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This study showed that cultivation conditions (medium composition, initial medium pH, aeration rate, inoculum density) affect biomass and polysaccharide production in Ganoderma lucidum strain HAI 447. The synthetic medium (pH 5.5) with maltose at the concentration of 65.0 g L-1, peptone of 0.2%, as well as in the presence of K, Na, and Mg at concentrations of 6.0, 3.0, and 2.0 mM, respectively, presented the best conditions for biomass (29.2 g L-1) and extra- and intracellular polysaccharide (2.9 mg mL(-1) and 73.3 mg g(-1), respectively) production in the analyzed strain. Constant aeration was optimal for biomass and extracellular polysaccharide production, whereas cultivation under stationary conditions was the best for intracellular polysaccharide production. A peak in biomass and polysaccharide production was observed at an inoculum density of 20.0 mL ...
The genomic organization of the chromosomal cps region that is responsible for capsular polysaccharide synthesis in Klebsiella pneumoniae Chedid (O1:K2) was investigated. Deletion analyses and Southern hybridization studies suggested that the central region of the cloned 29-kb BamHI fragment is indispensable for K2 capsular polysaccharide synthesis. The 24,329-bp nucleotide sequence of the Klebsiella cps region was determined and deposited in the EMBL and GenBank databases through DDBJ and assigned accession number D21242. Nineteen possible open reading frames (ORFs) were identified in the sequenced area. Among them, 13 ORFs are very close to each other. Six of the 19 ORFs show considerable nucleotide sequence similarities to Salmonella typhimurium cpsG, cpsB, rfbP, and orf2.8, Escherichia coli gnd, and Haemophilus influenzae bexD, respectively. Moreover, the deduced amino acid sequence of the ORF10 product demonstrated a highly hydrophobic profile and showed putative membrane topology ...
Anti-polysaccharide immunity is a key facet of protection against several bacterial pathogens. Problems exist with current polysaccharide vaccines and alternative strategies that deliver a protective response are needed. We have identified immunological peptide mimics of type 6B and 9V pneumococcal capsular polysaccharides that could be used as vaccine antigens. Peptides mimicking antigenic properties of serotype 6B capsular polysaccharide were obtained from a phage-displayed peptide library expressing dodecameric peptides, using a human monoclonal antibody (Db3G9). A murine monoclonal antibody (206, F-5) against the serotype 9V capsular polysaccharide identified three peptide mimotopes from the dodecameric peptide library and one from a random pentadecameric peptide library. In ELISA, binding of 206, F-5 and Db3G9 to phage displaying the selected mimotopes was significantly inhibited by type-specific pneumococcal polysaccharide. Peptides were conjugated to keyhole limpet haemocyanin and were ...
Light chain variable region sequence of rabbit antipneumococcal type III polysaccharide antibody 3368. Biochemistry. 1978 Jul 25; 17(15):3101-9 ...
Abs to a number of polysaccharide Ags have several common attributes: CDR-H3 is implicated in binding to Ag (28, 29), its length is strictly maintained (20, 30), and its sequence is almost invariably characterized by the presence of hydrophilic tyrosine residues (21, 31, 32). Xu and Davis (9) showed that, in VH-restricted mice, CDR-H3 diversity was sufficient for the development of specific Ab responses to a variety of hapten and protein Ags but not for two bacterial polysaccharide Ags. The latter finding was attributed to the failure of the single VH gene in their mouse model to accommodate the polysaccharide-specific response, which suggested VH dependency. Work by Nakouzi and Casadevall (33) showed that, in addition to CDR-H3, CDR-H2 encoded amino acids critical for the generation of Abs specific for the polysaccharide galactoxylomannan. These studies highlighted the significant roles that both the VH, as a whole, and the CDR component of the VH, as a part, can play in the generation of ...
Tumor cells that acquire metastatic potential have developed resistance to anoikis, a cell death process, after detachment from their primary site to the second organ. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms of a novel marine bacterial polysaccharide EPS11 which exerts its cytotoxic effects through affecting cancer cell adhesion and anoikis. Firstly, we found that EPS11 could significantly affect cell proliferation and block cell adhesion in A549 cells. We further demonstrated that the expression of several cell adhesion associated proteins is downregulated and the filiform structures of cancer cells are destroyed after EPS11 treatment. Interestingly, the destruction of filiform structures in A549 cells by EPS11 is in a dose-dependent manner, and the inhibitory tendency is very consistent with that observed in the cell adhesion assay, which confirms that filiform structures play important roles in modulating cell adhesion. Moreover, we showed that EPS11 induces apoptosis of A549 ...
Comprehensive in scope, Food Polysaccharides and Their Applications, Second Edition explains the production aspects and the chemical and physical properties of the Synopsis Comprehensive in scope, Food Polysaccharides and Their Applications, Second Edition explains the production aspects and the chemical and physical. ... and biotechnological applications of bacterial polysaccharides. Bacterial Polysaccharides: Current Innovations and their applications in a dairy food ... Food Applications compiles recent data on the food applications of marine polysaccharides from such Microalgae, and Their Polysaccharides: Food Applications. ... and other biomedical applications. Polysaccharide conjugates Food-Grade Covalent Complexes and Their Application as Comprehensive Reviews in Food Polysaccharides are ideal natural phosphorylation modification is the most common application to Food-Grade Covalent Complexes and Their. Practical Food Applications of Differential Scanning Typical food samples and their ...
From here you can specify a search of the Bacterial Polysaccharide Gene Database. The results of the search will be returned as a hit list. From the hit list you follow links to look at individual records from the database in greater detail.. ...
We have measured antibodies to pneumococcal and Haemophilus polysaccharides in a prospective study of 450 children aged 2-16 years with otitis media requiring grommets (ear tubes). Pneumococcal antibody levels were significantly higher in the 2-6 year (P | 0.004) and 7-10 year (P | 0.04) study groups in comparison with age-matched controls. There was no difference in Haemophilus antibody levels between the study and control group children for the age groups 2-6 years and 11-16 years. Haemophilus antibody levels were significantly lower in the 7-10 year (P | 0.003) group in comparison with age-matched controls. Eighty-eight out of 450 (19.6%) children had pneumococcal antibody levels below the 25th percentile. Nineteen out of 88 (21.6%) children with pneumococcal antibody levels below the 25th centile were test immunized with 23 valent Pneumococcal polysaccharide and unconjugated Haemophilus type b capsular polysaccharide. Of these 19 children (aged 4-11 years), five mounted suboptimal responses to both
Erythrocytes coated with bacterial capsular polysaccharides, notably the Vi antigen, were no longer agglutinated by antibodies directed against the various antigens native to the red cell surface. These effects could not be attributed to prevention of antibody uptake even though in some systems the uptake of antibody was diminished. In fact, agglutination by Rh-incomplete antibody was brought back to the original titer only after the sensitized Vi-coated cells had been subjected to ten alternating exposures to globulin and antiglobulin. Hemagglutination by Newcastle, mumps, and influenza viruses was also suppressed. Erythrocytes coated with Vi polysaccharide assumed the distinctive physicochemical attributes of this acidic polymer which results in a stabilization of the erythrocyte suspension as manifested by increased electrophoretic mobility and a striking decrease in the rate of sedimentation. Among the possible models for explaining the nature of the Vi effect on immune agglutination, the ...
Polysaccharide antigens are T cell-independent antigens, and do not induce immune B cell memory. Consequently, vaccines based on polysaccharides have limited clinical usefulness and induce short-lasting antibody responses in adults. Their immunogenicity can be enhanced by conjugation to an immunogenic carrier protein, generating T cell-dependent glycoconjugate antigens able to induce immunological memory. However, these glycoconjugates suffer from some problems. Recent investigations have found a group of structurally distinct bacterial polysaccharides able to activate T cells in vivo and in vitro. They present a zwitterionic charge motif distributed along the chain and, for this reason, they are called zwitterionic polysaccharides (ZPSs). This zwitterionic charge motif is believed to be responsible for their particular immunological behavior. The integrity of the zwitterionic motif is essential for the biological activity of ZPS. However, it must be clarified if the introduction of the ...
The capsular polysaccharide (SIII) of type III pneumococci was removed enzymatically, and the cells thus deprived of preformed SIII were washed and examined for capacity to synthesize SIII anew. The washed, decapsulated cocci lost their capacity to be agglutinated in type-specific antiserum but again became agglutinable and formed readily measurable amounts of SIII, after suspension in a solution containing only glucose and salts.. Maximal SIII synthesis required the presence of glucose, magnesium, potassium and phosphate ions, and oxygen. Other fermentable sugars could be substituted for glucose but then the yield of SIII was reduced. Synthesis of SIII occurred anaerobically but was increased four- to fivefold by oxygenation of the suspension. The effects of pH and of enzyme poisons on the capacity of the cocci to form SIII are described.. ...
Bacterioides fragilis is a gram-negative anaerobe and a prototypic gut commensal organism. B. fragilis is able to produce eight different capsular polysaccharides, which envelope the organism and form its protective capsule. Polysaccharide A (PSA) is one of these polysaccharides and, interestingly, has a unique zwitterionic motif that includes alternating positively and negatively charged sugar residues. PSA consists of a tetrasaccharide repeat unit that forms a polymer of between 30-300 repeats.. Such bacterial capsular polysaccharides are well known to industry, and are the basis of polysaccharide conjugate vaccines used successfully for decades in millions of people. The specific zwitterionic polysaccharide PSA was shown, in a series of landmark papers by our companys scientific founders that overturned established immunologic paradigms, to be processed via the endosomal pathway in antigen-presenting cells, depolymerized by NO-dependent deamination, and presented to CD4+ T-cells by MHC class ...
Totally, 142 HF patients with midrange ejection fraction (HFmrEF) and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) were enrolled in the study. There was a significantly correlation both between the EF and the EPSS and between the EF and the LVIDd/EPSS (P,0.001). In both HFmrEF and HFrEF groups, the correlation between the LVIDd/EPSS and the EF was more significant than was the correlation between the EPSS and the EF (P,0.001). The results of the linear regression analysis indicated that the LVIDd/EPSS was an independent predictor of the HFmrEF and the HFrEF (P,0.001). In the patients with EPSS≤12, there was a significant association between the EF and the LVIDd/EPSS (P,0.001) but not between the EF and the EPSS(P,0.05). The receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that the LVIDd/EPSS predicted advanced HF with 87% sensitivity and 72% specificity, using a cutoff value of 3.35,and it predicted the HFrEF (EF,40%) with 84% sensitivity and 81% specificity, using a cutoff value of 3.75.. ...
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Author Summary Streptococcus pneumoniae, or pneumococcus, is an important pathogen worldwide and causes a wide range of diseases, mostly in young children and the elderly. There are 91 serotypes of pneumococcus, each of which produces a unique polysaccharide, called the capsule, that attaches to the bacterial surface and prevents it from being cleared by the host. The serotypes differ greatly in their prevalence in the human population. There is currently a vaccine, effective in infancy, which targets seven clinically important serotypes, but several types not covered by the vaccine are beginning to increase in carriage frequency. As a result, it is critical to understand why some serotypes are frequently carried in the human population while others are not. In this study, we find that the high-prevalence serotypes tend to be more heavily encapsulated and more resistant to killing by neutrophils. Significantly, we find that the biochemical properties of the different polysaccharides can be used to
High-throughput sequencing allows detailed study of the BCR repertoire postimmunization, but it remains unclear to what extent the de novo identification of Ag-specific sequences from the total BCR repertoire is possible. A conjugate vaccine containing Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) and group C meningococcal polysaccharides, as well as tetanus toxoid (TT), was used to investigate the BCR repertoire of adult humans following immunization and to test the hypothesis that public or convergent repertoire analysis could identify Ag-specific sequences. A number of Ag-specific BCR sequences have been reported for Hib and TT, which made a vaccine containing these two Ags an ideal immunological stimulus. Analysis of identical CDR3 amino acid sequences that were shared by individuals in the postvaccine repertoire identified a number of known Hib-specific sequences but only one previously described TT sequence. The extension of this analysis to nonidentical, but highly similar, CDR3 amino acid ...
The behaviour of strains of Klebsiella aerogenes of capsular serotype K21 and strains of Escherichia coli producing a structurally related polysaccharide (colanic acid) was analysed by phagocytic and serum-killing assays. The cell-surface characteris
TY - JOUR. T1 - Molecular architectures and functional properties of gellan gum and related polysaccharides. AU - Chandrasekaran, R.. AU - Radha, A.. PY - 1995/5. Y1 - 1995/5. N2 - Certain linear and branched polysaccharides produced by unrelated species of bacteria are grouped in the gellan gum family because of their conserved backbone structures. All have excellent rheological properties and, thus, are useful in industrial applications. Physicochemical investigations of these polysaccharides in solution and structural studies of them in the solid state using X-ray diffraction have provided mutually complementary results. The study double-helix morphology that is characteristic of gellan gum prevails in other members of the gum family in spite of the presence of substituents and side chains. Association between double helices is facilitated by ions and water molecules. The observed physical properties of solutions and gels made with members of the gellan gum family can be directly rationalized ...
Bacterial polysaccharides and lipopolysaccharides of Porphyromonas gingivalis. Bacterial virulence may be enhanced by the presence of a polysaccharide capsule or by lipopolysaccharide. The polysaccharide capsules often act to inhibit phagocytosis, allowing for evasion of host defense mechanisms. Our laboratory is engaged in the study of polysaccharide and lipopolysaccharide of P. gingivalis. Polysaccharide and lipoplysaccharide are released from the bacterial cell surface and purified by a variety of techniques. The purified components are then characterized chemically and immunologically. The ability of these components to function as immunogens and as activators of the serum complement system is under investigation. Current investigations are also evaluating the association to periodontal disease and the capsular polysaccharide serotype. ...
We present evidence that the ambient oxygen concentration may be an important factor in the ability of S. pneumoniae, an acrotolerant streptococcus, to regulate the characteristics of its cell surface. Our approach took advantage of observations that the pneumococcus varies between two phenotypes previously shown to differ in their amounts of CPS (13). Findings in the current study show that oxygen levels affect the O and T phase variants differently. There is greatly enhanced production of CPS in O variants in conditions of reduced oxygen, whereas synthesis of CPS in T variants remains comparatively low under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The effect of oxygen on CPS expression was shown by two different methods, quellung, which allows visualization of the capsule size, and a capture ELISA, which enables amounts of CPS to be quantified. Both of these methods rely on the use of type-specific antiserum to detect CPS. Results from experiments using either technique show that ...
Phd Student: Li, Chengxin. Department of Chemistry, Technical University of Denmark, Kemitorvet, 2800, Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark. Email: ...
This project is supported by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (award #111062), Alberta Innovates - Health Solutions, and by The Metabolomics Innovation Centre (TMIC), a nationally-funded research and core facility that supports a wide range of cutting-edge metabolomic studies. TMIC is funded by Genome Alberta, Genome British Columbia, and Genome Canada, a not-for-profit organization that is leading Canadas national genomics strategy with funding from the federal government. Maintenance, support, and commercial licensing is provided by OMx Personal Health Analytics, Inc. Designed by Educe Design & Innovation Inc. ...
This project is supported by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (award #111062), Alberta Innovates - Health Solutions, and by The Metabolomics Innovation Centre (TMIC), a nationally-funded research and core facility that supports a wide range of cutting-edge metabolomic studies. TMIC is funded by Genome Alberta, Genome British Columbia, and Genome Canada, a not-for-profit organization that is leading Canadas national genomics strategy with funding from the federal government. Maintenance, support, and commercial licensing is provided by OMx Personal Health Analytics, Inc. Designed by Educe Design & Innovation Inc. ...
Abstract Background and objectives: important virulence factor for many invasive bacterial pathogens of humans. Escherichia coli offer a model system to study the mechanisms by which capsular polysaccharides are synthesized and exported onto the cell surface of bacteria. Biosynthesis of the E consists of the repeat structure -4) GlcA- (1, 4)-GlcNAc- (1-, ...
Autor: Hicke, H. G. et al.; Genre: Zeitschriftenartikel; Im Druck veröffentlicht: 1999; Keywords: biotechnology|br/|membrane reactors|br/|membrane-bound enzymes|br/|microporous and porous membranes|br/|polysaccharide synthesis|br/|photo-grafted membranes|br/|chromatography; Titel: Novel enzyme-membrane reactor for polysaccharide synthesis
Background: Extrapyramidal signs (EPSs), which are important characteristics of Parkinsons disease (PD), occur frequently in Alzheimers disease (AD). Although AD and PD share common clinical features such as EPSs, these diseases vary with respect to vascular risk factors. The presence of vascular risk factors increases the risk of AD; however, these factors have been known to be inversely associated with PD. We aimed to assess the effect of vascular risk factors and white matter lesions (WMLs) on EPSs in AD.. Methods: We recruited 1,187 AD patients and 333 controls with neither cognitive impairment nor EPSs. All participants underwent detailed clinical evaluations which included assessments of vascular risk factors, cognitive function, and EPSs, as well as WMLs on brain MRIs. EPS subtypes were classified into tremor-dominant, postural instability gait difficulty, or indeterminate; WMLs subtypes were classified into periventricular WML (pvWML) or deep WML (dWML).. Results: EPSs were present in ...
Polysaccharides are also abundant in plant and marine sources and these are an as yet relatively untapped resource for these molecules. Isolated polysaccharides have been shown to have potent biological activities in a range of cell types and as such are a focus of identification of novel bioactive compounds for therapeutic use. Polysaccharides are under investigation for the modulation of the immune system that can be used to both reduce inflammation in certain diseases but also to potentiate inflammation which has been shown to be beneficial post-surgery. Using a range of high throughput strategies were are examining the biological roles of naturally derived polysaccharides, with a particular focus on seaweed-derived polysaccharides.. ...
Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Powder Type 2 (US Type 2) ATCC ® 168-X™ Designation: TypeStrain=False Application: Elisa standard polysaccharide type 2
Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Powder Type 1 (US Type 1) ATCC ® 164-X™ Designation: TypeStrain=False Application: Elisa standard polysaccharide type 1
The formation of heparin-precursor polysaccharide (N-acetylheparosan) was studied with a mouse mastocytoma microsomal fraction. Incubation of this fraction with UDP-[3H]GlcA and UDP-GlcNAc yielded labelled macromolecules that could be depolymerized, apparently to single polysaccharide chains, by alkali treatment, and thus were assumed to be proteoglycans. Label from UDP-[3H]GlcA (approx. 3 microM) is transiently incorporated into microsomal polysaccharide even in the absence of added UDP-GlcNAc, probably owing to the presence of endogenous sugar nucleotide. When the concentration of exogenous UDP-GlcNAc was increased to 25 microM the rate of incorporation of 3H increased and proteoglycans carrying polysaccharide chains with an Mr of approx. 110,000 were produced. Increasing the UDP-GlcNAc concentration to 5 mM led to an approx. 4-fold decrease in the rate of 3H incorporation and a decrease in the Mr of the resulting polysaccharide chains to approx. 6000 (predominant component). When both ...
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The polysaccharide hydration phenomenon is nowadays the subject of intense research. The interaction of native and modified polysaccharides and polysaccharides-based bioconjugates with water has an important influence on their functional behaviour. Notwithstanding that the hydration phenomenon has been studied for decades, there is still a lack of awareness about the influence of hydration water on the polysaccharide´s structure and consequences for industrial or medicinal applications. The hydration of polysaccharides is often described by the existence of water layers differing in their physical properties depending on the distance from the polysaccharide. Using the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) such water layers were categorized according their properties upon cooling in hyaluronan (HYA, sodium salt of ß-1,4-linked units of ß-1,3-linked D-glucuronic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine), a model polysaccharide in the present work. The amount of non-freezing water, i.e. water in close
Cell Wall and Capsule,Capsular and extracellular polysacchrides,Serotype determining Capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis in Staphylococcus,Capsular polysaccharide synthesis enzyme ...
Cell Wall and CapsuleCapsular and extracellular polysacchridesSerotype determining Capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis in Staphylococcus Capsular polysaccharide synthesis enzyme Cap5K ...
The European Polysaccharide Network of Excellence (EPNOE) is a research, education and knowledge transfer network connecting Companies, Academic and Research Institutions working or interested in polysaccharides. It was established owing to the help of the European Commission. It is 40-member strong. Members are legal bodies like universities, research organizations or companies. EPNOEs main missions are: to offer a networking platform enabling close interactions between members in order to favor innovation, boost knowledge transfer and organize R&D activities in a totally confidential manner; to organize basic and applied research for the study of fundamental concepts, the testing of new ideas and the development of new products based on or containing polysaccharides; to organize education in polysaccharide science at the level of continuing education for companies and of post-graduate students and post-docs. The first mission is performed through a variety of tools which will be described and
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Bacterial capsular polysaccharides (CPS) are produced by a multi-protein membrane layer complicated, in which a particular type of tyrosine-autokinases named BY-kinases, control their move and polymerization. is certainly defective recommending that CpsD autophosphorylation interferes with these procedures therefore producing in cell constriction problems and cell elongation. We display that CpsD stocks structural homology with ParA-like … Read more Bacterial capsular polysaccharides (CPS) are produced by a multi-protein membrane layer. Read More ...
The invention relates to a method for producing polysaccharide esters or polysaccharide mixed esters, in which a polysaccharide or a modified polysaccharide is converted with at least one esterification reagent and at least one halogenide component, an imidazole compound which is generated in situ being used as catalyst.
The N19 polyepitope, comprising a sequential string of universal human CD4+-T-cell epitopes, was tested as a carrier protein in a formulation of combined glycoconjugate vaccines containing the capsular polysaccharides (PSs) of serogroups A, C, W-135, and Y. importantly, N19-specific antibodies did not cross-react with the parent protein from which N19 epitopes were derived, e.g., tetanus toxoid and influenza virus hemagglutinin. Finally, T helper epitopes of the N19 carrier protein were effectively generated both in vivo (after immunization with the N19 itself) and in vitro (after restimulation of epitope-specific spleen cells). Taken together, these data show that the N19 polyepitope represents a strong and valid option for the generation of improved or new combined glycoconjugate vaccines. The limited immune response of infants to most bacterial capsular polysaccharides (PSs) makes them a population at risk of infections with encapsulated bacteria such as type b (Hib), (Men), and others. ...
POLYSACCHARIDE STRUCTURE. References. Tombs, M .P. & Harding, S.E., An Introduction to Pol ysaccharide Biotechnology, Taylor & Francis, London, 1997 D.A. Rees, Polysaccharide Shapes, Chapman & Hall, 1977 Slideshow 198522 by johana
Development of delivery systems able to hold and release a combination of bioactive compounds at the target site represents a strategy for improving the therapeutic outcomes and overcome the central issues in the multitherapeutic approach. A delivery system based on polysaccharides suitable for loading a combination of chemotherapeutic drugs, doxorubicin and 5-fluorouracil, at defined weight ratio and deliver them following a pH-dependent kinetics was developed. Nanocomplexes were prepared by polyelectrolytes complexation and characterised in terms of average dimension, morphology, drug content by dynamic light scattering, transmission and scanning microscope and UV-Vis spectroscopy, respectively. The complexes showed a spherical shape with the hydrodynamic diameter between 100 and 130 nm, positive ς-potential, high stability in physiological environment and up to 800 μg of drugs per mg loaded. Release studies demonstrate a pH-dependent trend with high control of the release rate for each ...
Linear polysaccharides are typically composed of repeating mono- or disaccharide units and are ubiquitous among living organisms. Polysaccharide diversity arises from chain-length variation, branching, and additional modifications. Structural diversity is associated with various physiological functions, which are often regulated by cognate polysaccharide-binding proteins. Proteins that interact with linear polysaccharides have been identified or developed, such as galectins and polysaccharide-specific antibodies, respectively. Currently, data is accumulating on the three-dimensional structure of polysaccharide-binding proteins. These proteins are classified into two types: exo-type and endo-type. The former group specifically interacts with the terminal units of polysaccharides, whereas the latter with internal units. In this review, we describe the structural aspects of exo-type and endo-type protein-polysaccharide interactions. Further, we discuss the structural basis for affinity and specificity
Group II K antigens such as the K5 are associated with Escherichia coli causing serious extraintestinal infections. Genes for the production of group II capsules (kps) are organised into three functional regions 1, 2 and 3. The central region 2 encodes proteins involved in the biosynthesis of type specific polysaccharide. Proteins encoded by the flanking regions 1 and 3 are involved in the export of polysaccharide across the bacterial membranes unto the cell surface. Translocation of polysaccharide across the inner membrane is mediated by two region 3 encoded proteins, KpsM and KpsT which belong to the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily of transporters. Region 1 encodes six proteins, KpsF-E-D-U-C-S. The KpsE protein was shown to localise in the inner membrane and mutants lacking the encoded protein were unable to export polysaccharide to the cell surface. To understand the export role of the KpsE, its membrane topology was determined using TnphoA mutagenesis and beta-lactamase fusions. The ...
Agricultural and forestry and landscape machinery China, Ginseng Polysaccharides, Ginseng polysaccharides are made up of the galacturonic acid, galactose, rhamnose, acidic heteropolysaccharide (which is...
TY - JOUR. T1 - An alternative polysaccharide uptake mechanism of marine bacteria. AU - Reintjes,Greta. AU - Arnosti,Carol. AU - Fuchs,Bernhard M.. AU - Amann,Rudolf. PY - 2017/7/1. Y1 - 2017/7/1. N2 - Heterotrophic microbial communities process much of the carbon fixed by phytoplankton in the ocean, thus having a critical role in the global carbon cycle. A major fraction of the phytoplankton-derived substrates are high-molecular-weight (HMW) polysaccharides. For bacterial uptake, these substrates must initially be hydrolysed to smaller sizes by extracellular enzymes. We investigated polysaccharide hydrolysis by microbial communities during a transect of the Atlantic Ocean, and serendipitously discovered - using super-resolution structured illumination microscopy - that up to 26% of total cells showed uptake of fluorescently labelled polysaccharides (FLA-PS). Fluorescence in situ hybridisation identified these organisms as members of the bacterial phyla Bacteroidetes and Planctomycetes and the ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Novel rkp gene clusters of Sinorhizobium meliloti involved in capsular polysaccharide production and invasion of the symbiotic nodule. T2 - The rkpK gene encodes a UDP-glucose dehydrogenase. AU - Kereszt, Attila. AU - Kiss, Erno. AU - Reuhs, Bradley L.. AU - Carlson, Russell W.. AU - Kondorosi, Ádám. AU - Putnoky, Péter. PY - 1998/10. Y1 - 1998/10. N2 - The production of exopolysaccharide (EPS) was shown to be required for the infection process by rhizobia that induce the formation of indeterminate nodules on the roots of leguminous host plants. In Sinorhizobium meliloti (also known as Rhizobium meliloti) Rm41, a capsular polysaccharide (KPS) analogous to the group II K antigens of Escherichia coli can replace EPS during symbiotic nodule development and serve as an attachment site for the strain-specific bacteriophage φ16-3. The rkpA to -J genes in the chromosomal rkp-1 region code for proteins that are involved in the synthesis, modification, and transfer of an ...
A single strain (8021) of Neisseria meningitidis, isolated from a child with disseminated meningococcal disease, was found to elaborate two serogroup-specific capsular polysaccharides - Y and W135. The original isolate as well as the progeny of ten single colony sub-isolates each agglutinated with both group Y and group W135 serogrouping antisera. The capsular polysaccharide of strain 8021 contained the chemical constituents of both the W135 and Y capsular polysaccharides in a ratio of about 2.5:1. The patient responded immunologically to both capsular polysaccharides with haemagglutinating antibodies. Analysis by double diffusion in agar revealed that the capsular polysaccharide of strain 8021 contained individual molecules of group W135 and group Y capsular polysaccharides as well as a mosaic molecule containing both antigenic determinants.
A nonpigmented mutant of Porphyromonas gingivalis was constructed by using transposon mutagenesis. The mutant possessed the transposon DNA at the novel gene porR. Gene targeted mutagenesis revealed that porR was responsible for pigmentation. The porR gene shared similarities with genes of the degT family, the products of which are now considered to be transaminases involved in biosynthesis of sugar portions of cell-surface polysaccharides and aminoglycosides. The porR mutant showed a pleiotropic phenotype: delayed maturation of fimbrillin, preferential presence of Rgp and Kgp proteinases in culture supernatants, and no haemagglutination. The porR mutant had altered phenol extractable polysaccharide compared to the porR + sibling strain. A mAb, 1B5, that reacts with sugar portions of P. gingivalis cell surface polysaccharide and membrane-type Rgp proteinase showed no reaction with the cell lysates of the porR mutant. These results indicate that porR is involved in biosynthesis of cell surface
In their natural environments microorganisms exist predominantly in aggregates and biofilms. The ability of bacteria to form aggregates is associated with the biosynthesis of polymers such as polysaccharides. In this study the physical mechanisms underlying bacterial aggregation by extracellular polysaccharides are investigated by utilising the bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti. S. meliloti biosynthesises an extracellular polysaccharide called succinoglycan, which is well characterised in terms of its structure and biosynthesis. A range of previously constructed succinoglycan biosynthesis mutants were screened for altered aggregation. An S. meliloti exoS mutant (a gain of function mutation that results in a constitutively active two component regulator called ExoS) overproduces succinoglycan and has enhanced aggregation compared to the parent strain, Rm1021. The aggregates settle to the bottom of the culture vessel resulting in loss of turbidity of the cultures and phase separation. Microscopic ...
Natural antibodies serve as the bodys first line of defense against pneumococcal challenge. Polyreactive human pneumococcal polysaccharide IgG antibodies have not been extensively studied. We analyzed human polyreactive antibodies that bind multiple pneumococcal polysaccharides, including PPS14 and PPS23F. These antibodies were isolated from single pneumococcal polysaccharide specific B cells allowing for the analysis of human immunoglobulins with natively paired variable regions. Although isolated individually, these antibodies demonstrated similar characteristics. Most antibodies possessed a variable light chain with a CDR3 length made up of nine amino acids and relatively high number of flexible amino acids in combined VH/VL. While these antibodies were polyreactive and structurally alike, kinetic analysis revealed unique KD values. Variable chains are responsible for antigen recognition whereas antibody fine specificity is affected by isotype structure. To investigate the contribution of the
Sera obtained from human volunteers at 6 weeks after vaccination with highly purified type III polysaccharide antigen prepared from a group B Streptococcus, strain M732, were found to protect neonatal rats from otherwise lethal infection by the homologous strain. The specific antibody content of the sera, expressed in micrograms of antibody protein per milliliter, was determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in conjunction with quantitative precipitin analysis. For two sera studied in detail, the protective dose of antibody for 50% of the animals was 0.4 micrograms. Immune serum obtained from a volunteer who received type II polysaccharide vaccine was not protective against type III infection. Absorption of anti-type III serum by quantitative precipitation of antibodies with type III polysaccharide completely removed the passive protective activity of the serum. The results show that antibodies induced in humans by purified type II polysaccharide give serotype-specific protection in an ...
0007]The present invention provides a polysaccharide derivative having different kinds of substituents introduced into its 2- and 3-positions. In particular, the present invention provides a polysaccharide derivative obtained by substituting hydroxyl groups or amino groups at the 3- and 6-positions of a polysaccharide with substituents of one kind different from that at a 2-position of the polysaccharide, a polysaccharide derivative obtained by randomly substituting hydroxyl groups or amino groups at the 3- and 6-positions of a polysaccharide with substituents of two kinds different from that at a 2-position of the polysaccharide, and a polysaccharide derivative obtained by substituting hydroxyl groups or amino groups at the 3- and 6-positions of a polysaccharide with substituents of two kinds different from that at a 2-position of the polysaccharide. Further, the present invention provides, as a method of producing any such polysaccharide derivative, a method involving: specifically introducing ...
Abdelhameed, Ali Saber and Morris, Gordon A. and Almutairi, Fahad and Adams, Gary G. and Duvivier, Pierre and Conrath, Karel and Harding, Stephen E. (2016) Solution conformation and flexibility of capsular polysaccharides from Neisseria meningitidis and glycoconjugates with the tetanus toxoid protein. Scientific Reports, 6 (1). 35588/1-35588/11. ISSN 2045-2322 Abdelhameed, Ali Saber and Adams, Gary G. and Morris, Gordon A. and Almutairi, Fahad M. and Duvivier, Pierre and Conrath, Karel and Harding, Stephen E. (2016) A glycoconjugate of Haemophilus influenzae Type b capsular polysaccharide with tetanus toxoid protein: hydrodynamic properties mainly influenced by the carbohydrate. Scientific Reports, 6 (1). 22208/1-22208/11. ISSN 2045-2322 Morris, Gordon A. and Adams, Gary G. and Harding, Stephen E. (2014) On hydrodynamic methods for the analysis of the sizes and shapes of polysaccharides in dilute solution: a short review. Food Hydrocolloids, 42 . pp. 318-334. ISSN 0268-005X ...
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a serious worldwide pathogen and the focus of numerous vaccine development projects. Currently the most widely accepted surrogate marker for evaluating the efficacy of a given vaccine is to utilize ELISA. Measurement of antibody concentration by ELISA without reduction in cross-reactive antibodies causes an overestimation of antibody concentration and therefore protection, this is most notable in the aged, an at risk group for this infection. We compared the immune response to the pneumococcal polysaccharides (PPS) 4 and 14 of 20 young to 20 elderly adults. Pre-and post-vaccination IgG antibody concentrations and antibody avidity against PPS4 and PPS14 were measured using two different enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) absorption protocols. All sera were pre-absorbed with either cell-wall polysaccharide (CPS), or CPS and serotype 22F polysaccharide. Pre- and post-vaccination IgG antibody concentrations for serotype 4, but not 14, were significantly lowered with the
PNTOR : Streptococcus pneumoniae is a gram-positive bacterium that causes a variety of infectious diseases in children and adults. These include invasive disease (bacteremia and meningitis) and infections of the respiratory tract (pneumonia and otitis media). There is an annual estimated number of 5000 cases of pneumococcal bacteremia (without pneumonia) with a fatality rate of approximately 20%, reaching as high as 60% in the elderly population. It is estimated that as many as 400,000 hospitalizations from pneumococcal pneumonia occur annually in the United States, with a case-fatality rate of 5% to 7%.   More than 90 serotypes of S pneumoniae have been identified, based on varying polysaccharides that are found in the bacterial cell wall. The serotypes responsible for disease vary with age and geographic location.   Bacterial polysaccharides induce a T-cell independent type II humoral immune response. Vaccines containing bacterial polysaccharides can be effective in generating an immune
Due to the growing need to find a more efficient and environmentally friendly alternative to conventional waste removal methods, industries are paying more attention to the function of bacteria and their EPSs in bioremediation.[14]. Researchers found that adding EPSs from cyanobacteria to wastewaters removes heavy metals such as copper, cadmium and lead.[14] EPSs alone can physically interact with these heavy metals and take them in through biosorption.[14] The efficiency of removal can be optimized by treating the EPSs with different acids or bases first before adding them to the wastewaters.[14] Contaminated soils contain high levels of Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs); EPSs from two bacteria, Zoogloea sp. and Aspergillus niger, are efficient at removing these toxic compounds.[15] EPSs contain enzymes such as oxidoreductase and hydrolase, which are capable of degrading PAHs.[15] The amount of PAHs degradation depends on the concentration of EPSs added to the soil. This method proves to ...
The bacteria Escherichia coli K4 produces a capsular polysaccharide (K4 CPS) whose backbone is similar to the non sulphated chondroitin chain. The chondroitin sulphate is one of the major components of the extra-cellular matrix of the vertebrate connective tissues and a high value molecule, widely employed as active principle in the treatment of osteoarthritis. It is usually obtained by extraction from animal tissues, but the risk of virus contaminations, as well as the scarceness of raw material, makes this productive process unsafe and unable to satisfy the growing market demand. In previous studies a new biotechnological process to produce chondroitin from Escherichia coli K4 capsular polysaccharide was investigated and a 1.4 g·L-1 K4 CPS concentration was reached using fed-batch fermentation techniques. In this work, on the trail of these results, we exploited new fermentation strategies to further improve the capsular polysaccharide production. The inhibitory effect of acetate on the bacterial
Polysaccharides are polymeric carbohydrate molecules composed of long chains of monosaccharide units bound together by glycosidic linkages, and on hydrolysis give the constituent monosaccharides or oligosaccharides. They range in structure from linear to highly branched. Examples include storage polysaccharides such as starch and glycogen, and structural polysaccharides such as cellulose and chitin.. Polysaccharides are often quite heterogeneous, containing slight modifications of the repeating unit. Depending on the structure, these macromolecules can have distinct properties from their monosaccharide building blocks. They may be amorphous or even insoluble in water.[1] When all the monosaccharides in a polysaccharide are the same type, the polysaccharide is called a homopolysaccharide or homoglycan, but when more than one type of monosaccharide is present they are called heteropolysaccharides or heteroglycans.[2][3]. Natural saccharides are generally of simple carbohydrates called ...
Author: Silva Seco, Bruna Mara et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 2020; Open Access; Title: Sequential linkage of carbohydrate antigens to mimic capsular polysaccharides : towards semisynthetic glycoconjugate vaccine candidates against Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 14
CHICAGO, Sept. 16, 2011 /CHICAGOPRESSRELEASE.COM/ - GlycoVaxyn AG, a leader in the development of innovative vaccines, today announced an abstract to be presented on a glycoprotein vaccine based on recombinant DNA technology to prevent Staphylococcus aureus infection at the 51st Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (ICAAC), September 17 to 20, 2011, in Chicago. The study demonstrates that a glycoprotein made by in vivo conjugation of S. aureus capsular polysaccharides to various antigen carrier proteins, using GlycoVaxyns proprietary bio-conjugate technology, can induce functional antibodies in several animal models.. The data will be presented during a poster session at 11:15 a.m. to 1:15 p.m. CDT on September 18.. GlycoVaxyns bio-conjugate technology employs well-understood recombinant DNA techniques to modify E. coli bacteria to reproducibly manufacture specific glycoproteins. The technology enables almost any bacterial polysaccharide to be conjugated to almost ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Han Zheng, Shaobo Ji, Zhijie Liu, Ruiting Lan, Ying Huang, Xuemei Bai, Marcelo Gottschalk, Jianguo Xu].
The introduction of vaccines containing the capsular polysaccharides of N. meningitidis, S. pneumonia, and H. influenzae type b has driven a significant reduction in cases of disease caused by these bacteria. The polysaccharide-specific antibody responses following vaccination are well characterized, however less is known about the B cells underlying this response. Here, we summarize the plasma cell (PC) and memory B cell (BMEM) responses following plain polysaccharide and protein-polysaccharide conjugate vaccination, drawing together studies covering a range of vaccines and age groups. These studies show that infant primary PC and BMEM responses to polysaccharide-conjugate vaccines are low in relation to older age groups but are significantly higher following booster doses. PC kinetics have generally been found to follow a similar pattern irrespective of vaccine type or age group, whereas divergent BMEM responses have been reported following plain polysaccharide and conjugate vaccination. A degree of
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The cell surface of many bacterial species is covered with polysaccharides. These extracellular carbohydrates can be in the form of glycolipids, glycoproteins or capsules. The capsular polysaccharides exist in both Gram-negative and Gram-negative bacteria such as Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae, E. coli, Streptococci pneumoniae etc. A special form of glycolipids is called lipopolysaccharides which exist only in Gram-negative bacteria. These polysaccharides are strain-specific and serve as virulence factors for the bacteria. Immune response against the cell surface polysaccharides can stimulate the hosts to produce strain-specific antibodies which can protect the hosts from future infections by the same bacterial strain. We are heavily involved in the synthesis and immunological evaluation of neoglycoconjugates related to some of the polysaccharides ...
Sirrus, Inc., a developer of novel monomers and crosslinkers, welcomes Alexander Polykarpov, PhD, as its new Director of Polymer Synthesis. Dr. Polykarpov will be responsible for the companys polymer synthesis efforts, leading the development of hybrid, crosslinked and homopolymers based on Sirrus patented methylene malonate technology.. Alex has a unique combination of polymer synthesis and application development experience, says Jeff Uhrig, Sirrus CEO. Accordingly, he is uniquely qualified to design polymer architectures that will address commercial opportunities.. Dr. Polykarpov holds a PhD in Organic Photochemistry from Bowling Green State University and brings more than 25 years of polymer science experience to Sirrus. Most recently, he served as Polymer Lab Manager at AkzoNobel Coatings Inc., where he led a research team developing new polymer platforms for can and coil coatings. Dr. Polykarpovs research portfolio includes seven issued patents.. Since the acquisition of Sirrus by ...
Bacteria evolving resistance against the action of multiple drugs and its ability to disseminate the multidrug resistance trait(s) across various strains of the same bacteria or different bacterial species impose serious threat to public health. Evolution of such multidrug resistance is due to the fact that, most of the antibiotics target bacterial survival mechanisms which exert selective pressure on the bacteria and aids it to escape from the action of antibiotics. Nonetheless, targeting bacterial virulence strategies such as bacterial surface associated polysaccharides biosynthesis and their surface accumulation mechanisms may be an attractive strategy, as they impose less selective pressure on the bacteria. Capsular polysaccharide (CPS) or K antigen that is located on the bacterial surface armors bacteria from host immune response. Thus, unencapsulating bacteria would be a good strategy for drug design, besides CPS itself being a good vaccine target, by interfering with CPS biosynthesis and surface
The exopolysaccharide slime colanic acid has been isolated from representative strains of Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium and Aerobacter cloacae. Analysis showed that each polymer contained glucose, galactose, fucose and glucuronic acid, together with acetate and pyruvate. The molar proportions of these components were 1:1·8:1·9:1:1:1 approximately. On the basis of periodate oxidation of the natural and deacetylated polysaccharide, glucose is proposed as the site of the acetyl groups. The pyruvate is attached to galactose. Three neutral oligosaccharides and ten electrophoretically mobile oligosaccharides were isolated and partially characterized. Four of the fragments were esters of pyruvic acid. Most oligosaccharides were isolated from all three polysaccharide preparations. Three further oligosaccharides were isolated from carboxyl-reduced colanic acid and sodium borotritide was used to label the glucose derived from glucuronic acid in these fragments. One trisaccharide was obtained ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Twenty-eight divergent polysaccharide loci specifying within and amongst strain capsule diversity in three strains of Bacteroides fragilis. AU - Patrick,S.. AU - Blakely,G.W.. AU - Houston,S.. AU - Moore,J.. AU - Abratt,V.R.. AU - dos Santos,Marcelo Bertalan Quintanilha. AU - Cedeño-Tárraga,A.M.. AU - Corton,N.. AU - Corton,C.. AU - Bignell,A.. AU - Barron,A.. AU - Clark,L.. AU - Bentley,S.D.. AU - Parkhill,J.. PY - 2010. Y1 - 2010. N2 - Comparison of the complete genome sequence of Bacteroides fragilis 638R originally isolated in the USA, was made with two previously sequenced strains isolated in the UK (NCTC 9343) and Japan (YCH46). The presence of 10 loci containing genes associated with polysaccharide biosynthesis, each including a putative Wzx flippase and Wzy polymerase, was confirmed in all three strains, despite a lack of cross-reactivity between NCTC 9343 and 638R surface polysaccharide-specific antibodies by immunolabelling and microscopy. Genomic comparisons revealed ...
Exopolysaccharides have various applications due to their unique rheological properties as in food, pharmaceutical and other industries. Exopolysaccharides also have some medical applications as anti-cancer, anti-viral and immune-modulator. In present study, 72 bacterial strains were isolated from root nodules of eight different leguminous plants and screened for exopolysaccharide production. Out of 72 isolates, 15 bacterial isolates showing good growth and exopolysaccharide production in primar
Supplement Polysaccharides (e.g. cellulose, starch, or glycogen) are characterized by the following chemical properties: (1) not sweet in taste, (2) insoluble in water, (3) do not form crystals when desiccated, (4) compact and not osmotically active inside the cells, (5) can be extracted to form white powder, and (6) general chemical formula of Cx(H2O) y. Polysaccharides may be a homopolysaccharide or a heteropolysaccharide depending on their monosaccharide components. A homopolysaccharide consists of same types of monosaccharides whereas a heteropolysaccharide is composed of different types of monosaccharides. ...
This authoritative reference work presents comprehensive information about one of the most important and most wide-spread classes of (bio)organic compounds: the polysaccharides. The comprehensive and thoroughly up-to-date handbook presents the sources, identification, analysis, biosynthesis, biotechnology and applications of important polysaccharides likes starches, cellulose, chitin, gum and microbial polysaccharides. Polysaccharides can exhibit complex structure and various functional activities. These bio macromolecules can therefore serve as raw materials for various different materials, e.g. rayon, cellulose acetate, celluloid and nitrocellulose; and they find multiple applications, for instance as surgical threads (chitin), as sources of energy, dietary fibers, as blood flow adjuvants, in cosmetics, emulsion stabilizers, film formers, binders, viscosity increasing agents or skin conditioning agenta, as food additives in gums, chewing gum bases and as vaccines. Polysaccharides form the basis for
Water was collected via Niskin bottles mounted on a rosette, equipped with a CTD.. Experiments on (operationally defined) particles were carried out by gravity-filtering water through 3 um pore size filters. 1/12th sections of the 3 um pore-size filters were submerged in 15 mL artificial seawater; enzyme activities were measured as described below.. The potential of the seawater microbial community associated with large particles (, 3 micrometer pore size filter) to hydrolyze six high-molecular-weight polysaccharides (arabinogalactan, chondroitin sulfate, fucoidan, laminarin, pullulan, and xylan) was investigated in surface and bottom water. For each substrate, three 15 mL falcon tubes were filled with autoclaved artificial seawater and one 15 mL falcon tube was filled with autoclaved seawater and a blank filter piece to serve as a killed control. Substrate was added at 3.5 uM monomer-equivalent concentrations, except for fucoidan, which was added at 5 uM concentrations (a higher concentration ...
A method of inducing an immune response against multiple strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa which comprises administering to a human or animal an amount of mucoid exopolysaccharide from Pseudomonas aer
TY - JOUR. T1 - Signaling factor interactions with polysaccharide aggregates of bacterial biofilms. AU - Desalvo, Stephen C.. AU - Liu, Yating. AU - Choudhary, Geetika Sanjay. AU - Ren, Dacheng. AU - Nangia, Shikha. AU - Sureshkumar, Radhakrishna. PY - 2015/2/17. Y1 - 2015/2/17. N2 - Biofilms are surface-attached colonies of bacteria embedded in an extracellular polymeric substance (EPS). Inside the eukaryotic hosts, bacterial biofilms interact with the host cells through signaling factors (SFs). These signaling processes play important roles in the interaction between bacteria and host cells and the outcome of infections and symbiosis. However, how host immune factors diffuse through biofilms is not well understood. Here, we describe synergistic molecular dynamics and experimental approaches for studying the translocation of signaling factors through polysaccharide chain aggregates present in the extracellular matrix of bacterial biofilms. The effect of polysaccharide chain degradation on the ...
Polysaccharides are one of four classes of carbohydrates, which in turn are biological molecules that contain primarily carbon (C) atoms flanked by hydrogen (H) atoms and hydroxyl (OH) groups (H-C-OH). The simplest carbohydrates are monosaccharides, which are monomers-such as the simple sugars glucose, ribose, and [[fructose]-out of which larger carbohydrates are constructed. When there are two monosaccharides linked together by covalent bonds they are known as disaccharides. Oligosaccharides are made up of more than 3 and generally ten (or perhaps 20) monosaccharides. Polysaccharides are even larger chains of monosaccarides. Thus, some carbohydrates are small with molecular weights of less than one hundred, whereas others are true macromolecules with molecular weights in the hundreds of thousands.. In a monosaccharide, the relative proportions of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen are 1:2:1, and thus the formula is C(H2O). In disaccharides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides, the molar proportions ...
The monosaccharide L-rhamnose is common in bacterial polysaccharides and the disaccharide alpha-L-Rhap-alpha-(1 -, 2)-alpha-L-Rhap-OMe represents a structural model for a part of Shigella flexneri O-antigen polysaccharides. Utilization of [1-C-13]-site-specific labeling in the anomeric position at the glycosidic linkage between the two sugar residues facilitated the determination of transglycosidic NMR (3)J(CH) and (3)J(CC) coupling constants. Based on these spin-spin couplings the major state and the conformational distribution could be determined with respect to the psi torsion angle, which changed between water and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as solvents, a finding mirrored by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with explicit solvent molecules. The C-13 NMR spin relaxation parameters T-1, T-2, and heteronuclear NOE of the probe were measured for the disaccharide in DMSO-d(6) at two magnetic field strengths, with standard deviations ,= 1%. The combination of MD simulation and a stochastic ...
This vaccine is a freeze-dried preparation of the group-specific polysaccharide antigens from Neisseria meningitides Group A and Group C, Mixed lactose as stabilizer made of white loose lyophilized vaccine. This product is only recommended for Children and adults over the age of 2 years. This vaccine can produce a humoral immune, and it is used to prevent disease caused by the bacteria named Neisseria meningitidis groups A and group C ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Novel Method for Polysaccharide Synthesis Using an Enzyme. T2 - The First in Vitro Synthesis of Cellulose via a Nonbiosynthetic Path Utilizing Cellulase as Catalyst. AU - Kobayashi, Shiro. AU - Kashiwa, Keita. AU - Kawasaki, Tatsuya. AU - Shoda, Shin Ichiro. PY - 1991/1/1. Y1 - 1991/1/1. N2 - The in vitro synthesis of cellulose via a nonbiosynthetic path has been achieved for the first time by condensation of β-D-cellobiosyl fluoride as substrate for cellulase, a hydrolysis enzyme of cellulose, in a mixed solvent of acetonitrile/acetate buffer (pH 5, 5:1). The water-insoluble part of the products is synthetic cellulose, the structure of which was confirmed by comparison with an authentic natural cellulose sample with use of solid C NMR and IR spectroscopies as well as with a hydrolysis experiment. The present synthetic cellulose was converted to the corresponding triacetate whose molecular weight was at least 6.3 × 103 (degree of polymerization (DP) ≥ 22). X-ray as well as ...
Salivary and serum antibody response against Neisseria meningitidis after vaccination with conjugate polysaccharide vaccines in Ethiopian ...
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The polysaccharide of peach gum, prepared by a partial acid hydrolysis, was degraded by a mixture of extracellular glacanohydrolases of Aspergillus flavus. This way obtained polysaccharide differed from the original one especially by a higher content of D-mannose and a lower content of D-galactose bound by (1 3) glycosidic bonds. The obtained results are discussed from the standpoint of composition of the main and side chains of the native polysaccharide.. ...
Teichoic Acids: Bacterial polysaccharides that are rich in phosphodiester linkages. They are the major components of the cell walls and membranes of many bacteria.
Markham, R B.; Stashak, P W.; Prescott, B; and Baker, P J., Effect of concanavalin a on lymphocyte interactions involved in the antibody response to type iii pneumococcal polysaccharide. I. Comparision of the suppression induced by con a and low dose paralysis. (1977). Subject Strain Bibliography 1977. 2112 ...
Wang, Hongxia et al The Histone-Like Nucleoid Structuring Protein (H-NS) Is a Repressor of Vibrio cholerae Exopolysaccharide Biosynthesis (vps) Genes. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 78.7 (2012): 2482-2488. Web. 19 Jan. 2020. ...
HSV1 is an enveloped Virus with several Glycoproteins (GPs) on its surface (gB, gA, gC) which allow virus entry into the host cells. Vitrobio postulated that these virus proteins could be blocked & new virus infection could be stopped using specific virus protein antagonist polymers or natural tannins (Ref: Hypothesis - Shrivastava et al: Int. J. Virology, 2011). Similarly, bacterial infection can also be stopped by neutralizing bacterial polysaccharides with polymers capable of binding with macromolecules. After 17 years of R&D, Vitrobio identified specific polymers which can bind with selected targets & neutralize the infection (Patent PCT/EP2010/050236). These polymers were then incorporated into a patented glycerol-based filmogen viscous solution, glycerol being commonly used as pharmaceutical excipient & 18 times more osmotically active than Sea Water yet NON-IRRITANT (International patents: PCT/FR99/01340 & PCT/EP2013/061835). The hypertonic solution film attracts hypotonic fluids from the ...