American Journal of Primatology 65:353-376 (2005) RESEARCH ARTICLE Developmental Changes in the Facial Morphology of the Borneo Orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus): Possible Signals in Visual Communication NOKO KUZE1n, TITOL PETER MALIM2, AND SHIRO KOHSHIMA1 1 Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan 2 Sabah Wildlife Department, Sabah, Malaysia Orangutans display remarkable developmental changes and sexual differences in facial morphology, such as the flanges or cheek-pads that develop only on the face of dominant adult males. These changes suggest that facial morphology is an important factor in visual communication. However, developmental changes in facial morphology have not been examined in detail. We studied developmental changes in the facial morphology of the Borneo orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus) by observing 79 individuals of various ages living in the Sepilok Orangutan Rehabilitation Centre (SORC) in Malaysia and ...
Ingo Arndt / Orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus) portrait of adult male with large cheek pads, Tanjung Puting National Park, Kalimantan, Borneo / 00762021
OrangutanOrangutan Kalimantan The orangutans (also spelled orang-utan, orangutang, or orang-utang) are the two exclusively Asian species of extant great apes. Native to Indonesia and Malaysia, orangutans are currently found in only the rainforests of Borneo and Sumatra. Classified in the genus Pongo, orangutans were considered to be one species. Since 1996, they have been divided into two species: the Bornean orangutan (P. pygmaeus) and the Sumatran orangutan (P. abelii). In addition, the Bornean species is divided into three subspecies. Based on genome sequencing, the two extant orangutan species evidently diverged around 400,000 years ago. The orangutans are also the only surviving species of the subfamily Ponginae, which also included several other species, such as the three extinct species of the genus Gigantopithecus, including the largest known primate Gigantopithecus blacki. The ancestors of the Ponginae subfamily split from the main ape line in Africa 16 to 19 million years ago (mya) and spread
Receptor to interleukin-8, which is a powerful neutrophils chemotactic factor. Binding of IL-8 to the receptor causes activation of neutrophils. This response is mediated via a G-protein that activate a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system. This receptor binds to IL-8 with a high affinity and to MGSA (GRO) with a low affinity (By similarity).
Female primates that lactate over multiple seasons or years are hypothesized to provide a relatively stable amount of milk over this period (9); thus, dependent offspring must supplement their increasing energetic needs by increasing their solid food intake. Our results suggest that there may be intra-annual fluctuations in milk intake after the first 1 to 1.5 years of an individuals life. Sustained cyclical increases in barium in the teeth of dependent offspring are likely due to increased milk consumption, as is the case during the first year of life. We hypothesize that this occurs during periods of fruit scarcity, which coincides with periods of limited energy intake for lactating females (Fig. 5) and their dependent offspring. Immature individuals may be forced to consume a greater volume of milk to meet their energetic needs during cyclical periods of fruit scarcity.. Our results are consistent with behavioral evidence that wild orangutans continue nursing for a remarkably long period ...
ID PONPY10RD_31_PE1 STANDARD; PRT; 366 AA. AC PONPY10RD_31_PE1; DT 00-JAN-0000 (Rel. 1, Created) DT 00-JAN-0000 (Rel. 2, Last sequence update) DT 00-JAN-0000 (Rel. 3, Last annotation update) DE Flags: Fragments; DE (PONPY10RD_31.PE1). OS PONGO PYGMAEUS. OC Eukaryota; Metazoa; Eumetazoa; Bilateria; Coelomata; Deuterostomia; OC Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Gnathostomata; Teleostomi; Euteleostomi; OC Sarcopterygii; Tetrapoda; Amniota; Mammalia; Theria; Eutheria; OC Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Simiiformes; Catarrhini; OC Hominoidea; Hominidae; Ponginae; Pongo. OX NCBI_TaxID=9600; RN [0] RP -.; RG -.; RL -.; CC -!- SEQ. DATA ORIGIN: Translated from the HOGENOM CDS PONPY10RD_31.PE1. CC Pongo pygmaeus chromosome 10_random PPYG2 partial sequence CC 30000001..31000000 annotated by Ensembl CC -!- GENE_FAMILY: HOG000208438 [ FAMILY / ALN / TREE ] DR HOGENOM:Pongo_pygmaeus;ENSPPYG00000002812;ENSPPYT00000003389;ENSPPYP00000003279. DR HOGENOMDNA; PONPY10RD_31.PE1; -. KW ...
e-mail : [email protected] ORANGUTAN DENGAN SEBELAH MATA BUTA DAN GIGI RONTOK TERTANGKAP WARGA MUARA SAMU. PASER - BKSDA Kalimantan Timur menghubungi Centre for Orangutan Protection (COP) tentang ditemukannya satu orangutan jantan dewasa dalam kondisi terikat kaki dan tangannya selama 19 jam. Orangutan tersebut tidak mau makan dan minum, terlihat stres dan lemas pada 27 Januari 2016 di desa Bui, Muara Samu, Kalimantan Timur. Sore itu, BKSDA Kaltim meminta bantuan COP untuk mengevakuasi orangutan tersebut.. Kepala Seksi III BKSDA Kalimantan Timur, Ibu Suriawati Halim, S.Hut., M.P. menyampaikan, Orangutan sudah berhasil dipindahkan dari lokasi tertangkap. Pemindahan ini dilakukan karena kawatir keamanan dan terlalu ramainya orang yang ingin melihat. Saat ini orangutan berada di Pos Penajam.. Berdasarkan pengalaman COP sejak tahun 2007, hampir 100% orangutan yang ditangkap manusia mengalami luka serius di kepala dan tangan., ujar Ramadhani, direktur pelaksana COP. Hampir seluruhnya karena ...
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Dianne N. Janczewski. Evaluation of the Genetic Distance of Orang utans (Pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus and P. p. abelii) and Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes and P. paniscus) and its Implication on Conservation of the Orang utan ...
Territory: Unlike gorillas, common chimpanzees and bonobos, which live in large social groups, orangutans lead a mainly solitary life. The males constantly move from one area of forest to another. The dominant male ranges over a particular area for several months mating with any receptive females he comes across. When all the females have been mated, he moves on to another area. The adult male advertises his presence to females and other males by making a long, booming call. Adult females spend very little time with other orangutans, but may occasionally travel together or feed in the same tree - although they dont usually take much notice of each other! Young orangutans which have left their mother may move around in groups of two or three.. Daily life: The orangutan is diurnal - that is, active during daylight hours. It lives high above the ground in the forest canopy, moving slowly and carefully through the trees, using all four limbs. The hands and feet are hook-shaped, designed for ...
Orangutans Are Awesome! audiobook on demand - Swing! Orangutans move from branch to branch, looking for fruit to eat. These giant apes are the largest animals living in the trees of the rain forest. Engaging text, bold photos, and colorful maps shine a spotlight on these big apes. Readers are...
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are negative regulators of gene expression in multicellular eukaryotes. With the recently completed sequencing of three primate genomes, the study of miRNA evolution within the primate lineage has only begun and may be expected to provide the genetic and molecular explanations for many phenotypic differences between human and non-human primates. We scanned all three genomes of non-human primates, including chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus), and rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta), for homologs of human miRNA genes. Besides sequence homology analysis, our comparative method relies on various postprocessing filters to verify other features of miRNAs, including, in particular, their precursor structure or their occurrence (prediction) in other primate genomes. Our study allows direct comparisons between the different species in terms of their miRNA repertoire, their evolutionary distance to human, the effects of filters, as well as the identification of common and
To begin with, we modelled the effect that a complete end to further deforestation would have on the orangutan population, which is a potentially achievable outcome of our project. This time frame for this occurring is difficult to predict, so we began by looking at what we could expect if the implementation of our project takes a further 40 years.. Our best case scenarios from the previous model suggested that in 40 years time we will be expecting Sumatran orangutan population to be around 650 individuals. Therefore, we modelled a population of orangutans at this number for another 100 years, presuming that deforestation had stopped, but that the previous land that had been used for the production of palm oil is not being reconverted to land viable for orangutan use (for example, the land being too drained of nutrients to support rainforest, being converted to the production of another crop, or even continuing to be used for palm oil production, in order to support global demand which may never ...
John Thomas™ PONGO DONGO Silicone Dildo (w/Vacuum Hole) Pongo Dongo is a fun new platinum silicone sex toy from JohnThomasToys. Platinum Silicone costs more than 4 times that of cheaper materials commonly used for sex toys such as TPE and PVC but the quality is unsurpassed. JohnThomasToys like to be original and fun in
The fossil record and associated paleoenvironmental evidence (Harrison and Rook, 1997; Wolde Gabriel et al., 2001; Madar et al., 2002; Senut, 2003; Senut, 2006; Pickford, 2006) indicate that our early ancestors were tree-dwelling apes, and several evolutionary models (Stern, 1975; Prost, 1980; Tuttle, 1969; Tuttle, 1981; Senut, 2003; Senut, 2006; Clarke, 2003; Pickford, 2006) suggest bipedalism arose in this particular environment. The most recent model, based on observations of extended-leg bipedalism in wild orang-utans and supported by the fossil record (Thorpe et al., 2007; Crompton et al., 2008), suggests that habitual terrestrial bipedalism derived from arboreal hand-assisted bipedalism in a habitually orthograde hominoid. This ancestral orthogrady model (Crompton et al., 2008) is further supported by Filler (Filler, 2007), who found that a mutation(s) in homeobox genes governing lumbar vertebra morphology and facilitating habitual orthogrady, may have been present in our hominoid ...
Pleioblastus pygmaeus is an evergreen Bamboo growing to 0.3 m (1ft) at a fast rate. It is hardy to zone (UK) 6. It is in leaf 12-Jan. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Wind.Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.
4. Orangutan Sumatera saat ini hanya dapat dijumpai secara alami di bagian utara Pulau Sumatera, meskipun saat ini sedang dilakukan upaya reintroduksi orangutan Sumatera di Jambi. Sedangkan orangutan Kalimantan tersebar di seluruh pulau Kalimantan. ...
A Thai veterinarian takes a picture of a 2-year-old orangutan during a health examination at Kao Pratubchang Conservation Centre in Ratchaburi, Thailand, August 27, 2015. Thai veterinarians from the Department of National Park Wildlife, and Plant Conservation conducted a health check of 14 orangutans for preparation for the repatriation to their country of origin, Indonesia. Most of Sumatran and Borneo Kalimantan orangutans, were confiscated from entertainment businesses in Phuket province since 2008. Authorities said the orangutans are being examined to ensure they are free from diseases such as Rabies, Foot and Mouth disease, Tuberculosis, Hepatitis and Herpes. Thai officials said the orangutans are expected to return to Indonesia in September. REUTERS/Athit Perawongmetha TPX IMAGES OF THE DAY ...
Gunung Palung Orangutan Project (Director) My long-term research program uses cutting edge scientific techniques to investigate orangutan reproduction, behavior, social organization and physiology within an ecological context. Since 1994, the project has collected almost 66,000 hours of direct observation of wild orangutans, one of the most extensive data sets on a wild great ape ever…
Orangutans are great apes and one of our closest living relatives. The Smithsonian Institutions Division of Mammals ( http://vertebrates.si.edu/mammals/ ) houses many orangutans in its scientific collections.
Orangutans are great apes and one of our closest living relatives. The Smithsonian Institutions Division of Mammals ( http://vertebrates.si.edu/mammals/ ) houses many orangutans in its scientific collections.
Ponginae is a subfamily in the family Hominidae. Once a diverse lineage of Eurasian apes, the subfamily has only one extant genus (Pongo, the orangutans) which contains three extant species: the Sumatran orangutan (Pongo abelii), the Tapanuli orangutan (Pongo tapanuliensis,) and the Bornean orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus). The Sumatran and Bornean orangutan are listed as critically endangered by the IUCN - the less populous Tapanuli orangutan has yet to be officially listed. The first pongine genera appear in the Miocene, Sivapithecus and Khoratpithecus, six or seven million years before evidence of orangutans was found from Pleistocene south-east Asia and southern China. Ponginae may also include the genera Lufengpithecus, Ankarapithecus, and Gigantopithecus. However phylogenetic analysis in 2004 which originally found Lufengpithecus and Ankarapithecus to be most closely related to the orangutan gave different results under an analytical method that attempted to reduce stratigraphic incongruence, ...
Bornean orang-utans experienced a major demographic decline and local extirpations during the Pleistocene and Holocene due to climate change, the arrival of modern humans, of farmers and recent commercially-driven habitat loss and fragmentation. The recent loss of habitat and its dramatic fragmentat …
Welcome to the family of critters with sequenced genomes, orangutans. In Nature this week, scientists unveil the draft DNA sequencing of our great ape cousins-the only great apes that live exclusively in Asia.. The researchers assembled the draft genome of the female Sumatran orangutan (Pongo abelii) using a whole-genome shotgun strategy, an old-fashioned approach that cost about $20 million. In addition, the researchers gathered sequence data from five wild Sumatran orangutans and five Bornean orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) using a faster and thousandfold cheaper next-generation platform. [LiveScience]. What did scientists find in there? For one thing, orangutans share about 97 percent of the their genome with humans, compared to the 99 percent we famously share with chimpanzees. The two orangutan species-inhabiting the Indonesian islands of Borneo and Sumatra-diverged about 400,000 years ago, lead author Devin Locke says. Thats much more recently than scientists had thought.. They also ...
According to one study, the putative ancestral primate chromosome 3 homolog is conserved in the Brown lemur, from which a pericentric inversion led to the ancestral Old World primate homolog conserved in the Bornean orangutan (49). Human/African ape homologs would differ from this chromosome form by two inversions. An even more complex scenario involving several recurrent sites of new centromere seeding was proposed by Ventura et al. (50), according to which human and Bornean orangutan would differ by three inversions. A third hypothesis suggested that from the ancestral simian homolog a common derived and two independent inversions would lead to Bornean orangutan and human chromosome 3 homologs (51). In conclusion, the evolutionary history of human chromosome 3 is probably the most dynamic and complex of all human chromosomes studied in detail so far.. ...
Sumatran orangutans, one of the two existing species of orangutans, live exclusively in the North of the Indonesian island Sumatra and are critically endangered. An international team of researchers has now conducted an extensive series of surveys to estimate the number of Sumatran orangutans.
Sumatra Orang-utans, female with young / (Pongo pygmaeus abelii) / Sumatra-Orang-Utans, Weibchen mit Jungtier, Image #432142
Lucy joined the Sumatran Orangutan Society in 2018. She has a Masters in Primate Conservation and has previously worked in conservation research, funding and communications for charities in Morocco and the UK. Lucys role within the Sumatran Orangutan Society is to support with fundraising, and to take a lead on communications.. The mission of the Sumatran Orangutan Society is to secure the future of Sumatran orangutans and their forests.. The Sumatran Orangutan Society strives to find a balance between economic and social needs and a flourishing, healthy environment for all species, including humans, in or depending on the Sumatran rainforest.. SOS tackles the causes of deforestation as well as the symptoms. We take an holistic approach, supporting and enabling vital work on the ground in Sumatra through developing effective conservation programmes and partnerships, capacity building and fundraising for frontline organisations, and advocating globally for changes to government policy and ...
Scientists and conservationists consider the Leuser Ecosystem to be among the most important forests left in Southeast Asia, particularly because it is the last place of sufficient size and quality to support viable populations of rare species like Sumatran tigers, orangutans, rhinos, elephants, clouded leopards and sun bears.. At least 105 mammal species, 382 bird species, and 95 reptile and amphibian species, including clouded leopards, hornbills and the largest flowers in the world, can be found in the teeming forests of the Leuser Ecosystem. Formerly known as the Emerald Island, Sumatras once lush forest landscapes are now largely gone, destroyed by decades of industrial encroachment.. The Sumatran orangutan is at extreme risk of becoming the first great ape to go extinct in the wild. The last major stands of habitat for the Sumatran orangutan are found in the Leuser Ecosystem, which supports about 75 percent of the worlds remaining population. In order to save the Sumatran orangutan ...
Cheng K, Byrne RW. Why human environments enhance animal capacities to use objects: Evidence from keas (Nestor notabilis) and apes (Gorilla gorilla, Pan paniscus, Pongo abelii, Pongo pygmaeus). J Comp Psychol. 2018 11; 132(4):419-426 ...
Protein is a dietary component essential for nutritional homeostasis in humans. Normally, ingested protein undergoes a complex series of degradative processes following the action of gastric, pancreatic and small intestinal enzymes. The result of this proteolytic activity is a mixture of amino acids and small peptides. Amino acids (AAs) are transported into the enterocyte (intestinal epithelial cell) by a variety of AA transporters that are specific for cationic (basic) AA, neutral AA, and anionic (acidic) AA. Small peptides are absorbed into enterocytes by the PEPT1 transporter. Inside enterocytes peptides are hydrolyzed, and the resulting amino acids are released together with those absorbed by AA transporters into blood via multiple, basolateral, AA transporters. Hydrolysis-resistant peptides, however, are transported out of the cells by a basolateral peptide transporter that has not been identified molecularly ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
DNA mismatch repair (MMR) is a highly conserved biological pathway that plays a key role in maintaining genomic stability. MMR corrects DNA mismatches generated during DNA replication, thereby preventing mutations from becoming permanent in dividing cells. MMR also suppresses homologous recombination and was recently shown to play a role in DNA damage signaling. Defects in MMR are associated with genome-wide instability, predisposition to certain types of cancer including HNPCC, resistance to certain chemotherapeutic agents, and abnormalities in meiosis and sterility in mammalian systems. The Escherichia coli MMR pathway has been extensively studied and is well characterized. In E. coli, the mismatch-activated MutS-MutL-ATP complex licenses MutH to incise the nearest unmethylated GATC sequence. UvrD and an exonuclease generate a gap. This gap is filled by pol III and DNA ligase. The GATC sites are then methylated by Dam. Several human MMR proteins have been identified based on their homology to ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
The urothelium covers the luminal surface of almost the entire urinary tract, extending from the renal pelvis, through the ureter and bladder, to the proximal urethra. The majority of urothelial carcinoma are bladder carcinomas, and urothelial carcinomas of the renal pelvis and ureter account for only approximately 7% of the total. Urothelial tumours arise and evolve through divergent phenotypic pathways. Some tumours progress from urothelial hyperplasia to low-grade non-invasive superficial papillary tumours. More aggressive variants arise either from flat, high-grade carcinoma in situ (CIS) and progress to invasive tumours, or they arise de novo as invasive tumours. Low-grade papillary tumors frequently show a constitutive activation of the receptor tyrosine kinase-Ras pathway, exhibiting activating mutations in the HRAS and fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) genes. In contrast, CIS and invasive tumors frequently show alterations in the TP53 and RB genes and pathways. Invasion and ...
Author Summary We present a hidden Markov model that uses variation in coalescence times between two distantly related populations, or closely related species, to infer population genetics parameters in ancestral population or species. The model infers the divergence times in segments along the alignment. Using coalescent simulations, we show that the model accurately estimates the divergence time between the two populations and the effective population size of the ancestral population. We apply the model to the recently sequenced orangutan sub-species and estimate their divergence time and the effective population size of their ancestor population.
Orangutans mature slowly. Females are mature at eight to ten years of age but generally do not bear their first offspring until they are 14 to 16 years old. Males are sexually mature at 13 to 15 years of age. Females are in estrus only a few days a year during which mating can occur. After a gestation of 260-270 days females give birth to a single offspring weighing three to four-and-a-half pounds (1.3-2 kg). Infants are carried by their mothers for two to three years and nursed for up to six or seven years. A female will bear young every eight or nine years and will raise only three or four young during her lifetime. Both female and male offspring go off on their own once they reach maturity. Orangutans may live up to 35-45 years in the wild and up to 50 years in captivity.. ...
Now a whistling orangutan at Heidelberg Zoo in Germany is set to release his first CD. Entitled Ich Bin Ujian (I Am Ujian), the CD single by Ujian, a 14-year-old orangutan, will go on sale at the zoo in June. Proceeds will go toward the extension and renovation of the zoos ape house. The song, a jaunty pop-rock number with reggae elements, features Ujians melodic whistling as a background element. The lyrics, sung by Tobias Kämmerer, follow a similarly self-aggrandizing stance as the classic I Wanna Be Like You sung by the orangutan King Louie in the animated movie The Jungle Book, with the chorus including the lines: I am Ujian the orangutan, I am so cool, man, Im a star. Local musician Christian Wolf, who was one of the producers of the song, was passing Ujians enclosure one day during a visit to the zoo with his son. He stopped in amazement in front of Ujians cage when he heard the animal whistling. He returned with a digital recording device. With the help of Bernd Kowalsky, ...
Timothy D. Smith, Brent A. Craven, Serena M. Engel, Christopher J. Bonar, and Valerie B. DeLeon. Macrosmatic mammals have dedicated olfactory regions within their nasal cavity and segregated airstreams for olfaction and respiratory air-conditioning. Here, we examined the 3D distribution of olfactory surface area (SA) and nasal airflow patterns in the pygmy slow loris (Nycticebus pygmaeus), a primate with primitive nasal cavities, except for enlarged eyes that converge upon the posterodorsal nasal region. Using the head of an adult loris cadaver, we co-registered micro-computed tomography (CT) slices and histology sections to create a 3D reconstruction of the olfactory mucosa distribution. Histological sections were used to measure olfactory surface area and to annotate CT reconstructions. The loris has a complex olfactory recess (~19% of total nasal SA) with multiple olfactory turbinals. However, the first ethmoturbinal has a rostral projection that extends far anterior to the olfactory ...
Conflict can arise when bats roost in human dwellings and householders are affected adversely by their presence. In the United Kingdom, the exclusion of bats from roosts can be licensed under exceptional circumstances to alleviate conflict, but the fate of excluded bats and the impact on their survival and reproduction is not well understood. Using radio-tracking, we investigated the effects of exclusion on the soprano pipistrelle Pipistrellus pygmaeus, a species that commonly roosts in buildings in Europe. Exclusions were performed under licence at five roosts in England in spring, when females were in the early stages of pregnancy. Following exclusion, all bats found alternative roosts and colonies congregated in nearby known roosts that had been used by radio-tagged bats prior to exclusion. We found no difference in roosting behaviour before and after exclusion. Both the frequency of roost switching and the type of roosts used by bats remained unchanged. We also found no change in foraging behaviour.
The Wolfgang Köhler Primate Research Center (Pongoland) is a project of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. It is operated in collaboration with the Leipzig Zoo. Research focuses on the behavior and cognition of the four species of great ape: chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), gorillas (Gorilla gorilla), Organgutans (Pongo pygmaeus), and bonobos (Pan paniscus). There is a special focus on the ontogeny of chimpanzee cognition. Researchers and students from the University of Leipzig, and other universities around the world, conduct their research projects at the center guided by the personnel of the Center ...
Abstract Background Sequence analysis of the orangutan genome revealed that recent proliferative activity of Alu elements has been uncharacteristically quiescent in the Pongo (orangutan) lineage, compared with all previously studied primate genomes. With relatively few young polymorphic insertions, the genomic landscape of the orangutan seemed like the ideal place to search for a driver, or source element, of Alu retrotransposition. Results Here we report the identification of a nearly pristine insertion possessing all the known putative hallmarks of a retrotranspositionally competent Alu element. It is located in an intronic sequence of the DGKB gene on chromosome 7 and is highly conserved in Hominidae (the great apes), but absent from Hylobatidae (gibbon and siamang). We provide evidence for the evolution of a lineage-specific subfamily of this shared Alu insertion in orangutans and possibly the lineage leading to humans. In the orangutan genome, this insertion contains three ...
Tara, a Sumatran orangutan at the Fort Wayne Childrens Zoo, delivered a healthy female baby in the early morning hours of Saturday, November 22.. The baby is the only Sumatran orangutan born in a United States zoo in 2014, so she represents a significant addition to the population of critically endangered Sumatran orangutans.. We are thrilled with the outcome so far, said Zoo Animal Curator Mark Weldon. Tara is doing everything she should to care for her baby.. Zoo keepers and veterinary staff expected 19-year-old Tara to give birth between mid-November and early December. They had been watching Tara by remote camera overnight for several weeks. When keepers observed Tara pacing late Friday in her off-exhibit bedroom, they suspected she was in labor and arrived at the zoo to monitor the birth. Taras labor lasted a few hours, and she delivered her baby unassisted.. Immediately following the delivery, Tara began cleaning her infant and placed it in her nest - a pile of wood wool and blankets ...
After orangutans in Indonesia were reported as infected with Plasmodium cynomolgi and P. vivax, we conducted phylogenetic analyses of small subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequences of Plasmodium spp. We found that these orangutans are not hosts of P. cynomolgi and P. vivax. Analysis of >or=1 genes is needed to identify Plasmodium spp. infecting orangutans ...
Hypotheses regarding the relationships between Gigantopithecus and extinct and extant hominids are wide ranging but difficult to substantiate because of its highly derived dentognathic morphology, the absence of cranial and post-cranial remains and the lack of independent molecular validation.. We retrieved dental enamel proteome sequences from a 1.9-million-year-old G. blacki molar found in Chuifeng Cave, China. The thermal age of these protein sequences is approximately five times greater than that of any previously published mammalian proteome or genome. We demonstrate that Gigantopithecus is a sister clade to orangutans (genus Pongo) with a common ancestor about 12-10 million years ago, implying that the divergence of Gigantopithecus from Pongo forms part of the Miocene radiation of great apes.. In addition, we hypothesize that the expression of alpha-2-HS-glycoprotein, which has not been previously observed in enamel proteomes, had a role in the biomineralization of the thick enamel crowns ...
Tempat tidur gantung (hammock) yang terbuat dari selang pemadam kebakaran ini adalah tempat tidur Memo selama di kandang. Ketiga animal keeper COP Borneo harus lebih sering lagi memperbaiki hammock tersebut bahkan menggantinya dengan yang baru. Hammock buatan kami hanya bertahan hitungan minggu bahkan hari… Memo dengan kekuatannya dengan mudah menghancurkannya, padahal kami memasangnya sampai berkeringat., ujar Anen sambil memasang hammock.. Dua setengah tahun sudah kami mengenal Memo di pusat rehabilitasi orangutan COP Borneo. Orangutan betina ini terpaksa berada di kandang karantina tanpa ada kemungkinan dilepasliarkan kembali ke hutan. Memo menderita hepatitis B. Gulungan bekas selang pemadam kebakaran ini adalah bantuan dari Damkar Berau pertengahan tahun ini. Disulap sebentar ya… untuk tempat tidurnya Memo yang rusak., ujar Jevri. Membuatkan hammock, memberikan enrichment, mengajaknya berkomunikasi hanyalah sedikit usaha kami untuk menghiburnya. Setidaknya, Memo sudah menjalankan ...
As mentioned, Hominidae was originally the name given to the family of humans and their (extinct) close relatives, with the other great apes (that is, the orangutans, gorillas, and chimpanzees) all being placed in a separate family, the Pongidae. However, that definition eventually made Pongidae paraphyletic because at least one great ape species (the chimpanzees) proved to be more closely related to humans than to other great apes. Most taxonomists today encourage monophyletic groups-this would require, in this case, the use of Pongidae to be restricted to just one closely related grouping. Thus, many biologists now assign Pongo (as the subfamily Ponginae) to the family Hominidae. The taxonomy shown here follows the monophyletic groupings according to the modern understanding of human and great ape relationships. Humans and close relatives including the tribes Hominini and Gorillini form the subfamily Homininae (see classification graphic below). (A few researchers go so far as to refer the ...
As mentioned, Hominidae was originally the name given to the family of humans and their (extinct) close relatives, with the other great apes (that is, the orangutans, gorillas, and chimpanzees) all being placed in a separate family, the Pongidae. However, that definition eventually made Pongidae paraphyletic because at least one great ape species (the chimpanzees) proved to be more closely related to humans than to other great apes. Most taxonomists today encourage monophyletic groups-this would require, in this case, the use of Pongidae to be restricted to just one closely related grouping. Thus, many biologists now assign Pongo (as the subfamily Ponginae) to the family Hominidae. The taxonomy shown here follows the monophyletic groupings according to the modern understanding of human and great ape relationships. Humans and close relatives including the tribes Hominini and Gorillini form the subfamily Homininae (see classification graphic below). (A few researchers go so far as to refer the ...
As mentioned, Hominidae was originally the name given to the family of humans and their (extinct) close relatives, with the other great apes (that is, the orangutans, gorillas, and chimpanzees) all being placed in a separate family, the Pongidae. However, that definition eventually made Pongidae paraphyletic because at least one great ape species (the chimpanzees) proved to be more closely related to humans than to other great apes. Most taxonomists today encourage monophyletic groups-this would require, in this case, the use of Pongidae to be restricted to just one closely related grouping. Thus, many biologists now assign Pongo (as the subfamily Ponginae) to the family Hominidae. The taxonomy shown here follows the monophyletic groupings according to the modern understanding of human and great ape relationships. Humans and close relatives including the tribes Hominini and Gorillini form the subfamily Homininae (see classification graphic below). (A few researchers go so far as to refer the ...
Background: High-throughput sequencing has opened up exciting possibilities in population and conservation genetics by enabling the assessment of genetic variation at genome-wide scales. One approach to reduce genome complexity, i.e. investigating only parts of the genome, is reduced-representation library (RRL) sequencing. Like similar approaches, RRL sequencing reduces ascertainment bias due to simultaneous discovery and genotyping of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and does not require reference genomes. Yet, generating such datasets remains challenging due to laboratory and bioinformatical issues. In the laboratory, current protocols require improvements with regards to sequencing homologous fragments to reduce the number of missing genotypes. From the bioinformatical perspective, the reliance of most studies on a single SNP caller disregards the possibility that different algorithms may produce disparate SNP datasets.,br /,,br /,Results: We present an improved RRL (iRRL) protocol ...
The Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology is leading opposition to the Great Ape Protection Act (H.R. 1326), a bill that would end all invasive research on great apes, including chimpanzees, gorillas, bonobos, orangutans and gibbons. (Note: Gibbons are not technically great apes, but they are defined as such in the legislation.). In a letter sent to all members of the U.S. House of Representatives, FASEB, along with other scientific organizations, patient-advocacy groups and research institutions, expressed concern that the bill would harm medical research that helps both humans and great apes. The legislation was reintroduced in the 111th Congress after failing to gain support in the previous Congress and has rapidly gained more than 100 co-sponsors. Passage of the legislation is considered a high priority by a number of animal-rights groups, including the Humane Society of the United States and the Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine.. The joint letter of ...
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As an immortal being endowed with omnipotence and infinite supernatural abilities, there are far too many descriptions to be mentioned here. Therefore anything that defies scientific explanation is automatically ascribed to Pongo the Gigantic. Pongo the Gigantic has provided humanity with a list of rules which must be indiscriminately and fanatically adhered to, and indiscriminately inflicted upon others by all of his subjects. They are all tattooed on Pongo the Gigantics immense scrotum and buttocks, they are as follows;. Rule 1: I am the creator of all…I am your god…all gods are complete bullshit and false prophets!. Rule 2: All must make crudely constructed images of me, worshipped upon and adorned with offerings of condiments, bizarre fruits, and anything else that is going bad in the refrigerator. Rule 3: Observe the holy Sabbath of Thursday afternoon, from 2:27 p.m. to 4:52 p.m. without fail, by continuing what youre already doing at the time. Rule 4: Curse my name whenever possible, ...
As an immortal being endowed with omnipotence and infinite supernatural abilities, there are far too many descriptions to be mentioned here. Therefore anything that defies scientific explanation is automatically ascribed to Pongo the Gigantic. Pongo the Gigantic has provided humanity with a list of rules which must be indiscriminately and fanatically adhered to, and indiscriminately inflicted upon others by all of his subjects. They are all tattooed on Pongo the Gigantics immense scrotum and buttocks, they are as follows;. Rule 1: I am the creator of all…I am your god…all gods are complete bullshit and false prophets!. Rule 2: All must make crudely constructed images of me, worshipped upon and adorned with offerings of condiments, bizarre fruits, and anything else that is going bad in the refrigerator. Rule 3: Observe the holy Sabbath of Thursday afternoon, from 2:27 p.m. to 4:52 p.m. without fail, by continuing what youre already doing at the time. Rule 4: Curse my name whenever possible, ...
The fanged frog Limnonetces kuhlii is known to be cryptic as seen in the dynamic of species delineation among the complexes. Yet no historical demographic and genetic structure has been fully documented for this species. We investigate historical events, diversification and dispersal of the Bornean Limnonectes kuhlii Complex via Mitochondrial DNA of partial 16S rRNA. Haplotype graphical network, demographic history, neutrality test and population subdivision analysis were used to assess population genetic of the species. Two haplogroups were detected distinct within population and panmictic from East and West of Lupar gap (Batang Ai). The Lupar gap has become the geographical barrier that restricts gene flow from western and eastern populations. Ragged multimodal mismatch distribution, long terminal branches and high mutational site of network showing population in Sarawak and Sabah were rarely migrate and low gene flow. Surprisingly, most of L. kuhlii population showed population constriction ...
Great apes live in some of the poorest countries in Africa and Asia. Critically endangered great apes often receive the most funding and protection from conservation initiatives, yet strictly controlled and enforced conservation areas can have negative impacts on local communities. At the same time, the economic benefits from great ape tourism are often not shared at the local level creating resentment and hostility towards conservation efforts, which can also impact on livelihood and poverty reduction initiatives. The Poverty and Conservation Learning Group has a thematic focus on great apes which aims to:. ...
Meijaard, E., D. Sheil, R. Nasi, and S. A. Stanley. 2006. Wildlife conservation in Bornean timber concessions. Ecology and Society 11(1): 47. https://doi.org/10.5751/ES-01715-110147
This question discusses about molecular sequence data for the GULO psedogene from four species of primates and classifications scheme of primates placed orangutans and chimps together in one clade.
Wild Kratts A Huge Orange Problem While Chris and Martin are off searching for the endangered Orangutan in the deep forests of Borneo, back at the Tortuga HQ Aviva, Koki and Jimmy get carried away swinging on vines and their muscles so get incredibly sore that they cant do anything. The bros attempt to rush back with the first aid kit but a huge orangutan keeps tossing them back into the forest. Here they learn that orangutans use a special leaf and chew it into a lotion to ease muscle soreness, and return with this orangutan medicine to help their friends. D ...
CHICAGO - In lush times, orangutans on the island of Borneo gorge themselves on forest fruits, packing on extra pounds in preparation for leaner years, when they live off leaves and bark and their own stored fat.This behavior of overeating is all too... - Read more at AsiaOne
Tool manufacture is much rarer than simple tool use and probably represents higher cognitive functioning. Soon after her first discovery of tool use, Goodall discovered other chimpanzees manual labor up leafy twigs, stripping off the leaves and colonialism the stems to lateral line organ for insects. This change of a leafy twig into a tool was a major discovery. Prior to this, scientists thought that only humans manufactured and utilised tools, and that this ability was what separated humans from other animals. Both bonobos and chimpanzees have also been discovered making sponges out of leaves and moss that suckle up water and are utilised as grooming tools. Sumatran orangutans have been discovered making and colonialism tools. They will suspend off a azedarach division that is about 30 cm long, snap off the twigs, fray one end and then use the stick to dig in azedarach holes for termites.145 ...
One of the most important income sources and professions for the local communities in and around Mawas is rubber manufacture. More specifically, the manufacture of raw rubber (latex), which is extracted by draining syrup from gum trees. An estimate of around 80% of the nearly 3000 inhabitants of Timpah Village are involved in some form of rubber manufacture. The quality and profit of most rubber manufactures in Timpah are low compared to other comparable countries and areas. The manufacturers income is therefore low. According to Indonesian Rubber Research, the majority of small, family-run rubber manufacturers only make about DKK 420 a month on their 0.5-2 hectares of land with gum trees.. Timpah borders up to Mawas, and a more sustainable rubber manufacture will reduce the pressure on the local community and their search for sustainable income sources. The pilot project aims to improve the living standards of the 80 manufacturers directly involved, who are selected for the project. It also ...
The present report gives the first description of a sternal gland in the siamang gibbon, Hylobates syndactylus,and the first histological examination of a sternal gland in a hominoid primate other...
Several provisions within Texass statutes and regulations authorize counties and municipalities to prohibit or regulate the possession and use of apes, regardless of whether a would-be possessor has secured a certificate of registration or federal permit to keep those animals.[101] There are many local ordinances in Texas that directly and indirectly govern the possession, use, and treatment of apes. In fact, over 100 counties in Texas prohibit the possession of gorillas, chimpanzees, orangutans, and other dangerous wild animals,[102] and state law makes it a Class C misdemeanor to violate those ordinances. The following list of ordinances is not exhaustive; rather, it is a partial list of local laws that demonstrates how some towns, cities, and counties in Texas have addressed the issue.. Abernathy 2.01.001, 2.01.012: It is illegal to own, harbor, keep, or possess any Great Ape within the city limits. The ban does not apply to governmental entities, and certain zoos, schools, animal ...
The ability of using your legs for moving around is what is called bipedalism. Hence, all organisms that are said to be bipedal can stand on the feet and easily move around. Aside from humans, there are other bipedal creatures in the world such as ostriches. In general, bipedalism is believed to offer much more benefits, particularly when compared with quadruped creatures. Learn the top benefits of bipedalism here below.. 1. Better diet. With the ability of standing upright, bipedalism offers a wide variety of choices with regards to the diet. For instance, humans are able to select the most appropriate and healthy food from stores as they are bipedal. In addition, a healthier food choice leads to much healthier offspring. The healthy diet that bipedal creatures get increases their potential of healthy development and living long lives.. 2. Evade predators. All creatures that use two legs for moving around have the ability of standing upright. This usually enhances the view of the surrounding ...
Transcript is thought to undergo nonsense mediated decay, a process which detects nonsense mutations and prevents the expression of truncated or erroneous proteins. Nonsense mediated decay ...
McGuire, M., Vonk, J., Fuller, G., & Allard, S. (2017). Using an ambiguous cue paradigm to assess cognitive bias in gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) during a browse manipulation. Animal Behavior and Cognition, 4 ...
Just wondered what people thought of the ground up kinetic theory of the origins of bipedalism . Basically, what I am saying in this thread on Podiatry Arena (below) is that bipedalism was selected for because of the enormous forces that a biped can develop in a hand held object , by a leg driven , uncoiling action of the body . The evolution of bipedalism | Podiatry Arena https://podiatryarena.com › Forums › Misc › Podiatry Trivia Any thoughts ?
The biology of marsupial frogs is described in painstaking detail in this new book - the destillation of a lifetimes work by William E. Duellman (details here). It is superbly illustrated but at USD 120 a bit pricey. More than half the content comprises species accounts and no doubt it will find a place on the bookshelf of specialists. But it is well worth checking out for its insights into the reproductive biology of frogs. Who knew, for example, that the oocytes of Flectonotus pygmaeus have up to 2000 nuclei reduced during oogenesis to a single one? ...
Inquisitr featured a discovery by James Askew, graduate student at the USC Dornsife College, and colleagues that identified a new species of orangutan. Askew noticed that Batang Toru males made different calls than orangutans he recorded in Sumatra and Borneo. Askew was named as part of the team that made the official discovery.. How Stuff Works featured research by Christopher Warren of the Keck School of Medicine of USC and colleagues finding that 45 percent of all American adults with food allergies have at least one allergy that only materialized in adulthood. Adult-onset allergies are particularly interesting to study because they likely involve losing immune tolerance to foods that adults have already been previously exposed to and eaten without having an allergic reaction. This is in contrast to childhood food allergies, which involve the immune system failing to develop tolerance to these allergenic foods in the first place. There may be two distinct mechanisms at work here, said Warren ...
Bimodal foraging pattern in the morning and afternoon, separated by a long rest period. Rodman (1977) reported that daily peaks in the Kutai Reserve, Borneo occurred at 7:00-7:15 AM, and 4:15-4:30 PM. Rijksen (1978) reported daily peaks in the Ketambe Nature Reserve, Sumatra at 2-3 hours after leaving the nocturnal nest, and at 3:00 PM ...
Crash! The huge male orangutan swings over into another tree, searching for fruit. He climbs higher, overlooking the canopy searching for another meal. Every day while following orangutans I notice how many different fruit trees they go to, usually around 15 or so. They crash and clamber through the forest like hungry, hairy acrobats searching […]
2012-11-22. Studying the genetic variability of endangered species is becoming increasingly necessary for species conservation and monitoring. But, endangered species are difficult to observe and sample, and typically harbour very limited genetic diversity.. Content ...
Going by the images I have seen lately on the internet there are far more Orangutans in Dubai than I previously thought. This is very disturbing considering that officially there are none. There also appears to be a connection to the Orangutans being sold in Russia. Is this going to be another fad to take over from the Cheetahs. Do these people really believe that they are legal, captive bred imports? Would they really care to know that their mothers were butchered just so they can take the babies and dress them up like funny little people? It is somewhat appropriate that Dr. Jane Goodall is in Dubai at the moment talking on keeping exotics as pets. I wonder though if the right people will listen? More likely they will invite her along to meet their pets...some people just dont get it ...
The miniaturization of the current technology of storage media is hindered by fundamental limits of quantum mechanics. A new approach consists in using so-called spin-crossover molecules as the smallest possible storage unit. Similar to normal hard drives, these special molecules can save information via their magnetic state. A research team from Kiel University has now managed to successfully place a new class of spin-crossover molecules onto a surface and to improve the molecules storage capacity. The storage density of conventional hard drives could therefore theoretically be increased by more than one hundred fold. The study has been published in the scientific journal Nano Letters. ...
ApeGenomeDiversity - Great ape genome variation now and then: current diversity and genomic relics of extinct primates. In our quest to fully understand the processes that shape the genomic variation of species, describing variation of the past is a fundamental objective. However, the origins and the extent of great ape variation, the genomic description of extinct primate species and the genomic footprints of introgression events all remain unknown. Even today, and in contraposition to human evolutionary biology, the almost null presence of ancient great ape samples has precluded a comprehensive exploration of such diversity.. Here, I present two approaches that will expose great ape diversity throughout time and will allow me to compare the genomic impact of introgression events across lineages. First, I would like to take advantage of ancient ape samples that will provide us with a direct view of the genomes of extinct populations. Second, I would like to exploit current and recent diversity ...
The discussion thats been going on for a long time is whether or not we came down from the trees or up from the ground. The down from the trees hypothesis suggest we developed the precursors of bipedalism as tree dwellers and came down to walk when the trees disappeared when our area in Africa went from forest to savannah. The reasoning derives from chimps which have a pelvis that actively discourages upright posture and forces the legs of the chimp out to the side. By the time Lucy came along, the pelvis had rotated so that back so that she could stand upright, her legs directly beneath her. (See here.) For selection to occur, this had to be present in the population before bipedalism in order to select for bipedalism. An interesting erosion in the orangutan pelvis is similar to what might have occurred that pre-Lucy ancestor. Hence, when the ape came down from the trees was predisposed to walk upright. Selection then had an opportunity to operate ...
A high-powered satirical weapon . . . with Great Apes, his most satisfying book so far, Will Self establishes himself as an alpha male in the British literary
Angband 4.2.0 Character Dump] Name Pongo Age 31 Self RB CB EB Best Race Hobbit Height 34 STR: 18/93 -2 +0 +6 18/133 Class Rogue Weight 4st 4lb Int: 18/55 +2 +1 +5 18/135 18/125 Title Thief Turns used: WIS: 18/34 +1 -3 +5 18/64 HP -55/831 Game 347408 DEX! 18/100 +3 +3 +2 18/180 SP 180/180 Standard 54481 CON! 18/100 +2 -1 +11 18/*** Resting 15576 Level 44 Armor [105,+96] Saving Throw 94% Cur Exp 2695192 Stealth Superb Max Exp 2695192 Melee 3d10,+37 Disarm - phys. 100% Adv Exp 2880000 To-hit 74,+43 Disarm - magic 100% Blows 5.0/turn Magic Devices 101 Gold 81032 Searching 96% Burden 174.2 lb Shoot to-dam +15 Infravision 80 ft Overweight -5.7 lb To-hit 72,+39 Speed 23 (3.3x) Max Depth 4950 (L99) Shots 1.0/turn You are one of several children of a Hobbit Burglar. You are a well liked child. You have brown eyes, straight black hair, and an average complexion. Resistances Abilities Acid:....+.+...... pFear:......+.+.... Elec:.+..+........ pBlnd:........++... Fire:.+........... pConf:....+........ ...
Pongos a 7-year old Newfoundland Retriever. His owner is concerned because one day when he was playing with him he noticed a lump on Pongos belly. He brings the dog to you for examination.. The lump is soft and moveable, about 3 cm across, painless, and located under the skin. You take an aspirate and find the smear to contain what appear to be mature white adipose cells. Your diagnosis is that Pongo has a cutaneous lipoma. You tell the owner not to be too concerned, and that unless the lesion gets large enough to bother the dog in some way, to leave it alone.. ...
Pero creo que si me pongo a la dif铆cil tarea de entender el juego pol铆tico ( y creanme que es harto dif铆cil, ya se habr谩n dado cuenta), entender铆a m谩s a un rico de izquierda que a un pobre de derechas. El empleado de una maquiladora, que se rompe el lomo por tres pesos, que no le pagan vacaciones, que su patr贸n lo pisotea. jam谩s entender茅 por qu茅 le vota a la derecha.. [url=http://www.camisetasdefutboles.com/]camisetas de futbol baratas[/url] Corr铆a el minuto 71 de las semifinales del Europeo y los de Santisteban perd铆an 01. En el banquillo no hab铆a nervios; Bojan estaba en el campo. Recogi贸 un bal贸n perdido en el centro del campo y, sin pens谩rselo, super贸 al meta belga con un disparo impresionante ...
Pero creo que si me pongo a la dif铆cil tarea de entender el juego pol铆tico ( y creanme que es harto dif铆cil, ya se habr谩n dado cuenta), entender铆a m谩s a un rico de izquierda que a un pobre de derechas. El empleado de una maquiladora, que se rompe el lomo por tres pesos, que no le pagan vacaciones, que su patr贸n lo pisotea. jam谩s entender茅 por qu茅 le vota a la derecha.. [url=http://www.camisetasdefutboles.com/]camisetas de futbol baratas[/url] Corr铆a el minuto 71 de las semifinales del Europeo y los de Santisteban perd铆an 01. En el banquillo no hab铆a nervios; Bojan estaba en el campo. Recogi贸 un bal贸n perdido en el centro del campo y, sin pens谩rselo, super贸 al meta belga con un disparo impresionante ...
Bueno este es un blog publico, con todos libros recolectados de la red, de distintos blog y paginas, de esta misma tematica, aclaro que no pongo nunca agradecido a determinado blog, debido a que con el tema de la caza de blogs y esas cosas prefiero evitarles problemas, si caigo caere sola!!! Si alguien se molesta x esto, solo tiene que mandarme un mp y pondre sus nombres. tambien les digo que los libros que colectamos de la red, nunca tomamos los creditos, es decir que adentro del libro dice quien lo ha traducido!! ...
Bueno este es un blog publico, con todos libros recolectados de la red, de distintos blog y paginas, de esta misma tematica, aclaro que no pongo nunca agradecido a determinado blog, debido a que con el tema de la caza de blogs y esas cosas prefiero evitarles problemas, si caigo caere sola!!! Si alguien se molesta x esto, solo tiene que mandarme un mp y pondre sus nombres. tambien les digo que los libros que colectamos de la red, nunca tomamos los creditos, es decir que adentro del libro dice quien lo ha traducido!! ...
The one thing we are a little disappointed about, is the fact that we will not be bringing our ratties to the show like planned. For those of you that dont know, we have taken in a few ratties from a fire 4 weeks ago. A couple are still showing a few signs of breathing struggles. The wacky weather of course doesnt help. The older ratties will most likely deal with them for the rest of their lives due to the amount of smoke and toxins they inhaled. A juvenile, OCRA Pongo who came back to us, seems to have on and off bouts of funny sounds but is still active and gaining weight wonderfully. The CRUS Phantom of the Opera Litter is doing great. Mainly because their mama, CRUS Gizzy, buried them during fire, filtering out much of the smoke. Of course, we also have our 2016 Fall Astronomy x2 Litter due this weekend. One busy mischief- ever wonder where we got the name Our Crazy Rat Adventure? - ...