In higher eukaryotes, the polypyrimidine-tract (Py-tract) adjacent to the 3 splice site is recognized by several proteins, including the essential splicing factor U2AF65, the splicing regulator Sex-lethal (Sxl), and polypyrimidine tract-binding protein (PTB), whose function is unknown. Iterative in vitro genetic selection was used to show that these proteins have distinct sequence preferences. The uridine-rich degenerate sequences selected by U2AF65 are similar to those present in the diverse array of natural metazoan Py-tracts. In contrast, the Sxl-consensus is a highly specific sequence, which can help explain the ability of Sxl to regulate splicing of transformer pre-mRNA and autoregulate splicing of its own pre-mRNA. The PTB-consensus is not a typical Py-tract; it can be found in certain alternatively spliced pre-mRNAs that undergo negative regulation. Here it is shown that PTB can regulate alternative splicing by selectively repressing 3 splice sites that contain a PTB-binding site. ...
Polypyrimidine Tract Binding Protein (PTB) is an intensely studied RNA binding protein involved in several post-transcriptional regulatory events of gene expression. Initially described as a pre-mRNA splicing regulator, PTB is now widely accepted as a multifunctional protein shuttling between nucleus and cytoplasm. Accordingly, PTB can interact with selected RNA targets, structural elements and proteins. There is increasing evidence that PTB and its paralog PTBP2 play a major role as repressors of alternatively spliced exons, whose transcription is tissue-regulated. In addition to alternative splicing, PTB is involved in almost all steps of mRNA metabolism, including polyadenylation, mRNA stability and initiation of protein translation. Furthermore, it is well established that PTB recruitment in internal ribosome entry site (IRES) activates the translation of picornaviral and cellular proteins. Detailed studies of the structural properties of PTB have contributed to our understanding of the mechanism of
Zheng X, Cho S, Moon H, Loh TJ, Oh HK, Green MR, Shen H. Polypyrimidine tract binding protein inhibits IgM pre-mRNA splicing by diverting U2 snRNA base-pairing away from the branch point. RNA. 2014 Apr; 20(4):440-6 ...
A novel isoform ratio switch of the polypyrimidine tract binding proteins profile, publications, research topics, and co-authors
Mammalian gene expression patterns change profoundly in response to low oxygen levels. These changes in gene expression programs are strongly influenced by post-transcriptional mechanisms mediated by mRNA-binding factors: RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) and microRNAs (miRNAs). Here, we review the RBPs and miRNAs that modulate mRNA turnover and translation in response to hypoxic challenge. RBPs such as HuR (human antigen R), PTB (polypyrimidine tract-binding protein), heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs), tristetraprolin, nucleolin, iron-response element binding proteins (IRPs), and cytoplasmic polyadenylation-element-binding proteins (CPEBs), selectively bind to numerous hypoxia-regulated transcripts and play a major role in establishing hypoxic gene expression patterns. MiRNAs including miR-210, miR-373, and miR-21 associate with hypoxia-regulated transcripts and further modulate the levels of the encoded proteins to implement the hypoxic gene expression profile. We discuss the potent
Author(s): Ji, Xinjun; Park, Juw Won; Bahrami-Samani, Emad; Lin, Lan; Duncan-Lewis, Christopher; Pherribo, Gordon; Xing, Yi; Liebhaber, Stephen A | Abstract: Alternative splicing (AS) is a robust generator of mammalian transcriptome complexity. Splice site specification is controlled by interactions of cis-acting determinants on a transcript with specific RNA binding proteins. These interactions are frequently localized to the intronic U-rich polypyrimidine tracts (PPT) located 5 to the majority of splice acceptor junctions. αCPs (also referred to as polyC-binding proteins (PCBPs) and hnRNPEs) comprise a subset of KH-domain proteins with high affinity and specificity for C-rich polypyrimidine motifs. Here, we demonstrate that αCPs promote the splicing of a defined subset of cassette exons via binding to a C-rich subset of polypyrimidine tracts located 5 to the αCP-enhanced exonic segments. This enhancement of splice acceptor activity is linked to interactions of αCPs with the U2 snRNP complex and
Exhibits mRNA binding activity. Involved in mRNA splice site selection and regulation of neural precursor cell proliferation. Localizes to the spliceosomal complex. Is expressed in several structures, including alimentary system; genitourinary system; nervous system; respiratory system; and sensory organ. Orthologous to human PTBP2 (polypyrimidine tract binding protein 2 ...
Four pre-designed shRNA constructs targeting polypyrimidine tract binding protein 1 (PTBP1), transcript variant 2 and one scrambled control. Each shRNA construct is driven by the U6 promoter and contains a GFP reporter.
Angiogenesis is the formation of new blood vessels from existing vasculature. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF), a known angiogenic protein, stimulates endothelial cell proliferation and migration via interactions with its receptors, KDR and Flt-1. A secreted form of Flt-1 (sFlt-1), derived from alternatively-spliced RNA, can inhibit actions of VEGF in vivo. It has been suggested that alterations in sFlt-1 expression could significantly change the angiogenic VEGF activity. This project focuses on characterizing intronic elements that regulate Flt-1 mRNA splicing. A "wild-type" construct (pFIN13), containing the first 13 exons, intron 13 and exons 14-30 of mouse Flt-1, was shown to produce both forms of Flt-1 mRNA after transfection into HEK293 cells. To gauge the strength of the native splicing signals in intron 13 of Flt-1, a series of point mutations were made in the polypyrimidine tract using pFIN13. After transient transfection, the levels of Flt-1 and sFlt-1 protein and mRNA were ...
In the study of calcium-mediated (Ca2+) neuronal receptors (NMDA and GABA mostly), the relevance of Ca2+-dependent ligands (ie: calmodulin) may hold important factors in the morphogenesis of psychological brain disorders and the pathogenesis of the Alzheimer disease, a important phenotype in the understanding of GPCR-mediated brain mutations. Hence a proper understanding of the polypyrimidine tract binding protein-1 (PTBP1) dependent signaling pathway may reveal new insights in the functions and features of the integrin beta-3 protein as a cell-adhesive (and voltage-gated!) neural substrate for long-term axon and neuronal growth. [1] ...
In the study of calcium-mediated (Ca2+) neuronal receptors (NMDA and GABA mostly), the relevance of Ca2+-dependent ligands (ie: calmodulin) may hold important factors in the morphogenesis of psychological brain disorders and the pathogenesis of the Alzheimer disease, a important phenotype in the understanding of GPCR-mediated brain mutations. Hence a proper understanding of the polypyrimidine tract binding protein-1 (PTBP1) dependent signaling pathway may reveal new insights in the functions and features of the integrin beta-3 protein as a cell-adhesive (and voltage-gated!) neural substrate for long-term axon and neuronal growth. [1] ...
Gene target information for Raver2 - ribonucleoprotein, PTB-binding 2 (house mouse). Find diseases associated with this biological target and compounds tested against it in bioassay experiments.
Kit Component:- KN314525G1, Raver2 gRNA vector 1 in pCas-Guide vector- KN314525G2, Raver2 gRNA vector 2 in pCas-Guide vector- KN314525D, donor vector…
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cancer-Specific Energy Metabolism in Rhabdomyosarcoma Cells Is Regulated by MicroRNA. AU - Sugito, Nobuhiko. AU - Taniguchi, Kohei. AU - Kuranaga, Yuki. AU - Ohishi, Maki. AU - Soga, Tomoyoshi. AU - Ito, Yuko. AU - Miyachi, Mitsuru. AU - Kikuchi, Ken. AU - Hosoi, Hajime. AU - Akao, Yukihiro. PY - 2017/12/1. Y1 - 2017/12/1. N2 - Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is a soft tissue sarcoma and is most frequently found in children. In RMS, there are two major subtypes, that is, embryonal RMS and alveolar RMS (ARMS). ARMS has exclusively the worse prognosis and is caused by formation of the chimeric PAX3-FOXO1 gene. Regarding cancer, the Warburg effect is known as a feature of cancer-specific metabolism. Polypyrimidine tract-binding protein 1 (PTBP1), a splicer of pyruvate kinase muscle (PKM) mRNA, is a positive regulator of cancer-specific energy metabolism. We investigated the expression and effects of muscle-specific miR-1 and miR-133b on RMS cells (RD, KYM-1, Rh30, and Rh41) from the view of ...
Strains of Theilers murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) were first isolated by Max Theiler at the Rockefeller Foundation during his investigations of yellow fever virus vaccine. The GDVII strain of TMEV was named because this isolate was the seventh made by George, Theilers technician, from an uninoculated mouse that was found to be diseased (paralyzed). The presence of polypyrimidine tract binding protein (PTB) and nPTB binding sites in GDVII affects neurovirulence. The importance of sialic acid binding to virus entry is further supported by studies that showed that a variant of DA that has enhanced binding to L929 cells and has mutations in the VP2 puff B or VP1 loop 2; this region is also one that has been found important in disease pathogenesis. It was found that demyelination can occur when one replaces any part of the DA genome with the corresponding segment from the GDVII genome. In addition, the immune system is believed to mediate the pathology in both diseases. Therefore, it is hoped that
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) causes hepatitis, which progresses to fatal liver diseases and remains a global health problem. Current treatments for chronic hepatitis B are unable to cure hepatitis. Thus, new antiviral drugs must be developed. In this study, the viral inhibition effects of dandelion and taraxasterol were assessed in HepG2.2.15 cell line. Taraxacum officinale F.H.Wigg. (compositae) with English name dandelion is used as a traditional herb for liver disorders and as a common antiviral agent. Taraxasterol is one of the active compounds of dandelion. The secretion of HBV DNA and HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) and HBeAg was detected using fluorescence quantitative PCR (qPCR) and ELISA, respectively. Intracellular HBsAg was detected by immunofluorescence. In order to demonstrate the potential mechanism of anti-viral activity, the expression levels of host factors polypyrimidine tract binding protein 1 (PTBP1) and sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) were detected with Western blotting and qPCR. Dandelion and
DJ-1 is an oncogene and also a causative gene for familial Parkinsons disease. DJ-1 has various functions, and the oxidative status of a cysteine residue at position 106 (C106) is crucial for determination of the activation level of DJ-1.DJ-1 binds to many proteins, including various transcription factors, and acts as a coactivator or corepressor for regulating their target genes without direct binding to DNA, thereby affecting various cell functions. DJ-1-regulating transcription factors and their modified proteins are the androgen receptor and its regulatory proteins, p53; polypyrimidine tract-binding protein-associated splicing factor (PSF); Keap1, an inhibitor for nuclear factor erythroid2-related factor 2 (Nrf2); sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP); Ras-responsive element-binding protein (RREB1); signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1); and Nurr1 ...
Raver1, a ubiquitously expressed protein, was originally identified as a ligand for metavinculin, the muscle-specific isoform of the microfilament-associated protein vinculin. The protein resides primarily in the nucleus, where it colocalises and may interact with polypyrimidine-tract-binding protein, which is involved in alternative splicing processes. During skeletal muscle differentiation, raver1 translocates to the cytoplasm and eventually targets the Z-line of sarcomeres. Here, it colocalises with metavinculin, vinculin and alpha-actinin, all of which have biochemically been identified as raver1 ligands. To obtain more information about the potential role of raver1 in muscle structure and function, we have investigated its distribution and fine localisation in mouse striated and smooth muscle, by using three monoclonal antibodies that recognise epitopes in different regions of the raver1 protein. Our immunofluorescence and immunoelectron-microscopic results indicate that the cytoplasmic ...
In the present study, we have shown that the PNC actively incorporates Br-UTP and FITC-CTP in a transcription assay using permeabilized cells. Many studies have used this assay to investigate transcription patterns in the cell nucleus (Hozak et al., 1994; Aoki et al., 1997; Fay et al., 1997; Neugebauer and Roth, 1997) since its initial establishment (Jackson et al., 1993; Wansink et al., 1993). Our observation that the PNC actively incorporates labeled nucleotides in a DNA-dependent manner after 5 min of pulse labeling suggests that the PNC is a site of transcription. Inhibition of RNA polymerase I either by addition of actinomycin D in the transcription cocktail or by pretreatment of cells with cycloheximide does not affect the Br-UTP incorporation, indicating that transcription of nascent RNA in the PNC is unlikely to involve RNA polymerase I. This finding is consistent with the report by Matera et al. (1995) that 28S rRNA was not detected in the PNC using in situ hybridization and our ...
Expression of PTBP1 (HNRNP-I, HNRPI, pPTB, PTB, PTB-1, PTB2, PTB3, PTB4) in human tissue. Overview of the antibody staining with CAB013507 in immunohistochemistry
Expression of PTBP1 (HNRNP-I, HNRPI, pPTB, PTB, PTB-1, PTB2, PTB3, PTB4) in stomach 1 tissue. Antibody staining with CAB013507 in immunohistochemistry.
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Quote: Originally Posted by CamilleInChicago Increase their numbers? The PTB have been actively trying to increase the number of physicians of color
A collection of short stories about the main Greek Gods, including Zeus, Athena, Apollo, Hades, Poseidon, Hermes, Ares, Aphrodite, Hephaestus, Demeter, Artemis and Hestia.Tags in this resource: god-zeus-1.pngathena-ks2.pnghera-ks2.pngartemis-ks2.pngposeidon-ks2.pnghermes-ks2.pngapollo-ks2.pngares-ks2.pngaphrodite-ks2.pnghestia-ks2.pngdemeter-ks2.pnggod-hades.png
paulstalder (43), bonne1978 (39), BarkingMatt (31), hdcclassic (27), FAMeulstee (22), Tylman79 (19), Felagund (18), filminfo (17), souloftherose (15), leselotte (15), Cynfelyn (15), TheRavenking (12), Papiervisje (10), DaynaRT (10), DisassemblyOfReason (9), m_k_m (9), Cynara (8), hyper7 (8), Guppie. (6), andersocheva (6), Wraith_Ravenscroft (5), oybon (5), apokoliptian (5), Nerilka (5), bartekopp (4), drbubbles (4), AndreasP (3), Luisali (3), sinaloa237 (3), JuliaMaria (3), Rigborg (3), jasbro (2), Avron (2), Forficule (2), catcarlo (2), sophie65 (2), sunflower04 (2), hipdeep (2), Hephaestus63 (2), fluteflute (1), LoveKarlsson (1), amberwitch (1), Montxo (1), buxul (1), aqeeliz (1), greendragongirl (1 ...
Who Were the Legendary Smiths?: The figure of the often deformed or maimed blacksmith who forges remarkable weaponry and armour for gods or heroes is a re-occurring archetype in myth across many cultures. We have Hephaestus in Greek myth who becomes Vulcan in Latin literature and may have travelled with trade routes and…
The synthesis and properties of triplex-forming DNA clamps carrying 8-aminopurines are described. The stability of triple helices is enhanced by replacing purine bases with 8-aminopurine residues. These enhanced binding properties are used for the specific capture of polypyrimidine RNA/DNA sequences of interest.. ...
Raver plummets 20 metres in horrific fall from scaffolding at music festival... and miraculously survives (before attempting to re-join the party)
PURPOSE: Metarrestin is a first-in-class small molecule clinical candidate capable of disrupting the perinucleolar compartment, a subnuclear structure unique to metastatic cancer cells. This study aims to define the pharmacokinetic (PK) profile of metarrestin and the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic relationship of metarrestin-regulated markers. METHODS: PK studies included the administration of single or multiple dose of metarrestin at 3, 10, or 25 mg/kg via intravenous (IV) injection, gavage (PO) or with chow to wild-type C57BL/6 mice and KPC mice bearing autochthonous pancreatic tumors. Metarrestin concentrations were analyzed by UPLC-MS/MS. Pharmacodynamic assays included mRNA expression profiling by RNA-seq and qRT-PCR for KPC mice. RESULTS: Metarrestin had a moderate plasma clearance of 48 mL/min/kg and a large volume of distribution of 17 L/kg at 3 mg/kg IV in C57BL/6 mice. The oral bioavailability after single-dose (SD) treatment was , 80%. In KPC mice treated with SD 25 mg/kg PO, plasma ...
MGDG synthase genes of types A and B are found widely in higher plants and are not related to the 16:3 or 18:3 plant categories (Fig. 4) and therefore to a hypothetical specialization in prokaryotic and eukaryotic glycerolipid syntheses. Arabidopsis and spinach enzymes of type A have been analyzed (5, 6), whereas the present paper also investigates type B isoforms. In Arabidopsis, atMGD1, atMGD2, and atMGD3 encode polypeptides having a MGDG synthase activity in vitro (Fig. 1). Transcripts of atMGD1 and atMGD2 had relatively long 5′ UTRs, whereas in general, 5′ UTRs of plant mRNAs are shorter than 200 nt (23). We found that 5′ UTRs of atMGD1 and atMGD2 harbored 18- and 14-bp polypyrimidine tracts acting as possible internal ribosomal entry sites (24) at positions −25 to −8 for atMGD1 and −131 to −118 for atMGD2. The analysis of insertion mutants in atMGD1 gene supports the possible expression of transcripts of various sizes. A mutant of atMGD1 gene, referred to as mgd1-1 in the ...
PTBP2 Antibody (monoclonal) (M01), Mouse monoclonal antibody raised against a full length recombinant PTBP2. validated in WB (AT3479a), Abgent
The myth of Pandoras Box is one thats at least somewhat familiar to most of us. The gist of it is Zeus had Hephaestus create the most beautiful woman. He made her out of clay and Zeus brought her to life. They called her Pandora. Pandora was given to Prometheus brother Epimetheus as a bride with one caveat: the box (or jar) that came with her wasnt supposed to be opened. One of those things Pandora had been gifted with was curiosity so when her husband wasnt around she opened the lid a little to see what was inside. All of the terrible things in the world came rushing out, followed at the end by a small light. This last little thing was hope. ...
7 products from 3 suppliers. Compare and order PTBP1 ELISA Kits. View citations, images, detection ranges, sensitivity, prices and more. Recommended products for the most popular species. Our scientists will help you find the right ELISA kit for your needs.
The Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) is the national metrology institute providing scientific and technical services. PTB measures with the highest accuracy and reliability - metrology as the core competence.
The Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) is the national metrology institute providing scientific and technical services. PTB measures with the highest accuracy and reliability - metrology as the core competence.
DNA- and RNA binding protein, involved in several nuclear processes. Essential pre-mRNA splicing factor required early in spliceosome formation and for splicing catalytic step II, probably as a heteromer with NONO. Binds to pre-mRNA in spliceosome C complex, and specifically binds to intronic polypyrimidine tracts. Involved in regulation of signal-induced alternative splicing. During splicing of PTPRC/CD45, a phosphorylated form is sequestered by THRAP3 from the pre-mRNA in resting T-cells; T-cell activation and subsequent reduced phosphorylation is proposed to lead to release from THRAP3 allowing binding to pre-mRNA splicing regulatotry elements which represses exon inclusion. Interacts with U5 snRNA, probably by binding to a purine-rich sequence located on the 3 side of U5 snRNA stem 1b. May be involved in a pre-mRNA coupled splicing and polyadenylation process as component of a snRNP-free complex with SNRPA/U1A. The SFPQ-NONO heteromer associated with MATR3 may play a role in nuclear ...
He had no city named after him like other gods because he was hated throughout the land. BY SUNNY BALKIN P.6th ARES: GOD OF WAR Ares: Popular myths and Tales Ares was known to have affairs with the goddess Aphrodite, when Hephaestus (Aphrodites husband) heard of this he devised a plan and caught them in a unbreakable net. They were put on display on Mount Olympus and were the laughing stock of the gods ...
been cleansed by Hephaestus,Compare Tzetzes, Scholiast on Lycophron 156; Scholiast on Eur. Or. 990. he returned to Pisa in Elis and succeeded to the kingdom of Oenomaus, but not till he had subjugated what was formerly called Apia and Pelasgiotis, which he called Peloponnesus after himself.As to Apia, the old name of Peloponnese, see above, Apollod. 2.1.1; Paus. 2.5.7; Stephanus Byzantius, s.v. *)api/a. The term Pelasgiotis seems not to occur elsewhere as a Apia, the old name of Peloponnese, see above, Apollod. 2.1.1; Paus. 2.5.7; Stephanus Byzantius, s.v. *)api/a. The term Pelasgiotis seems not to occur elsewhere as a name for Peloponnese. However, Euripides uses Pelasgia apparently as equivalent to Argolis (Eur. Or. 960). The sons of Pelops were Pittheus, Atreus, Thyestes, and others.According to Pindar, Pelops had six sons by Hippodamia, and three different lists of their names are given by the Scholiasts on the passage. All the lists include the three mentioned by Apollodorus. See Pind. ...
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The adenovirus major late transcription unit (MLTU) is an example of a complex alternatively spliced gene, in which more than 15 different 3 splice sites can be joined to a common 5 splice site. Maturation of the full repertoire of possible mRNAs requires late viral protein synthesis and occurs only at late stages of the infectious cycle (16-24 hpi). We are trying to decipher the mechanisms regulating alternative 3 splice site choice during the infectious cycle. Therefore, we examined the splicing activity of several 3 splice sites from the MLTU in vitro in nuclear extracts prepared from adenovirus infected cells (Ad NE) and from uninfected cells. The results suggest that pre-mRNAs with "weak" 3 splice sites (short, atypical polypyrimidine tracts) are activated and pre-mRNAs with long, prototypical polypyrimidine tracts are repressed in Ad NE. In fact, our data show a reciprocal correlation between the strength of a polypyrimidine tract, defined by its affinity for U2AF65K in vitro, and the ...
0043] As used herein, the term "instructions for using said kit for characterizing cancer in a subject" includes instructions comprising the statement of intended use required by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in labeling in vitro diagnostic products. The FDA classifies in vitro diagnostics as medical devices and required that they be approved through the 510(k) procedure. Information required in an application under 510(k) includes: 1) The in vitro diagnostic product name, including the trade or proprietary name, the common or usual name, and the classification name of the device; 2) The intended use of the product; 3) The establishment registration number, if applicable, of the owner or operator submitting the 510(k) submission; the class in which the in vitro diagnostic product was placed under section 513 of the FD&C Act, if known, its appropriate panel, or, if the owner or operator determines that the device has not been classified under such section, a statement of that ...
Page contains details about ZnO/open-PCBM/PTB7-Th:PC71BM film . It has composition images, properties, Characterization methods, synthesis, applications and reference articles : nano.nature.com
Denon AH-C100RD AHC100RD Urban Raver In-Ear Headphones - Red/Black • Urban Raver Lightweight High-Performance 11.5mm Driver In-Ear Headphones - Red/Black AHC100RD • In-Ear Urban Raver Headphones • In-Line Microphone • Music Controls • Multitude of Ear Tips • Carrying Case Included • Red
BBBB IIIII OOO SSS H H OOO CCC K K B B I O O S S H H O O C C K K B B I O O S H H O O C K K BBBB I O O SSS HHHHH O O C KK B B I O O S H H O O C K K B B I O O S S H H O O C C K K BBBB IIIII OOO SSS H H OOO CCC K K ******** *BioShock* ******** ************************ BioShock FAQ/Walkthrough For Xbox 360, PC Version 1.0 ( 9/13/07 ) Written by Brad Russell "TheGum" (email at the bottom) ************************ Version 1.0 - got it all. ( 9/13/07 ) ***************** Table Of Contents ***************** Use Ctrl + F to surf around dude! Section: Code: 1. A Brief Foreword 2. Controls CON2222 3. Starter Tips TIPS333 4. Walkthrough FAQ4444 Lost LOST000 Welcome to Rapture WEL1111 Medical Pavilion MED2222 Neptunes Bounty NEP3333 Smugglers Hideout SMUG444 Arcadia ARC5555 Farmers Market FARM666 Arcadia Revisited ARCRE77 Fort Frolic FORT888 Hephaestus HEP9999 Rapture Central Control RAPCC10 Olympus Heights OLY1111 Apollo Square APSQR12 Point Prometheus POPRO13 Proving Grounds PRO1414 Fontaine FON1515 5. ...
A just-discovered type of polyp spends its life decorating the shells of snails. Nassa mud snails spend their daylight lives in the sand, coming out only at night. Its not surprising, then, that the ones just south of the Red Sea had accessories that, until now, were unknown to science ...
Question - Results of X-ray findings show PTB with cavitation. What should be done?. Ask a Doctor about when and why X ray is advised, Ask a Radiologist
Background-Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized by abnormal growth and enhanced glycolysis of pulmonary artery endothelial cells (PAECs). However, the mechanisms underlying alterations in energy production have not been identified. Methods-Here, we examined the miRNA and proteomic profiles of blood outgrowth endothelial cells (BOECs) from patients with heritable PAH (HPAH) due to mutations in the bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 2 (BMPR2) gene and patients with idiopathic PAH (IPAH) to determine mechanisms underlying abnormal endothelial glycolysis. We hypothesized that in BOECs from PAH patients, the downregulation of miR-124, determined using a tiered systems biology approach, is responsible for increased expression of the splicing factor polypyrimidine-tract-binding protein (PTBP1), resulting in alternative splicing of pyruvate kinase muscle isoforms 1 and 2 (PKM1 and 2) and consequently, increased PKM2 expression. We questioned whether this alternative regulation ...
Real Name: Heracles (Alcaeus is his birth name). Occupation: Adventurer, God of strength and labors, Movie actor, former Circus Strongman. Legal Status: Citizen of Olympus with a provisional United States citizenship due to his Avengers status. Identity: The general populace of Earth does not believe in the existence of Hercules except as a mythological character.. Other Aliases: Champion, The Lion of Olympus, The Son of Zeus, Harry Cleese, Hercules Reason, Kevin Sorbo (mortal identities),. Place of Birth: Thebes, Greece. Marital Status: (Hebe) Separated, (Deianeira) Widowed, (Megara) Divorced. Known Relatives: Zeus (father), Alcmene (mother, deceased), Amphitryon (step-father, deceased), Pylius (adoptive father, deceased), Licymnius (uncle, deceased), Poseidon, Hades (uncles), Electryon (maternal grandfather, deceased), Hera, Demeter, Hestia (aunts), Ares, Apollo, Dionysus, Hermes, Hephaestus (half-brothers), Iphicles (half-brother, deceased), Argeius, Melas, Oenonus (cousins, deceased), ...
hello doctors! may Girlfriend was diagnosed with a minimal PTB trough her Chest XRay, but got negative on sputum tests.. then her doctor gave her a medicine called fixcom4 combination of rifampin, i...
Somatically acquired mutations in components of the RNA processing pathway in CLL. Presented is an overview illustrating the individual components of the RNA-processing pathway, with those components identified as being somatically mutated highlighted (*) and the mutated protein listed in red. Initially, nascent pre-mRNA transcripts undergo 5′ capping and binding of the cap-binding complex (CBC), followed by the formation of the major spliceosome, the machinery responsible for the removal of pre-mRNA introns via a stepwise mechanism. Initial assembly steps include formation of pre-spliceosome complex A (top left nuclear complex) involving recognition of the 5′ splice site by U1 snRNP (an interaction stabilized by members of the serine-arginine-rich (SR) protein family) and recognition of the 3′ SS region by the U2 Auxiliary factor U2AF and by U2snRNP. U2AF binds to the intronic polypyrimidine tract and 3′SS, and facilitates binding of U2 snRNP to the branch-point sequence. Stable U2 ...