This work studied the hydraulic characteristics and physiological behavior of two trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata L. Raft) varieties-Flying Dragon (FD) and Rubidoux (RT)-with contrasting size-controlling potential when used as rootstocks for citrus trees. Thus, Valencia orange scions growing on RT root system develop about 40 % more biomass than scions on FD. The anatomical study of xylem root tissue of both rootstocks showed that the number of vessels per cross-sectional area in RT almost doubled that found in FD, whereas diameter distribution did not vary significantly. Hydraulic resistance determined in rootstocks, and bud union segments were, respectively, 2- and 3.4-fold higher in trees on FD than in trees on RT. Root systems accounted for 46.5 and 55.2 % of whole-plant hydraulic resistance, whereas bud union segments represented 7.5 and 14.6 % of this parameter, the dwarfing rootstock (FD) having the highest values. Reduced hydraulic conductance in plants on FD rootstock diminished ...
Poncirus trifoliata, commonly called hardy orange, a citrus relative, is a thorny, well-branched, deciduous shrub or small tree which typically grow 8-15 (less frequently to 20) tall. Three-lobed (trifoliate as per the species name) leaves emerge yellowish-green in spring, turn glossy dark green in summer and fade to yellow in autumn. Spiny, dark green stems. Fragrant, white, 4-7 petaled flowers (to 2 diameter) appear singly in spring. Flowers give way to 1-2.5 diameter fruits (miniature downy hardy oranges) which ripen to an attractive yellow in the fall. Fruits of this citrus relative are edible (lemony flavor), but are very acidic and seedy. Fruits can used to make marmalade (use peel zest and pulp), but are usually left on the tree where they persist well into winter and often provide significant ornamental interest ...
Photo Trifoliate Orange. This fruit resembles an orange but is not edible. It grows on a spiny tree called Lemon tree thorn or Oranger trifoli (Poncirus trifoliata). I already made a picture of ...
Family: Citrus (Rutaceae) Hardy to Zones 6-9. (Bitter Orange, Hardy Orange, Trifoliate Orange, Japanese Orange) Thorny deciduous shrub growing to 9 feet tall, native to E. Asia, China and Korea. The plants grows well in full sun to part shade, preferring loose, sandy soils of medium moisture and tolerant of both acidic and alkaline pH. …
The chromosomes of Citrus and Poncirus species and hybrids: Identification of characteristic chromosomes and physical mapping of rDNA loci using in situ hybridization and fluorochrome ...
Poncirus Rafin., Sylva Tellur. 143. 1838. Bailey, Stand. Cyclop. Hort. 5:2751.1917; Tanaka, Sp. Problem in Citrus, Revisio. Aurantiacaerum ix. 8.29.1954. Robust shrubs, glabrous with stiff and sharp spines. Leaves trifoliolate; petioles winged. Flowers axillary, l(-2), pentamerous, bisexual. Stamens free, Ovary and style pubescent. Fruit small, globose, pubescent. Pulp vesicles with oil cells in the midline. Seeds glabrous.. A monotypic genus, indigenous in N. China and Japan; cultivated elsewhere. It has been separated from Citrus on account of its trifoliolate leaves and free stamens.. ...
Citation: Wesley-Smith, J., C. Walters, P. Berjak and N.W. Pammenter. 2004. Non-equilibrium cooling of Poncirus trifoliate (L.) embryonic axes at various water contents. CryoLetters 25:121-128. Interpretive Summary: The rate at which cells are exposed to liquid nitrogen temperatures determines whether lethal ice crystals form. In very small systems (1 to a few cells), sufficiently fast cooling is relatively easy to achieve. For most plant germplasm, propagule size is about 500,000 cells and this geometry limits how quickly heat can be dissipated. This paper examines how mechanisms of heat transfer (convection and conduction) and variables affecting thermal mass affect cooling rate of a desiccation-sensitive embryo. By slightly adjusting water content and exploiting convective cooling, cooling rates of hundreds of degrees (C) per sec can be achieved. Technical Abstract: The present study investigated the rate of temperature change within axes of Poncirus trifoliata during cooling and warming by ...
Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is non-cancerous condition of enlargement of the prostate, a common occurrence in older men. The immature fruits of Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Rafinesque (Rutaceae), Ponciri Fructus are widely used in traditional oriental medicine for the therapy of various diseases. However, little is known about the mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of BPH. In the present study, we investigated the protective effects of a Ponciri Fructus extract (PFE) on the development of BPH in a in a rat model of BPH induced by testosterone propionate (TP). Male Sprague Dawley rats were used as a model of BPH after its induction by daily subcutaneous injections of TP/corn oil, for a period of four weeks. PFE was administrated daily 1 h before TP/corn oil injection by oral gavage at a dose level of 200 mg/kg during the 4 weeks of TP/corn oil injections. All rats were sacrificed at the end of the experiment, we measured the relative prostate weight, the levels of testosterone and
There has been controversy over whether glyphosate used for weed management in citrus fields causes significant toxicity to citrus plants. Glyphosate may be toxic to non-target plants exposed to accidental application or drift. This work evaluated glyphosate toxicity in plants of Valencia citrus (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) grafted onto Rangpur lime (Citrus limonia L. Osbeck) and citrumelo Swingle (Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf×Citrus paradisi Macf) by trunk- or foliar-directed herbicide applications under field conditions. In the first experiment, glyphosate was sprayed at rates of 0, 90, 180, 260, 540, 1080 and 2160 g a.e. ha-1 directly on the trunk to a height of 5 cm above the grafting region. In the second experiment, glyphosate was sprayed on the plant canopies at rates of 0, 0.036, 0.36, 3.6, 36, 360 and 720 g a.e. ha-1. There was no visual damage caused by glyphosate applied directly to the trunk, but the plants were affected by glyphosate sprayed directly on the canopies at rates ...
Water deficit (WD) is a growing problem in agriculture. In citrus crops, genetically-determined characteristics of the rootstock are important factors in plant responses to WD. Aquaporins are involved in regulating the water supply to the plant by mediating water flow through the cell membranes. Recent studies support a direct role for aquaporins in plant water relations and demonstrate their involvement in tolerance to WD. This study investigates the relationship between photosynthetic and water-balance parameters with levels of expression of aquaporins in conditions of moderate WD in the rootstocks Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf. (PT), Cleopatra Mandarin (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tan.) (CM) and 030115 (a hybrid of the two former rootstocks). Under conditions of WD, the hybrid 030115 drastically reduced aquaporin expression, accompanied by a loss of plant vigour but without reducing the net CO2 assimilation (ACO2). PT maintained the same level of aquaporin expression under WD as under normal ...
Background: Improvement of Citrus, the most economically important fruit crop in the world, is extremely slow and inherently costly because of the long-term nature of tree breeding and an unusual combination of reproductive characteristics. Aside from disease resistance, major commercial traits in Citrus are improved fruit quality, higher yield and tolerance to environmental stresses, especially salinity. Results: A normalized full length and 9 standard cDNA libraries were generated, representing particular treatments and tissues from selected varieties ( Citrus clementina and C. sinensis) and rootstocks ( C. reshni, and C. sinenis x Poncirus trifoliata) differing in fruit quality, resistance to abscission, and tolerance to salinity. The goal of this work was to provide a large expressed sequence tag ( EST) collection enriched with transcripts related to these well appreciated agronomical traits. Towards this end, more than 54000 ESTs derived from these libraries were analyzed and annotated. ...
25. Cotton blotches on Cactus are evidence of scale insects that make these cottony patches to cover themselves.. 26. The Cochineal scale insect produces carmine dye, and is used as the red dye in foods and cosmetics. Today, red dye is made synthetically as well.. 27. If poked with a stick, sure enough, a red color oozes from the cottony mass.This dye made the red in British uniforms, the Red Coats. Imagine collecting enough of these to dye one uniform.. 28, 29. Not all cactus appearing plants are in the Cactaceae family. Some spiny cactus are in Euphorbiaceae. Cactaceae differ by also having small circles with tiny spines.. 30. Poncirus trifoliata, mock orange, has spines as thick as thorns, and are in the axils of leaves. This plant has small poisonous fruits, causes rashes, blindness, and is invasive!. 31. Mock orange is the rootstock of most orange and grapefruit trees. If a frost kills the grafted tree, the base spouts, and the new stems with long spines have trifoliate leaves while ...
Chloroplast simple sequence repeat (cpSSR) markers in Citrus were developed and used to analyze chloroplast diversity of Citrus and closely related genera. Fourteen cpSSR primer pairs from the chloroplast genomes of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) and Arabidopsis were found useful for analyzing the Citrus chloroplast genome (cpDNA) and recoded with the prefix SPCC (SSR Primers for Citrus Chloroplast). Eleven of the 14 primer pairs revealed some degree of polymorphism among 34 genotypes of Citrus, Fortunella, Poncirus and some of their hybrids, with polymorphism information content (PIC) values ranging from 0.057 to 0.732, and 18 haplotypes were identified. The cpSSR data were analyzed with NTSYS-pc software, and the genetic relationships suggested by the unweighted pair group method based on arithmetic means (UPGMA) dendrogram were congruent with previous taxonomic investigations: the results showed that all samples fell into seven major clusters, i.e., Citrus medica L., Poncirus, Fortunella, C. ...
I agree that they are older because I noticed that some of the other seedlings are getting hard wood. I wonder why they are so small at 2 to 2 1/2 inches. As you can see in one of the photos they are putting out new leaves. Could it be that they were in too much shade? The mother tree was in shade and they were growing underneath here so it was a very dark area. My sister and I wondered why there were not any larger plants there. I do believe at some point the owners come and pull up the plants so that they dont take over the yard. I have never seen such small plants growing hard wood. I guess we can call them micro trifoliata. ; ...
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Foamflower/False Mitrewort - Identify the plants of western North America at MountainNature.com - the Field Guide for the next Millennium.
Bilastino saugumo duomenys. Bilastino saugumas, nepageidaujami poveikiai, toleravimas vertinti atliekant klinikinius tyrimus. Įrodyta, kad vaistą gerai toleruoja sergantieji epizodiniu ir nuolatiniu alerginiu rinitu bei lėtine dilgėline. Nepageidaujami poveikiai pasireiškė panašiu dažniu kaip placebo grupėje, sunkių nepageidaujamų poveikių ir mirčių nebuvo. Dažniausias nepageidaujamas poveikis - galvos skausmas/2405,skausmas, galvos svaigimas, nuovargis, mieguistumas [12-15]. Bilastinas nepraeina hematoencefalio barjero, todėl neturi slopinamojo poveikio CNS. Dvigubai aklame placebu kontroliuojamame tyrime skirta 20 mg, 40 mg ir 80 mg bilastino vieną kartą per dieną 7 dienas. Vertinti objektyvūs motorinių, suvokimo, dėmesio ir asociacijų integravimo funkcijų pokyčiai bei subjektyvūs nuotaikos pokyčiai. Bilastino 20 mg dozės, kuri įprastai skiriama klinikinėje praktikoje, poveikis statistiškai reikšmingai nesiskyrė nuo placebo poveikio. 40 mg dozė sukėlė ...
Looking for online definition of Menyanthes trifoliata in the Medical Dictionary? Menyanthes trifoliata explanation free. What is Menyanthes trifoliata? Meaning of Menyanthes trifoliata medical term. What does Menyanthes trifoliata mean?
The Atlas of Florida Plants provides a source of information for the distribution of plants within the state and taxonomic information. The website also provides access to a database and images of herbarium specimens found at the University of South Florida and other herbaria.
Immature Fruit of Bitter Orange. A traditional Chinese herb commonly used to benefit digestion. Our page offers how to use, benefits, photos, and cautions.
GM1 ganglioside (one week each at 10, 5, and 2.5 mg GM1/kg per day, ip) or gradual food restriction leading to a reduction in body weight to 75% of control were tested for their ability to block or reverse histopathologic and behavioral effects of tr
Find out about the science and chemistry of Methoxsalen (Xanthotoxin, Oxsoralen, Deltasoralen, Meladinine), see colourful images of Methoxsalen and explore interactive 3D molecules of Methoxsalen
Methoxsalen is mainly used in combination with long-wave ultra-violet light in the treatment of vitiligo and severe psoriasis.. Methoxsalen and long-wave ultra-violet light together have been associated with haematopoietic neoplasms in two patients, with basal-cell skin cancer in another, and with squamous-cell skin cancer in a cohort study of patients with psoriasis. In the cohort study, increased surveillance of study subjects may have biased comparisons with the general population. However, a change in the ratio of squamous- to basal-cell tumours, the appearance of tumours in body areas not normally exposed to sunlight, and a change in tumour incidence within the cohort would support a causal interpretation. In none of these reports could the possible effects of methoxsalen alone be distinguished from those of long-wave ultra-violet light or of the combination of the two. Methoxsalen alone did not alter the incidence of skin cancer over two years in two small controlled trials of its use as a ...
NOMax™ is particularly rich in flavanone-O-glycosides and is characterized by a unique profile of flavonoids; NOMax™ contains the highest concentrations of flavanones: neoeriocitrin, neohesperidin, naringin, poncirin, rhoifolin, neodiosmin, and Vicenin-2. NOMax™ also contains a high content of unsaturated fatty acids, accounting for 80% of total acids, such as oleic acid, linoleic acid and palmitic acid. NOMax™ has been proven in both animal and human clinical research to be effective in maintaining healthy cholesterol and blood glucose levels, while increasing cHDL. NOMax™ acts in synergy with L-arginine to increase the production of endothelium nitric oxide, while providing excellent antioxidant protection to reduce the harmful effects of free radicals in stressful situations like sustained and repeated physical activity. Combining NOMax™ with L-arginine could help to optimize vasodilation properties and may contribute to improved blood flow. In human clinicals, 500mg and 1000 mg ...
Strukturformel Allgemeines Name Methoxsalen Andere Namen 9-Methoxy-7H-furo[3,2-g][1]benzopyran-7-on; 8-Methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) Summenformel: C 12 H 8 O 4. ...
Oxsoralen-Ultra (Methoxsalen Capsules) may treat, side effects, dosage, drug interactions, warnings, patient labeling, reviews, and related medications including drug comparison and health resources.
Methoxsalen is a naturally occurring substance that is reactive to light. It works by enhancing the bodys sensitivity to ultraviolet light A (UVA).
Jie Shi or Zhi Shi is also known as immature fruit of bitter orange. The bitter, sour, acrid and slightly cold herb has been used in TCM as diuretics and to raise blood pressure, improve the strength of contraction and tension of the uterus, stimulate the smooth muscle of the digestive tract, treat constipation, cough …. ...
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All 13 plant extracts had some degree of activity against the 3 fungal pathogens used. Many authors consider activity of a plant extract with MIC higher than 0.1 mg/mL as not significant [16, 23]. Extracts from 8 of the 13 species with the exception of H. trifoliata, S. mitis, M. lanceolata, M. azedarach and C. dregei extracts had MIC values lower than 0.1 mg/mL. It may be interesting to correlate the anthelmintic activity of the extracts with their antifungal activity.. Clausena anisata extracts had the best activity with an MIC of 0.02 mg/mL. C. anisata extracts also had the best antifungal activity when plant extracts of Tanzanian plant species were examined with an MIC value of 1 mg/mL against C. albicans[24] compared to 0.63 mg/mL against the same pathogen in the current study. It is satisfying that the results are close despite the use of different extractants, different origins of the plants and different C. albicans isolates. The MIC activity of C. anisata found here 0.04 mg/mL ...
Immature, vegetable-like fruits are produced by crops of great economic importance, including cucumbers, zucchini, eggplants and bell peppers, among others. Because of their high respiration rates, associated with high rates of dehydration and metabolism, and their susceptibility to chilling injury (CI), vegetable fruits are highly perishable commodities, requiring particular storage conditions to avoid postharvest losses. This review focuses on the oxidative stress that affects the postharvest quality of vegetable fruits under chilling storage. We define the physiological and biochemical factors that are associated with the oxidative stress and the development of CI symptoms in these commodities, and discuss the different physical, chemical and biotechnological approaches that have been proposed to reduce oxidative stress while enhancing the chilling tolerance of vegetable fruits ...
Bergamot (Citrus Bergamia Risso) is a citrus plant that grows almost exclusively in the narrow coastal Calabria region in Southern Italy, due to sensitivity to the weather and soil conditions. Bergamot juice was traditionally recognized by the local population as a remedy for supporting healthy cholesterol level and cardiovascular health. The medicinal use of bergamot, forgotten for decades, is now being rediscovered. The juice and albedo of bergamot has a unique profile of flavonoid and glycosides, such as neoeriocitrin, neohesperidin, naringin, rutin, neodesmin, rhoifolin and poncirin. Naringin have been shown to be beneficial in animal models of atherosclerosis, while neoeriocitrin and rutin have been found to exhibit a strong capacity to prevent LDL from oxidation. Importantly, bergamot juice is rich in brutieridine and melitidine with an ability to inhibit HMG-CoA reductase. ...
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The hand cream inhibits process of senescence due to high antioxidants content. The antioxidants (combination of vitamin C and vitamin E), wheat germ oil (Triticum Vulgare), acerola fruit extract (Malpighia Glabra), buckbean leaf extract (Menyanthes Trifoliata) neutralize free radicals and promote protective properties of skin. The cream is rich in vitamins to protect hand skin from elasticity loss, it helps preserve and restore skin resilience.. Acerola fruit extract is a powerful antioxidant, which helps promote functioning of other vitamins, for example vitamin E. Vitamin C is also essential for conjunctive tissues formation. Wheat germ oil (Triticum Vulgare) is a natural source of vitamin E. Ingredients which have a beneficial effect on skin: olive tree oil (Olea Europaea), sweet almond oil (Prunus Amygdalus Dulcis). Skin moisturizers - the molecules of PENTAVITIN® (Saccharide Isomerate) biotechnologically produced from plants and hydrolyzed wheat protein - maintain optimum hydration level ...
Grapefruit seed extract (GSE) contains mainly polyphenolic compounds, including quercetin, hesperidin, campherol glycoside, neohesperidin, naringin, apigenin, rutinoside, poncirin, etc. The polyphenols themselves are unstable, but are chemically converted into more stable substances that b
TPP is catching up, or trying to, on lots of things. Heres a link to some research summaries for the latest issue of the American Journal of Botany. The very first article is pretty interesting because fruits almost universally turn from green to a fruity color to signify ripeness advertising to seed disperses that a reward is available (often, but not always). But this particular tropical plant has reddish immature fruits and green mature fruits, a situation rather like the leaves of some tropical plants that flush red and then turn green, however a protective function for the red pigmentation could not be supported! So there you go! You can be pretty sure that one of the authors knew about fruit color changes and dispersal, and then noticed that this plant was not playing according to the rules so curiosity made them ask why and they devised a research project to test the various ideas involved. Thousands of such questions and studies exist if you just learn how to observe. ...
In many plants, free proline accumulates in response to the imposition of a wide range of biotic and abiotic stresses. Controversy has surrounded the extent to which this shift in nitrogen metabolism
Macadamia is a mass-flowering subtropical rainforest tree that is widely cultivated for its edible kernels. Macadamia flowers are borne on pendant racemes of 100 − 300 flowers but typically less than 2% of the flowers produce mature fruits and kernels. This study investigated the use of plant growth regulators to reduce abscission of flowers and immature fruit and to increase final fruit set of Macadamia. Pre-anthesis applications of the cytokinin, benzyladenine at 200 mg/L, increased initial fruit sets (2 weeks after anthesis) across four experiments from 8 − 17% (for control racemes) to 27 − 61% (for treated racemes). Post-anthesis applications of benzyladenine increased fruit retention up to 8 weeks after anthesis, but no treatment increased fruit retention beyond the final phase of immature fruit drop at 10 weeks post-anthesis. Benzyladenine delayed abscission of immature Macadamia fruit but it had no effect on final fruit set, nut-in-shell weight or kernel weight.; ;
1.Evaluation of antiulcer activity of coccinia grandis leaves.. 2. Spectrophotometric method for the estimation of Tramadol in bulk and capsule dosage forms.. 3. Hepatoprotective Activity of Vitex trifoliata roots against Paracetamol-Induced Hepatic Injury in rats.. 4. Synthesis and Insilico biological activity evaluation of some 1,3,5-Trisubstituted -2- pyrazolines.. 5. RP-HPLC Method for the Estimation of Tramadol in Bulk and Capsule dosage form.. 6. Synthesis and biological evaluation of novel Schiffs bases.. 7. Synthesis and Insilico biological activity evaluation of some 2-pyrazolines derived from Isonicotinic acid hydrazide.. 8. Antiulcer activity of aqueous extract of leaves of scoparia dulcis (linn.) in rats.. 9. In silico prediction of selected pharmacokinetic, biological and toxic properties of some 1,3,5-trisubstituted-2-pyrazolines derived from isonicotinic acid.. 10. Synthesis and biological evaluation of 5-methyl-N-aryl substituted-1,3- Oxazolidine dione derivatives.. 11. Kinetic ...
Methoxsalen (also called xanthotoxin, marketed under the trade names Oxsoralen, Deltasoralen, Meladinine) is a drug used to treat psoriasis, eczema, vitiligo, and some cutaneous lymphomas in conjunction with exposing the skin to UVA light from lamps or sunlight. Methoxsalen modifies the way skin cells receive the UVA radiation, allegedly clearing up the disease. The dosage comes in 10 mg tablets, which are taken in the amount of 30 mg 75 minutes before a PUVA (psoralen + UVA) light treatment. Levels of individual patient PUVA exposure were originally determined using the Fitzpatrick scale. The scale was developed after patients demonstrated symptoms of phototoxicity after oral ingestion of Methoxsalen followed by PUVA therapy. Chemically, methoxsalen belongs to a class of organic natural molecules known as furanocoumarins. They consist of coumarin annulated with furan. It can also be injected and used topically. Methoxsalen is extracted from Ammi majus, a plant of the family Apiaceae. The ...
When ripe, the fruit which has formed on the female tree, breaks apart and the woody epicarp covered in spines disintegrates, allowing the nuts to fall to the ground. Their orange fleshy mesocarp covering is eaten by rodents and some nuts are buried in caches. Nuts are collected from the ground, and taken for processing in sacks or baskets. The principal use of the tagua palm is of the vegetable ivory of its seeds. This is hard and dense with an attractive cream colour, which, on polishing, compares favourably with true ivory. Tagua softens when soaked, dissolving completely when immersed in water for long periods, but recovering its hardness on drying. The contents of the immature fruit are liquid, with a sweet flavour and used as a - refreshing drink. The fronds are used as thatching for native huts. The nuts polish and dye readily, being used for a large variety of items. Its most lucrative use was for the production of buttons for the clothing industry.[3]. First records of tagua production ...
HUP 13 is an analogue of huperzine A with comparable inhibitory action on acetylcholinesterase, but less inhibitory effect on butyrylcholinesterase. HUP 13 is
As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
Bitter melon is a cucurbit vine native to Asia with eastern India and southern China proposed as the centers of domestication (Yang and Walters 1992). It is now widely cultivated throughout the world for the immature fruits, and sometimes for the tender leafy shoots or the ripe fruits. Other species used for their immature fruits in a similar way are M. cochinchinensis and M. dioica. The immature fruits are stuffed, pickled, and sliced into various dishes. The immature fruits, called bitter melon, bitter gourd, or balsam pear, are harvested at developmental stages up to seed hardening; the fruits are warty in appearance and vary in size from 12 to 30 cm long. The bitter melon vine is a rapidly growing monoecious herbaceous vine (Fig. 1) which needs to be trellised. Bitter melon is best adapted to hot to moderate climates and grows well in a variety of soils. Flowering begins about 1 month after seed planting. A fruit fly (Strumetia cucurbitae) attacks the fruit in some production areas, and the ...
Citation: Narciso, J.A., Baldwin, E.A., Plotto, A., Ference, C.M. 2007. Disinfection of immature fruit extends shelf-life in Florida strawberries. National Meeting of Institute of Food Technologists/Food Expo. Presentation No. 100-19. Interpretive Summary: Technical Abstract: Fresh market Florida strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa) are field packed and shipped without further processing. Keeping the fruit cool (~0 C (32 F)) helps maintain the quality of the strawberries but controlled temperatures are not always accessible. Organisms such as Botrytis cinerea (grey mold), Rhizopus stolonifer (leak) and various yeasts and bacteria acquired on the fruit surface in the field, in transit or while in the packaging container, flourish on the ripe fruit and reduce shelf-life. Our goal was to reduce the numbers of destructive microorganisms associated with the strawberries before they were picked by spraying immature fruit with peroxyacetic acid (PAA, 100 ppm), 3, 2, and 1 day (s) before picking. Even by ...
Divergence among the various groups of edible cultivars in Cucurbita pepo appears to be increasing under continuing domestication due to the different demands made on cultivars grown for their immature fruits as opposed to cultivars growing for their mature fruits. Cucurbita pepo includes eight groups of edible cultivars-pumpkins, scallops, acorns, crooknecks, straightnecks, vegetable marrows, cocozelles, and Zucchinis. The pumpkins, scallops, and possibly the crooknecks are ancient groups that developed along separate lines of domestication in North America. Incipient forms of all the other five groups appeared in botanical herbals of Europe by 1700. Modern forms of the vegetable marrows, cocozelles, Zucchinis, and acorns appeared in Europe prior to 1860, and the modern straightnecks appeared in North America by 1896. Divergence among the various groups appears to be increasing under continuing domestication due to the different demands made on cultivars grown for their immature fruits as opposed to
TY - JOUR. T1 - Proline accumulation and methylation to proline betaine in citrus. T2 - Implications for genetic engineering of stress resistance. AU - Nolte, Kurt D. AU - Hanson, Andrew D.. AU - Gage, Douglas A.. PY - 1997. Y1 - 1997. N2 - Proline and various betaines can function as osmoprotectants and cryoprotectants when accumulated in the cytoplasm of cells. Genetic engineering can raise levels of these compounds and thereby improve stress resistance; Citrus species are potential candidates for this. Before attempting such engineering, it is necessary to characterize the natural osmoprotectants of Citrus and related genera. We therefore surveyed 55 cultivated and wild species of the Aurantioideae, analyzing proline and betaines in leaves of mature trees. Some citrus relatives accumulated proline alone; others accumulated proline and proline betaine, as did all Citrus species studied. The levels of these two compounds ranged from about 20 to 100 μmol · g-1 dry mass, and were significantly ...
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Zucchini generally has a similar shape to a ridged cucumber. Zucchini is treated as a vegetable, however botanically it is an immature fruit, being the swollen ovary of the female zucchini flower. Zucchini are immature vegetable marrows.
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