A polynucleotide molecule is a biopolymer composed of 13 or more nucleotide monomers covalently bonded in a chain. DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) and RNA (ribonucleic acid) are examples of polynucleotides with distinct biological function. The prefix poly comes from the ancient Greek πολυς (polys, many). DNA consists of two chains of polynucleotides, with each chain in the form of a helical spiral. Although DNA and RNA do not generally occur in the same polynucleotide, the four species of nucleotides may occur in any order in the chain. The sequence of DNA or RNA species for a given polynucleotide is the main factor determining its function in a living organism or a scientific experiment. Polynucleotides occur naturally in all living organisms. The genome of an organism consists of complementary pairs of enormously long polynucleotides wound around each other in the form of a double helix. Polynucleotides have a variety of other roles in organisms. Polynucleotides are used in biochemical ...
291459338 - EP 1254270 A1 2002-11-06 - METHODS AND MATERIALS RELATING TO CUB DOMAIN POLYPEPTIDES AND POLYNUCLEOTIDES - [origin: WO0157267A1] The invention provides novel polynucleotides and polypeptides encoded by such polynucleotides and mutants or variants thereof that correspond to a novel human secreted CUB domain polypeptide. These polynucleotides comprise nucleic acid sequences isolated from cDNA library from testis (Hyseq clone identification numbers 2924342 (SEQ ID NO: 1)). Other aspects of the invention include vectors containing processes for producing novel humain secreted CUB domain polypeptides, and antibodies specific for such polypeptides.[origin: WO0157267A1] The invention provides novel polynucleotides and polypeptides encoded by such polynucleotides and mutants or variants thereof that correspond to a novel human secreted CUB domain polypeptide. These polynucleotides comprise nucleic acid sequences isolated from cDNA library from testis (Hyseq clone identification numbers 2924342 (SEQ
A composition for delivery of a polynucleotide to mucosal, neural, or other cells, comprising a GN1-binding protein and a polynucleotide in association with the binding protein; and a method for modulating immunity comprising administering the composition to an animal and expressing the polynucleotide whereby the animal generates an immune response to the product of the polynucleotide; and a method for gene therapy comprising administering to an animal a GM1-binding protein and a functional polynucleotide and expressing the polynucleotide in the animal whereby the function of the polynucleotide confers on the animal a therapeutic effect.
Disclosed are devices for amplifying a preselected polynucleotide in a sample by conducting a polynucleotide polymerization reaction. The devices comprise a substrate microfabricated to define a sample inlet port and a mesoscale flow system, which extends from the inlet port. The mesoscale flow system includes a polynucleotide polymerization reaction chamber in fluid communication with the inlet port which is provided with reagents required for polymerization and amplification of a preselected polynucleotide. In one embodiment the devices may be utilized to implement a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the reaction chamber (PCR chamber). The PCR chamber is provided with the sample polynucleotide, polymerase, nucleoside triphosphates, primers and other reagents required for the polymerase chain reaction, and the device is provided with a device for thermally controlling the temperature of the contents of the reaction chamber at a temperature controlled to dehybridize double stranded polynucleotide, to
The invention provides methods of suppression, prevention, and/or treatment of infection by viruses. A polynucleotide comprising an immunostimulatory sequence (an ISS) is administered to an individual who is at risk of being exposed to, has been exposed to or is infected with a virus. The ISS-containing polynucleotide is administered without any antigens of the virus. Administration of the ISS-containing polynucleotide results in reduced incidence and/or severity of one or more symptoms of virus infection.
Polymerases are enzymes that synthesise polynucleotide chains from nucleoside triphosphates. They function by adding nucleotides onto the 3′ hydroxyl group of the previous nucleotide in the DNA strand. As a consequence, all polymerases work in a 5′ to 3′ direction.[90] In the active site of these enzymes, the nucleoside triphosphate substrate base-pairs to a single-stranded polynucleotide template: this allows polymerases to accurately synthesise the complementary strand of this template. Polymerases are classified according to the type of template that they use.. In DNA replication, a DNA-dependent DNA polymerase makes a DNA copy of a DNA sequence. Accuracy is vital in this process, so many of these polymerases have a proofreading activity. Here, the polymerase recognizes the occasional mistakes in the synthesis reaction by the lack of base pairing between the mismatched nucleotides. If a mismatch is detected, a 3′ to 5′ exonuclease activity is activated and the incorrect base ...
What is the difference between Oligonucleotide and Polynucleotide? An oligonucleotide is shorter than a polynucleotide. Oligonucleotide is composed of one or..
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Methods for determining the presence of a target polynucleotide sequence using chemical hybridization in sequential probe and displacement complex formation with potential for signal gain prior to detection are disclosed.
A polynucleotide having the nucleic acid sequence according to SEQ ID NO:1, 2 or 3 or a sequence from the nucleotide numbers 167 to 1654, 1447 to 4458, 5589 to 8168, 4403 to 4984, 4924 to 5214, 5426 to 5671, 8170 to 8790, 5195 to 5409, 7730 to 7821, 5334 to 5409 or 7730 to 7821, or a continuous sequence on a polynucleotide from the nucleotide numbers 5195 to 5409 and 7730 to 7821, or 5334 to 5409 and 7730 to 7821, each referring to SEQ ID NO:1 ...
In early physical studies of DNA, a variety of experiments indicated that DNA molecules occur in long helixes with each helix being formed from two or more polynucleotide chains bound side by side. Chemical analyses also demonstrated that the phosphate groups were on the outside of the helix and that the number of A and T residues in DNA were always equal, as were those of G and C. With these facts in mind, Watson and Crick in 1953 proposed that the DNA molecule actually consists of two polynucleotide chains coiled around the same axis to form a double helix (Figure 3). In this model, the hydrophilic sugar-phosphate groups follow the outer edges of the molecule where they can interact with water. The hydrophobic bases face inward toward each other in the molecules center and thus avoid contact with water. The two polynucleotide strands run in opposite directions (they are anti- parallel) and are held together primarily by hydrogen and hydrophobic bonding between the bases, where A is always ...
The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.
A polypeptide and polynucleotides encoding same comprising at least two carboxy-terminal peptides (CTP) of chorionic gonadotrophin attached to a peptide-of-interest are disclosed. Pharmaceutical compositions comprising the polypeptide and polynucleotides of the invention and methods of using same are also disclosed.
Compositions having polynucleotides encoding multiple translational stop signals in more than one reading frame are provided. The compositions include isolated polynucleotides, expression cassettes, a
Model systems for study of the action of adjuvants in immunodeficient states were developed in 10- to 14-day-old BALB/aj mice and aging BALB/aj mice (12 to 16 months). With sheep red blood cells as antigen polyadenylicpolyuridylic acid complexes (poly A:U) were found to be stimulatory in both the neonatal and aging mice. The effect of poly A:U was similar to that seen when 5 × 105 thymocytes from immunologically mature mice were given with antigen. Cell-free supernatant fluids induced by incubation of poly A:U with thymocytes likewise were capable of restoring the number of antibody-forming cells to normalcy in aging mice.. ...
నెల్లూరు: మనుబోలు మండలం బద్వేలు క్రాస్‌రోడ్డు దగ్గర కారు బోల్తా, ముగ్గురికి గాయాలు,కర్నూలు: 16 వ రోజు జగన్ ప్రజా సంకల్ప యాత్ర,రంగారెడ్డి: మైలార్‌దేవ్‌పల్లిలో కింగ్స్‌ కాలనీలో ముస్తఫా అనే వ్యక్తిపై దుండగుల కాల్పులు,కడప: జగన్ సీఎం అయితే తన ఆస్తులు పెరుగుతాయి..చంద్రబాబు సీఎంగా ఉంటే ప్రజల ఆస్తులు పెరుగుతాయి: మంత్రి సోమిరెడ్డి,సిరిసిల్ల: అన్ని గ్రామాల్లో కేసీఆర్ గ్రామీణ ప్రగతి ...
The present invention provides a process of transfecting a cell with a polynucleotide mixed with one or more amphipathic compounds and an effective amount of a DNA-binding protein. Exemplary and preferred DNA-binding proteins are H1, H2A, and H2B. Exemplary and preferred amphipathic compounds are cationic amphipathic compounds.
The invention relates to a microfabricated device and methods of using the device for analyzing and sorting polynucleotide molecules by size.
The invention relates to a microfabricated device and methods of using the device for analyzing and sorting polynucleotide molecules by size.
I have seen marks denoting the number of nucleotides along the gel which actually denote the molecular weight. But , do the polynucleotides with same number of nucleotides have same molecular wt.always? I think , they would not , as the proportions of A ,T ,G & C would not be the same always.Thus , they will get separated during electrophoresis . So, how can we have a common mark denoting the nucleotide number for such polynucleotides as they would be apart from each other . Can we have only sizewise separation of molecules in electrophoresis? If yes , then ,I think , such polynucleotides may have same mark as the size-difference between them seems to be lesser ...
(2005) Berezhna et al. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Biomembranes. We report on new insights into the mechanisms of short single and double stranded oligonucleotide release from cationic lipid complexes (lipoplexes), used in gene therapy. Specifically, we modeled ...
1512481DNAArtificial sequenceTriple mutant HIF-1a coding sequence 1atggagggcg ccggcggcgc gaacgacaag aaaaagataa gttctgaacg tcgaaaagaa 60aagtctcgag atgcagccag atctcggcga agtaaagaat ctgaagtttt ttatgagctt 120gctcatcagt tgccacttcc acataatgtg agttcgcatc ttgataaggc ctctgtgatg 180aggcttacca tcagctattt gcgtgtgagg aaacttctgg atgctggtga tttggatatt 240gaagatgaca tgaaagcaca gatgaattgc ttttatttga aagccttgga tggttttgtt 300atggttctca cagatgatgg tgacatgatt tacatttctg ataatgtgaa caaatacatg 360ggattaactc agtttgaact aactggacac agtgtgtttg attttactca tccatgtgac 420catgaggaaa tgagagaaat gcttacacac agaaatggcc ttgtgaaaaa gggtaaagaa 480caaaacacac agcgaagctt ttttctcaga atgaagtgta ccctaactag ccgaggaaga 540actatgaaca taaagtctgc aacatggaag gtattgcact gcacaggcca cattcacgta 600tatgatacca acagtaacca acctcagtgt gggtataaga aaccacctat gacctgcttg 660gtgctgattt gtgaacccat tcctcaccca tcaaatattg aaattccttt agatagcaag 720actttcctca gtcgacacag cctggatatg aaattttctt attgtgatga aagaattacc 780gaattgatgg gatatgagcc agaagaactt ttaggccgct ...
In this lesson, youll discover what nucleotides look like and how they come together to form polynucleotides. Well also explore nucleic acids and...
Angelina Jolies story of her decision to undergo a prophylactic double mastectomy has captured the attention of the entire country, and she...
METHODS AND ARRAYS FOR DNA SEQUENCING - A method of sequencing a first polynucleotide strand having a first polynucleotide sequence, the first polynucleotide strand resembling a second polynucleotide strand having a known second polynucleotide sequence, the method employing a data set which, for one or more fragment(s) of the second polynucleotide sequence, contains: for each position along each said fragment: (i) first probe data describing the hybridization intensity of the first polynucleotide strand with a respective first probe designed to bind to a portion of the second polynucleotide strand centered at said position; and (ii) second probe data describing the respective hybridization intensities of the first polynucleotide strand with each of a set of second probes, each said second probe being designed to bind with a respective mutation of the corresponding portion of the second polynucleotide sequence which is formed by mutating the corresponding portion of the second polynucleotide ...
The invention provides a probe for detecting a target polynucleotide. The probe contains a region that base-pairs with a target polynucleotide to form a duplex and a RNA hairpin extension domain that increases the stability of the duplex. The probe may further include a nucleotide clamp, a stem-complementary region and/or a linker moiety. Also provided is an array of subject probes bound to a surface of a solid support. Methods of using a subject probe to assess target polynucleotides, e.g., small RNAs, in a sample are provided, as are kits for use in practicing the subject methods.
299057642 - EP 0785941 B1 2000-04-19 - PORPHYRIN LABELING OF POLYNUCLEOTIDES - [origin: WO9611937A1] The invention provides various porphyrin labeled compounds and reagents for labeling molecules with porphyrins. The porphyrin labeled compounds include porphyrin labeled nucleosides, nucleotides, polynucleotides and the like. The porphyrin labeled compounds of the invention are designed so that the porphyrin moiety on the labeled compound may be detected on the basis of a reaction product produced by the porphyrin catalyzed oxidation of a porphyrin detection reagent. The oxidation of the porphyrin detection reagent may result in the formation of light, i.e., a chemiluminescent reaction, or a colored compound, i.e., a colorimetric reaction. The compounds of the invention contain the general structure of: porphyrin-linker-base-sugar-(phos)n-OH. Another aspect of the invention is to provide methods of labeling and detecting polynucleotides by incorporating a porphyrin-labeled nucleotide into a
Nucleic acid therapeutics involves the use of polynucleotides (DNA, RNA) as novel therapeutic agents for the treatment of a wide range of diseases including cancer and several metabolic and genetic disorders. However, the highly unstable nature of RNA molecules necessitates the use of drug carriers to prevent them from nuclease degradation and facilitate targeted delivery in vivo. Hence, this study was conducted to optimize the preparation of nanoparticle carriers in order to improve the stability of the polynucleotides (siRNA and mRNA). Additionally, as heterogeneity and stability of nanoparticle formulations are major issues preventing the clinical approval of therapeutic formulations this study was also focused on improving the homogeneity and the stability of the nanoparticles. In the siRNA study, reconstituted high density lipoprotein (rHDL) nanoparticles were used as the delivery vector. Optimization of siRNA-rHDL formulation was attempted with respect to homogeneity, size of the nanoparticle and
A nucleic acid hybridization assay employing an immobilized or immobilizable polynucleotide probe selected to form DNA.RNA or RNA.RNA hybrids with the particular polynucleotide sequence to be determined. Resulting hybrids are detected by binding of an antibody reagent, preferably labeled with a detectable chemical group, selective for binding the hybrids in the presence of the single stranded sample and probe nucleic acids. No immobilization or labeling of sample nucleic acids is necessary and hybridization can be performed entirely in solution.
BioAssay record AID 629040 submitted by ChEMBL: Binding affinity to poly(dA-dT) DNA assessed as change in melting temperature at compound/polynucleotide ratio 0.3 in in MES10 buffer by spectrophotometry.
Molecular Cloning, also known as Maniatis, has served as the foundation of technical expertise in labs worldwide for 30 years. No other manual has been so popular, or so influential.
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Zhuk R.A.; Berzinya A.E.; Silinya V.N.; Liepinsh E.E.; Giller S.A. Analogs of pyrimidine mono- and polynucleotides - 7. 2-(1-Uracilyl)tetrahydrofuran-5-carboxylic acids and their derivatives. Chem. Heterocycl. Compd. 1979, 15(8), 926-929 ...
The invention provides BASB041, 43, 44 and 48 polypeptides and polynucleotides encoding BASB041, 43, 44 and 48 polypeptides and methods for producing such polypeptides by recombinant techniques. Also provided are diagnostic, prophylactic and therapeutic uses.
Reagents and methods are provided for detecting the presence of a target polynucleotide in a sample are disclosed. In one aspect, a method for producing a labeled amplification product by amplifying a
Polynucleotide Adenylyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of polyadenylic acid from ATP. May be due to the action of RNA polymerase (EC 2.7.7.6) or polynucleotide adenylyltransferase (EC 2.7.7.19). EC 2.7.7.19.
The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having xylanase activity and polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.
The invention relates to methods for pairwise sequencing of a double-stranded polynucleotide template, which permit the sequential determination of nucleotide sequences in two distinct and separate r
Novel human polynucleotide and polypeptide sequences are disclosed that can be used in therapeutic, diagnostic, and pharmacogenomic applications.
DNA is formed from two polynucleotide chains. Each chain has a helical structure (a helix), in other words the molecule is coiled like a spring.. The two helices are then intertwined to give a double helix. The bases are on the inside of the helix and the phosphate groups are on the outside.. The two helices are held together by pairing of the nucleotides bases through hydrogen bonding. Because the double ring purines are bigger than the single ring pyrimidines the structure can only form with purine bases opposite pyrimidine bases. A big one complements a little one to take up about the same space.. ...
Lucigen strives to provide life scientists with the highest quality products and services for RNA/DNA amplification, cloning, next gen sequencing, and protein expression. Experience outstanding performance with time-saving convenience at an exceptional price.
Two polynucleotide strands join together to form a double-helix. - The nucleotides join up between the phosphate group of one nucleotide and the sugar of another, creating a sugar-phospahte backbone.. - Two DNA polynucleotide starnds join together by hydrogen bonds between the bases.. - Each base can only join with one particular partner- this is called specific base pairing.. - Adenine always pairs with Thymine and Guanine always pairs with Cytosine. - The two strands wind up to form the DNA double helix.. ...
Polypeptides and polynucleotides isolated from Mycobacterium vaccae are provided, together with compositions comprising such polypeptide and polynucleotides and methods for their use in the enhancement of immune responses to heterologous antigens.
PNK antibody [N1C1] (polynucleotide kinase 3-phosphatase) for WB. Anti-PNK pAb (GTX107488) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
A Bacillus host cell having increased expression of a polynucleotide encoding an YweA polypeptide, a method for producing the host cell and methods of using the host cell.
TY - JOUR. T1 - An essential function for the phosphate-dependent exoribonucleases RNase PH and polynucleotide phosphorylase. AU - Zhou, Zhihua. AU - Deutscher, Murray P.. PY - 1997/7. Y1 - 1997/7. N2 - Escherichia coli cells lacking both polynucleotide phosphorylase (PNPase) and RNase PH, the only known P1-dependent exoribonucleases, were previously shown to grow slowly at 37°C and to display a dramatically reduced level of tRNA(Tryrsu3+) suppressor activity. Here we show that the RNase PH-negative, PNP-negative double-mutant strain actually displays a reversible cold-sensitive phenotype and that tRNA biosynthesis is normal. In contrast, ribosome structure and function are severely affected, particularly at lower temperatures. At 31°C, the amount of 50S subunit is dramatically reduced and 23S rRNA is degraded. Moreover, cells that had been incubated at 42°C immediately cease growing and synthesizing protein upon a shift to 31°C, suggesting that the ribosomes synthesized at the higher ...
An in situ molecular hybridization system which will detect retrovirus RNA in the cytoplasm of individual virus-infected cells has been developed. The technique was applied to cells infected with simian sarcoma-leukemia virus, where the virus-specific RNA was detected by hybridization to simian sarcoma-leukemia virus 3H-labeled complementary DNA. The system is useful for detecting viral RNA-containing cells in the presence of an excess of virus-negative cells and for determining which type of cell in a heterogenous population is expressing viral RNA.
Polynucleotide Phosphorylase (PNPase) is a bifunctional enzyme with a phosphorolytic 3 to 5 exoribonuclease activity and a 3-terminal oligonucleotide polymerase activity.[2] That is, it dismantles the RNA chain starting at the 3 end and working toward the 5 end.[1] It also synthesizes long, highly heteropolymeric tails in vivo. It accounts for all of the observed residual polyadenylation in strains of Escherichia coli missing the normal polyadenylation enzyme.[1] Discovered by Marianne Grunberg-Manago working in Severo Ochoas lab in 1955, the RNA-polymerization activity of PNPase was initially believed to be responsible for DNA-dependent synthesis of messenger RNA, a notion that got disproved by the late 1950s.[3][4] It is involved in mRNA processing and degradation in bacteria, plants,[5] and in humans.[6] In humans, the enzyme is encoded by the PNPT1 gene. In its active form, the protein forms a ring structure consisting of three PNPase molecules. Each PNPase molecule consists of two ...
Looking for Endonucleases? Find out information about Endonucleases. Any of a group of enzymes which degrade deoxyribonucleic acid or ribonucleic acid molecules by attaching nucleotide linkages within the polynucleotide chain Explanation of Endonucleases
Compositions and methods for treating diseases, such as cancers. The compositions are effective to silence, down-regulate or suppress the expression of a validated target gene by stimulating the process of RNA interference of gene expression, thus inhibiting tumor growth. The invention also provides methods for treating diseases, such as cancers, by inactivation of a validated target gene product, using neutralizing antibody or small molecule drug, to inhibit tumor growth. More particularly, the compositions and methods are directed toward a cancer or a precancerous growth in a mammal, associated with pathological expression of a certain target genes identified herein. The compositions inhibit expression of the target gene when introduced into a tissue of the mammal. The methods include administering the compositions of the invention to a subject in need thereof in an amount effective to inhibit expression of a target gene in a cancerous tissue or organ.