All-polysaccharide composite films were prepared from native, unmodified cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) mixed with various natural water-soluble polysaccharides like carboxymethyl cellulose, galactoglucomannan, xyloglucan and guar gum. Composite films were manufactured by pressurized filtration and hot pressing. The mechanical properties of the films were systematically evaluated in the dry and the wet state. GG was furthermore selectively oxidized using galactose oxidase (EC 1.1.3.9), and the effect of the degree of oxidation on the final composite film properties was shown. It was found that all the tested polysaccharides increased the strength and toughness of the dry composite films at 2 weight percent (wt.%) addition to CNF. After soaking the samples for 24 h in water, striking differences between the samples were found: already at 2 wt.% CMC the wet strength of the composite films diminished, while the uncharged polysaccharides improved the wet strength. For example, the addition of 2 wt.% ...
Arixtra teaching, arixtra orthopedic studies, arixtra for women, arixtra levels and arixtra dose. Arixtra treatment, arixtra stemi, arixtra fondaparinux monitoring and arixtra onset or arixtra medications.
Non-starch polysaccharide enzymes (NSPEs) have long been used in monogastric animal feed production to degrade non-starch polysaccharides (NSPs) to oligosaccharides in order to promote growth performance and gastrointestinal (GI) tract health. However, the precise molecular mechanism of NSPEs in the improvement of the mammalian small intestine remains unknown. In this study, isobaric tags were applied to investigate alterations of the small intestinal mucosa proteome of growing pigs after 50 days of supplementation with 0.6% NSPEs (mixture of xylanase, β-glucanase and cellulose) in the diet. Bioinformatics analysis including gene ontology annotation was performed to determine the differentially expressed proteins. A protein fold-change of ≥ 1.2 and a P-value of | 0.05 were selected as thresholds. Dietary supplementation of NSPEs improved the growth performance of growing pigs. Most importantly, a total of 90 proteins were found to be differentially abundant in the small intestinal mucosa between a
O-glycans are a class of glycans that modify serine or threonine residues of proteins. Biosynthesis of O-glycans starts from the transfer of N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) to serine or threonine. The first GalNAc may be extended with sugars including galactose, N-acetylglucosamine, fucose, or sialic acid, but not mannose, glucose, or xylose. Depending on the sugars added, there are four common O-glycan core structures, cores 1 through 4, and an additional four, cores 5 though 8. Mucins are highly O-glycosylated glycoproteins ubiquitous in mucous secretions on cell surfaces and in body fluids. Mucin O-glycans can be branched, and many sugars or groups of sugars are antigenic. Important modifications of mucin O-glycans include O-acetylation of sialic acid and O-sulfation of galactose and N-acetylglucosamine ...
The recent years have witnessed considerable developments in the interpretation of the three-dimensional structures of plant polysaccharide-degrading enzymes in the context of their functional specificity. A plethora of new structures of catalytic, carbohydrate-binding and protein-scaffolding modules involved in (hemi)cellulose catabolism has emerged in harness with sophisticated biochemical analysis. Despite significant advances, a full understanding of the intricacies of substrate recognition and catalysis by these diverse and specialised enzymes remains an important goal, especially if the application potential of these biocatalysts is to be fully realised.. ...
Documenting mass spectral data is a fundamental aspect of accepted protocols. In this report, we contrast MS(n) sequential disassembly spectra obtained from natural and synthetic glycan epitopes. The epitopes considered are clusters found on conjugate termini of lipids and N- and O-glycans of proteins. The latter are most frequently pendant through a CID-labile HexNAc glycosidic linkage. The synthetic samples were supplied by collaborating colleagues and commercial sources and usually possessed a readily released reducing-end linker, a by-product of synthesis. All samples were comparably methylated, extracted, and MS(n) disassembled to compare their linkage and branching spectral details. Both sample types provide B-ion type fragments early in a disassembly pathway and their compositions are a suggestion of structure. Further steps of disassembly are necessary to confirm the details of linkage and branching. Included in this study were various Lewis and H antigens, 3- and 6-linked ...
Glycans play essential roles in biological functions such as differentiation and cancer. Recently, glycans have been considered as biomarkers for physiological aging. However, details regarding the specific glycans involved are limited. Here, we investigated cellular senescence- and human aging-dependent glycan changes in human diploid fibroblasts derived from differently aged skin donors using a lectin microarray. We found that α2-6sialylated glycans in particular differed between elderly- and fetus-derived cells at early passage. However, both cell types exhibited sequentially decreasing α2-3sialylated O-glycan structures during the cellular senescence process and showed similar overall glycan profiles. We observed a senescence-associated decrease in sialylation and increase in galactose exposure. Therefore, glycan profiling using lectin microarrays might be useful for the characterization of biomarkers of aging.
Polysaccharides are polymeric carbohydrate molecules composed of long chains of monosaccharide units bound together by glycosidic linkages, and on hydrolysis give the constituent monosaccharides or oligosaccharides. They range in structure from linear to highly branched. Examples include storage polysaccharides such as starch and glycogen, and structural polysaccharides such as cellulose and chitin.. Polysaccharides are often quite heterogeneous, containing slight modifications of the repeating unit. Depending on the structure, these macromolecules can have distinct properties from their monosaccharide building blocks. They may be amorphous or even insoluble in water.[1] When all the monosaccharides in a polysaccharide are the same type, the polysaccharide is called a homopolysaccharide or homoglycan, but when more than one type of monosaccharide is present they are called heteropolysaccharides or heteroglycans.[2][3]. Natural saccharides are generally of simple carbohydrates called ...
Vesicles derived from maize roots retain a membrane bound H+-ATPase that is able to pump H+ at the expense of ATP hydrolysis. In this work it is shown that heparin, fucose-branched chondroitin sulfate and dextran sulfate 8000 promote a shift of the H+-ATPase optimum pH from 6.0 to 7.0. This shift is a result of a dual effect of the sulfated polysaccharides, inhibition at pH 6.0 and activation at pH 7.O. At pH 6.0 dextran 8000 promotes an increase of the apparent Km for ATP from 0.28 to 0.95 mM and a decrease of the Vmax from 14.5 to 7.1 μmol Pi/mg · 30 min−1. At pH 7.0 dextran 8000 promotes an increase in Vmax from 6.7 to 11.7 μmol Pi/mg · 30 min−1. In the presence of lysophosphatidylcholine the inhibitory effect of the sulfated polysaccharides observed at pH 6.0 was not altered but the activation of pH 7.0 decreased. It was found that in the presence of sulfated polysaccharides the ATPase became highly sensitive to K+ and Na+. Both the inhibition at pH 6.0 and the activation promoted by ...
The study of bacterial glycosidases has emerged as a field at the intersection of microbial pathogenesis and glycobiology. By studying the mechanisms by which bacteria interfere with host glycosylation, new insight can be gained into both bacterial pathogenesis and the impact of glycosylation of the immune system. Interfering with the glycosylation of the host defence is widespread among pathogenic bacteria for modulation of the functions of the immune system or as a way of utilizing the glycans of glycoproteins as nutrients [24,33].. For example, Enterococcus faecalis, a Gram-positive gut bacterium and opportunist, secretes EndoE, an endoglycosidase with activity on the Fc-glycan on IgG and on the glycoprotein RNase B that promotes bacterial growth when nutrients are scarce [24,34]. The endoglycosidases EndoF1-3 from E. meningoseptica and EndoH from Streptomyces plicatus has been shown to be glycan-specific: high-mannose and hybrid oligosaccharides are cleaved by EndoF1 and EndoH, whereas ...
N-glycans or asparagine-linked glycans are major constituents of glycoproteins in eukaryotes. N-glycans are covalently attached to asparagine with the consensus sequence of Asn-X-Ser/Thr by an N-glycosidic bond, GlcNAc b1- Asn. Biosynthesis of N-glycans begins on the cytoplasmic face of the ER membrane with the transferase reaction of UDP-GlcNAc and the lipid-like precursor P-Dol (dolichol phosphate) to generate GlcNAc a1- PP-Dol. After sequential addition of monosaccharides by ALG glycosyltransferases [MD:M00055], the N-glycan precursor is attached by the OST (oligosaccharyltransferase) complex to the polypeptide chain that is being synthesized and translocated through the ER membrane. The protein-bound N-glycan precursor is subsequently trimmed, extended, and modified in the ER and Golgi by a complex series of reactions catalyzed by membrane-bound glycosidases and glycosyltransferases. N-glycans thus synthesized are classified into three types: high-mannose type, complex type, and hybrid type. ...
OUTLINE: This is a multicenter study.. Blood is collected from patients with metastatic breast cancer, patients with noncancerous illness, and healthy volunteers. Samples are analyzed for serum glycan biomarkers by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) and Fourier transform ion-cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT ICR MS) methods.. Blood samples are collected every 3 months for up to 18 months from patients with metastatic breast cancer. Patients without cancer have a single sample collected. ...
OUTLINE: This is a multicenter study.. Blood is collected from patients with metastatic breast cancer, patients with noncancerous illness, and healthy volunteers. Samples are analyzed for serum glycan biomarkers by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) and Fourier transform ion-cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT ICR MS) methods.. Blood samples are collected every 3 months for up to 18 months from patients with metastatic breast cancer. Patients without cancer have a single sample collected. ...
This book presents the latest breakthrough results in glycobiology regarding the roles of glycans in relation to quality control and transport of protein, the immune system, viral infection, stem cells, the neural system, and various diseases such as cancer, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, muscular dystrophy, and schizophrenia. Although glycoscience has long been regarded as a very specialized field with no simple analytical method, the recent explosive progress in research continues to provide limitless evidence that glycan chains are the key component in various biological phenomena. Cell surface glycans, for example, change with developmental stages or environmental conditions and thus represent a �face� of the cell that is utilized for identification of iPS and ES cells and as biomarkers in diagnosis or detection of cancer. This book comprises 17 chapters, each of which poses outstanding �glyco-related� questions enabling non-specialists to have a clearer idea about ...
This authoritative reference work presents comprehensive information about one of the most important and most wide-spread classes of (bio)organic compounds: the polysaccharides. The comprehensive and thoroughly up-to-date handbook presents the sources, identification, analysis, biosynthesis, biotechnology and applications of important polysaccharides likes starches, cellulose, chitin, gum and microbial polysaccharides. Polysaccharides can exhibit complex structure and various functional activities. These bio macromolecules can therefore serve as raw materials for various different materials, e.g. rayon, cellulose acetate, celluloid and nitrocellulose; and they find multiple applications, for instance as surgical threads (chitin), as sources of energy, dietary fibers, as blood flow adjuvants, in cosmetics, emulsion stabilizers, film formers, binders, viscosity increasing agents or skin conditioning agenta, as food additives in gums, chewing gum bases and as vaccines. Polysaccharides form the basis for
Sulfated polysaccharides have shown promising effects on wound healing processes along with many other biological activities. The sulfated polysaccharides extracted from two algae species habitats in Persian Gulf were studied in vivo for their effects on collagen formation and epidermal regeneration. The polysaccharides were purified from aqueous extracts of P. ...
Although it typically evades the immune system, HIV does have sites of vulnerability that can be targeted in vaccine design. One such site is a glycan near the V3 loop of the envelope protein, but antibodies recognizing this epitope are often not detected in people infected with HIV. Alam et al. designed a synthetic glycopeptide that can identify B cells targeting this epitope and also used it to immunize macaques. Bonsignori et al. used this synthetic glycopeptide and other baits to study the V3-glycan antibody responses of an HIV-infected individual that developed broadly neutralizing antibodies. They also examined viral evolution over time and found clues as to why these types of antibodies do not develop more often. These tools and findings could pave the way for a vaccine that protects against diverse strains of HIV. ...
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The negatively charged sugar sialic acid (Sia) occupies the outermost position in the bulk of cell surface glycans. Lack of sialylated glycans due to genetic ablation of the Sia-activating enzyme CMP-sialic acid synthase (CMAS) resulted in embryonic lethality around day 9.5 post coitum (E9.5) in mice. Developmental failure was caused by complement activation on trophoblasts in Cmas-/- implants and was accompanied by infiltration of maternal neutrophils at the fetal-maternal interface, intrauterine growth restriction, impaired placental development, and a thickened Reicherts membrane. This phenotype, which shared features with complement receptor 1-related protein Y (Crry) depletion, was rescued in E8.5 Cmas-/- mice upon injection of cobra venom factor, resulting in exhaustion of the maternal complement component C3. Here we show that Sia is dispensable for early development of the embryo proper but pivotal for fetal-maternal immune homeostasis during pregnancy, i.e., for protecting the ...
The negatively charged sugar sialic acid (Sia) occupies the outermost position in the bulk of cell surface glycans. Lack of sialylated glycans due to genetic ablation of the Sia-activating enzyme CMP-sialic acid synthase (CMAS) resulted in embryonic lethality around day 9.5 post coitum (E9.5) in mice. Developmental failure was caused by complement activation on trophoblasts in Cmas-/- implants and was accompanied by infiltration of maternal neutrophils at the fetal-maternal interface, intrauterine growth restriction, impaired placental development, and a thickened Reicherts membrane. This phenotype, which shared features with complement receptor 1-related protein Y (Crry) depletion, was rescued in E8.5 Cmas-/- mice upon injection of cobra venom factor, resulting in exhaustion of the maternal complement component C3. Here we show that Sia is dispensable for early development of the embryo proper but pivotal for fetal-maternal immune homeostasis during pregnancy, i.e., for protecting the ...
Recombinant expression systems differ in the type of glycosylation they impart on expressed antigens such as the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope glycoproteins, potentially affecting their biological properties. We performed head-to-head antigenic, immunogenic and molecular profiling of two distantly related Env surface (gp120) antigens produced in different systems: (a) mammalian (293 FreeStyle cells; 293F) cells in the presence of kifunensine, which impart only high-mannose glycans; (b) insect cells (Spodoptera frugiperda, Sf9), which confer mainly paucimannosidic glycans; (c) Sf9 cells recombinant for mammalian glycosylation enzymes (Sf9 Mimic), which impart high-mannose, hybrid and complex glycans without sialic acid; and (d) 293F cells, which impart high-mannose, hybrid and complex glycans with sialic acid. Molecular models revealed a significant difference in gp120 glycan coverage between the Sf9-derived and wild-type mammalian-cell-derived material that is predicted to affect
A fresh water-soluble polysaccharide (longan polysaccharide 1 (LP1)) was extracted and successfully purified from pulp via diethylaminoethyl (DEAE)-cellulose anion-exchange and Sephacryl S-300 HR gel chromatography. HO8910 tumor cells, with inhibition percentages of Tasquinimod supplier 40% and 50%, respectively. In addition, LP1 significantly stimulated the production of the cytokine interferon- (IFN-), increased the activity of murine […]. ...
PGX (PolyGlycopleX) is a precise blend of naturally occurring water-soluble polysaccharides (fibers) that together, have highly unique and desirable properties for weight loss and overall good health. PGX is the result of extensive research by the University of Toronto and the Canadian Center for Functional Medicine. PGX is the worlds most viscous soluble fiber blend. What does viscous mean? Simply to thicken. Once PGX is added to water or food it thickens or becomes viscous. The viscosity of soluble fiber is important as it relates directly to the overall health benefits. The most important advantage of PGX over other soluble fiber products is that significantly less PGX is required to obtain the same important health benefits, including appetite control and reduced food cravings. Why take PGX? PGX has been clinically proven to: - Reduce appetite comfortably and safely - Reduce food cravings - Balance metabolism - Improve regularity - Maintain glucose levels already within normal range
A medical implant can include a bioerodible metal portion and a coating overlying the bioerodible metal portion. The coating can include a therapeutic agent and a polysaccharide matrix reversibly cross-linked with polyvalent metal cations. Upon implantation of the implant within a body, the therapeutic agent is released and the bioerodible metal portion erodes to release polyvalent metal cations capable of re-cross-linking the polysaccharide matrix.
Supplement Polysaccharides (e.g. cellulose, starch, or glycogen) are characterized by the following chemical properties: (1) not sweet in taste, (2) insoluble in water, (3) do not form crystals when desiccated, (4) compact and not osmotically active inside the cells, (5) can be extracted to form white powder, and (6) general chemical formula of Cx(H2O) y. Polysaccharides may be a homopolysaccharide or a heteropolysaccharide depending on their monosaccharide components. A homopolysaccharide consists of same types of monosaccharides whereas a heteropolysaccharide is composed of different types of monosaccharides. ...
Polysaccharides are one of four classes of carbohydrates, which in turn are biological molecules that contain primarily carbon (C) atoms flanked by hydrogen (H) atoms and hydroxyl (OH) groups (H-C-OH). The simplest carbohydrates are monosaccharides, which are monomers-such as the simple sugars glucose, ribose, and [[fructose]-out of which larger carbohydrates are constructed. When there are two monosaccharides linked together by covalent bonds they are known as disaccharides. Oligosaccharides are made up of more than 3 and generally ten (or perhaps 20) monosaccharides. Polysaccharides are even larger chains of monosaccarides. Thus, some carbohydrates are small with molecular weights of less than one hundred, whereas others are true macromolecules with molecular weights in the hundreds of thousands.. In a monosaccharide, the relative proportions of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen are 1:2:1, and thus the formula is C(H2O). In disaccharides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides, the molar proportions ...
Abnormalities in glycan biosynthesis have got been conclusively linked to many illnesses but the intricacy of glycosylation offers hindered the evaluation of glycan data in purchase to identify glycoforms contributing to disease. systems including a problem in the microarray for uncovering the GnTV (MGAT5) enzyme. Our outcomes demonstrate the potential of systems glycobiology equipment for elucidating essential glycan biomarkers and potential healing goals. The incorporation of multiple data pieces represents an essential application of systems biology for understanding complicated mobile procedures. Writer Overview Glycans are the glucose accessories that are present on fats and protein. These highly adjustable and different glucose stores confer exclusive features to the cell surface area structurally. Latest analysis provides uncovered that these glycan single profiles can represent essential signatures of disease expresses and hence understanding glycan digesting and buildings in cells is ...
Glycans can be covalently attached to any protein or lipid molecule of choice, a process called glycation. Our technology is based on glycation of antigens which can be proteins or peptides derived from macromolecules to which we direct the immune response. Alternatively we couple glycans to delivery systems (such as lipids) that contain encapsulated antigen, for targeting specificity. Specific glycan structures can be recognized by unique receptors, present on DCs.. One of the best-studied receptors on these antigen-presenting cells is DC-SIGN, originally identified by our CSO Prof. Yvette van Kooyk. DCs continuously sample the body for the presence of disease-causing agents. Upon encounter, DCs recognize and take up the pathogen using its glycan sensing receptors. Fragments of the ingested pathogen are then presented to T cells. In an interactive process between the two cell types, DCs instruct the T cells to build up a response aimed to eradicate the particular pathogen. On the other hand DCs ...
Carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs) are found within multi-modular polysaccharide degrading enzymes [glycoside hydrolases (GHs)]. CBMs play a critical role in the recognition of plant cell-wall polysaccharides and enhance the hydrolase activity of their cognate catalytic domains by increasing enzyme substrate proximity. Mimicking their role in Nature, we, in the present study, propose that CBMs may assist in vitro glycosynthase-catalysed polymerization reactions to produce artificial polysaccharides. Glycosynthases are GHs that have been engineered to catalyse glycoside bond formation for the synthesis of oligosaccharides, glycoconjugates and glycans. The degree of polymerization (DP) of the glycans generated is limited by the solubility of the polymeric product. In the present study, we have targeted the synthesis of artificial 1,3-1,4-β-glucans with a regular sequence using the glycosynthase E134S derived from a Bacillus licheniformis lichenase. We show that the addition of CBM11, which binds ...
Asparagine (N)-linked glycosylation is one of the most common co- and post-translational modifications of both intra- and extracellularly distributing proteins, which directly affects their biological functions, such as protein folding, stability and intercellular traffic. Production of the structural well-defined homogeneous N-glycans contributes to comprehensive investigation of their biological roles and molecular basis. Among the various methods, chemo-enzymatic approach serves as an alternative to chemical synthesis, providing high stereoselectivity and economic efficiency. This review summarizes some recent advances in the chemo-enzymatic methods for the production of N-glycans, including the preparation of substrates and sugar donors, and the progress in the glycosyltransferases characterization which leads to the diversity of N-glycan synthesis. We discuss the bottle-neck and new opportunities in exploiting the chemo-enzymatic synthesis of N-glycans based on our research experiences. In addition
Waters BEH-based Glycan chemistry offerings are available in three highly scalable particle sizes that address UPLC (i.e, 1.7 µm) and HPLC-based (2.5 µm XP and 3.5 µm) application needs. Each batch of BEH Glycan material is specifically quality control tested with the 2-AB labeled, Waters Glycan Performance standard to help ensure batch to batch consistency as well as highly similar separated glycan profiles. To help ensure highly similar results, chromatographers can now choose the most appropriate LC-based technology to address their specific released glycan analysis application needs and laboratory instrumentation.
Studies of mucins suggest that the structural effects of O-glycans are restricted to steric interactions between peptide-linked GalNAc residues and adjacent polypeptide residues. It has been proposed, however, that differential O-glycan sialylation alters the structure of the stalk-like region of the T cell co-receptor, CD8, and that this, in turn, modulates ligand binding (Daniels, M. A., Devine, L., Miller, J. D., Moser, J. M., Lukacher, A. E., Altman, J. D., Kavathas, P., Hogquist, K. A., and Jameson, S. C. (2001) Immunity 15, 1051-1061; Moody, A. M., Chui, D., Reche, P. A., Priatel, J. J., Marth, J. D., and Reinherz, E. L. (2001) Cell 107, 501-512). We characterize the glycosylation of soluble, chimeric forms of the alphaalpha- and alphabeta-isoforms of murine CD8 containing the O-glycosylated stalk of rat CD8alphaalpha, and we show that the stalk O-glycans are differentially sialylated in CHO K1 versus Lec3.2.8.1 cells (82 versus approximately 6%, respectively). Sedimentation analysis indicates
Sulfated polysaccharides play a central role in many biological processes including signaling, cell growth and differentiation through interaction with proteins. Investigation of the interactions is i
An estimate of the relative abundance of the various O-glycans was determined from nanoLC-ESI-IT-MS analysis of trypsin-generated (glyco)peptides. It should be noted that because the signal of the monosialylated O-glycopeptide in triply charged state overlapped with the doubly charged peak of the hinge repeat peptide with a putative acetylation modification in all samples, only the doubly charged signal of the monosialylated O-glycopeptide was quantified, thereby leading to an underestimation of this O-glycoform. Furthermore, it is known that glycopeptides with different glycan structures can have different response factors (35), and thus the relative abundances we measured may not accurately reflect the real ratios. In order to obtain a more reliable estimate of the percentage of the hinge repeat motif bearing an O-glycan, tryptic IgG peptides were incubated with exoglycosidases, trimming all O-glycans down to a single N-acetylhexosamine. A previous study of quantitative measurements of a ...
Polysaccharides are the most abundant organic materials in nature, yet correlations between their three-dimensional structure and macroscopic properties have not been established. Automated glycan assembly (AGA) enables the preparation of well-defined oligo- and polysaccharides resembling natural as well as unnatural structures [1]. A collection of related compounds, modified at specific positions of the chain, is presented (Fig1). These synthetic glycans are ideal probes for the fundamental study of polysaccharides, shedding light on how the modification patterns affect the polysaccharides properties (i.e. three dimensional shape). Molecular modelling simulations and NMR analysis show that different classes of polysaccharides adopt fundamentally different conformations, drastically altered by single-site substitutions [2]. Moreover, these synthetic oligosaccharides are shown to self-assemble into nanostructures of varying morphologies. Well-defined differences in chain length, monomer ...
linked with [[Glycosidic bonds,glycosidic bonds]]. Polysaccharides have two main forms and uses: structural and storage. Important examples of these are [[Starch,starch]] and [[Glycogen,glycogen]] (storage), and [[Cellulose,cellulose]] and [[Chitin,chitin]] (structural). Polysaccharides must be more than about ten monosaccharides in length but have no real limit to their length, with some examples consisting of hundreds of sugar units. There is however a general formula that can be used to show the construction of the polysaccharide. As most polysacchardies are formed using a backbone of six-carbon [[Monosaccharides,monosaccharides]], the general formula is (C,sub,6,/sub,H,sub,10,/sub,O,sub,5,/sub,)n, where n is the unknown number and therefore the length of the chain ,ref,Champe PC, Harvey RA, Ferrier DR. (2008)Biochemistry, 4th edition; Philadelphia; Lippincott Williams & Wilkins,/ref ...
...   Polysaccharides are relatively complex carbohydrates. They are polymers made up of many monosaccharides joined together by glycosidic
This gene encodes a member of the beta-1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase protein family. The encoded enzyme is involved in the biosynthesis of poly-N-acetyllactosamine chains and prefers lacto-N-neotetraose as a substrate. It is a type II transmembrane protein ...
Extensive shielding by N-glycans on the surface of the HIV envelope glycoproteins (Env) restricts B cell recognition of conserved neutralizing determinants. Elicitation of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) in selected HIV-infected individuals reveals that Abs capable of penetrating the glycan shield can be generated by the B cell repertoire. Accordingly, we sought to determine if targeted N-glycan deletion might alter antibody responses to Env. We focused on the conserved CD4 binding site (CD4bs) since this is a known neutralizing determinant that is devoid of glycosylation to allow CD4 receptor engagement, but is ringed by surrounding N-glycans. We selectively deleted potential N-glycan sites (PNGS) proximal to the CD4bs on well-ordered clade C 16055 native flexibly linked (NFL) trimers to potentially increase recognition by naïve B cells in vivo. We generated glycan-deleted trimer variants that maintained native-like conformation and stability. Using a panel of CD4bs-directed bNAbs, we ...
Extraction: it is a natural polysaccharide that is obtained from different plant species. Benefits: this polysaccharide acts as a prebiotic in the formulation
With the implementation of GlyTouCan the mission of GlycomeDB comes to an end. GlyTouCan is the international glycan structure repository. This repository is a freely available, uncurated registry for glycan structures that assigns globally unique accession numbers to any glycan. All glycan structures and associates information (cross references and taxon annotation) have been migrated to GlyTouCan and are available in this database in addition many more structures. GlyTouCan allows individual researchers to register their own structures and associate these structures with papers. GlyTouCan is supported by the Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science & Technology and has been developed by researchers at the Soka University and the Complex Carbohydrate Research Center. Please use GlyTouCan and the unique glycan accession numbers for your work and help us to make GlyTouCan a comprehensive namespace for glycan structures. In case of questions or comments please contact Rene ...
With the implementation of GlyTouCan the mission of GlycomeDB comes to an end. GlyTouCan is the international glycan structure repository. This repository is a freely available, uncurated registry for glycan structures that assigns globally unique accession numbers to any glycan. All glycan structures and associates information (cross references and taxon annotation) have been migrated to GlyTouCan and are available in this database in addition many more structures. GlyTouCan allows individual researchers to register their own structures and associate these structures with papers. GlyTouCan is supported by the Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science & Technology and has been developed by researchers at the Soka University and the Complex Carbohydrate Research Center. Please use GlyTouCan and the unique glycan accession numbers for your work and help us to make GlyTouCan a comprehensive namespace for glycan structures. In case of questions or comments please contact Rene ...
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Detailed studies on oxidation and reduction of complex polysaccharides were studied. Low molecular weight glucan like dextran has been oxidized using ..
The laboratorys main purpose is to understand as the innate immune system recognizes pathogens through surface receptors - basically CLRs or C-type lectins and galectins-expressed mainly in macrophages and dendritic cells. In the past year we have developed a system of study that includes the full complement of glycan recognition proteins (human and murine) immobilized microarray format that will allow us to get a snapshot of how a particular pathogen is "seen" by the immune system. The results of studies using this predictive system may provide clues as to bias the immune response generated against a particular pathogen. A second objective is to define routes signaling / transduction induced in antigen presenting cells by the interaction of C-type lectins and galectinshaptens with their glycans. Knowing the nature of these pathways is essential for the identification of pathogen molecules that may act as regulators / immune modulators and hence serve as potential therapeutic targets for ...
Ling zhi mushroom substance contained polysaccharides, adenosine, ganoderat acid, triterpenoids, peptidoglukan, fiber, protein and some vitamins such as vitamin E, C, B3, B6, B12, and minerals. Beta-D glucan, glukorono beta-D-glucan, arabinoxylo beta-D-glucan as well as other compounds in a complex group of polysaccharides can prevent cancer, but can stimulate the growth of T cells, interleukin 2, natural killer that can attack and destroy infected cells. ...
molecular chaperone thought to be required for expression of active T-synthase, the only enzyme that galactosylates the Tn antigen (GalNAcalpha1-Ser/Thr-R) to form core 1 Galbeta1-3GalNAcalpha1-Ser/Thr (T antigen) during mucin type O-glycan biosynthesis ...
... s are relatively complex carbohydrates. They are polymers made up of many monosaccharides joined together by glycosidic bonds. They are therefore very large, often branched, macromolecules. They tend to be amorphous, insoluble in…
New users of BIOSCI/bionet may want to read the Frequently Asked Questions or FAQ sheet for BIOSCI. The FAQ provides details on how to participate in these forums and is available for anonymous FTP from net.bio.net [134.172.2.69] in pub/BIOSCI/biosci.FAQ. It may also be requested by sending e-mail to biosci at net.bio.net (use plain English for your request). The FAQ is also posted on the first of each month to the newsgroup BIONEWS/bionet.announce immediately following the posting of the BIOSCI information sheet. Sincerely, Dave Kristofferson BIOSCI/bionet Manager kristoff at net.bio.net ...
Biofilm is extracellular polysaccharide matrix that bacteria produce on the wound surface, thus allowing them to survive and proliferate. The biofilm must be removed in order to decrease bacterial burden and promote wound healing.
Biofilm is extracellular polysaccharide matrix that bacteria produce on the wound surface, thus allowing them to survive and proliferate. The biofilm must be removed in order to decrease bacterial burden and promote wound healing.
Extract ✓ standardised to 45% polysaccharides ✓ can activate the immune system ✓ protects cells and tissues ✓ Order now ✓ at Fairvital ✓
The full agenda has now been publicly released for the upcoming Inspire: International Non-Starch Polysaccharide (NSP) Forum, due to take place between 31st March and 2nd April 2014, in Pitlochry, Scotland.
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Use the hyperlinks on the top to navigate each of these above mentioned pathways. Currently, each arrow in a pathway is linked to a Glycoenzyme Family in the Carbohydrate Active enZYmes (CAZY) database , developed by Bernard Henrissat and Henrik Clausen . The CAZY families will be modified into lists of glycoenzymes with hyperlinks to their Consortium molecule pages analogous to the Glycan Binding Proteins Molecule Pages . Key for Glycosylation Pathways symbols ...
Glucose, dextrose, and maltodextrin market is expected to reach USD 58,764.21 million by the year 2026, at a CAGR of 6.9%. maltodextrin is a white, starchy powder that producers add into many foods to enhance their flavor, thickness, or shelf life.
generating the core 1 O-glycan Gal-beta1-3GalNAc-alpha1-Ser/Thr (T antigen), which is a precursor for many extended O-glycans in ...
Dendrobium officinale is a precious traditional Chinese medicinal plant because of its abundant polysaccharides found in stems. We determined the composition of water-soluble polysaccharides and starch content in D. officinale stems. The extracted water-soluble polysaccharide content was as high as 35% (w/w). Analysis of the composition of monosaccharides showed that the water-soluble polysaccharides were dominated by mannose, to a lesser extent glucose, and a small amount of galactose, in a molar ratio of 223:48:1. Although starch was also found, its content was less than 10%. This result indicated that the major polysaccharides in D. officinale stems were non-starch polysaccharides, which might be mannan polysaccharides. The polysaccharides formed granules and were stored in plastids similar to starch grains, were localized in D. officinale stems by semi-thin and ultrathin sections. CELLULOSE SYNTHASE-LIKE A (CSLA) family members encode mannan synthases that catalyze the formation of mannan
The water-soluble polysaccharides from Cassia angustifolia L. leaves were isolated and fractionated. The acidic polysaccharide fraction was separated into two subfractions S1 und S2 consisting of L-rhamnose, L-arabinose, D-galactose, and D-galacturonic acid. Further fractionation of the predominant S1 by GPC gave two fractions S1A and S1B with an average molecular weight of 2 × 106 and 1.5 × 105 d, respectively. Methylation analysis of S1A showed the presence of 1,4-linked galacturonic acid (31.0%), 1,2-linked rhamnose (14.5%), 1,2,4-linked rhamnose (15.8%), 1,3,6-linked galactose (15.3%), smaller amounts of 1,3-linked arabinose, 1,5-linked arabinose, and terminal galactose and arabinose residues. Mild acid hydrolysis of S1A indicated that the backbone consists of 1,4-linked galacturonic acid and 1,2-linked rhamnose residues in the ratio of 1:1. Every second rhamnose is connected via C-4 to arabinogalactan sidechains ...
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1] R. Saldova, et al., Levels of specific serum N-glycans identify breast cancer patients with higher circulating tumor cell counts, Ann. Oncol. 22 (2011) 1113-1119.. [2] U.M. Abd Hamid, et al., A strategy to reveal potential glycan markers from serum glycoproteins associated with breast cancer progression, Glycobiology 18 (2008) 1105. [3] Z. Kyselova, et al., Breast cancer diagnosis and prognosis through quantitative measurements of serum glycan profiles, Clin. Chem. 54 (2008) 1166-1175.. [4] A. Pierce, et al., Levels of specific glycans significantly distinguish lymph node-. [5] de Leoz, M. L., et al., (2011) High-mannose glycans are elevated during breast cancer progression. Mol. Cell. Proteomics 10, M110.00271. [6] Alley, W. R., Jr., et al., (2010) Chip-based reversed-phase liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry of permethylated N-linked glycans: a potential methodology for cancerbiomarker discovery. Anal. Chem. 82, 5095-5106. [7] J. Bones, et al., Ultra performance liquid chromatographic ...
The extraction, fractionation and HIV-1 inhibition potential of polysaccharides extracted from three species of marine sponges, Erylus discophorus, Cliona celata and Stelletta sp., collected in the Northeastern Atlantic, is presented in this work. The anti-HIV activity of 23 polysaccharide pellets and three crude extracts was tested. Crude extracts prepared from Erylus discophorus specimens were all highly active against HIV-1 (90 to 95% inhibition). Cliona celata pellets showed low polysaccharide content (bellow 38.5%) and almost no anti-HIV activity (<10% inhibition). Stelletta sp. pellets, although quite rich in polysaccharide (up to 97.3%), showed only modest bioactivity (<36% HIV-1 inhibition). Erylus discophorus pellets were among the richest in terms of polysaccharide content (up to 98%) and the most active against HIV-1 (up to 95% inhibition). Chromatographic fractionation of the polysaccharide pellet obtained from a specimen of Erylus discophorus (B161) yielded only modestly active
Kefiran is a water-soluble polysaccharide extracted from kefir grains biomass. The identification and quantification of kefiran monosaccharides were carried out by HPTLC after the complete acid hydrolysis of kefiran solutions. The mobile phase was a mixture of n-propanol: acetic acid: water (70:20:10, v/v). For derivatization was used p-aminobenzoic acid and o-phosphoric acid in methanol. The identified HPTLC fractions were glucose (Rf 0.71) and galactose (Rf 0.66), which indicates a high purity of the extracted kefiran. The relative concentrations of each monosaccharide identified in samples are dependent on the initial molecular weight of the polymer chain. The kefiran isolated from kefir grains grown in milk is a heteropolysaccharide which contains D-glucose and D-galactose units in a ratio of 0.94:1.1 ...
Kefiran is a water-soluble polysaccharide extracted from kefir grains biomass. The identification and quantification of kefiran monosaccharides were carried out by HPTLC after the complete acid hydrolysis of kefiran solutions. The mobile phase was a mixture of n-propanol: acetic acid: water (70:20:10, v/v). For derivatization was used p-aminobenzoic acid and o-phosphoric acid in methanol. The identified HPTLC fractions were glucose (Rf 0.71) and galactose (Rf 0.66), which indicates a high purity of the extracted kefiran. The relative concentrations of each monosaccharide identified in samples are dependent on the initial molecular weight of the polymer chain. The kefiran isolated from kefir grains grown in milk is a heteropolysaccharide which contains D-glucose and D-galactose units in a ratio of 0.94:1.1 ...
The extraction, fractionation and HIV-1 inhibition potential of polysaccharides extracted from three species of marine sponges, Erylus discophorus, Cliona celata and Stelletta sp., collected in the Northeastern Atlantic, is presented in this work. The anti-HIV activity of 23 polysaccharide pellets and three crude extracts was tested. Crude extracts prepared from Erylus discophorus specimens were all highly active against HIV-1 (90 to 95% inhibition). Cliona celata pellets showed low polysaccharide content (bellow 38.5%) and almost no anti-HIV activity (,10% inhibition). Stelletta sp. pellets, although quite rich in polysaccharide (up to 97.3%), showed only modest bioactivity (,36% HIV-1 inhibition). Erylus discophorus pellets were among the richest in terms of polysaccharide content (up to 98%) and the most active against HIV-1 (up to 95% inhibition). Chromatographic fractionation of the polysaccharide pellet obtained from a specimen of Erylus discophorus (B161) yielded only modestly active ...
Protocol to determine the binding specificity of Glycan Binding Proteins (GBPs) and organisms submitted by investigators, using the printed glycan microarray platform.
Protocol to determine the binding specificity of tagged/fusion Glycan Binding Proteins (GBPs) submitted by investigators, using the printed glycan microarray.
Comprehensive in scope, Food Polysaccharides and Their Applications, Second Edition explains the production aspects and the chemical and physical properties of the Synopsis Comprehensive in scope, "Food Polysaccharides and Their Applications, Second Edition" explains the production aspects and the chemical and physical. ... and biotechnological applications of bacterial polysaccharides. Bacterial Polysaccharides: Current Innovations and their applications in a dairy food ... Food Applications compiles recent data on the food applications of marine polysaccharides from such Microalgae, and Their Polysaccharides: Food Applications. ... and other biomedical applications. Polysaccharide conjugates Food-Grade Covalent Complexes and Their Application as Comprehensive Reviews in Food Polysaccharides are ideal natural phosphorylation modification is the most common application to Food-Grade Covalent Complexes and Their. Practical Food Applications of Differential Scanning Typical food samples and their ...
Glycan microarrays, carrying hundreds of different sugars on chip surfaces, have become a standard tool for the study of interactions of biomolecules with carbohydrates. The chip-based format offers important advantages, including the ability to screen in parallel several thousand binding events on a single slide, the minimal amount of sample required for one experiment, and the multivalent display of sugars on the chip that mimics the presentation of carbohydrates in nature. This chapter presents recent advances and future challenges in glycan microarray technology. We describe different immobilization and detection methods as well as applications in glycomics, drug discovery, and biomedicine ...
According to the latest market report published by Credence Research, Inc. "Glycomics/ Glycobiology Market - Growth, Future Prospects and Competitive Analysis, 2017 - 2025" the global glycomics/ glycobiology market was valued at US$ 657.3 Mn in 2016, and is expected to reach US$ 1,891.9 Mn by 2025, expanding at a CAGR of 12.4% from 2017 to 2025.. Browse the full report Glycomics/ Glycobiology Market - Growth, Future Prospects and Competitive Analysis, 2017 - 2025 at http://www.credenceresearch.com/report/glycomics-glycobiology-market. Market Insights. Glycomics/ glycobiology is a study of structure, function and biology of saccharides which are widely distributed in nature. Sugars are important component of all living cells and thus play important role in various medical, biochemical and biotechnological research field. For the purpose of this study, the glycomics market is segmented on the basis of product type such as enzymes (glycosidases, glycosyltransferases, neuraminidases, ...
According to the latest market report published by Credence Research, Inc. "Glycomics/ Glycobiology Market - Growth, Future Prospects and Competitive Analysis, 2017 - 2025" the global glycomics/ glycobiology market was valued at US$ 657.3 Mn in 2016, and is expected to reach US$ 1,891.9 Mn by 2025, expanding at a CAGR of 12.4% from 2017 to 2025.. Browse the full report Glycomics/ Glycobiology Market - Growth, Future Prospects and Competitive Analysis, 2017 - 2025 at http://www.credenceresearch.com/report/glycomics-glycobiology-market. Market Insights. Glycomics/ glycobiology is a study of structure, function and biology of saccharides which are widely distributed in nature. Sugars are important component of all living cells and thus play important role in various medical, biochemical and biotechnological research field. For the purpose of this study, the glycomics market is segmented on the basis of product type such as enzymes (glycosidases, glycosyltransferases, neuraminidases, ...
According to the latest market report published by Credence Research, Inc. "Glycomics/ Glycobiology Market - Growth, Future Prospects and Competitive Analysis, 2017 - 2025" the global glycomics/ glycobiology market was valued at US$ 657.3 Mn in 2016, and is expected to reach US$ 1,891.9 Mn by 2025, expanding at a CAGR of 12.4% from 2017 to 2025.. Browse the full report Glycomics/ Glycobiology Market - Growth, Future Prospects and Competitive Analysis, 2017 - 2025 at http://www.credenceresearch.com/report/glycomics-glycobiology-market. Market Insights. Glycomics/ glycobiology is a study of structure, function and biology of saccharides which are widely distributed in nature. Sugars are important component of all living cells and thus play important role in various medical, biochemical and biotechnological research field. For the purpose of this study, the glycomics market is segmented on the basis of product type such as enzymes (glycosidases, glycosyltransferases, neuraminidases, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Aragonite Nanorod Arrays through Molecular Controlled Growth on Single-Crystalline Substrate and Polysaccharide Surface. AU - Suzuki, Monami. AU - Oaki, Yuya. AU - Imai, Hiroaki. PY - 2016/7/6. Y1 - 2016/7/6. N2 - We produced bunched aragonite nanorods through crystal growth controlled by an acidic polysaccharide, alginate, in a supersaturated solution. The highly ordered arrays of c-axis-elongated aragonite nanorods ∼100 nm in diameter were grown on the (001) surface of a single-crystalline aragonite substrate with specific adsorption of the soluble polysaccharide. Freestanding films consisting of ordered aragonite nanorods were obtained by using an insoluble polysaccharide, anhydrous chitosan, as a template for nucleation of the metastable phase. The orientation of the ordered rods in the films was improved by repetition of the crystal growth. Parallel control of the polymorphism, orientation, and morphology by molecular controlled crystal growth provides biomimetic ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Atomic force microscopy of hyaluronan polysaccharide on differing surfaces. AU - Spagnoli, C. AU - Lyubchenko, Yuri L.. AU - Balazs, EA. AU - Cowman, Mary. PY - 2003. Y1 - 2003. M3 - Article. JO - Biophysical Journal. JF - Biophysical Journal. SN - 0006-3495. ER - ...
Four preparations of polysaccharide were obtained from Cedrela sinensis using four methods of extraction, and finally precipitation with ethanol. Hot-water and processes assisted by ultrasound and enzymes (Shearzyme or Viscozyme) were carried out. The yield of polysaccharide fraction extracted...
Cellulose, chitin and related polysaccharides are key renewable sources of organic molecules and materials. However, poor solubility tends to hamper their exploitation. Synthetic receptors could aid dissolution provided they are capable of cooperative action, for example by multiple threading on a single polysaccharide molecule. Here we report a synthetic receptor designed to form threaded complexes (polypseudorotaxanes) with these natural polymers. The receptor binds fragments of the polysaccharides in aqueous solution with high affinities (Ka up to 19,000 M−1), and is shown-by nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy-to adopt the threading geometry. Evidence from induced circular dichroism and atomic force microscopy implies that the receptor also forms polypseudorotaxanes with cellulose and its polycationic analogue chitosan. The results hold promise for polysaccharide solubilization under mild conditions, as well as for new approaches to the design of biologically active molecules.. ...
0091]The methods described herein relate to combination therapies including a polyanion such as a polysaccharide, glycosaminoglycan (GAGs), heparin, low molecular weight heparin, chemically or enzymatically modified heparin or heparin sulfate, heparan sulfate mimetic (e.g., PI-88), chemically or enzymatically synthesized polysaccharide, e.g., K5 polysaccharide. In one embodiment, the polyanion, polysaccharide, GAG, heparin, low molecular weight heparin, chemically or enzymatically modified heparin or heparan sulfate, heparan sulfate mimetic or chemically or enzymatically synthesized polysaccharide lacks substantial anticoagulant activity, i.e., exhibits less than 50 IU/mg of anti-IIa activity and less than 50 IU/mg of anti-Xa activity. In one embodiment, the polyanion, polysaccharide, GAG, heparin, low molecular weight heparin, chemically or enzymatically modified heparin or heparan sulfate, heparan sulfate mimetic or chemically or enzymatically synthesized polysaccharide exhibits residual ...
Cryptococcus neoformans (CN) is a microscopic fungus much like the very common Bakers Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae); however, it possesses some special characteristics, which make it unique and bestow upon it the ability to cause disease (pathogenic potential).. What are these characteristics, otherwise known as Virulence Factors? The very first thing one notices about CN is the presence of an external covering, called the Capsule, outside the cell membrane. The capsule is a polysaccharide, a molecule composed of several types of sugars (carbohydrates), that are laid out in strands from a backbone. Structurally, there are two different polysaccharides that make up the capsule in varying quantities. Why is this important? Because both polysaccharides are important for the disease caused by this fungus - known as cryptococcosis.. One polysaccharide, found in copious quantities (90-95%) in the capsular material, is a large molecule called GXM or GlucuroXyloMannan - composed of repeating ...
The aim of the present study is to isolate the sulfated polysaccharides from marine macro algae S. wightii. The crude sulfated polysaccharides were fractionated by anionic resin (Amberlite IRA-900) and the separated active fractions were confirmed by agarose gel electrophoresis. The active fractions were pooled, dialyzed and purified by molecular sieve (Sephadex G-100) chromatography. The molecular weight of fractionated as well as purified sulfated polysaccharides was determined through gradient polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and the disaccharide profile of purified sulfated polysaccharides was also analyzed. The structure of purified sulfated polysaccharides was dogged by 1H-NMR spectrum. The elements such as Carbon, Hydrogen and Nitrogen (CHN) and Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (APTT) were observed from the purified sulfated polysaccharides. The hexosamine, uronic acid and the CHN content in the purified sulfated polysaccharides were found to be low (except molecular weight) ...
Many marine-derived polysaccharides and their analogues have been reported as showing anticancer and cancer preventive properties. These compounds demonstrate interesting activities and special modes of action, differing from each other in both structure and toxicity profile. Herein, literature data concerning anticancer and cancer preventive marine polysaccharides are reviewed. The structural diversity, the biological activities, and the molecular mechanisms of their action are discussed.
Insulin resistance and β cell toxicity are key features of type 2 diabetes. One leading hypothesis suggests that these abnormalities result from excessive flux of nutrients through the UDP-hexosamine biosynthetic pathway leading to "glucose toxicity." How the products of the hexosamine pathway mediate these effects is not known. Here, we show that transgenic overexpression of an enzyme using UDP-GlcNAc to modify proteins with O-GlcNAc produces the type 2 diabetic phenotype. Even modest overexpression of an isoform of O-GlcNAc transferase, in muscle and fat, leads to insulin resistance and hyperleptinemia. These data support the proposal that O-linked GlcNAc transferase participates in a hexosamine-dependent signaling pathway that is linked to insulin resistance and leptin production.. ...
Other leading players operating in the global polysaccharides and oligosaccharides market include Dupont, DSM, McComick, Novozyme, Chr Hansen, Wild Flavors, Symrise, IFF, Firmenich, Takasago, Senseint, and Glanbia Ingredients. Product innovations and new launches along with mergers & acquisitions are some of the key growth strategies adopted by polysaccharides and oligosaccharides market players.. Oligosaccharides to Gain Higher Traction with Rising Global Consumption. Although polysaccharides continue to lead the global market of polysaccharides and oligosaccharides, the latter is expected to gain comparatively high traction, growing at a promising CAGR of 5.2% during 2017-2026. In 2018, worldwide sales of polysaccharides closed in on a valuation of nearly US$ 6.4 billion, and is projected to record a Y-o-Y growth of 4.6% in 2019.. Demand from Animal Feed Industry Continues to Surge. Growing adoption of polysaccharides and oligosaccharides in animal feed products is creating lucrative ...
In the few years since the beginning of glycomics in 21th century, many achievements have been made in the study of glycomics, especially in the discovery of sugar genes and the elucidation of the new structure of sugar chain. Although glycomics research has made remarkable achievements in these fields, there are many unknown intermediate links between sugar genes and sugar chains, sugar chains and glycan binding proteins, and there is a general lack of detailed research on the relationship between structure and function.. These fields are not only related to the progress of glycomics itself, but also directly related to the progress of proteome planning, so it has become a major bottleneck in the development of life science.. The advancement of analytical techniques has always been a direct driving force in the development of glycomics. It is the rapid development and wide application of modern instrument analysis technology that lead to the overall prosperity of glycomics research, and inject ...
2015 Freund et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Received: July 23, 2015; Accepted: September 28, 2015; Published: October 30, 2015. This research was supported by The Rockefeller University, by National Institutes of Health HIVRAD Grants 1 P01 AI100148 (to MCN and PJB) and AI110657 (JPM RWS) and by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation Collaboration for AIDS Vaccine Discovery (CAVD) grant OPP1032144 (MSS). SAS was supported by a postdoctoral fellowship from the CA HIV/AIDS research program (CHRP F12-CT-214). MCN and BDW are Howard Hughes Medical Institute investigators. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. We thank donor EB179 for his ...
Polysaccharides are also abundant in plant and marine sources and these are an as yet relatively untapped resource for these molecules. Isolated polysaccharides have been shown to have potent biological activities in a range of cell types and as such are a focus of identification of novel bioactive compounds for therapeutic use. Polysaccharides are under investigation for the modulation of the immune system that can be used to both reduce inflammation in certain diseases but also to potentiate inflammation which has been shown to be beneficial post-surgery. Using a range of high throughput strategies were are examining the biological roles of naturally derived polysaccharides, with a particular focus on seaweed-derived polysaccharides.. ...
The formation of heparin-precursor polysaccharide (N-acetylheparosan) was studied with a mouse mastocytoma microsomal fraction. Incubation of this fraction with UDP-[3H]GlcA and UDP-GlcNAc yielded labelled macromolecules that could be depolymerized, apparently to single polysaccharide chains, by alkali treatment, and thus were assumed to be proteoglycans. Label from UDP-[3H]GlcA (approx. 3 microM) is transiently incorporated into microsomal polysaccharide even in the absence of added UDP-GlcNAc, probably owing to the presence of endogenous sugar nucleotide. When the concentration of exogenous UDP-GlcNAc was increased to 25 microM the rate of incorporation of 3H increased and proteoglycans carrying polysaccharide chains with an Mr of approx. 110,000 were produced. Increasing the UDP-GlcNAc concentration to 5 mM led to an approx. 4-fold decrease in the rate of 3H incorporation and a decrease in the Mr of the resulting polysaccharide chains to approx. 6000 (predominant component). When both ...
Gelatinase B (MMP-9) and galectin-3 are widely known to participate in tumor cell invasion and metastasis. Glycans derived from MMP-9 expressed in MCF-7 breast cancer and THP-1 myeloid leukemia cells were compared with those from MMP-9 expressed in natural neutrophils. The many O-linked glycans of neutrophil gelatinase B presented a cluster of mainly galactosylated core II structures, 46% of which were ligands for galectin-3; 11% contained two to three N-acetyllactosamine repeating units that are high-affinity ligands for the lectin. The glycan epitopes thus provide MMP-9 with both high-affinity and (presumably) high-avidity interactions with galectin-3. In contrast, the O-glycans released from MMP-9 expressed in MCF-7 and THP-1 cells were predominantly sialylated core I structures. Only 10% of MCF-7 and THP-1 gelatinase B O-glycans were ligands for galectin-3 and contained only a maximum single N-acetyllactosamine repeat. Consistent with the glycan analysis, surface plasmon resonance binding ...
DUGi: Viewing Item from repository Recercat: Glycoconjugates constitute a major class of biomolecules which include glycoproteins, glycosphingolipidsand proteoglycans. The enzymatic process in which glycans (sugar chains) are linked toproteins or lipids is called glycosylation. Glycosylation is involved in many biological processes, bothphysiological and pathological, inlcuding host-pathogen interactions, tumour invasion, cell traffickingand signalling. Changes in glycan structure are thought be be at least partly responsible for the developmentof inflammation, infection, arteriosclerosis, immune defects and autoimmunity. Such changeshave been observed in human diseases such as diabetes mellitus, rheumatoid arthritis and AlzheimersDisease. Aberrant patterns of glycosylation are also a universal feature of cancer cells. The field ofglycobiology thus shows great potential for the discovery of glycan biomarkers for disease diagnosisand prognosis.Here we focus specifically on N-glycans, that is, glycans
The polysaccharide hydration phenomenon is nowadays the subject of intense research. The interaction of native and modified polysaccharides and polysaccharides-based bioconjugates with water has an important influence on their functional behaviour. Notwithstanding that the hydration phenomenon has been studied for decades, there is still a lack of awareness about the influence of hydration water on the polysaccharide´s structure and consequences for industrial or medicinal applications. The hydration of polysaccharides is often described by the existence of water layers differing in their physical properties depending on the distance from the polysaccharide. Using the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) such water layers were categorized according their properties upon cooling in hyaluronan (HYA, sodium salt of ß-1,4-linked units of ß-1,3-linked D-glucuronic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine), a model polysaccharide in the present work. The amount of non-freezing water, i.e. water in close
Involved in the biosynthesis of the exopolysaccharide acetan, a water-soluble polysaccharide involved in production of bacterial cellulose (BC).
β1,4-GalT1 is type II membrane-bound glycoprotein transferring galactose to acceptor sugars. This enzyme catalyzes the synthesis of lactose or transfers galactose to the terminal GlcNAc of complex-type N-glycans. Previous studies found that β1,4-GalT1 knock-out mouse showed semi-lethality after birth. We obtained a β1,4-GalT1 site-specific mutant mouse modelusing CRISPR/Cas9 in which tyrosine (Y286) were substituted by leucine (L286). This mutation makes β1,4-GalT1 an N-acetylgalactosaminetransferase instead of galactosyltransferase. No lethal deficiency was observed in both heterozygote (+/-) mice and homozygous (-/-) mice. However, homozygous (-/-) mice were unable to give birth and lactation. The further N-glycan profiling showed that homozygous (-/-) mouse serum have no sialylated N-glycans while heterozygote(+/-) mouse showed the similar pattern of N-glycosylation in serum compared with wild-type mouse. The results indicated that the functional changing of galactosyltransferase in ...
The development of methods to accurately detect early pancreatic cancer and to better differentiate benign from malignant disease could greatly improve the outcomes for pancreatic cancer patients. It is known that malignant transformation of epithelial cells of the pancreas results in alterations in the carbohydrate chains of certain proteins secreted or released by these cells. Glycosylated proteins form the basis for current biomarkers for detecting pancreatic cancer and other adenocarcinomas, and refinement of these tests are predicted to enable detection of early pancreatic cancer. Our preliminary data has shown that a novel antibody-microarray technology allows the efficient detection of glycans on distinct proteins and the identification of specific glycan structures associated with pancreatic cancer. The method uses antibody microarrays to capture specific proteins from serum samples, followed by the incubation of a glycan-binding protein (such as a lectin) to quantify specific glycans on ...
The kit assay will only measure free, non-covalently linked monosaccharides. Oligosaccharides or polysaccharides can be measured after hydrolysis to monosaccharides. Generally acid hydrolysis can be achieved by boiling the oligo/polysaccharide in 1.3 M HCl for 1 h. It is recommended that scientific literature is consulted for information on hydrolysis conditions for the particular oligo/polysaccharide that is being measured.. ...
Prof. Robert J. Woods, President and co-Founder, and collaborators reported in PLoS Pathogens on Thursday, June 15th that three mutations switch avian H7N9 influenza to human-type receptor specificity and provide an explanation for the unprecedented incidence of influenza transmission from infected poultry to humans. The team included Dr. Oliver C. Grant from Prof. Woods academic group at the Complex Carbohydrate Research Center where the structural modeling work was done.. Source: de Vries RP, Peng W, Grant OC, Thompson AJ, Zhu X, et al. (2017) Three mutations switch H7N9 influenza to human-type receptor specificity. PLOS Pathogens 13(6): e1006390. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1006390 ...
In the interpretation of glycan profiling patterns (i.e., glycan profiles) taken by lectin microarrays, I have summarized important things and procedures as follows.. 1. Some sort of normalization is absolutely necessary in comparing glycan profiles differentially. One of the most useful normalization methods is "Average Normalization". In this case, all of the lectin signals are devided by the average of all lectins on the array, and for convenience, the values are then multiplied by 100. 2. And, the differences in glycan profiles are interpreted taking lectin binding characteristics and CV (coefficient of variation) into consideration. Usually the CV is less than 10% in a lot, and that of lot-to-lot variation gets a little bit bigger than this. Lectin binding specificity is not one-to-one relationship like an antigen-antibody reaction, but is fairly broader than that. So, we must be careful in the interpretation if other lectins with similar binding characteristics are reacting in the same way ...
Recent atomic force microscopy stretching measurements of single polysaccharide molecules suggest that their elasticity is governed by force-induced conformational transitions of the pyranose ring. However, the mechanism of these transitions and the mechanics of the pyranose ring are not fully understood. Here we use steered molecular dynamics simulations of the stretching process to unravel the mechanism of forced conformational transitions in 1,6 linked polysaccharides. In contrast to most sugars, 1,6 linked polysaccharides have an extra bond in their inter-residue linkage, C5-C6, around which restricted rotations occur and this additional degree of freedom increases the mechanical complexity of these polymers. By comparing the computational results with the atomic force microscopy data we determine that forced rotations around the C5-C6 bond have a significant and different impact on the elasticity of alpha- and beta-linked polysaccharides. beta-linkages of a polysaccharide pustulan force the ...
Abs to a number of polysaccharide Ags have several common attributes: CDR-H3 is implicated in binding to Ag (28, 29), its length is strictly maintained (20, 30), and its sequence is almost invariably characterized by the presence of hydrophilic tyrosine residues (21, 31, 32). Xu and Davis (9) showed that, in VH-restricted mice, CDR-H3 diversity was sufficient for the development of specific Ab responses to a variety of hapten and protein Ags but not for two bacterial polysaccharide Ags. The latter finding was attributed to the failure of the single VH gene in their mouse model to accommodate the polysaccharide-specific response, which suggested VH dependency. Work by Nakouzi and Casadevall (33) showed that, in addition to CDR-H3, CDR-H2 encoded amino acids critical for the generation of Abs specific for the polysaccharide galactoxylomannan. These studies highlighted the significant roles that both the VH, as a whole, and the CDR component of the VH, as a part, can play in the generation of ...
Cellulose, chitin and related polysaccharides are key renewable sources of organic molecules and materials. However, poor solubility tends to hamper their exploitation. Synthetic receptors could aid dissolution provided they are capable of cooperative action, for example by multiple threading on a single polysaccharide molecule. Here we report a synthetic receptor designed to form threaded complexes (polypseudorotaxanes) with these natural polymers. The receptor binds fragments of the polysaccharides in aqueous solution with high affinities (Ka up to 19,000 M−1), and is shown-by nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy-to adopt the threading geometry. Evidence from induced circular dichroism and atomic force microscopy implies that the receptor also forms polypseudorotaxanes with cellulose and its polycationic analogue chitosan. The results hold promise for polysaccharide solubilization under mild conditions, as well as for new approaches to the design of biologically active molecules. Full ...
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POLYSACCHARIDE STRUCTURE. References. Tombs, M .P. & Harding, S.E., An Introduction to Pol ysaccharide Biotechnology, Taylor & Francis, London, 1997 D.A. Rees, Polysaccharide Shapes, Chapman & Hall, 1977 Slideshow 198522 by johana