a stationary population equivalent, I know!). Demography offers a few aids to this business of modeling growth, because its bailiwick is looking at age-associated processes. Or, as a program officer for the National Institute on Aging explained at a conference session I attended a few weeks ago, aging is a lifelong process. Trite, I know, but its something that the growth-modeling wannabes should learn from, for two reasons. One is the equally obvious (almost Yogi Berra-esque) observation that as children grow older, their ages get bigger. Unfortunately, most school statistics are reported by ...
U.S. Army service members children are confronted with continuous relocation. For this reason, many army posts have established family oriented services which cater to some of the needs unique to army dependent children. Many posts provide families with programs provide families with programs such as scouting and sports; however, there are no child participatory theatrical programs available to all installation children. This thesis reports the methodology used in establishing Children in Theatre, a theatrical arts program at Fort Leonard Wood U.S. Army post. The purpose of the thesis is four-fold: first, familiarize others who will continue the program; second, encourage continued dialogue about theatrical programs for children on Fort Leonard Wood; third, blue print possible avenues for other army installations; and fourth, argue for the needs and benefits of theatrical programs for military dependent children. In spite of working through a system fraught with stifling government regulation and
Objectives: To systematically review studies of the epidemiology of tinnitus and hyperacusis in children and young people, in order to determine the methodological differences implicated in the variability of prevalence estimates and the influence of population characteristics on childhood tinnitus and hyperacusis. Data sources: Articles were retrieved from PubMed, EMBASE and Scopus databases and from the relevant reference lists using the methods described in the study protocol, which has previously been published. Reporting Items for Systematic Review (PRISMA) guidelines were followed. Eligibility criteria: Studies addressing childhood prevalence, for example, children and young people aged 5-19 years. Data selection: 2 reviewers independently assessed the studies for eligibility, extracted data and assessed study consistency. Owing to the heterogeneity in the methodologies among the reported studies, only narrative synthesis of the results was carried out. Results: Having identified 1032 ...
Indonesia still faces several challenges in the areas of water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH). Diarrhea remains a major killer of children and it is important to understand the local diarrhea transmission pathways to prioritise appropriate WASH interventions to reduce diarrhea burden. This study used a cross-sectional data set from a recent national household survey (the 2012 Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey) to examine the associations between diarrhea in children aged less than 24 months with WASH interventions and population characteristics. Unsafe disposal of child feces was strongly associated with an increased odds of child diarrhea (OR: 1.46; 95% CI: 1.18-1.82, p = 0.001). However, other WASH practices were not found to be associated. The findings underline the dangers of unsafe disposal of child feces and highlight the need for strengthening the related policies and program strategies and their implementation.
Most population projections are actually forecasts. Population parameters are meant to estimate the present characteristics of a population and to depict plausible assumptions of future demographic trends. Forecasting, however, should not constitute the exclusive use of population projections. The cohort-component model used in most population projections is first of all a model of population dynamics linking demographic processes and changes in population characteristics. The three essays presented here illustrate how a population projection model can be used to address issues in demographic research besides forecasting.^ The first essay uses counter-factual simulations, which are pure projections to the extent they are thought experiments, simply developing the implications of assumptions without reference to the actual course of population. Specifically, world population is projected from 1950 to 2000 with fertility and mortality rates constant at their mid-century levels. By difference with
TY - JOUR. T1 - Data on the quality and methods of studies reporting healthcare costs of post-prostate biopsy sepsis. AU - Alshak, Mark N.. AU - Gross, Michael D.. AU - Shoag, Jonathan E.. AU - Laviana, Aaron A.. AU - Gorin, Michael. AU - Sedrakyan, Art. AU - Hu, Jim C.. PY - 2019/8/1. Y1 - 2019/8/1. N2 - This data article presents the supplementary material for the review paper "Healthcare Costs of Post-Prostate Biopsy Sepsis" (Gross et al., 2019). A general overview is provided of 18 papers, including the details about year and journal of publication, country of dataset, data population characteristics, cost basis, and potential for bias evaluation. Quality assessment and the risk of bias of the 18 papers are detailed and summarized.. AB - This data article presents the supplementary material for the review paper "Healthcare Costs of Post-Prostate Biopsy Sepsis" (Gross et al., 2019). A general overview is provided of 18 papers, including the details about year and journal of publication, ...
Excess weight is a common condition associated with an increased incidence of conditions including type-2 diabetes, vascular diseases, osteoarthritis, depression, and certain cancers, as well as with higher mortality. It is also associated with higher total healthcare spending, but the associations with different types of healthcare services are not well understood. In addition, most evidence comes from the US, with no reliable individual participant data pertaining directly to the UK. Given differences between countries in terms of healthcare organisation, delivery, and financing, and in population characteristics, it is important to generate evidence for different jurisdictions. This project summarises the existing evidence on healthcare costs in relation to body mass index, and provides novel estimates for the UK. Estimates of percentage differences in annual healthcare costs for overweight and obese adults, compared to adults at healthy weight, will be estimated, overall and separately for ...
Estimation of the potential radiological risks associated with highway transport of radioactive materials (RAM) requires input data describing population densities adjacent to all portions of the route to be traveled. Previously, aggregated risks for entire multi-state routes were adequately estimated from population data with low geographic resolution. Current demands for geographically-specific risk estimates require similar increases in resolution of population density adjacent to route segments. With the advent of commercial geographic information systems (GISs) and databases describing highways, U.S. Census Blocks, and other information that is geographically distributed, it became feasible to determine and tabulate population characteristics along transportation routes with 1-kilometer resolution. This report describes an automated method of collecting population data adjacent to route segments (for calculation of incident-free doses) based on a commercial GIS. It also describes a statistical
Feil and colleagues [4] meticulously address the question of MRSA diversity by applying a population genomics approach to 165 global isolates. Specifically, the authors report variation in recombination rates between phylogeographically distinct subgroups of MRSA clone ST239. The key metric presented is the ratio of SNPs caused by recombination relative to mutation (r/m), and this value is observed to vary significantly across the three subgroups analyzed: South America, Asia, and Turkey. This variation is most apparent when including mobile genetic elements (which are either manually annotated or defined as any sequence more than 1 kb long not present in all isolates), but it is also apparent in the core genome (sequences conserved in all isolates, excluding mobile genetic elements). The authors speculate about genomic characteristics, population characteristics, or transmission dynamics as possible sources, but the true cause of the observed variation remains an intriguing open ...
Results 123 patients underwent CE in the 2-year study period. 22 notes were unobtainable, so 101 were analysed. The study population characteristics include a median age of 59 (16-76 yrs), an equal gender spread (53% female and 47% male) with a 99% white ethnic majority. 95% of referrals were as an outpatient and 92% were made by physicians. The median waiting time was 115 days. The main indications were: recurrent iron deficiency anaemia (48.5%), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) (33.7%), overt gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding (15%). Patients had commonly undergone previous investigations: marjority had gastroscopy, colonoscopy (82.3%), CT abdomen (22.8%), Barium meal (21.8%), small bowel MRI (18.8%) and flexi-sigmoidoscopy (9.9%). 6.9% (7 patients) had undergone a previous CE. CE detected abnormality in 97% of this cohort, although some were insignificant. The most common pathology was: erosions (54.5%), evidence of blood (41.6%), angiodysplastic lesions (32.6%), ulceration (28.7%), focal ...
Apache ServiceMix, ServiceMix, Apache, the Apache feather logo, and the Apache ServiceMix project logo are trademarks of The Apache Software Foundation ...
The 2011 BRFSS data reflects a change in weighting methodology (raking) and the addition of cell phone only respondents. Shifts in observed prevalence from 2010 to 2011 for BRFSS measures will likely reflect the new methods of measuring risk factors, rather than true trends in risk-factor prevalence. A break in trend lines after 2010 is used to reflect this change in methodolgy. Percentages are weighted to population characteristics. Data are not available if it did not meet BRFSS stability requirements. For more information on these requirements, as well as risk factors and calculated variables, see the Technical Documents and Survey Data for a specific year - http://www.cdc.gov/brfss/annual_data/annual_data.htm. Recommended citation: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Atlanta, Georgia: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, [appropriate year ...
Our study had 80% power at a two-sided α = 0.05 level to detect an OR of 1.90 for residential petrochemical exposure. We did not detect any association between residential exposure to petrochemicals and the risk of brain tumors when cumulative exposure levels were assessed by our geographic information system-based approach. In a population-based study in Sweden, occupational exposure to petrochemicals was found to be associated with increased risk of glioma (11). The Swedish study is not directly comparable with ours, however, because of differences in population characteristics, exposure levels, and disease types. To our knowledge, this is the first study which specifically addresses the association between the incidence of brain tumors and residential petrochemical exposure in a population-based case-control setting. Our study has several major strengths including: (a) the choice of controls from a population registry, (b) the use of complete residential history (rather than only the current ...
Simply put, data will give us insight into student mental health in unprecedented ways. It is about time we invest what are nominal fees to do so," said Ward.. Student safety is the minimum standard, but student excellence in school and in life and self-management awareness is the maximum goals we seek to deliver. Our culture and our cultural instruction model with improve remarkably. Lives will be saved, trauma reduced and future outcomes will be demonstrably better," added Ward.. "We are very pleased to advance the product in the US market, and in particular in Denver schools, which have the opportunity to lead bringing mental health back from crisis and intervention and into prevention," states Richard LeBlanc, CEO of eXDee Limited.. "Excel Academy has done so much through sheer effort and dedication and grown considerably in a short while. With truly unique student population characteristics, having data will support the population better and spearhead addressing specific challenges that ...
Crecco, V. 1985. Effects of Biotic and Abiotic Factors on Growth and Relative Survival of Young American Shad, Alosa sapidissima, in the Connecticut River. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 43: 1640-1648. Crossman, S. 1998. The Freshwater Fishes of Canada. Ontario, Canada: Galt House Publications Ldt. Dicenzo, V. 1995. Relations between Reservoir Trophic State and Gizzard Shad Population Characteristics in Alabama Reservoirs. North American Journal of Fisheries Management, 16: 888-895. Eddy, S. 1957. How to Know The Freshwater Fishes. Iowa: WMC Brown Company. Ford, F. 2006. 77 Great Fish of North America. Ontario: Thomas Alen & Sons Limited. Fowler, H. 1945. Fishes of the Southern Piedmont. Lancaster, Pennsylvania: Wickersham Printing Company. Glebe, B. 1981. Latitudinal Differences in Energy Allocation and Use During the Freshwater Migrations of American Shad (Alosa sapidissima) and Their Life History Consequences. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 38: ...
To arrive at the estimated resident population for the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population, the Census count (on a usual residence basis) is adjusted for instances in which Indigenous status is unknown and for net undercount. For the purposes of population estimates, Census records with unknown Indigenous status are allocated as either Indigenous or non-Indigenous according to the distribution of stated responses within each age group, sex, Census form type and geographic area. For more information on the ERP see Population Distribution, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians (cat. no. 4705.0) and the Indigenous estimated resident population - method of calculation feature article in Australian Demographic Statistics, March quarter 2007 (cat. no. 3101.0). ...
The South Georgia region supports a large biomass of krill that is subject to high interannual variability. The apparent lack of a locally self-maintaining krill population at South Georgia means that understanding the mechanism underlying these observed population characteristics is essential to successful ecosystem-based management of krill fishery in the region. Krill acoustic-density data from surveys conducted in the early, middle and late period of the summers of 2001 to 2005, together with krill population size structure over the same period from predator diet data, were used with a krill population dynamics model to evaluate potential mechanisms behind the observed changes in krill biomass. Krill abundance was highest during the middle of the summer in 3 years and in the late period in 2 years; in the latter there was evidence that krill recruitment was delayed by several months. A model scenario that included empirically derived estimates of both the magnitude and timing of recruitment ...
At SleepyDentistry.net youll find a reputable dental anesthesia and dental sedation provider that delivers safe and efficient relief to valued clients living in or near Miller, MO. Our licensed dentist anesthesiologist is well trained and equipped and specializes on pain control and patient management. From general anesthesia, tropical anesthesia, local anesthesia and other types of dental anesthesia, our certified and experienced anesthesiologist provide various anesthesia requirements for dental patients. We also offer portable in-office moderate dental sedation to provide a more comfortable dental experience. You may also want a moderate I.V. sedation instead for a more relaxed state during dental procedures especially for dental surgeries. If you have a post traumatic stress disorder, special medical conditions such as autism or mental illness, TMJ discomfort or suffer from anxiety, dental sedation is the best option. Our outstanding service is open to all 65707 patients as well as those ...
The study population characteristics raise the need to establish a treatment regime that assures suitable intensity immunosuppression to avoid the appearance of rejection episodes, but minimizes the doses to prevent over-immunosuppression in a population with a theoretic minor immune response.. On the other hand, the delay in the introduction of calcineurin inhibitors will prevent increasing the risk of early graft dysfunction allowing the highest post-transplant renal recovery in organs with less operative mass and greater sensibility to the nephrotoxic effect of these drugs.. The results of several studies confirm the goodness of regimes that include low doses of calcineurin inhibitors, delay their introduction or avoid them.. Nevertheless, although it is standard practice to evaluate the effectiveness of the regimes for a time to assure, with certainty, the response to the treatments, these follow-ups are still relatively short to assure the efficacy for a long-term study and to detect the ...
Pillai, P P (2014) Book Review: Tuna-Fishery, Biology and Management. Marine Fisheries Information Service; Technical and Extension Series (222). pp. 18-20. ISSN 0254-380 X Yohannan, T M and Rohit, Prathibha and Pillai, P P and Nair, P N Radhakrishnan and Gopakumar, G and Srinivasagam, K and Krishnan, K S and Sumithrudu, M S (2012) भारत की बाँगडे मात्स्यिकी की कुछ विशेषताएं. मत्स्यगंधा Matsyagandha - 2011-12, 10 (सी एम ). pp. 28-30. Pillai, P P (2012) Impact of piracy on fisheries in the lndian Ocean. Fishing Chimes, 32 (2). pp. 25-27. Abdussamad, E M and Pillai, P P and Mohamad Kasim, H and Balasubramanian, T S (2005) Fishery and population characteristics of coastal tunas at Tuticorin. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India, 47 (1). pp. 50-57. Pillai, N G K and Menon, N G and Pillai, P P and Ganga, U (2002) Management of Scombroid Fisheries. Marine Fisheries Information Service, ...
Techniques used for the screening of hemoglobin levels in blood donors: current insights and future directions Rajendra Chaudhary,1 Anju Dubey,2 Atul Sonker3 1Department of Transfusion Medicine, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, 2Department of Transfusion Medicine, T.S. Misra Medical College and Hospital, 3Department of Transfusion Medicine, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, India Abstract: Blood donor hemoglobin (Hb) estimation is an important donation test that is performed prior to blood donation. It serves the dual purpose of protecting the donors’ health against anemia and ensuring good quality of blood components, which has an implication on recipients’ health. Diverse cutoff criteria have been defined world over depending on population characteristics; however, no testing methodology and sample requirement have been specified for Hb screening. Besides the technique, there are several physiological and methodological factors that