Background: This study attempted to clarify the household and mothers lifestyle factors that contribute to the greater fetal vulnerability of African-American individuals to airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH).. Methods: Non-smoking pregnant women with no known risks of adverse birth outcome were monitored for their personal exposure to airborne PAH. Birth outcomes were collected from the hospital medical record. Modification of the airborne PAH effects was statistically examined. In linear regression analyses, modification of PAH effect by demographic, socioeconomic and behavioral traits on birth weight and fetal growth ratio were respectively tested, adjusting for the gestational age, gender, parity, delivery season, maternal body mass index and weight gained during the present pregnancy.. Results: Maternal obesity exacerbated the airborne PAH risk by −491 g per 25th to 80th percentile unit exposure (95% CI −197 to −786 g; p,0.01) among African Americans. In addition, ...
... Assmaa M. El-Mekawy1, Atef M.F. Mohammed1, Salwa K. M. Hassan11Air Pollution Depa...
article{76d93444-52bd-4e4a-9e48-97e8ab47fe24, abstract = {Little is known about the spatial connection between soil microbial community composition and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentration. A spatially explicit survey at a creosote-contaminated site demonstrated that microbial biomass (total concentration of phospholipid fatty acids [PLFAs]) and microbial community composition (PLFA fingerprints) were spatially autocorrelated, mostly within a distance of 25 m, and covaried with PAH concentrations. The concentration of PLFAs indicative of gram-negative bacteria (16:1 omega 7c, 16:1 omega 7t, 18:1 omega 7, cy17:0, and cy19:0) increased in the PAH hot spots, whereas PLFAs representing fungi and gram-positive bacteria (including actinomycetes) were negatively correlated to PAH concentrations. Most PLFAs were spatially autocorrelated, with distances varying between 4 and 25 m. Those PLFAs that increased in PAH-contaminated soil had autocorrelation ranges between 4 and 16 m, whereas the ...
Humans spend most of their lives in indoor environments; hence, indoor exposure to air pollution may constitute a large part of the total exposure to air pollution. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are well known for their mutagenicity and carcinogenicity and are ubiquitous in urban environments as a result of combustion from e.g. vehicular traffic. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons associated to air particulate matter in indoor environments originates from several sources including: cooking and heating, outdoor sources, smoking, candle and incense burning. Infiltration has been suspected to be one major source of indoor polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In this study, four different air filter materials intended for mechanical ventilation were tested for their capability to remove particle bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and other genotoxic compounds from a real urban aerosol. Particles were sampled at two highly trafficked locations in Stockholm using a sampling system capable of sample ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Phosphorus-Containing Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons. AU - Szűcs, Rózsa. AU - Bouit, Pierre Antoine. AU - Nyulászi, L.. AU - Hissler, Muriel. PY - 2017/10/6. Y1 - 2017/10/6. N2 - Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are highly appealing functional materials in the field of molecular electronics. In particular, molecular engineering of these derivatives by using organic chemistry is a powerful method to tune their properties from the point of view of the band gap and supramolecular assemblies. Another way to achieve such control is to take advantage of the specific reactivity of heteroatoms placed within the sp2-carbon framework. This strategy has been successfully applied to nitrogen, sulfur and boron. In this review, examples of phosphorus-containing PAHs and the effect of the phosphorus environment on the electronic properties from both experimental and theoretical points of view are discussed.. AB - Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are highly appealing ...
The Koggala lagoon is a coastal wetland affected by a major oil spill and other anthropogenic pollution sources. In this study, gill and liver histological alterations and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure indicative bile fluorescence patterns of the fish species inhabiting the lagoon were examined in order to explore the potential biological impacts. Fixed wavelength fluorescence patterns in the bile of Mugil cephalus, Lutjanus russellii and Etroplus suratensis showed bioavailability of naphthalene type-, phenanthrene type-, pyrene type- and benzo(a)pyrene type- metabolites indicating recent exposure of the fishes to petrogenic and pyrogenic PAHs. Histological analysis revealed the occurrence of prominent gill and liver lesions, especially in the tissues of M. cephalus and L. russellii. Of the fish species examined, which included 43 individual fishes, the liver tissues of M. cephalus (two fish) and L. russellii (one fish) displayed foci of hepatocellular alterations with nodular ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Identification of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the black crusts of Sicilian stone monuments: distribution and sources. AU - Gianguzza, Antonio. AU - Orecchio, Santino. AU - Piazzese, Daniela. PY - 2004. Y1 - 2004. N2 - Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons are a family of compounds with known carcinogenic potential; their properties of lipophilicity, low water solubility and adsorption to particles and sediments make them a potentially dangerous group of chemicals and a threat to the environment and its bio-resources. The concentrations of total Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 19 individual compounds in 8 black crusts sampled from historical building of Palermo (Italy) were analyzed, by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) in selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. PAH concentrations ranged from 78 to 9798 g/Kg of dry matrix. The resulting distributions and molecular ratios of specific compounds have been discussed in terms of sample location and ...
BioMed Research International is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies covering a wide range of subjects in life sciences and medicine. The journal is divided into 55 subject areas.
Molecular cloning and expression of genes encoding a novel dioxygenase involved in low- and high-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation in Mycobacterium vanbaalenii PYR-1 ...
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3129 The exposure to ambient air pollution has negative health consequences including increased morbidity and mortality. Among other pollutants, ambient air contains particulate matter (PM). PM consists of dust, soot and other particles and various chemicals, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). To investigate the role of PAHs and PM in oxidative stress induction we analyzed oxidative damage to DNA, lipids and proteins in human hepatoma cell line HepG2. Cells were exposed to several concentrations of individual carcinogenic PAHs (cPAHs, including benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), dibenzo[al]pyrene (DB[al]P), benzo[a]anthracene (B[a]A), benzo[b]fluoranthene (B[b]F), benzo[k]fluoranthene (B[k]F), chrysene, benzo[ghi]perylene (B[ghi]P), indeno[cd]pyrene (I[cd]P) and dibenzo[ah]anthracene (DB[ah]A)), an artificial mixture of cPAHs (cPAHs mix) and to organic extracts obtained from PM10 (PM , 10 µm) collected by high volume air samplers in summer 2001, winter 2001 and winter 2005 in Prague, Czech ...
This paper proposes an analytical method for determining amounts of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs; benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene, dibenzo[a,h]anthracene, benzo[g,h,i] perylene) in ...
Article Adsorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from wastewater by using silica-based organic–inorganic nanohybrid material. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a group of priority pollutants, which are classified as persistent ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Central role of radical cations in metabolic activation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. AU - Cavalieri, E. L.. AU - Rogan, E. G.. PY - 1995/1/1. Y1 - 1995/1/1. N2 - 1. Development of the chemistry of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) radical cations has provided evidence that these intermediates play a major role in the metabolism of PAHs by P450 and in their binding to DNA. 2. Fluoro substitution of benzo[a]pyrene (BP) represents a suitable probe for studying mechanisms of oxygen transfer in the P450-catalysed formation of quinones and phenols from BP. Formation of BP-1,6-, -3,6- and -6,12-dione from the metabolism of 6-fluoroBP (6-FBP) is mediated by the intermediate 6-FBP+. Similarly, metabolism of 1-FBP and 3-FBP by rat liver microsomes produces BP-1,6-dione and BP-3,6-dione respectively. These results demonstrate that formation of quinones and phenols occurs via an initial electron transfer from BP to P450 and subsequent transfer of oxygen from the iron-oxo complex ...
AZEVEDO, Débora de A.; GERCHON, Elaine and REIS, Ederson O. dos. Monitoring of pesticides and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water from Paraíba do Sul River, Brazil. J. Braz. Chem. Soc. [online]. 2004, vol.15, n.2, pp.292-299. ISSN 0103-5053. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0103-50532004000200021.. The Paraíba do Sul River, in the State of Rio de Janeiro, was studied for its water quality, by determining the levels of selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and pesticides from six sites in two cities, Resende and Campos dos Goytacazes, as they have industrial and agricultural activities. This study was carried out between July 2001 and March 2002. The method involved 200 mL samples taken by off-line, solid phase extraction by OASIS polymeric cartridges followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Recoveries and standard deviation of pesticides in non polluted real water sample spiked with a standard mixture were 82-119% and less then 20%. For PAH, recoveries and standard ...
Despite the considerable knowledge of bacterial high-molecular-weight (HMW) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) metabolism, the key enzyme(s) and its pleiotropic and epistatic behavior(s) responsible for low-molecular-weight (LMW) PAHs in HMW PAH-metabolic networks remain poorly understood. In this study, a phenotype-based strategy, coupled with a spray plate method, selected a Mycobacterium vanbaalenii PYR-1 mutant (6G11) that degrades HMW PAHs but not LMW PAHs. Sequence analysis determined that the mutant was defective in pdoA2, encoding an aromatic ring-hydroxylating oxygenase (RHO). A series of metabolic comparisons using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis revealed that the mutant had a lower rate of degradation of fluorene, anthracene, and pyrene. Unlike the wild type, the mutant did not produce a color change in culture media containing fluorene, phenanthrene, and fluoranthene. An Escherichia coli expression experiment confirmed the ability of the Pdo system to oxidize
The morphologies of heterogeneous clusters of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are investigated using molecular modelling. Clusters of up to 100 molecules containing combinations of the different sized PAHs circumcoronene, coronene, ovalene, or pyrene are evaluated. Replica exchange molecular dynamics simulations using an all-atom force field parameterised for PAHs sample many configurations at high and low temperatures to determine stable low energy structures. The resulting cluster structures are evaluated using molecular radial distances and coordination numbers, and are found to be independent of initial configuration and the cluster sizes studied. Stable clusters consist of stacked PAHs in a core-shell structure, where the larger PAHs are found closer to the cluster core and the smaller PAHs are located on the cluster surface. This work provides novel insight into the molecular partitioning of heterogeneous aromatic clusters, with particular relevance to the structure of nascent soot ...
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have garnered much attention due to their bioaccumulation, carcinogenic properties, and persistence in the environment. Investigation of the spatial distribution, composition, and sources of PAHs in sediments of three recreational marinas in San Diego Bay, California revealed significant differences among marinas, with concentrations in one site exceeding 16,000 ng g− 1. Hotspots of PAH concentration suggest an association with stormwater outfalls draining into the basins. High-molecular weight PAHs (4-6 rings) were dominant (, 86%); the average percentage of potentially carcinogenic PAHs was high in all sites (61.4-70%) but ecotoxicological risks varied among marinas. Highly toxic benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) was the main contributor (, 90%) to the total toxic equivalent quantity (TEQ) in marinas. PAHs in San Diego Bay marina sediments appear to be derived largely from pyrogenic sources, potentially from combustion products that reach the basins by aerial ...
In order to clarify future automobile technologies and fuel qualities to improve air quality, second phase of Japan Clean Air Program (JCAPII) had been conducted from 2002 to 2007. Predicting improvement in air quality that might be attained by introducing new emission control technologies and determining fuel qualities required for the technologies is one of the main issues of this program. Unregulated material WG of JCAPII had studied unregulated emissions from gasoline and diesel engines. Eight gaseous hydrocarbons (HC), four Aldehydes and three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were evaluated as unregulated emissions. Specifically, emissions of the following components were measured: 1,3-Butadiene, Benzene, Toluene, Xylene, Ethylbenzene, 1,3,5-Trimethyl-benzene, n-Hexane, Styrene as gaseous HCs, Formaldehyde, Acetaldehyde, Acrolein, Benzaldehyde as Aldehydes, and Benzo(a)pyrene, Benzo(b)fluoranthene, Benzo(k)fluoranthene as PAHs ...
In order to clarify future automobile technologies and fuel qualities to improve air quality, second phase of Japan Clean Air Program (JCAPII) had been conducted from 2002 to 2007. Predicting improvement in air quality that might be attained by introducing new emission control technologies and determining fuel qualities required for the technologies is one of the main issues of this program. Unregulated material WG of JCAPII had studied unregulated emissions from gasoline and diesel engines. Eight gaseous hydrocarbons (HC), four Aldehydes and three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were evaluated as unregulated emissions. Specifically, emissions of the following components were measured: 1,3-Butadiene, Benzene, Toluene, Xylene, Ethylbenzene, 1,3,5-Trimethyl-benzene, n-Hexane, Styrene as gaseous HCs, Formaldehyde, Acetaldehyde, Acrolein, Benzaldehyde as Aldehydes, and Benzo(a)pyrene, Benzo(b)fluoranthene, Benzo(k)fluoranthene as PAHs ...
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured in airborne particles (PM10) collected in an urban site of São Paulo City, Brazil. Samples were Soxhlet extracted sequentially with dichloromethane and acetone, followed by solid phase fractionation. Increasing polar fractions (A-K) of dichloromethane and acetone extracts were obtained. Fractionated extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and Salmonella microsuspension bioassay. Sixteen PAH compounds were quantified in dichloromethane B and C fractions, nevertheless the D and E fractions presented higher mutagenic activities. Concentrations of the individual PAHs ranged from 0.8 ng m−3 (perylene) to 12.8 ng m−3 (benzofluranthene), reaching a total concentration of 95.5 ng m−3. BaP/BgP and Pyr/BaP ratios indicated the presence of vehicular emissions and BghiP/Ind and Chr/BeP ratios suggested a contribution of wood combustion emissions. Further investigation is still necessary for a better understanding of the PAH ...
Author: Panda, S. K. et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 2006; Keywords: beta-cyclodextrin stationary phase; FT-ICR-mass spectrometry; polycyclic aromatic sulfur heterocycles; fossil fuel; vacuum gas oil; Title: β-cyclodextrin as a stationary phase for the group separation of polycyclic aromatic compounds in normal-phase liquid chromatography
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are environmental pollutants that have received considerable attention because of their carcinogenic and mutagenic effects. Due to the extensive amount of data suggesting the hazards of these compounds, 16 PAHs are on the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Priority Pollutant List. These compounds are often emitted into the atmosphere by way of combustion processes. Thus, analysis of these compounds during coal combustion is an important task. Three 1000-hour coal combustion burns were performed using the 0.1 MW (0.3 m) bench-scale Fluidized Bed Combustor (FBC) in the Combustion Laboratory at Western Kentucky University. The data for this thesis were collected from the second and third 1000-hour experiments. An in-situ sampling system was designed for 16 PAHs specified by EPA, which consisted of a glass wool filter, condenser, glass fiber filter, Teflon filter, and Tenax. The filters and Tenax were extracted by methylene chloride and hexane, respectively,
Tar and nicotine levels have been made to conform to EU standards as of 1 July 2004, but data on tobacco-derived carcinogenic compounds, such as PAH, in Chinese cigarettes are lacking in the literature. Levels of tar, nicotine, carbon monoxide and PAH were measured in 20 cigarette brands purchased in China between 2003 and 2004. Higher nicotine and tar levels were found in Chinese cigarettes than in European brands just 3 months before the above deadline; carcinogenic PAH levels were about 1.5 fold higher than in European cigarettes, but analysed singly, the mean value of benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) and dibenzo(a,h)anthracene (DBA), the most potent carcinogenic PAH yields, were 2.4 and 4.4 fold higher, respectively. Tar levels were well correlated with carcinogenic PAH (r = 0.53, P , 0.01), thus providing an easily measurable parameter for ranking various cigarette brands in developing countries where more sophisticated techniques might not be feasible for lack of funds and expertise.. ...
BACKGROUND: The negative health effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are well established for modern human populations but have so far not been studied in prehistoric contexts. PAHs are the main component of fossil bitumen, a naturally occurring material used by past societies such as the Chumash Indians in California as an adhesive, as a waterproofing agent, and for medicinal purposes. The rich archaeological and ethnohistoric record of the coastal Chumash suggests that they were exposed to multiple uptake pathways of bituminous PAHs, including direct contact, fume inhalation, and oral uptake from contaminated water and seafood. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the possibility that PAHs from natural bitumen compromised the health of the prehistoric Chumash Indians in California. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure of the ancient Chumash Indians to toxic PAHs appears to have gradually increased across a period of 7,500 years because of an increased use of bitumen in the Chumash technology, together ...
Over the past 10 years, a number of safety measures for reducing firefighters exposure to combustion particles have been introduced in Sweden. The most important measure was the reduction in the time firefighters wear suits and handle contaminated equipment after turn-outs involving smoke diving. This study was divided into two parts, those being to investigate the level of protection obtained by multiple garment layers and to assess exposure during a standardized smoke diving exercise. First, realistic work protection factors (WPFs) were calculated by comparing air concentrations of the full suite of gaseous and particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) inside and outside structural ensembles, including jacket and thick base layer, during a tough fire extinguishing exercise using wood as the fuel ...
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous pollutants in urban atmospheres. Several PAHs are known carcinogens or are the precursors to carcinogenic daughter compounds. Understanding the contributions of the various emission sources is critical to appropriately managing PAH levels in the environment. The sources of PAHs to ambient air in Baltimore, MD, were determined by using three source apportionment methods, principal component analysis with multiple linear regression, UNMIX, and positive matrix factorization. Determining the source apportionment through multiple techniques mitigates weaknesses in individual methods and strengthens the overlapping conclusions. Overall source contributions compare well among methods. Vehicles, both diesel and gasoline, contribute on average 16-26%, coal 28-36%, oil 15-23%, and wood/other having the greatest disparity of 23-35% of the total (gas- plus particle-phase) PAHs. Seasonal trends were found for both coal and oil. Coal was the dominate PAH source
Trzesicka Mlynarz, D.; Ward, O.P., 1995: Degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by a mixed culture and its component pure cultures, obtained from PAH-contaminated soil
Metallurgy is an industrial activity that is one of the largest contributors to soil contamination by metals. This contamination is often associated with organic compound contamination; however, little research has been aimed at the development of simultaneous processes for decontamination as opposed to treatments to heavy metals or organic compounds alone. This paper presents an efficient process to decontaminate the soils polluted with smelting by-products rich in Cu, Zn and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). A simultaneous treatment for metals and PAHs was also tested. The process is mainly based on physical techniques, such as crushing, gravimetric separation and attrition. For the finest particle size fractions, an acid extraction with H2SO4 was used to remove metals. The PAH removal was enhanced by adding surfactant during attrition. The total metal removals varied from 49% to 73% for Cu and from 43% to 63% for Zn, whereas a removal yield of 92% was measured for total PAHs. Finally, ...
Resonantly stabilized radicals, such as propargyl, cyclopentadienyl, benzyl, and indenyl, play a vital role in the formation and growth of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that are soot precursors in engines and flames. Pyrene is considered to be an important PAH, as it is thought to nucleate soot particles, but its formation pathways are not well known. This paper presents a reaction mechanism for the formation of four-ring aromatics, pyrene and fluoranthene, through the combination of benzyl and indenyl radicals. The intermediate species and transition structures involved in the elementary reactions of the mechanism were studied using density functional theory, and the reaction kinetics were evaluated using transition state theory. The barrierless addition of benzyl and indenyl to form the adduct, 1-benzyl-1H-indene, was found to be exothermic with a reaction energy of 204.2 kJ mol-1. The decomposition of this adduct through H-abstraction and H2-loss was studied to determine the ...
mouse Cyp1b1 protein: a benz(a)anthracene and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-inducible cytochrome P450; active in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolism; RefSeq NM_009994
The activation, hydrogenation, and covalent coupling of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are processes of great importance in fields like chemistry, energy, biology, or health, among others. So far, they are based on the use of catalysts which drive and increase the efficiency of the thermally- or light-induced reaction. Here, we report on the catalyst-free covalent coupling of nonfunctionalized PAHs adsorbed on a relatively inert surface in the presence of atomic hydrogen. The underlying mechanism has been characterized by high-resolution scanning tunnelling microscopy and rationalized by density functional theory calculations. It is based on the formation of intermediate radical-like species upon hydrogen-induced molecular superhydrogenation which favors the covalent binding of PAHs in a thermally activated process, resulting in large coupled molecular nanostructures. The mechanism proposed in this work opens a door toward the direct formation of covalent, PAH-based, bottom-up ...
PAH is the short name for "Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons". Thank goodness this molecule has a short name! These are long strings of carbon atoms which form a ring. (That accounts for the "cyclic" and "hydrocarbon" part of its name). An aromatic molecule is one which forms a benzene ring. Polycyclic means the molecule forms many rings. The only PAH which non-scientists may be familiar with is napthalene, the chemical in mothballs. PAHs form easily. PAH is very abundant in the solar system as well as in space. The red color in many interstellar clouds, such as this one comes from radiation in red wavelengths of PAH chemicals in the clouds. PAH is found in comets and in meteorites, even ones which come from Mars. This was especially important when scientists thought there might be fossils of ancient life in a Martian rock. Trees and other sophisticated plant life emit PAH as part of their photosynthesis/respiratory cycle. But the chief source of terrestrial PAH today is automobile emissions. ...
The successful application of forensic geology to contamination studies involving natural systems requires identification of appropriate endmembers and an understanding of the geologic setting and processes affecting the systems. Studies attempting to delineate the background, or natural, source for hydrocarbon contamination in Gulf of Alaska (GOA) benthic sediments have invoked a number of potential sources, including seep oils, source rocks, and coal. Oil seeps have subsequently been questioned as significant sources of hydrocarbons present in benthic sediments of the GOA in part because the pattern of relative polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) abundance characteristic of benthic GOA sediments is inconsistent with patterns typical of weathered seep oils. Likewise, native coal has been dismissed in part because ratios of labile hydrocarbons to total organic carbon (e.g. PAH:TOC) for Bering River coal field (BRCF) sources are too low - i.e. the coals are over mature - to be consistent with GOA
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are potential carcinogenic and hazardous compounds having raised appreciable environmental concerns around the world in recent decades. This research investigates the effect of soil washing on removal of PAHs in contaminated soil. The study was conducted by collecting soil samples from a petrochemical complex in south of Iran. Testing was carried out at three temperatures of 20°C, 40°C, and 80°C and washing periods of 30 min and 60 min. Moreover, two different concentrations of Triton X-100 and Brij 35 surfactants were used throughout the experiments. The results of this research indicated that the maximum removal efficiency of PAHs was obtained using Brij 35 at concentration of 5 g/L, temperature of 80°C and washing duration of 60 min. The highest removal efficacies for anthracene, naphthalene, fluorene, and benzo(a)pyrene in coarse and fine fractions of the samples occurred at 76.24%, 86.32%, 78.54%, 85.81% and 57.50%, 63.39%, 60.87%, 79.94%, ...
Isotopic dilution gas chromatography combined with high resolution mass spectrometry (GC/HRMS) has overwhelming advantages with respect to the accuracy of congener-specific ultratrace analysis of complex persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in environmental matrices. However, an isotopic dilution GC/HRMS method for analysis of chlorinated and brominated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (Cl-PAHs and Br-PAHs) using 13C-labelled congeners as internal standards has not been established. In this study, a method for identification and quantification of 38 congeners of Cl-PAHs and Br-PAHs in atmosphere and stack gas samples from waste incinerators was developed using the isotopic dilution GC/HRMS technique. The instrumental detection limits of the GC/HRMS method ranged from 0.2pg to 1.8pg for Cl-PAH congeners, and 0.7pg to 2.7pg for Br-PAH congeners, which were about three orders of magnitude lower than those of the GC/quadrupole MS method. This new method developed was also the first to enable ...
ANALYSIS OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS (PAH) COMPOUNDS FROM SEDIMENT IN THE WATERS KAYU BANGKOA PORT AND DEGRADATION OF PHENANTHRENE IN SEDIMENT BY USING KMNO4 OXIDIZER
Clark, B.W.; Cooper, E.M.; Stapleton, H.M.; Di Giulio, R.T., 2013: Compound- and mixture-specific differences in resistance to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and PCB-126 among Fundulus heteroclitus subpopulations throughout the Elizabeth River estuary (Virginia, USA)
Epidemiologic evidence suggests that automobile and truck mechanics are at increased risk of bladder cancer. For mechanics, used gasoline engine oil (UGEO) is a major occupational exposure. UGEOs contain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) formed during combustion in engine operation. Because these PAHs have low volatility, mechanics have potential dermal exposure. Many PAHs found in UGEO are
The purpose of this project is to better understand the interactions between two potentially hazardous, common contaminants; the prototype polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), benzo(a)pyrene (BP), and the heavy metal, cadmium (Cd). This is particularly important since cadmium was found to alter the level and activity of several enzyme systems that catalyze the conversion of BP to its reactive metabolites, and the detoxification and excretion of these metabolites. Experiments are designed to investigate the extent to which Cd, in environmentally realistic concentrations, is capable of altering: 1) the level and activity of some phase I and phase II enzymes involved in the breakdown and excretion of BP; 2) the BP metabolic profile (i.e., increases or decreases in the generation of carcinogenic/mutagenic metabolites); 3) immunocompetence; 4) the formation of stable BP-DNA adducts; 5) development of hepatic preneoplastic lesions; and 6) the development of liver cancers in the mummichog (Fundulus ...
There are two more issues that make barbecued meat unsafe for consumption:. 1. Another cancer-causing compound - polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) - also forms on barbecued meat when fat from the meat, drips off into the fire and causes a flare up of flames and smoke. PAHs have been classified as cancer causing agents by various organizations such as the Environmental Protection Agency and the International Agency for Research on Cancer. According to the Center for Disease Control in Atlanta, GA, we are exposed to PAHs through breathing air contaminated by wild fire or coal OR eating meat or foods that have been grilled.. 2. Hot dogs. Wow, do I even need to tell you how unhealthy hot dogs are? Research has shown that processed meat, such as that found in hot dogs or other smoked meats, increases ones risk of colorectal cancer, on average, by 21 percent for every 50 grams consumed daily! (A 50-gram serving is approximately the size of a typical hot dog.) A 2002 international study ...
Environmental fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is a significant issue raising interest in bioremediation. Soil microorganism plays a vital role in degradat..
The objective of this research project is to focus on the central hypothesis of the Southern California Particle Center and Supersite, which is that organic constituents associated with particulate matter-including quinones, other organic compounds (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [PAHs], nitro-PAHs, and aldehydes/ketones), and metals-are capable of generating reactive oxygen species and acting as electrophilic agents. They have a central role in allergic airway disease such as asthma and cardiovascular effects through their ability to generate oxidative stress, inflammation, and immunomodulating effects in the lungs and airways. The specific objective of this research project is to extend our current knowledge of the size distribution of atmospheric PAHs present near freeways-located in the Los Angeles Basin and at an urban site-down to 10 nm aerodynamic diameter. ...
The effect of flavonoids (flavone, morin hydrate and 3-hydroxyflavone)on the microbial mineralisation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil slurry by the indigenous microbial communities has been investigated. The rates and extents of 14C-PAHs (14C-naphthalene, 14C-phenanthrene and 14C-pyrene)mineralisation in artificially spiked soils were monitored in the absence and presence of flavonoids applied at three different concentrations (50, 100 and 200 µg kg-1) either as single compounds or as a mixture of flavonoids (flavone, morin hydrate and 3-hydroxyflavone at a 1:1:1 ratio). Respirometric and microbial assays were monitored in fresh (0 d) and pre-incubated (28 d) artificially spiked soils following amendment with flavonoids. The highest extents of14C-naphthalene, 14C-phenanthrene and 14C-pyrenemineralisation (P< 0.001) were obtained in fresh artificially spiked soils amended with 100 µg kg
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), benzene and toluene (BT) are ubiquitous toxic pollutants in the environment. Children are sensitive and susceptible to exposure to these contaminants. To investigate the potential oxidative DNA damage from the co-exposure of PAHs and BT in children, 87 children (aged 3-6) from a kindergarten in Guangzhou, China, were recruited. Ten urinary PAHs and four BT ...
Abstract. In order to better understand the particle size distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their source contribution to human respiratory system, size-resolved PAHs have been studied in ambient aerosols at a megacity Shanghai site during a 1-year period (2012-2013). The results showed the PAHs had a bimodal distribution with one mode peak in the fine-particle size range (0.4-2.1 µm) and another mode peak in the coarse-particle size range (3.3-9.0 µm). Along with the increase in ring number of PAHs, the intensity of the fine-mode peak increased, while the coarse-mode peak decreased. Plotting of log(PAH / PM) against log(Dp) showed that all slope values were above −1, suggesting that multiple mechanisms (adsorption and absorption) controlled the particle size distribution of PAHs. The total deposition flux of PAHs in the respiratory tract was calculated as being 8.8 ± 2.0 ng h−1. The highest lifetime cancer risk (LCR) was estimated at 1.5 × 10−6, which exceeded ...
Article Sorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to polystyrene nanoplastic. Microplastic has become an emerging contaminant of global concern. Bulk plastic can degrade to form smaller particles down to the nano‐scale (|100 nm), which are referre...
This application note demonstrates an improved method for EPA Method 8270D using the Zebron ZB-SemiVolatiles GC column from Phenomenex. The key benefits of this method include, faster run times while still maintaining resolution of key compounds like benzo[b]fluoranthene and benzo[k]fluoranthene and improved peak shape of typically poor performing compounds like phenols and amines.
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are present in both gaseous and particulate phases. These compounds are considered to be atmospheric contaminants and are human carcinogens. Many studies have monitored atmospheric particulate and gaseous phase
The possibility that condensation reactions, leading to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) formation in protoplanetary atmospheres, could occur with negative aromatic species, such as stabilized anionic ortho-benzyne (o-C6H−4), is analysed through accurate quantum dynamical modelling of the initial steps. Once the primary electron attachment on the neutral o-C6H−4 has taken place, producing the corresponding metastable negative ion, the evolution of this resonant anionic intermediate in terms of its energy locations and lifetimes suggests the possibility of a radiationless stabilization by a very rapid intramolecular vibrational redistribution of the excess energy carried by the attached electron. The possible involvement of this stabilized highly reactive molecular anion in an ensuing PAH synthesis is also qualitatively discussed. ...
In this application note it is shown that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds (PAHs) can be effectively extracted from water samples using Strata PAH. In addition it is shown that humic acids, which often interfere with chromatographic separation, can be removed from the sample using the SPE sorbent, Strata® PAH. The Strata PAH provides consistent, high recoveries of all 16 analytes listed under EPA Method 550.1.
PubMedID: 24746003 | [Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons monohydroxy metabolites level in urine of general population in eight provinces of China]. | Zhonghua yu fang yi xue za zhi [Chinese journal of preventive medicine] | 2/1/2014
PAHs in SD:Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons levels in street dust in the central area of Niterói City, RJ, Brazil 的翻译是:多环芳烃在SD:多环芳烃的含量在街道尘埃硝石ó我市,RJ的中心区,巴西 是什么意思?英文翻译中文,中文翻译英文,怎么说?-我要翻译网
Bioreclamation of Chlorinated Compounds & Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Compounds 2(1) by Battelle Memorial Institute available in Hardcover on Powells.com, also read synopsis and reviews. This timely reference presents the state of the art of the emerging and rapidly changing field of...
Read "Peroxidases from alfalfa roots: Catalytic properties and participation in degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, Russian Journal of Plant Physiology" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons induce an inflammatory atherosclerotic plaque phenotype irrespective of their DNA binding properties ...
An investigation for the analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in airborne particulates using thermal desorption and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry is described. Samples are obtained from ambient air using fibreglass filters and the volatile material from the filter is thermally desorbed to gas chromatograph. A 30 meter capillary column is used to separate the hydrocarbons and eight polyaromatic hydrocarbons are used to test the method and recovery is >95%. The eight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons anthracene, phenanthrene, fluoranthrene, pyrene, benzo (a) anthracene, chrysene, benzo (a) pyrene and benzo (e) pyrene were the most abundant PAHs found in the samples of ambient air with current method at Uxbridge-London. Application of the measurement of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ambient air samples shows that the hydrocarbons trapped in the particle phase to a lesser degree at higher ambient temperature. In conclusion a method has been developed to transfer the PAHs in ...
COLUMBIA UNIVERSITYS MAILMAN SCHOOL OF PUBLIC HEALTH. Exposure to common air pollutants during pregnancy may predispose children to problems regulating their thoughts, emotions, and behaviors later on, according to a new study led by researchers at the Columbia Center for Childrens Environmental Health within Columbia Universitys Mailman School of Public Health and New York State Psychiatric Institute. The new study is the first of its kind to examine the effects of early life exposure to a common air pollutant known as PAH (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) on self-regulating behaviors and social competency that incorporates multiple assessment points across childhood. Children with poor self-regulation skills have difficulty managing disruptive thoughts, emotions, and impulses; poor social competency limits their ability to get along with others. The study appears in the Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry.. PAH are ubiquitous in the environment from emissions from motor vehicles; ...
Harmonised classification and labelling is a legally binding classification and labelling for a substance, agreed at European Community level. Harmonisation is based on the substances physical, toxicological and eco-toxicological hazard assessment. The Hazard classification and labelling section uses the signal word, pictogram(s) and hazard statements of the substance under the harmonised classification and labelling (CLH) as its primary source of information.. If the substance is covered by more than one CLH entry (e.g. disodium tetraborate EC no. 215-540-4, is covered by three harmonisations: 005-011-00-4; 005-011-01-1 and 005-011-02-9), CLH information cannot be displayed in the InfoCard as the difference between the CLH classifications requires manual interpretation or verification. If a substance is classified under multiple CLH entries, a link to the C&L Inventory is provided to allow users to view CLH information associated with the substance and no text is automatically ...
Numerous molecular alterations in ESCC tumors have been identified. Among them, TP53 alterations are the most common. One study of 56 ESCC cases from north central China found at least 1 genetic alteration in TP53 in 96% of the tumors studied, including mutations (77%), allelic loss within the gene (73%), and/or LOH at the TP53 microsatellite marker (80%); and three quarters of the cases had 2 or more such alterations (11). In a study conducted in northeastern Iran, 90% of the 119 ESCC cases evaluated had a TP53 mutation, including 11 with 2 or 3 mutations (12). The TP53 mutation pattern observed in this study was heterogeneous, in a manner suggestive of environmental exposures. Typical hotspots were only infrequently mutated, whereas 40% of altered bases were at mutagenesis sites known to be associated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure, and the mutation patterns differed by the reported temperature of the tea consumed. Another study of 60 ESCCs from north central China observed at ...
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which consist of two or more fused aromatic rings, are ubiquitous products of combustion. These compounds are found in wood and tobacco smoke, engine (particularly diesel) exhausts, and in numerous workplaces, including those producing coke and aluminum and those processing hot asphalt. Because some PAHs are potent carcinogens, it is important to assess the levels of exposure to these compounds that are received by workers and the general public. However, PAHs are difficult to measure in the environment because they exist in both the gas phase and the particulate phase, and the carcinogenic particle-bound compounds are present at very low concentrations. In contrast, the smaller vapor-phase PAHs are more abundant in the environment and produce a host of urinary products that can be used as biomarkers of exposure. Here we consider the hypothesis that urinary biomarkers of naphthalene (a 2-ring compound) and phenanthrene (a 3-ring compound) can be used as ...
Fluoranthene is a chemical belonging to a group of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are multi-ringed aromatic compounds frequently found in coal, tar, cigarette smoke and barbecue meat. PAHs have also been found in sewage sludge. Some of these compounds are known carcinogens.[1]. ...
Cefas action levels do not contain values for individual PAHs. The action levels are therefore based on total PAHs. All samples, where analysis was undertaken for total PAHs, did not detect PAH contamination. Canadian sediment guidelines however contai...
PAHs are aromatic compounds with two or more benzene rings. They are usually produced by the thermal decomposition of organic molecules and similar compounds [1]. The common sources of these compounds in the environment might be human activities, wildfire, oil spills and volcanoes. These compounds are known as toxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic pollutants [2] and can not easily eliminate from the environment under natural conditions; and as their molecular weight increases, their resistance to degradation also increases. Due to their widespread presence in the air, soil and sediments, they have attracted a lot of attentions in different studies. These compounds should be eliminated from the environment because evidences indicate that PAHs mixtures are teratogenic, mutagenic and carcinogenic to humans [3]. Different methods such as biological, thermal, physical, chemical and solidification can be applied for soil remediation [4]. Among the different methods of remediation, biological techniques ...
In article ,4ck5pj$9pr at cloner3.netcom.com,, icfke at ix.netcom.com(Don Kellett ) writes: , I have run into a dead end in a search for toxicity and/or exposure , information for plants and the following list of organic chemicals. , Any information or references provided would be greatly appreciated. , , Thanks in advance, , , Don Kellett , ICF Kaiser Engineers , Lakewood, CO , icfke at ix.netcom.com , , CHEMICALS , butylbenzylphthalate , di-n-butylphthalate , 4,4DDE , 4,4DDT , anthracene , benzo[b]fluoranthene , fluoranthene , naphthalene , phenanthrene , pyrene Don, Hi. One good online source of plant toxicity information is STN, the Science and Technical Information Network, produced by the organization I work at, Chemical Abstracts Service. There are many files (CA, CAplus, Toxline, Toxlit, Biosis, etc.) on STN with the kind of information youre looking for. One good strategy to use might be: 1. In the Registry file, search for the chemical name (anthracene, for instance) and get the ...
article{BUT88856, author="Petr {Babula} and Ondřej {Vodička} and Vojtěch {Adam} and Marie {Kummerová} and Ladislav {Havel} and Jan {Hošek} and Ivo {Provazník} and Helena {Škutková} and Miroslava {Beklová} and René {Kizek}", title="Effect of fluoranthene on plant cell model: Tobacco BY-2 suspension culture", annote="Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) belong to the group of the most important pollutants of the living environment, which are present in air, soils, freshwater, seawater and sediments. They have very substantial effects on all living organisms including plants and animals. Plants represent important point in PAHs food chain entry. Despite the fact that PAHs influence on animals is intensively studied, effect on plants is almost unknown. In our study, action of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon fluoranthene on a plant cell experimental model - tobacco BY-2 cell suspension culture - was studied. BY-2 cells were exposed to the fluoranthene in concentration range from 0 to ...
Recently, the CYP1B1 cDNA was isolated and characterized from humans (8,41), mice (9, 42), and rats (11, 43). CYP1B1 proteins have been isolated from a mouse embryo fibroblast cell line and from rat adrenal microsomes (13, 44, 45). Both the rat and mouse enzymes have been shown to catalyze the metabolism of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons such as 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (13, 44, 45). The human CYP1B1 cDNA sequence has been reported to be about 80% similar to mouse and rat counterparts and the expression of the CYP1B1 mRNA has been observed in many organs including kidney, prostate, mammary gland, pituitary, thymus, spleen, adrenal, colon, ovary, uterus, brain, heart, lung, intestine, and testis (8, 11). It is, however, not known whether CYP1B1 protein is actually expressed in these organs, and whether there are interindividual variations in the levels of expression of CYP1B1 in humans.. Although the exact roles of CYP1B1 in the metabolism of endobiotic chemicals have not ...
... From: R. Hubner ,roland.hubner at health.fgov.be, Subject: degradation of polycyclic aromatic carbohydrates... Date: Friday, May 14, 2004 7:22 PM Dear bionetters, I would be very grateful if a kind soul could point out to me any comprehensive review paper, book chap, web publication or report that has detailed information about how inhaled PACs are metabolized by a human body and how many different (good?) methods are available to monitor such products... Presumably, such information might have been compiled to evaluate the impact on public health of, e.g., NYs burning Twin Towers and similar exposures to smoke... Thank you so much for your goodwill. With kindest regards, R. Hübner ************************************************************** Cancer Res. 2000 Jul 15; 60(14): 3749-52. Cigarette smoking, CYP1A1 MspI and GSTM1 genotypes, and colorectal adenomas. [ 21 references ] Inoue H, Kiyohara C, Marugame ...
This study evaluates effectiveness of 4 additives [CaO, Ca(OH)2 + NaHCO3, H2O2, and FeSO4 + H2O2] in thermal degradation of hazardous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in petroleum sludge cake. Residual concentrations of 16 priority PAHs were determined using GC-MS. Total PAH conc. was found as: gas, 3.11 10-4 - 4.36 10-4 ppmv; particulate, 7.92 10-5 - 5.24 10-4 mg/m3; and residue, 1.37 10-4 - 1.07 100 g/g. Total toxicity equivalence of PAHs relative to that of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) was found as: gas, 3.11 10-7 - 4.41 10-7; particulate, 3.87 10-7 - 3.85 10-5; and residual, 6.17 10-7 - 9.65 10-3. Ca(OH)2 + NaHCO3 was most suitable due to least emission of high molecular weight PAHs, lower equivalent carcinogenicity of products, and lower concentrations of PAHs in gas, particulate and residue ...
Written by Patricia Pimentel Selassie, ND. Its here! Barbecue season has arrived. I like this season because when you can get together with your family and community, be outdoors in nature, and have some moments to relax, you actually send a signal to your body to unwind from work and stress and spend a little time healing. Here are some simple things you can do to make it healthier.. The well-loved char you get on your grilled meats contains Heterocyclic Amines (HCAs) and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs). These PAHs are products of combustion and highly toxic and carcinogenic. PAHs cause changes to your DNA that can lead to cancer, especially pancreatic cancer. Other sources of PAHs are cigarette smoke, air pollution, auto exhaust, and diesel fuel. And in fact, humans have so much exposure to it that it can be found in our fat tissue.. So, when grilling, here are some tips to reduce your exposure to PAHs:. ...
Our previous studies suggested that body fluids such as serum can serve as a novel surrogate for DNA-containing tissues to overcome the major limiting factor of tissue availability in human biomonitoring assessments. We have now examined the detectability of DNA-reactive metabolites (DRMs) in the serum and tissues of male C57BL/6 mice administered up to 10 i.p. injections on alternate days of individual polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) or a mixture containing 0.01, 0.1, 1.0 and 5.0 mg/kg body wt each of benzo[a]pyrene (BP), cyclopenta[cd]pyrene (CPP) and benzo[k]fluoranthene (BF) in 200μl sunflower oil. Four hours after the last dose, blood serum was separated and incubated with salmon testes DNA (st-DNA).32P-Post-labeling of the st-DNA showed essentially the same adduct pattern as found in the tissue DNA, indicating that DRMs of the PAHs used were presumably sequestered and accumulated in the serum proteins. Serum DRMs were detectable at all doses tested following exposure to a mixture ...
We demonstrate that intestinal inflammation caused by high-fat diet is increased by the environmental contaminant benzo[a]pyrene. Our in vivo results indicate that a high-fat diet (HFD) induces a pre-diabetic state in mice compared with animals fed normal chow. HFD increased IL-1betamRNA concentration in the jejunum, colon, and liver, and TNFalpha was increased in the colon and strongly increased in the liver. HFD also increased the expression of other genes related to type 2 diabetes, such as the uncoupling protein UCP2, throughout the bowel and liver, but not in the colon. The treatment of HFD with BaP enhanced the expression of IL-1beta in the liver and TNFalpha throughout the bowel and in the liver. Adding BaP to the diet also caused a significant decrease in the expression of the incretin glucagon-like peptide 1, which plays an important role in insulin secretion. Our results suggest that intestinal inflammation may be involved in the onset of type 2 diabetes and that chronic exposure to
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سلامت کار ایران Iran Occupational Health (IOH) seeks to publish Original Research Papers and Case Reports, Review Articles and Technical Reports related to the fields of Public Health and Occupational Health particularly. IOH is an official publication of Iran University of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Public Health and is published quarterly. The following guidelines refer to the Journal requirements for receiving your manuscripts for possible publication. Complying with guidelines will expedite the process of evaluation and publication of the submitted manuscripts. IOH regrets to reject those contributions that deviate from the Journal style.
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Birth defects are one of the most common adverse birth outcomes, which create a heavy economic burden to the country, society and family. And they are also one of the biggest problems facing public health today. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a group of toxic pollutants existing in the environment widely, resulting from incomplete organic matter combustion, and can be taken into the body through various ways including the digestive tract, respiratory tract and so on. Recent researches suggest that the exposure of PAHs may be associated with various birth defects, while the special mechanism isnt very clear ...
We examined participants from the merged National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2002, 2003-2004 and 2005-2006. Exposures of interest were eight urinary monohydroxy-PAHs. Our outcome was diabetes mellitus defined as a glycohemoglobin level (HbA1c) ≥6.5%, a self-reported physician diagnosis of diabetes or use of oral hypoglycaemic medication or insulin. Analyses were adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, race, alcohol consumption, poverty-income ratio, total cholesterol and serum cotinine ...
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Information on the environment for those involved in developing, adopting, implementing and evaluating environmental policy, and also the general public
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Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous in the environment due to accidental spills during use, transport and storage of petroleum and coal derivatives. Their high chemical stability and hydrophobicity confers them recalcitrance. Because of their great persistence in the environment, toxicity and carcinogenicity, these compounds are on the list of priority pollutants. The most sustainable way to remove these compounds from soil without damaging its ecological structure and function is bioremediation. This technology uses the metabolic capabilities of microorganisms to decontaminate (degrade) polluted sites. Microorganisms act on the environment interconnected by metabolic networks, in which the byproducts generated by certain populations are utilized for others as a carbon source. Until recently, the PAH biodegradation studies were conducted by exposing individual compounds to pure strains. However, to improve the technology of bioremediation is necessary to unravel how these ...
Introduction. Recent epidemiological studies reveal associations between exposure to environmental pollutants and cardiovascular disorders in humans. Elevated serum concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have for instance been associated with cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension (1-3). Exposure to the carbonate plastic monomer bisphenol A (BPA) has been associated with an increased incidence of cardiovascular disease and atherogenic changes in the vascular wall (4-6). The contention that the human cardiovascular system is a sensitive target for toxic chemicals gain support from our earlier and recent experimental studies in rodents, birds and fish, as well as in cultured human primary endothelial cells. It is also compatible with earlier observations that certain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are environmental carcinogens that may also contribute to atherosclerosis in mice and birds (7,8).. In this presentation we will briefly discuss effects of Ah receptor ...
Phenanthrene and other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are naturally occurring, but increasing in environmental concentration, primarily due to the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels. These compounds consist of two or more fused benzene rings and are very stable, persisting for long periods of time in sediments. PAH cause carcinogenic and mutagenic effects in humans and the EPA has listed 16 PAHs as primary pollutants that need immediate remediation (Perelo, 2010). Polystyrene is an aromatic polymer and one of the most widely used plastics with several billion kilograms produced annually. Foamed polystyrene, known by the trade name
2-Methylnaphthalene is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH). On February 22, 2014, NASA announced a greatly upgraded database for detecting and monitoring PAHs, including 2-methylnaphthalene, in the universe. According to NASA scientists, over 20% of the carbon in the universe may be associated with PAHs, possible starting materials for the formation of life ...
Approximately 34% of C14-C20 aliphatic, ,2% aromatic hydrocarbon fluids are absorbed when ingested. C14-C20 aliphatic, ,2% aromatic hydrocarbon fluids is poorly dermally absorbed. Absorption following inhalation is assumed to be similar to ingestion since exposures will be to aerosol. Regardless of exposure route, C14-C20 aliphatic, ,2% aromatic hydrocarbon fluids are rapidly metabolized. Bioaccumulation of C14-C20 aliphatic, ,2% aromatic hydrocarbon fluids is not expected. Discussion on bioaccumulation potential result: C14-C20 aliphatic, ,2% aromatic hydrocarbon fluids are absorbed if ingested. C14-C20 aliphatic, ,2% aromatic hydrocarbon fluids undergo metabolism and rapid excretion and low deposition, bioaccumulation of the test substance in the tissues is not likely to occur. The fate of pristane (2, 6, 10, 14-tetramethylpentadecane) was studied in rats after a single per os administration of 3H-labeled pristane. The balance study showed extensive fecal excretion (66%) mainly as unchanged ...
Tucker, Sheryl A.; Acree, William; Tanga, Mary; Tokita, Sumio; Kimihiro, Hiruta und Langhals, Heinz (1992): Spectroscopic Properties of Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds. Examination of Nitromethane as a Selective Fluorescence Quenching Agent for Alternant Polycyclic Aromatic Nitrogen Hetero-Atom Derivatives. In: Applied Spectroscopy, Vol. 46, Nr. 2: S. 229-235 [PDF, 1MB] ...
Concentrations, Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Hydrocarbons, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Cadmium, Nickel, Methods, Time, Concentration, Report, Work, Device, Fertilizers, Films, Grain, Plant, Potato, Reports, Risk, Soil
Washington: Those first few puffs on a cigarette can within minutes cause genetic damage linked to cancer, US scientists said in a study released.. In fact, researchers said the effect is so fast that it`s equivalent to injecting the substance directly into the bloodstream, in findings described as a stark warning to those who smoke.. The study is the first on humans to track how substances in tobacco cause DNA damage, and appears in the peer-reviewed journal Chemical Research in Toxicology, issued by the American Chemical Society.. Using 12 volunteer smokers, scientists tracked pollutants called PAHs, or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, that are carried in tobacco smoke and can also be found in coal-burning plants and in charred barbecue food.. They followed one particular type - phenanthrene, which is found in cigarette smoke - through the blood and saw it form a toxic substance that is known to trash DNA, causing mutations that can cause cancer, the study said.. The smokers developed ...
Standard Test Method for Trace Nitrogen in Aromatic Hydrocarbons by Oxidative Combustion and Reduced Pressure Chemiluminescence ...
High-speed analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in diesel exhaust particulate matters by ultra high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array ...
High-speed analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in diesel exhaust particulate matters by ultra high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array ...
This article describes the laboratory assessment of a hand and surface wipe sampling method for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The analytical method employed extraction of the wipe samples into dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) flourometric detection of pyrene, a predominant PAH in used gasoline engine oils (UGEO). Recovery of pyrene was evaluate
Authors: Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian , de la Monte, Suzanne M. Article Type: Review Article Abstract: Given the epidemiological trends of increasing Alzheimers disease (AD) and growing evidence that exposure and lifestyle factors contribute to AD risk and pathogenesis, attention should be paid to variables such as air pollution, in order to reduce rates of cognitive decline and dementia. Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) and ozone (O3 ) above the US EPA standards is associated with AD risk. Mexico City children experienced pre- and postnatal high exposures to PM2.5 , O3, combustion-derived iron-rich nanoparticles, metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and endotoxins. Exposures are associated with early brain gene imbalance in oxidative stress, inflammation, innate …and adaptive immune responses, along with epigenetic changes, accumulation of misfolded proteins, cognitive deficits, and brain structural and metabolic changes. The Apolipoprotein E (APOE) 4 allele, the most ...
Scientists know that industrial contaminants pose a danger to aquatic life; what they do not yet know is whether other additives that are often present in waterways help or hinder this problem. Here at IBES, former graduate affiliate April Rodd is using a test case of two materials-carbon nanoparticles and benzo(a)pyrene-to explore the effects of such chemical mixtures on fish.. Rodd, who earned her PhD in early 2017, employs a new form of technology called three-dimensional cell culture to study fish liver cells. In this process, scientists modify the more classic, single-layer culture and turn it into something more closely resembling the cells of a living organism.. "Instead of having a flat, single layer of cells, you force it to assemble into a ball of tissue instead," she explains.. Rodd and her colleagues are familiar with the toxic effect of benzo(a)pyrene, a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) commonly found in oil spills, on cultured fish cells alone-but the combined effect of this ...
Naphtalene. Molecular model of the organic compound naphtalene (C10.H8), a white crystalline powder best known as the main ingredient of mothballs. It is the simplest polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon. Atoms are represented as spheres and are colour-coded: carbon (grey) and hydrogen (white). Illustration. - Stock Image F017/0530
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons that travel longer distances, adversely impact human health and ecosystems and are known to persist in the atmosphere.
By Tracy Severson, R.D., L.D. Summer is finally upon us here in Portland, and for many of us, that means firing up the grill. Grilling is a great way to prepare meals-no added fat, the kitchen stays nice and cool, plus the smoky flavor of grilled foods cant be beat. However, cooking meats at high temperatures (mainly grilling, broiling, and pan-frying) can form carcinogens called heterocyclic amines (HCAs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). HCAs form … Read More. ...
Vertex Environmental Inc. staff have designed, constructed and operated a variety of systems to treat polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) within soil and groundwater. PAHs tend to be persistent within the subsurface resistent to biological treatment. Some PAHs such as benzo[a]pyrene are carcinogenic and can pose a risk to humans and the environment. At a former →. Read More ...
Durlak, S.K.; Biswas, P.; Shi, J.; Bernhard, M.J., Characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon particulate and gaseous emissions from polystyrene combustion, Environ. Sci. Technol., 1998, 32, 15, 2301-2307, https://doi.org/10.1021/es9709031 . 54 matching species were found. For each matching species the following will be displayed: ...