TY - JOUR. T1 - Critical review of antipsychotic polypharmacy in the treatment of schizophrenia. AU - Fleischhacker, W. Wolfgang. AU - Uchida, Hiroyuki. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - Antipsychotic polypharmacy remains prevalent; it has probably increased for the treatment of schizophrenia in real-world clinical settings. The current evidence suggests some clinical benefits of antipsychotic polypharmacy, such as better symptom control with clozapine plus another antipsychotic, and a reversal of metabolic side-effects with a concomitant use of aripiprazole. On the other hand, the interpretation of findings in the literature should be made conservatively in light of the paucity of good studies and potentially serious side-effects. Also, although the available data are still limited, two smaller-scale clinical trials provide preliminary evidence that converting antipsychotic polypharmacy to monotherapy could be a valid and reasonable treatment option. Several studies have explored strategies to change ...
The problems that may be associated with polypharmacy can be so extensive that it was designated as the principal medication safety issue in the Department of Health and Human Services report Healthy People 2000.3-5 Polypharmacy increases the possibility of drug-drug and drug-disease interactions. The elderly population is at greater risk because of normal physiologic changes that occur with the aging process. These physiologic changes, particularly decreased renal and hepatic function, in turn may contribute to changes in pharmacodynamics and in the pharmacokinetics process. Types of Polypharmacy Polypharmacy more commonly has a negative connotation, but sometimes it is necessary and can be beneficial in treating certain medical conditions. Polypharmacy can be categorized into 2 major classes.4 Therapeutic Polypharmacy This type occurs when multiple drug regimens are carefully monitored by clinicians and are necessary for the treatment of conditions and for achieving a therapeutic goal. An ...
STUDY OBJECTIVES To enhance physician and patient awareness of polypharmacy; to decrease the risks, drug costs, and waste resulting from polypharmacy; and to make the business case for reducing misuse, overuse, and underuse of drugs by reducing polypharmacy. DESIGN Longitudinal, time series cohort. SETTING Outpatient, managed care, integrated delivery system. PATIENTS A total of 195,971 patients who received health care from the Henry Ford Medical Group and had health insurance coverage from the Health Alliance Plan. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Two identical interventions separated by 1 year were conducted in patients at high risk of harm from polypharmacy based on five categories of high-risk drug combinations (referred to as polypharmacy events). Six months of pharmacy claims data were reviewed before and after each intervention to identify these patients. The intervention program consisted of clinical pharmacists performing drug therapy reviews, educating physicians and patients about drug
RESULTS: Among 33 565 children with ASD, 64% had a filled prescription for at least 1 psychotropic medication, 35% had evidence of psychotropic polypharmacy (≥2 classes), and 15% used medications from ≥3 classes concurrently. Among children with polypharmacy, the median length of polypharmacy was 346 days. Older children, those who had a psychiatrist visit, and those with evidence of co-occurring conditions (seizures, attention-deficit disorders, anxiety, bipolar disorder, or depression) had higher odds of psychotropic use and/or polypharmacy. ...
Inappropriate prescribing is highly prevalent and commonly associated with polypharmacy in older populations.11 ,17 However, rigorous evaluations of interventions seeking to address this are lacking. The findings of this review indicate that pharmaceutical care-based interventions appear to improve appropriate polypharmacy in older people based on observed reductions in inappropriate prescribing, especially when the provision of care involves a multidisciplinary element.25 ,27-33 CDS showed potential as an intervention, although this was evaluated in only one study.34. Surrogate markers of appropriate polypharmacy were used as there is no universally applicable tool to assess the appropriateness of polypharmacy. Despite observed improvements in prescribing appropriateness, it is unclear if the identified interventions resulted in clinically significant improvements, for example, reduction in medication-related problems. In addition to the above noted issues with the predictive validity of ...
Polypharmacy, defined as regular use of at least five medications, is common in older adults and younger at-risk populations and increases the risk of adverse medical outcomes. There are several risk factors that can lead to polypharmacy. Patient-related factors include having multiple medical conditions managed by multiple subspecialist physicians, having chronic mental health conditions, and residing in a long-term care facility. Systems-level factors include poorly updated medical records, automated refill services, and prescribing to meet disease-specific quality metrics. Tools that help identify potentially inappropriate medication use include the Beers, STOPP (screening tool of older peoples prescriptions), and START (screening tool to alert to right treatment) criteria, and the Medication Appropriateness Index. No one tool or strategy has been shown to be superior in improving patient-related outcomes and decreasing polypharmacy risks. Monitoring patients active medication lists and
TY - JOUR. T1 - Operationalization and validation of a novel method to calculate adherence to polypharmacy with refill data from the australian pharmaceutical benefits scheme (Pbs) database. AU - Arnet, Isabelle. AU - Greenland, Melanie. AU - Knuiman, Matthew W.. AU - Rankin, Jamie M.. AU - Hung, Joe. AU - Nedkoff, Lee. AU - Briffa, Tom G.. AU - Sanfilippo, Frank M.. PY - 2018/1/1. Y1 - 2018/1/1. N2 - Background: Electronic health care data contain rich information on medicine use from which adherence can be estimated. Various measures developed with medication claims data called for transparency of the equations used, predominantly because they may overestimate adherence, and even more when used with multiple medications. We aimed to operationalize a novel calculation of adherence with polypharmacy, the daily polypharmacy possession ratio (DPPR), and validate it against the common measure of adherence, the medication possession ratio (MPR) and a modified version (MPRm). Methods: We used linked ...
In this nursing home study, polypharmacy per se was not found to be a risk factor for fall-related injuries: injuries were associated with the use of multiple drugs (7 or more), but only when an injurious fall risk-increasing drug (antiarrhythmic or antiparkinson drug) was part of the patients therapeutic regimen. Multiple medications, or particular medication classes, were not clearly associated with injurious falls. Several literature reports support the hypothesis that these active principles can contribute to predisposing patients to falls. In particular, a meta-analysis study showed digoxin, type 1a antiarrhythmic and diuretic use to be associated with falls in older adults [5], while in another study, hip-fracture patients, compared with matched controls, were more frequently prescribed antiparkinson drugs [22]. Polypharmacy per se, arbitrarily defined as the use of four or more medications, was recently shown not to be an independent risk factor for falls in a population-based setting ...
To the Editor: A significant number of patients who receive palliative care are over 65 years of age. In addition to their terminal illness, they often have other medical comorbidities. Long-term medical management of these conditions can evolve into a large regimen of medications. Patients may continue to take these medications as they enter the terminal phase of their illness, but it is often unnecessary and to their detriment.1. We performed a retrospective chart review between 8 July and 6 October 2010 to determine the prevalence of polypharmacy in 50 consecutive patients aged over 65 years who were admitted to the Palliative Care Unit (PCU) at Redcliffe Hospital and who died during that admission. Because patients receiving palliative care are invariably prescribed several medications for symptom control (analgesics, laxatives and antiemetics), we adopted a liberal total as the cut-off and deemed that nine or more medications constituted polypharmacy for this cohort.. The mean age of ...
Results There were 17 285 patients (1.2%) who had a diagnosis of LVSD. Compared with standardised controls, the LVSD group had greater comorbidity, with the biggest difference found for seven or more conditions (odds ratio [OR] 4.10; 95% confidence interval (CI] = 3.90 to 4.32). Twenty-five physical conditions and six mental health conditions were significantly more prevalent in those with LVSD relative to standardised controls. Polypharmacy was higher in the LVSD group compared with controls, with the biggest difference found for ≥11 repeat prescriptions (OR 4.81; 95% CI = 4.60 to 5.04). However, these differences in polypharmacy were attenuated after controlling for the number of morbidities, indicating that much of the additional prescribing was accounted for by multimorbidity rather than LVSD per se. ...
Data from the national Danish health registers indicate that antipsychotic polypharmacy peaked in 2006 at 30.8% of patients with schizophrenia, but was still highly prevalent in 2012, with 24.6% of patients receiving 2 or more antipsychotics (Sneider and colleagues Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2015 Oct;25(10):1669-76). Another recent study from the US showed a similar rate 23.3% polypharmacy among people with schizophrenia (Fisher and colleages, BMC Psychiatry. 2014 Nov 30;14:341). Despite widespread antipsychotic polypharmacy there is little evidence to support this practice, and increasing evidence that it is harmful. For example, a major concern with all antipsychotics is that they alter cardiac electrical conduction, which can lead to potentially lethal arrhythmias. The measure on the electrocardiogram (EKG) used to monitor this is the "QT" interval. When the QT interval lengthens, the risk of an arrhythmia increases. A recent analysis by Barbui and colleagues (PLoS One. 2016 Feb ...
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International Journal of Pharmacy is the most highly rated peer-reviewed research journal in pharmaceutical sciences category and publishes the latest research works relevant to pharmacy and other allied sciences. The journal publishes full-length research articles that describe original and fundamental findings of significance that contribute to pharmaceutical sciences, as well as shorter communications reporting significant new findings, technical notes / case studies on new methodologies. Review articles are also warmly welcomed. ISSN : 2249-1848. www. pharmascholars.com
A key component of addressing the risks associated with polypharmacy is to ensure that patients are fully involved in the decision to start a drug; and also in monitoring their use of medication to ensure appropriate adherence to their prescribed drug regime. This will include briefing patients about the risks of their medication, as well as its benefits; the importance of undergoing a regular medication review; reporting any adverse events promptly to their physician; and discussing with patients reminder systems such as dosette boxes to ensure they take their medication at the right time and dosage. The use of polypills that allow patients to take one pill in place of several could also improve patients use of their medication [45].. One negative effect of giving patients too much information however is that that they may then be discouraged from taking a drug because of concerns about its side-effects. Tools to promote shared decision-making can help overcome such concerns and improve ...
Intervention from compounding pharmacists in the form of regular medication reviews safeguards older adults from adverse events caused by polypharmacy.
HIV-positive patients who are taking a large number of medications for the treatment of non-HIV-related conditions are at increased risk of stopping or changing their antiretroviral therapy (ART), according to Canadian research published in AIDS Patient Care and STDs. A third of patients were taking five or more non-HIV-related medications (polypharmacy) and 37% of patients with polypharmacy stopped/changed HIV therapy compared to 30% of patients taking fewer non-HIV medications. "We found an association between polypharmacy and noncontinuous ART," write the investigators. "The next therapeutic challenge in HIV care is polypharmacy due to the aging of HIV infected populations and the inevitable increase in age-associated co-morbidities that may directly or indirectly impact on their HIV infection.". Improvements in HIV treatment and care mean that most patients with HIV now have a good chance of living well into old age. Illnesses associated with ageing are now responsible for a large proportion ...
Patterns, Predictors and Outcomes of Polypharmacy among Elderly Perioperative Patients in the General Surgical Department of a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital, K. Saldanha, J. P. R
Learn POLYPHARMACY facts using a simple interactive process (flashcard, matching, or multiple choice). Finally a format that helps you memorize and understand. Browse or search in thousands of pages or create your own page using a simple wizard. No signup required!
As I have noted, many forces tend to add to the drug regimens of type 2 diabetic patients. Given the frequency of comorbidities and compelling evidence for treatment of each condition, it is likely that the average patient will require multiple medications to achieve therapeutic goals. Thus, the goal of therapy is to treat all pertinent medical problems using the most appropriate drug regimen, including issues of efficacy, dose frequency, side effect profile, drug interaction potential, and, finally, cost.. Various recommendations have been made to improve prescribing for the elderly (Table 3).. In fragile elderly patients, nonpharmacological means should be attempted before adding a new drug when feasible. For example, use of assistive devices or physical therapy for pain or behavior modification for insomnia should be considered before resorting to oral medications. In addition, when assessing patient complaints, clinicians should consider whether symptoms are related to an adverse drug ...
A new study has revealed that workplace exertion, having high blood pressure, and taking multiple medications are some of the health risks that may reduce male fertility.
An estimated 70% of all U.S. cancer cases diagnosed in 2030 will be among older adults, and the risk of adverse drug reactions and interactions will undoubtedly rise as more elderly patients are prescribed multiple medications.
Malnutrition or severe dehydration can cause symptoms that mimic dementia as can low levels of Vitamin B-12. Older people, who are especially vulnerable, may exhibit confusion, slowed responses or memory loss. Mental functioning is usually quickly restored when diet is improved, fluid intake is increased or when B-12 levels are boosted through injections.. 3. Side effects of medications Many prescribed drugs can cause cognitive problems and memory loss, especially as we age and metabolize medications more slowly than when we were younger. This is a much more common side effect than you might think and the offenders include widely used meds such as sleeping pills, painkillers, antihistamines, blood pressure and cholesterol drugs among others. Due diligence is advised.. 4. Polypharmacy. Polypharmacy is taking multiple medications to manage multiple health problems. Generally, that means taking more than 3 or 4 meds and it is a rampant problem among older adults. When Ive worked in nursing homes, ...
To eliminate medication overload, serious cultural, educational, and policy changes are needed. This action plan offers recommendations for policymakers, health care institutions, clinicians, and patients across five key categories to reduce harm from multiple medication use. Suggested Citation: Eliminating medication overload: A national action plan. Working Group on Medication Overload. Brookline, MA: The Lown Institute, 2020. DOI: https://doi.org/10.46241/LI.YLBW4885 ...
In this issue of the Bulletin, three linked analyses of antipsychotic prescribing practice are published (Lelliott et al, 2002; Harrington et al, 2002a, b). The main findings of these studies are that high-dose prescribing and polypharmacy were commonplace at the time of the study and that generally patients were neither properly informed nor appropriately monitored. High-dose prescribing seemed to be strongly associated with polypharmacy - a practice for which there was a substantial variation in frequency between study centres.. Many will say that these studies merely quantify what is already known: that antipsychotic prescribing is less than perfect by evidence-based standards and that practice varies substantially according to patient, prescriber and institution. Nevertheless, the predictability of the findings of these studies should not detract from their importance. Nor should it prevent us from examining carefully the justification for prescribing drugs in a way which bears only a ...
Are you a victim of over-prescribing? This can lead to dangerous drug interactions. Find out whether its time to downsize your drugs.
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Untitled. The feasibility and effect of deprescribing in older adults on mortality and health: a systematic review and meta-analysis. New Drugs Are Often Bad
PrescQIPP - We are an NHS funded not-for-profit organisation that supports quality, optimised prescribing for patients. We produce evidence-based resources and tools for primary care commissioners, and provide a platform to share innovation across the NHS.
Children with autism in the United States routinely take one or more prescription medications, even though little evidence exists regarding the drugs safety or
Use Combination Medications. A number of horse wormers will combine two or more of the above chemicals (medications), to give a broader spectrum coverage. Note that combination medications (e.g. one tube of wormer paste which includes multiple medications) have been approved by the applicable national animal medication regulatory bodies, but one should not give multiple medications (e.g. a dose of one wormer type and a dose of another wormer type) at the same time as this risks overdosing the horse ...
Be aware of how Dual Diagnosis rehab centers can help individuals overcome multiple addictions and co-occurring mental and physical disorders.
Drug-related problems (DRPs) can reduce the potential clinical benefits of treatment with medicines and waste valuable resources. No previous studies were published to examine the nature and frequency of drug related problems among hospitalized patie
This guideline covers optimising care for adults with multimorbidity (multiple long-term conditions) by reducing treatment burden (polypharmacy and multiple appointments) and unplanned care. It aims to improve quality of life by promoting shared decisions based on what is important to each person in terms of treatments, health priorities, lifestyle and goals. The guideline sets out which people are most likely to benefit from an approach to care that takes account of multimorbidity, how they can be identified and what the care involves. ...
This guideline covers optimising care for adults with multimorbidity (multiple long-term conditions) by reducing treatment burden (polypharmacy and multiple appointments) and unplanned care. It aims to improve quality of life by promoting shared decisions based on what is important to each person in terms of treatments, health priorities, lifestyle and goals. The guideline sets out which people are most likely to benefit from an approach to care that takes account of multimorbidity, how they can be identified and what the care involves. ...
Patients who fail to fill a new prescription for statin therapy have a number of reasons, including negative perceptions about the medication, a preference for lifestyle modifications, concerns about side effects, drug interactions, polypharmacy, and a perception that they do not need the drug, according to a study published by The American Journal of Managed Care. ...
CNF and DPF are the first SGLT2 inhibitors to be approved for clinical use. Since many patients with type 2 diabetes present with multiple comorbidities, polypharmacy is common highlighting the need to carefully evaluate potential DDIs. U.S. Food and Drug Administration guidelines now recommend that new drugs are evaluated for their potential to inhibit the major human drug metabolizing cytochrome P450 and UGT enzymes in vitro to assess their potential role as perpetrators of inhibitory DDIs (http://www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/guidancecomplianceregulatoryinformation/guidances/ucm292362.pdf). As noted in the Introduction, it has been reported that IC50 values for DPF inhibition of the major drug metabolizing human liver microsomal P450 enzymes exceed 45 µM (Obermeier et al., 2010), and the product information for CNF indicates a low propensity for the inhibition of P450 enzyme activities (Invokana Product Information, 2013). However, no systematic investigations of the effects of CNF and DPF on ...
Older adults with cancer often have geriatric-specific syndromes and conditions, such as cognition, comorbidities, falls and mobility problems, frailty, polypharmacy, and anemia. There are also life expectency and psychosocial aspects to consider. These issues make treating cancer among older adults complex.
from Jules: in communication with authors 7% in 2004 and 20% in 2014 were between ages of of 50->64, so that is a tripling of numbers of patients >50, and almost a tripling of those 60-64, soon there will be a much more significant number of patients over 60 years old and then the numbers of comorbidities, multiple comorbidities, polypharmacy, falls, fractures and frailty etc problems will magnify quite a bit more, because it is after 60-65 in the general population that aging problems kick in because that is when aging related immunity decline occurs and in HIV+ this time period will result in a worse slope of decline in immunity that will occur at earlier ages than in the general population, because of the damaged immunity caused by HIV & contributed to by lower nadir CD4, and of course the association with HIV causing senescence, accelerated aging, which all contribute to a serious aging problem in HIV; numerous studies report aging accelerated by 5-15 years vs HIV-negatives. The older HIV+ ...
The disease, though non curable, can be tamed through a range of management mechanisms, such as preventing the development of exacerbations through flu and pneumonia vaccines and early diagnosis and treatment of exacerbations through rapid deployment of antibiotics. Lung function can also be increased and exacerbations reduced through the use of bronchodilators such as corticosteroids and anticholinergic drugs.. Now in its 7th year, COPD 2015 will gather a global audience of respiratory experts and scientific pioneers to discuss the latest developments in combinational therapies, new drugs and personalised treatment as well as the challenges of clinical trials. Join us as we ask questions such as: How does one reliably recruit and run clinical trials in a disease that branches to such extremes? What is the correct phenotype to measure in the disease? With the majority of COPD patients on varying courses of polypharmacy due to a range of different debilitating diseases alongside COPD - how can ...
Wang, Yishen, Singh, Shamsher and Bajorek, Beata Old age, high risk medication, polypharmacy: a trilogy of risks in older patients with atrial fibrillation. Pharmacy Pract (Granada), June 2016, vol.14, no.2, p.0-0. ISSN 1885- ...
Chan JC, Sui Y, Oldenburg B, Zhang Y, Chung HH, Goggins W, Au S, Brown N, Ozaki R, Wong RY, Ko GT, Fisher E; JADE and PEARL Project Team.. JAMA Intern Med. 2014 Jun;174(6):972-81. doi: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2014.655.. Effects of structured versus usual care on renal endpoint in type 2 diabetes: the SURE study: a randomized multicenter translational study.. Chan JC, So WY, Yeung CY, Ko GT, Lau IT, Tsang MW, Lau KP, Siu SC, Li JK, Yeung VT, Leung WY, Tong PC; SURE Study Group.. Diabetes Care. 2009 Jun;32(6):977-82. doi: 10.2337/dc08-1908.. Effectiveness of telephone counselling by a pharmacist in reducing mortality in patients receiving polypharmacy: randomised controlled trial.. Wu JY, Leung WY, Chang S, Lee B, Zee B, Tong PC, Chan JC.. BMJ. 2006 Sep 9;333(7567):522. Epub 2006 Aug 17.. Effects of structured care by a pharmacist-diabetes specialist team in patients with type 2 diabetic nephropathy.. Leung WY, So WY, Tong PC, Chan NN, Chan JC.. Am J Med. 2005 Dec;118(12):1414.. Effects of ...
Concerns about medication toxicities and side effects run high in the HIV community. Multiple medications are being prescribed not just for HIV infection, ...
Yes, send me a copy of this email. The thighs, shoulders, and upper arms are common places for statin-related muscle problems to occur, Nissen says. Effects of Multiple Medications The occurrence of drug interactions between statins and other medications have been well documented. The National Lipids Associations NLA Muscle Expert Panel and other statin experts have emphasized the importance of standardizing terms related to myopathy to allow reliable comparisons among research studies and to improve care for statin users.. We explain your treatment options and when you should see a Inthe FDA approved Crestor to prevent heart attacks, strokes and other cardiovascular disease - the leading cause of death in the U. Suzette Toronto, Ontario May 31, at Never delay or disregard seeking professional medical advice from your physician or other qualified health provider because of something you have read on WebMD. ...
Ever wonder exactly what medications an anesthesiologist uses to make sure you dont remember or feel your surgery? It is actually a combination of many drugs. By using multiple medications to administer balanced anesthesia, the anesthesiologist can maximize the beneficial effects of each drug while minimizing the side effects of each.
Take the guesswork out. Learn more about TYLENOL® including how much to take, timing your doses, and managing multiple medications.
I have been dog-sitting my neighbors dogs for 4 years and have had to give one of them multiple medications to keep him healthy and have been carin...
The atypical antipsychotics risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine, ziprasidone, and aripiprazole have become first-line treatment for schizophrenia because they reduce the positive symptoms of psychosis but do not have a high incidence of extrapyramidal symptoms. However, these agents, like other antipsychotics, may take as long as 16 or more weeks to produce a response, and even with prolonged treatment are unlikely to evoke responses greater than 50% improvement in symptoms. This has led to the experimental use of high atypical antipsychotic doses, antipsychotic polypharmacy, and augmentation with other psychotropic drugs, all of which occur commonly in clinical practice. This article reviews the current evidence for these increasingly common means of treating schizophrenia and psychosis, with particular emphasis on polypharmacy and augmentation. To date, there are only two controlled studies of antipsychotic polypharmacy involving an atypical antipsychotic; the rest of the data are uncontrolled ...
Polypharmacy is associated with a variety of adverse outcomes in older adults including falls, adverse drug events, hospitalization, mortality, and measures of function and cognition.1 Primary care providers seek tools to address polypharmacy.2 This medication review worksheet facilitates a targeted chart review, the development of an indication-matched medication list, and the use of available resources related to potentially inappropriate medications,3,4,5,6 common disease-specific guidelines,7,8,9,10 and helpful calculators11,12,13,14 to develop an evidence-based deprescribing plan for use in geriatric primary care patients.. 1. Fried, TR, OLeary J, Towle V, et al. Health outcomes assoicated with polypharmacy in community-dwelling older adults: a systematic review. J Am Geriatr Soc, 62: 2261-2272, 2014.. 2. Anthierens S, Tansens A, Petrovic M, et al. Qualitative insights into general practitioners views on polypharmacy. BMC Family Practice, 11(65): 1-6, 2010.. 3. American Geriatrics Society ...
Background: To survey the prevalence of potential drug-drug interactions (DDIs) between anticancer drugs and non-anticancer drugs and evaluate the risk factors associated with these drug-drug interactions in China. Methods: All discharged patients in the Department of Oncology were collected from Jun to Dec in 2016 with the Hospital Information System of the Chinese peoples Liberation Army General Hospital. Drugs were screened for interactions by Micromedex solutions database. Descriptive statistics were generated and logistic regression was used to identify the associated factors. Results: Among 6578 eligible patients, 1979 potential drug interactions were found in 1830 patients (27.82%). The most common drug-drug interaction was cisplatin and furosemide. Erlotinib was most likely to interact with various non-anticancer drugs. Most interactions were classified as pharmacodynamics (71.60%), major severity (97.02%) and were supported by fair documentation evidence (86.21%). In multivariate ...
Introduction: In spite of recent pharmacologic advances, psychopharmacological treatment of patients with severe mental illness has remained a challenging task. Despite limited supporting evidence, the use of polypharmacy (prescription of more than one antipsychotic drug for an individual patient) has become a frequent approach. Polypharmacy has been associated with an increased incidence of adverse effects. Objective: To explore patterns of prescribing antipsychotic agents in a long-term inpatient facility. To examine the prevalence of polypharmacy and its association with age, sex, ethnicity and legal status in a sample of individuals with diverse psychiatric diagnoses. To determine the association of antipsychotic agents (single agent and polypharmacy use) and increased body mass index (BMI). Method: We examined the prescribing of antipsychotic drugs in a sample of 234 in-patients, during a 2-month period in a long term in-patient facility in Central Massachusetts during 2013. We performed a