Purified fractions of cytosol, vacuoles, nuclei, and mitochondria of Saccharomyces cerevisiae possessed inorganic polyphosphates with chain lengths characteristic of each individual compartment. The most part (80-90%) of the total polyphosphate level was found in the cytosol fractions. Inactivation of a PPX1 gene encoding ∼40-kDa exopolyphosphatase substantially decreased exopolyphosphatase activities only in the cytosol and soluble mitochondrial fraction, the compartments where PPX1 activity was localized. This inactivation slightly increased the levels of polyphosphates in the cytosol and vacuoles and had no effect on polyphosphate chain lengths in all compartments. Exopolyphosphatase activities in all yeast compartments under study critically depended on the PPN1 gene encoding an endopolyphosphatase. In the single PPN1 mutant, a considerable decrease of exopolyphosphatase activity was observed in all the compartments under study. Inactivation of PPN1 decreased the polyphosphate level in the ...
Polyphosphate-accumulating bacteria that were previously isolated from activated sludge and exhibited high phosphate removal activity were studied taxonomically and phylogenetically. These organisms were gram-positive, coccus-shaped, aerobic chemoorganotrophs that had a strictly respiratory type of metabolism in which oxygen was a terminal electron acceptor. They accumulated large amounts of polyphosphate under aerobic conditions. The major quinone was menaquinone MK-9(H4). The cell wall peptidoglycan contained LL-diaminopimelic acid. The guanine-plus-cytosine content of the DNA was 67.9 mol%. Our isolates were similar phenotypically and chemotaxonomically to Luteococcus japonicus, which was proposed recently as a new genus and species. However, our isolates differed from L. japonicus in cellular fatty acid composition and some other traits. A phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA sequences showed that our isolate differ from the genus Luteococcus and other genera belonging to the high-G+C-content
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Research Summary: The report presents detailed overview of the Sodium Tripolyphosphate market in the world and regions (CIS countries in particular) by contemplating and analyzing its various parameters. Firstly, brief introduction is provided. Thus, Sodium Tripolyphosphate properties, application areas and manufacturing technologies are considered. Further goes the analysis of global Sodium Tripolyphosphate market with emphasis on its […].... ...
The Escherichia coli mutant (ppk) lacking the enzyme polyphosphate kinase, which makes long chains of inorganic polyphosphate (poly P), is deficient in functions expressed in the stationary phase of growth. After 2 days of growth in a medium limited in carbon sources, only 7% of the mutants survived compared with nearly 100% of the wild type; the loss in viability of the mutant was even more pronounced in a rich medium. The mutant showed a greater sensitivity to heat, to an oxidant (H2O2), to a redox-cycling agent (menadione), and to an osmotic challenge with 2.5 M NaCl. After a week or so in the stationary phase, mutant survivors were far fewer in number and were replaced by an outgrowth of a small-colony-size variant with a stable genotype and with improved viability and resistance to heat and H2O2; neither polyphosphate kinase nor long-chain poly P was restored. Suppression of the ppk feature of heat sensitivity by extra copies of rpoS, the gene encoding the RNA polymerase sigma factor that ...
The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae serves as an effective model organism for many cellular pathways including phosphate transport, accumulation, and storage. In S. cerevisiae, phosphate is actively transported across the plasma membrane via several phosphate carriers and is then transported into the acidic vacuole (roughly equivalent to the mammalian lysosome with degradative functions but with additional storage functions, such as calcium) where it is synthesized into volutin, a storage form of polyphosphate, found in many organisms. We have been studying volutin granule formation in wild type cells to determine the physiological requirements for formation and in mutants to determine the pathway by which the volutin biosynthetic proteins are transported to the vacuole. Undertaking an analysis of volutin formation in yeast vacuoles by blocking vacuole function with pharmacological agents, such as ionomycin and CCCP, we see that vacuole pH as well as vacuolar calcium seems critical
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Antiviral immunity is triggered by immunorecognition of viral nucleic acids. The cytosolic helicase RIG-I is a key sensor of viral infections and is activated by RNA containing a triphosphate at the 5 end. The exact structure of RNA activating RIG-I remains controversial. Here, we established a chemical approach for 5 triphosphate oligoribonucleotide synthesis and found that synthetic single-stranded 5 triphosphate oligoribonucleotides were unable to bind and activate RIG-I. Conversely, the addition of the synthetic complementary strand resulted in optimal binding and activation of RIG-I. Short double-strand conformation with base pairing of the nucleoside carrying the 5 triphosphate was required. RIG-I activation was impaired by a 3 overhang at the 5 triphosphate end. These results define the structure of RNA for full RIG-I activation and explain how RIG-I detects negative-strand RNA viruses that lack long double-stranded RNA but do contain blunt short double-stranded 5 triphosphate RNA in the
The ability of lithium to interfere with phosphoinositide metabolism in rat cerebral cortex slices has been examined by monitoring the accumulation of CMP-phosphatidate (CMP-PtdOH) and the reduction in Ins(1,4,5)P3 and Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 levels. A small accumulation of [14C]CMP-PtdOH was seen in slices prelabelled with [14C]cytidine and stimulated with carbachol (1 mM) or Li+ (1 mM). However, simultaneous addition of both agents for 30 min produced a 22-fold accumulation, with Li+ producing a half-maximal effect at a concentration of 0.61 +/- 0.19 mM. Kinetic studies revealed that the effects of carbachol and Li+ on CMP-PtdOH accumulation occurred with no initial lag apparent under these conditions and that preincubation with myo-inositol (10 or 30 mM) dramatically attenuated CMP-PtdOH accumulation. myo-Inositol could also attenuate the rate of accumulation of CMP-PtdOH when added 20 min after carbachol and Li+; these effects were not observed when equimolar concentrations of scyllo-inositol were ...
Inorganic polyphosphate (polyP) is a linear polymer present in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms and made from three to hundreds of orthophosphate residues linked by phosphoanhydride bonds. The biological role of this molecule goes beyond serving as Pi store or energy source to replace ATP. For instance, in yeast polyP levels have been related to stress adaptation and this molecule has been shown to be the substrate for polyphosphorylation of proteins. Here we describe two different methods to purify polyP from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the subsequent protocol to quantify polyP levels by spectrophotometrically measuring the Pi generated upon enzymatic hydrolysis of purified polyP. It must be noted that the purification protocol used greatly influences the polyP values obtained. Figure 1. Enzymatic hydrolysis of polyP
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High-polymeric inorganic polyphosphates were found in living organisms by L. Liberman in 1890. These compounds are linear polymers containing a few to several hundred residues of orthophosphate linked by energy-rich phosphoanhydride bonds. Previously, it was considered either as "molecular fossil" or as only a phosphorus and energy source providing the survival of microorganisms under extreme conditions. These compounds are now known to also have regulatory roles, and to occur in representatives of all kingdoms of living organisms, participating in metabolic correction and control on both genetic and enzymatic levels. Polyphosphate is directly involved in the switching-over of the genetic program characteristic of the exponential growth stage of bacteria to the program of cell survival under stationary conditions, "a life in the slow line". They participate in many regulatory mechanisms occurring in bacteria: ...
Exopolyphosphatases and pyrophosphatases play important but still incompletely understood roles in energy metabolism, and also in other aspects of cell biology such as osmoregulation or signal transduction. Earlier work has suggested that a human exopolyphosphatase, Prune, might exhibit cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase activity. The kinetoplastida, a large order of unicellular eukaryotes that contains many important pathogens such as Trypanosoma brucei (human sleeping sickness), Trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas disease) or Leishmania ssp (several clinically dinstinct leishmaniases) all contain several exo- and pyrophosphatases. The current study provides a systematic classification of these enzymes, which now allows to situate the information that is already available on some of these enzymes. It then analyses the exopolyphosphatase TbrPPX1 of T. brucei in detail, using RNA interference and genetic knockouts in an attempt to define its function, and immunofluorescence microscopy to study its subcellular
Inorganic polyphosphate (poly P) is a chain of tens or many hundreds of phosphate (Pi) residues linked by high-energy phosphoanhydride bonds. Despite inorganic polyphosphates ubiquity--found in every cell in nature and likely conserved from prebiotic times--this polymer has been given scant attention. Among the reasons for this neglect of poly P have been the lack of sensitive, definitive, and facile analytical methods to assess its concentration in biological sources and the consequent lack of demonstrably important physiological functions. This review focuses on recent advances made possible by the introduction of novel, enzymatically based assays. The isolation and ready availability of Escherichia coli polyphosphate kinase (PPK) that can convert poly P and ADP to ATP and of a yeast exopolyphosphatase that can hydrolyze poly P to Pi, provide highly specific, sensitive, and facile assays adaptable to a high-throughput format. Beyond the reagents afforded by the use of these enzymes, their ...
Inorganic polyphosphate (poly P) is a chain of tens or many hundreds of phosphate (Pi) residues linked by high-energy phosphoanhydride bonds. Despite inorganic polyphosphates ubiquity--found in every cell in nature and likely conserved from prebiotic times--this polymer has been given scant attention. Among the reasons for this neglect of poly P have been the lack of sensitive, definitive, and facile analytical methods to assess its concentration in biological sources and the consequent lack of demonstrably important physiological functions. This review focuses on recent advances made possible by the introduction of novel, enzymatically based assays. The isolation and ready availability of Escherichia coli polyphosphate kinase (PPK) that can convert poly P and ADP to ATP and of a yeast exopolyphosphatase that can hydrolyze poly P to Pi, provide highly specific, sensitive, and facile assays adaptable to a high-throughput format. Beyond the reagents afforded by the use of these enzymes, their ...
Inorganic polyphosphate (poly P) is a chain of tens or many hundreds of phosphate (Pi) residues linked by high-energy phosphoanhydride bonds. Despite inorganic polyphosphates ubiquity--found in every cell in nature and likely conserved from prebiotic times--this polymer has been given scant attention. Among the reasons for this neglect of poly P have been the lack of sensitive, definitive, and facile analytical methods to assess its concentration in biological sources and the consequent lack of demonstrably important physiological functions. This review focuses on recent advances made possible by the introduction of novel, enzymatically based assays. The isolation and ready availability of Escherichia coli polyphosphate kinase (PPK) that can convert poly P and ADP to ATP and of a yeast exopolyphosphatase that can hydrolyze poly P to Pi, provide highly specific, sensitive, and facile assays adaptable to a high-throughput format. Beyond the reagents afforded by the use of these enzymes, their ...
The Structure of the Exopolyphosphatase (PPX) from Escherichia coli O157:H7 Suggests a Binding Mode for Long Polyphosphate Chains
The report firstly introduced the Sodium Tripolyphosphate basics: definitions, classifications, applications and industry chain overview; industry policies and plans; product specifications; manufacturing processes; cost structures and so on. Then it analyzed the worlds main region market conditions, including the product price, profit, capacity, production, capacity utilization, supply, demand and industry growth rate etc. In the end, the report introduced new project SWOT analysis, investment feasibility analysis, and investment return analysis ...
Press Release issued Dec 4, 2017: Market Research Future (MRFR) recognizes the following companies as the key players in the Global Sodium Tripolyphosphate Market: Innophos Holding Inc., Tata Chemicals Ltd., ICL Performance Ltd., Aditya Birla Chemicals, Sumitomo Chemicals Co. Ltd, Merck group, Hubei Xingfa Chemicals Group, Prayon S.A., Haifa Group, and TongVo Chemicals Limited
Sodium Tripolyphosphate is used to increase the water binding capacity of your paste or muscle. What is does is slightly raise the pH of your meat, which increases its ability to hold water. This product is excellent for products where you want a lot of water in your paste, such as hot dogs, bologna, or any emulsion sausage. It works perfectly in brines as well, so your smoked meats will hold more water, and stay juicier longer.. Sold in 1# bags.. Use level on the sticker.. ...
Inorganic polyphosphate (polyP) is found in all living organisms. The known polyP functions in eukaryotes range from osmoregulation and virulence in parasitic protozoa to modulating blood coagulation, inflammation, bone mineralization and cellular signalling in mammals. However mechanisms of regulation and even the identity of involved proteins in many cases remain obscure. Most of the insights obtained so far stem from studies in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here, we provide a short overview of the properties and functions of known yeast polyP metabolism enzymes and discuss future directions for polyP research. ...
Sodium triphosphate (STP), also sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP), or tripolyphosphate (TPP),) is an inorganic compound with formula Na5P3O10. It is the sodium salt of the polyphosphate penta-anion, which is the conjugate base of triphosphoric acid. It is produced on a large scale as a component of many domestic and industrial products, especially detergents. Environmental problems associated with eutrophication are attributed to its widespread use. Sodium tripolyphosphate is produced by heating a stoichiometric mixture of disodium phosphate, Na2HPO4, and monosodium phosphate, NaH2PO4, under carefully controlled conditions. 2 Na2HPO4 + NaH2PO4 → Na5P3O10 + 2 H2O In this way, approximately 2 million tons are produced annually. STPP is a colourless salt, which exists both in anhydrous form and as the hexahydrate. The anion can be described as the pentanionic chain [O3POP(O)2OPO3]5−. Many related di-, tri-, and polyphosphates are known including the cyclic triphosphate P3O93−. It binds strongly ...
Poly P is a linear polymer that consists of a variable number of phosphate residues (from three to more than a thousand) that are linked by energy-rich phosphoanhydride bonds. It occurs ubiquitously in all living cells and regulates many molecular and biological processes. Nevertheless, poly P is scarcely studied and little is known about poly P metabolism and its exact molecular functions; especially in eukaryotes. In our group we have developed methods to quantify poly P, to stain and localize poly P and to screen for poly P binding proteins. We are using these tools to investigate poly P metabolism and functions in fungi, plants and algae. However, at the moment our main efforts are devoted to the study of poly P metabolism in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and of poly P in fungal cell walls. ...
Of the many functions of poly P (1, 2, 28-30), our studies with E. coli suggest that regulatory controls are among the most significant (3, 4, 31). The E. coli mutant lacking PPK, and thus diminished in poly P, fails to activate the major regulatory gene rpoS that encodes the sigma factor that prepares cells to survive in the stationary phase (31). The mutant, deficient in adapting to nutritional stringencies and environmental stresses, fails to survive (3). In some bacterial pathogens, a defect in swimming motility is also manifested in ppk mutants lacking poly P (21). We have extended those observations to demonstrate that poly P and/or PPK control the swarming and twitching as well as the swimming motility of P. aeruginosa.. Two forms of surface motility (swimming by a polar monotrichous flagellum and twitching by polar multitrichous pili) are well-documented in P. aeruginosa (26, 32). Swarming, another form of flagella-dependent surface motility, has been described in Proteus mirabilis, ...
By Xiao-Gai Yang, Kui Wang (auth.), Werner E. G. Müller, Xiaohong Wang, Heinz C. Schröder (eds.). In fresh years, inorganic polymers have attracted a lot realization in nano-biomedicine, particularly within the region of regenerative medication and drug supply. This growing to be curiosity in inorganic polymers has been extra speeded up through the improvement of recent artificial and analytical equipment within the box of nanotechnology and nanochemistry. Examples for biomedical inorganic polymers that have been confirmed to express biomedical results and/or were utilized in preclinical or medical trials are polysilicate / silica glass (such as obviously shaped "biosilica" and artificial "bioglass") and inorganic polyphosphate. a few individuals of the pointed out biomedical inorganic polymers have already been utilized e.g. as "bioglass" for bone fix and bone tissue engineering, or theyre utilized in foodstuff processing and in dental care (inorganic polyphosphates). although, there are ...
Previous to the screen described here, only very few yeast mutant cells had been analyzed with respect to their poly P content and, to our knowledge, this is the first time that a specific metabolite, that is, poly P, was isolated and quantified in an almost complete mutant cell collection. After three consecutive screens, 255 knockout mutant strains with altered poly P levels were identified. The genes affected in these mutant cells encode proteins from all intracellular compartments and components functioning in many processes of primary metabolism. This broad analysis thus defined novel biological functions for about 250 yeast genes and allowed, for the first time, a global view of the pathways and processes affecting poly P metabolism in yeast. But not only were many genes required for the maintenance of a normal poly P content, strains that hypo- or hyper-accumulated poly P had often a reduced total phosphate content, altered ATP and glycogen levels and an up-regulated rAPase secretion. ...
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Polyphosphates are salts or esters of polymeric oxyanions formed from tetrahedral PO4 (phosphate) structural units linked together by sharing oxygen atoms. Polyphosphates can adopt linear or a cyclic ring structures. In biology, the polyphosphate esters ADP and ATP are involved in energy storage. A variety of polyphosphates find application in mineral sequestration in municipal waters, generally being present at 1 to 5 ppm. GTP, CTP, and UTP are also nucleotides important in the protein synthesis, lipid synthesis, and carbohydrate metabolism, respectively. Structure of triphosphoric acid Polyphosphoric acid Cyclic trimetaphosphate Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) The structure of tripolyphosphoric acid illustrates the principles which define the structures of polyphosphates. It consists of three tetrahedral PO4 units linked together by sharing oxygen centres. For the linear chains, the end phosphorus groups share one oxide and the others phosphorus centres share two oxide centres. The corresponding ...
Test kit for rapid, parallel analysis of polyphosphate-accumulating bacteria (PAO) and glycogen-accumulating bacteria (GAO) in wastewater samples.
GERE VE Y NTEM: Koyunlar n anestezi ve ent basyonunu takiben, kanamay ba latmak i in kas k yaralanmas olu turuldu. Denekler, al ma ve kontrol gruplar eklinde randomize edildiler. Kontrol grubunda, kanama alan st ne absorban pedler yerle tirildi ve st ne a rl k konarak bas olu turuldu. al ma grubunda ise kanama alan na chitosan linear polymer d k ld , absorban pedler ve a rl k ayn ekilde yerle tirildi. Her be dakikada bir kanama de erlendirildi. Ana kt kanama duruncaya kadar ge en zamand ...
books.google.comhttps://books.google.com/books/about/New_linear_polymers.html?id=PTFHAQAAIAAJ&utm_source=gb-gplus-shareNew linear polymers ...
TRPA1 can also detect many non-electrophilic phytochemicals and some synthetic compounds, probably in the traditional receptor-ligand binding fashion. These types of ligands, such as δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and icilin, display rapid reversibility. Their responses are tolerant to substitution of critical cysteine residues for the covalent attack, suggesting that traditional ligands use separate TRPA1 binding sites (Hinman et al., 2006; Macpherson et al., 2007a). Unlike RES ligands, THC does not need cofactors such as inorganic polyphosphates to activate TRPA1 (Cavanaugh et al., 2008; see below). Thus, the mechanism that couples binding to gating in noncovalent ligand-evoked TRPA1 activation is likely to be independent of that in covalent ligand-evoked activation. The chemical structures of plant-derived TRPA1 agonists and antagonists are heterogeneous (for example, menthol, eugenol, camphor, THC, citral, etc.). Future expansion of knowledge about natural ligands will be needed to ...
Prashanti Patil, University of Pittsburgh. S4.3: Older Mice Exposed to Young Systemic Environments Have Healthier Discs. 2nd Place. Rahul Gawri, MD, PhD, University of Toronto. S3.14: Role of Inorganic Polyphosphates in Enhancing Nucleus Pulposus Tissue Formation In Vitro. PSRS Poster Award Recipients. Pathobiology Mechanisms and Pain. 1st Place ...
Nucleotidase with a broad substrate specificity as it can dephosphorylate various ribo- and deoxyribonucleoside 5- monophosphates and ribonucleoside 3-monophosphates with highest affinity to 3-AMP. Also hydrolyzes polyphosphate (exopolyphosphatase activity) with the preference for short-chain- length substrates (P20-25). Might be involved in the regulation of dNTP and NTP pools, and in the turnover of 3-mononucleotides produced by numerous intracellular RNases (T1, T2, and F) during the degradation of various RNAs. Also plays a significant physiological role in stress-response and is required for the survival of E.coli in stationary growth ...
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Platelet dense granules contain inorganic polyphosphate (polyP) and divalent metal ions, which are released upon platelet activation. PolyP consists of varying-length chains of negatively charged phosphate units. A potent procoagulant, polyP initiates coagulation by binding FXII and promoting its autoactivation. The conundrum is that polyP secreted by platelets consists of 60 to 100 phosphate units and is a less efficient activator of FXII than are polyP polymers consisting of 200 or more phosphate units, such as those found in microorganisms. How then does platelet polyP activate FXII? Verhoef and colleagues provide a potential answer. They show that the polyP released from platelet-dense granules aggregates into nanoparticles that accumulate on the platelet surface and are of sufficient size to promote FXII activation.. PolyP is ubiquitous in nature and is found in eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms where it modulates such diverse functions as energy metabolism, metal ion sequestration, and ...
The present invention describes terminal phosphate blocked nucleoside polyphosphates that are stable at high temperature and their use in nucleic acid amplification and analysis. Current invention further describes charge modified terminal phosphate blocked nucleoside polyphosphates for improved incorporation and direct loading of nucleic acid sequencing reactions onto separating media.
A transition metal-containing ceramic made by the process comprising the step of pyrolyzing an organometallic linear polymer containing at least one metallocenylene unit, at least one silyl or siloxyl unit, and at least one acetylene unit to form a ceramic; where the ceramic has a ceramic yield of at least about 75% by weight. A transition metal-containing ceramic made by the process comprising the steps of: forming an organometallic linear polymer containing at least one metallocenylene, at least one silyl or siloxyl unit, and at least one acetylene unit; crosslinking said linear polymer through the acetylene units, thereby forming a thermoset; and pyrolyzing said thermoset to form a ceramic; where the ceramic has a ceramic yield of at least about 75% by weight.
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Members of this family are NAD kinases EC 2.7.1.23 . The enzymes catalyse the phosphorylation of NAD to NADP utilizing ATP and other nucleoside triphosphates, as well as inorganic polyphosphate, as a source of phosphorus. Such enzymes are thus designated poly(P)/ATP-NAD kinases [ (PUBMED:11006082) ]. NAD kinase is one of the key enzymes regulating the cellular NADP(H) level, and therefore NADPH-dependent reductive biosynthetic pathways [ (PUBMED:22056937) ]. ...
3) Biogenesis and fusion of the plant-like vacuole with other vacuoles such as acidocalcisomes. The laboratory interacts very closely with the laboratory of Dr. Roberto Docampo with several areas of research in common as ion metabolism and cell signaling of Toxoplasma gondii and trypanosomatids (Trypanosoma cruzi, T. brucei and Leishmania spp.). Since the first description of the acidocalcisomes in Trypanosoma brucei we have been studying their function and origin. As the characteristics and features of acidocalcisomes were revealed, it became apparent that they were morphologically and chemically similar to the "granules" described more than 100 years ago as "metachromatic granules", "volutin granules" or "polyphosphate bodies" in different microorganisms. For more information on our group research interests check our web site: http://docampo_moreno.ctegd.uga.edu/ ...
Platelet-derived polyphosphates (polyP), stored in dense granule and released upon platelet activation, have been claimed to enhance thrombin activation of coagulation factor XI (FXI) and to activate FXII directly. The latter claim is controversial and principal results leading to these conclusions are probably influenced by methodological problems. It is important to consider that low-grade contact activation is initiated by all surfaces and is greatly amplified by the presence of phospholipids simulating the procoagulant membranes of activated platelets. Thus, proper use of inhibitors of the contact pathway and a careful choice of materials for plates and tubes is important to avoid artefacts. The use of phosphatases used to degrade polyP has an important drawback as it also degrades the secondary activators ADP and ATP, which are released from activated platelets. In addition, the use of positively charged inhibitors, such as polymyxin B, to inhibit polyP in platelet-rich plasma and blood is ...