TY - JOUR. T1 - Association between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure and peripheral blood mononuclear cell DNA damage in human volunteers during fire extinction exercises. AU - Andersen, Maria Helena Guerra. AU - Saber, Anne Thoustrup. AU - Clausen, Per Axel. AU - Pedersen, Julie Elbæk. AU - Løhr, Mille. AU - Kermanizadeh, Ali. AU - Loft, Steffen. AU - Ebbehøj, Niels. AU - Hansen, Åse Marie. AU - Pedersen, Peter Bøgh. AU - Koponen, Ismo Kalevi. AU - Nørskov, Eva-Carina. AU - Møller, Peter. AU - Vogel, Ulla Birgitte. PY - 2018. Y1 - 2018. N2 - This study investigated a number of biomarkers, associated with systemic inflammation as well as genotoxicity, in 53 young and healthy subjects participating in a course to become firefighters, while wearing personal protective equipment (PPE). The exposure period consisted of a 3-day training course where the subjects participated in various live-fire training exercises. The subjects were instructed to extinguish fires of either wood or wood ...
The effect of ultra-high temperature (UHT) on production of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on the surface of beef steaks was determined. Beef steaks were treated with five treatments, raw, UHT, UHT/grill marks, UHT/grill marks/microwave, and charcoal grilled. Four PAHs, benzo[a]pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, and benzo[k]fluoranthene, were quantified. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography (GC) were used to purify and analyze the PAH extracts, respectively. Levels of PAH found on charcoal-grilled steaks were higher than those observed in the literature. A balanced incomplete block design was used to analyze the data. There were no significant differences among the treatments in the production of the benzofluoranthenes. There were significant increases in production of benzo[a]pyrene and benz[a]anthracene when grill marks were applied to the UHT steak. Microwaving significantly decreased the levels of benzo[a]pyrene and benz[a]anthracene. The
Background: This study attempted to clarify the household and mothers lifestyle factors that contribute to the greater fetal vulnerability of African-American individuals to airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH).. Methods: Non-smoking pregnant women with no known risks of adverse birth outcome were monitored for their personal exposure to airborne PAH. Birth outcomes were collected from the hospital medical record. Modification of the airborne PAH effects was statistically examined. In linear regression analyses, modification of PAH effect by demographic, socioeconomic and behavioral traits on birth weight and fetal growth ratio were respectively tested, adjusting for the gestational age, gender, parity, delivery season, maternal body mass index and weight gained during the present pregnancy.. Results: Maternal obesity exacerbated the airborne PAH risk by −491 g per 25th to 80th percentile unit exposure (95% CI −197 to −786 g; p,0.01) among African Americans. In addition, ...
A review of airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in EgyptAssmaa M. El-Mekawy1, Atef M.F. Mohammed1, Salwa K. M. Hassan11Air Pollution Depa...
article{76d93444-52bd-4e4a-9e48-97e8ab47fe24, abstract = {Little is known about the spatial connection between soil microbial community composition and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentration. A spatially explicit survey at a creosote-contaminated site demonstrated that microbial biomass (total concentration of phospholipid fatty acids [PLFAs]) and microbial community composition (PLFA fingerprints) were spatially autocorrelated, mostly within a distance of 25 m, and covaried with PAH concentrations. The concentration of PLFAs indicative of gram-negative bacteria (16:1 omega 7c, 16:1 omega 7t, 18:1 omega 7, cy17:0, and cy19:0) increased in the PAH hot spots, whereas PLFAs representing fungi and gram-positive bacteria (including actinomycetes) were negatively correlated to PAH concentrations. Most PLFAs were spatially autocorrelated, with distances varying between 4 and 25 m. Those PLFAs that increased in PAH-contaminated soil had autocorrelation ranges between 4 and 16 m, whereas the ...
Humans spend most of their lives in indoor environments; hence, indoor exposure to air pollution may constitute a large part of the total exposure to air pollution. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are well known for their mutagenicity and carcinogenicity and are ubiquitous in urban environments as a result of combustion from e.g. vehicular traffic. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons associated to air particulate matter in indoor environments originates from several sources including: cooking and heating, outdoor sources, smoking, candle and incense burning. Infiltration has been suspected to be one major source of indoor polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In this study, four different air filter materials intended for mechanical ventilation were tested for their capability to remove particle bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and other genotoxic compounds from a real urban aerosol. Particles were sampled at two highly trafficked locations in Stockholm using a sampling system capable of sample ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Phosphorus-Containing Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons. AU - Szűcs, Rózsa. AU - Bouit, Pierre Antoine. AU - Nyulászi, L.. AU - Hissler, Muriel. PY - 2017/10/6. Y1 - 2017/10/6. N2 - Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are highly appealing functional materials in the field of molecular electronics. In particular, molecular engineering of these derivatives by using organic chemistry is a powerful method to tune their properties from the point of view of the band gap and supramolecular assemblies. Another way to achieve such control is to take advantage of the specific reactivity of heteroatoms placed within the sp2-carbon framework. This strategy has been successfully applied to nitrogen, sulfur and boron. In this review, examples of phosphorus-containing PAHs and the effect of the phosphorus environment on the electronic properties from both experimental and theoretical points of view are discussed.. AB - Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are highly appealing ...
The Koggala lagoon is a coastal wetland affected by a major oil spill and other anthropogenic pollution sources. In this study, gill and liver histological alterations and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure indicative bile fluorescence patterns of the fish species inhabiting the lagoon were examined in order to explore the potential biological impacts. Fixed wavelength fluorescence patterns in the bile of Mugil cephalus, Lutjanus russellii and Etroplus suratensis showed bioavailability of naphthalene type-, phenanthrene type-, pyrene type- and benzo(a)pyrene type- metabolites indicating recent exposure of the fishes to petrogenic and pyrogenic PAHs. Histological analysis revealed the occurrence of prominent gill and liver lesions, especially in the tissues of M. cephalus and L. russellii. Of the fish species examined, which included 43 individual fishes, the liver tissues of M. cephalus (two fish) and L. russellii (one fish) displayed foci of hepatocellular alterations with nodular ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Identification of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the black crusts of Sicilian stone monuments: distribution and sources. AU - Gianguzza, Antonio. AU - Orecchio, Santino. AU - Piazzese, Daniela. PY - 2004. Y1 - 2004. N2 - Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons are a family of compounds with known carcinogenic potential; their properties of lipophilicity, low water solubility and adsorption to particles and sediments make them a potentially dangerous group of chemicals and a threat to the environment and its bio-resources. The concentrations of total Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 19 individual compounds in 8 black crusts sampled from historical building of Palermo (Italy) were analyzed, by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) in selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. PAH concentrations ranged from 78 to 9798 g/Kg of dry matrix. The resulting distributions and molecular ratios of specific compounds have been discussed in terms of sample location and ...
BioMed Research International is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies covering a wide range of subjects in life sciences and medicine. The journal is divided into 55 subject areas.
Molecular cloning and expression of genes encoding a novel dioxygenase involved in low- and high-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation in Mycobacterium vanbaalenii PYR-1 ...
Molecular cloning and expression of genes encoding a novel dioxygenase involved in low- and high-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation in Mycobacterium vanbaalenii PYR-1 ...
Sediments from four inshore industrial sites and a reference site in the Great Lakes were extracted with solvents and characterized chemically for polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs). An aqueous phase and a crude organic extract were obtained. The crude organic extract was further resolved into fractions A-2 (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) and A-3 (nitrogen-containing polycyclic aromatic compounds), which were analyzed for PACs by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The extracts and fractions were tested for mutagenicity in three assays: Ames, rat hepatocyte unscheduled DNA synthesis, and Chinese hamster ovary hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (CHO/HGPRT). Sediments from the industrial sites contained 27 to 363 μg/g total PACs; the reference site, less than 1 μg/g. Qualitative differences in the residue profiles among the sites were attributable to the probable sources of the PACs (petroleum versus combustion). Only one industrial site yielded measurable (0.1
The clustering of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules is investigated in the context of soot particle inception and growth using an isotropic potential developed from the benchmark PAHAP potential. This potential is used to estimate equilibrium constants of dimerisation for five representative PA
We present a study of the culturable PAH-degrading bacteria associated with the rhizosphere of several salt marsh plant species in contaminated and uncontaminated estuarine sediments. In addition, a pasteurization method was successful in isolating spore-forming bacteria. Numerous studies have demonstrated the importance of the rhizosphere effect on degradation of organic contaminants. Most of these studies have examined terrestrial plants and agricultural chemicals (1, 2, 27); few have looked at the influence of plant-associated microorganisms on the fate of PCBs (15, 16) and PAHs (34, 39). There have been a limited number of studies on PAH degradation involving wetland or salt marsh ecosystems, but none have studied the diversity of PAH-degrading microorganisms present (28, 30, 49).. Recently, more studies have focused on PAH degradation in marine and estuarine ecosystems (3, 11, 12, 13, 17, 20, 21, 46). No studies have been conducted on the PAH-degrading microorganisms associated with salt ...
Our findings suggest that the association between PAH exposure and a cytokine storm may be mediated by AhR and NLRP3 expression among preschoolers.
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3129 The exposure to ambient air pollution has negative health consequences including increased morbidity and mortality. Among other pollutants, ambient air contains particulate matter (PM). PM consists of dust, soot and other particles and various chemicals, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). To investigate the role of PAHs and PM in oxidative stress induction we analyzed oxidative damage to DNA, lipids and proteins in human hepatoma cell line HepG2. Cells were exposed to several concentrations of individual carcinogenic PAHs (cPAHs, including benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), dibenzo[al]pyrene (DB[al]P), benzo[a]anthracene (B[a]A), benzo[b]fluoranthene (B[b]F), benzo[k]fluoranthene (B[k]F), chrysene, benzo[ghi]perylene (B[ghi]P), indeno[cd]pyrene (I[cd]P) and dibenzo[ah]anthracene (DB[ah]A)), an artificial mixture of cPAHs (cPAHs mix) and to organic extracts obtained from PM10 (PM , 10 µm) collected by high volume air samplers in summer 2001, winter 2001 and winter 2005 in Prague, Czech ...
This paper proposes an analytical method for determining amounts of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs; benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene, dibenzo[a,h]anthracene, benzo[g,h,i] perylene) in ...
Article Adsorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from wastewater by using silica-based organic–inorganic nanohybrid material. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a group of priority pollutants, which are classified as persistent ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Orbital views of the electron transport through polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with different molecular sizes and edge type structures. AU - Li, Xinqian. AU - Staykov, Aleksandar Tsekov. AU - Yoshizawa, Kazunari. PY - 2010/6/3. Y1 - 2010/6/3. N2 - In this work electron-transport properties of π-conjugated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with different molecular sizes and edge type structures are investigated. The applicability of a derived concept for orbital control of electron transport (J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2008, 130, 9406) is tested on larger hydrocarbons in order to estimate its predictive power for different types of compounds. Favorable connections for effective electron transport in π-conjugated systems with weak coupling between the molecules and electrodes are predicted on the basis of the orbital symmetry rule by looking at the phase and amplitude of the frontier orbitals. Qualitative predictions based on frontier orbital analysis are compared with density functional ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Central role of radical cations in metabolic activation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. AU - Cavalieri, E. L.. AU - Rogan, E. G.. PY - 1995/1/1. Y1 - 1995/1/1. N2 - 1. Development of the chemistry of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) radical cations has provided evidence that these intermediates play a major role in the metabolism of PAHs by P450 and in their binding to DNA. 2. Fluoro substitution of benzo[a]pyrene (BP) represents a suitable probe for studying mechanisms of oxygen transfer in the P450-catalysed formation of quinones and phenols from BP. Formation of BP-1,6-, -3,6- and -6,12-dione from the metabolism of 6-fluoroBP (6-FBP) is mediated by the intermediate 6-FBP+. Similarly, metabolism of 1-FBP and 3-FBP by rat liver microsomes produces BP-1,6-dione and BP-3,6-dione respectively. These results demonstrate that formation of quinones and phenols occurs via an initial electron transfer from BP to P450 and subsequent transfer of oxygen from the iron-oxo complex ...
AZEVEDO, Débora de A.; GERCHON, Elaine and REIS, Ederson O. dos. Monitoring of pesticides and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water from Paraíba do Sul River, Brazil. J. Braz. Chem. Soc. [online]. 2004, vol.15, n.2, pp.292-299. ISSN 0103-5053. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0103-50532004000200021.. The Paraíba do Sul River, in the State of Rio de Janeiro, was studied for its water quality, by determining the levels of selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and pesticides from six sites in two cities, Resende and Campos dos Goytacazes, as they have industrial and agricultural activities. This study was carried out between July 2001 and March 2002. The method involved 200 mL samples taken by off-line, solid phase extraction by OASIS polymeric cartridges followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Recoveries and standard deviation of pesticides in non polluted real water sample spiked with a standard mixture were 82-119% and less then 20%. For PAH, recoveries and standard ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The Characerization and Sources of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in PM10 in Rural, China. AU - Ye, Bixiong. AU - Krafft, Thomas. AU - Yang, Linsheng. AU - Li, Yonghua. AU - Li, Hairong. AU - Wang, Wuyi. AU - Pilot, Eva. PY - 2015. Y1 - 2015. N2 - Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) samples in particles were collected with a PM10 sampler in rural areas of Beijing. PAH samples collected on quartz fiber filters were first extracted using dichloromethane with ultrasonic methods, and then were fractionated on an alumina-silica column. Finally, the aromatic and n-alkane fractions were analyzed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry and gas chromatography- combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry. The level of PAHs showed distinctly seasonal changes throughout the year, with the highest concentrations in January and lowest concentration in July. Σ16PAH concentrations ranged from 153.23 to 867.41 ng·m-3 in January, from 21.53 to 527.42 ng·m-3 in April, from 1.84 to 32.02 ...
Despite the considerable knowledge of bacterial high-molecular-weight (HMW) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) metabolism, the key enzyme(s) and its pleiotropic and epistatic behavior(s) responsible for low-molecular-weight (LMW) PAHs in HMW PAH-metabolic networks remain poorly understood. In this study, a phenotype-based strategy, coupled with a spray plate method, selected a Mycobacterium vanbaalenii PYR-1 mutant (6G11) that degrades HMW PAHs but not LMW PAHs. Sequence analysis determined that the mutant was defective in pdoA2, encoding an aromatic ring-hydroxylating oxygenase (RHO). A series of metabolic comparisons using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis revealed that the mutant had a lower rate of degradation of fluorene, anthracene, and pyrene. Unlike the wild type, the mutant did not produce a color change in culture media containing fluorene, phenanthrene, and fluoranthene. An Escherichia coli expression experiment confirmed the ability of the Pdo system to oxidize
The morphologies of heterogeneous clusters of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are investigated using molecular modelling. Clusters of up to 100 molecules containing combinations of the different sized PAHs circumcoronene, coronene, ovalene, or pyrene are evaluated. Replica exchange molecular dynamics simulations using an all-atom force field parameterised for PAHs sample many configurations at high and low temperatures to determine stable low energy structures. The resulting cluster structures are evaluated using molecular radial distances and coordination numbers, and are found to be independent of initial configuration and the cluster sizes studied. Stable clusters consist of stacked PAHs in a core-shell structure, where the larger PAHs are found closer to the cluster core and the smaller PAHs are located on the cluster surface. This work provides novel insight into the molecular partitioning of heterogeneous aromatic clusters, with particular relevance to the structure of nascent soot ...
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have garnered much attention due to their bioaccumulation, carcinogenic properties, and persistence in the environment. Investigation of the spatial distribution, composition, and sources of PAHs in sediments of three recreational marinas in San Diego Bay, California revealed significant differences among marinas, with concentrations in one site exceeding 16,000 ng g− 1. Hotspots of PAH concentration suggest an association with stormwater outfalls draining into the basins. High-molecular weight PAHs (4-6 rings) were dominant (, 86%); the average percentage of potentially carcinogenic PAHs was high in all sites (61.4-70%) but ecotoxicological risks varied among marinas. Highly toxic benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) was the main contributor (, 90%) to the total toxic equivalent quantity (TEQ) in marinas. PAHs in San Diego Bay marina sediments appear to be derived largely from pyrogenic sources, potentially from combustion products that reach the basins by aerial ...
Application: This special purpose and specially tested capillary GC column is designed for the analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). It incorporates an ionic liquid stationary phase. Each column is individually tested to ensure resolution of several key sets (phenanthrene/anthracene, benzo[a]anthracene/chrysene/triphenylene, and benzo [b]fluoranthene/benzo[k]fluoranthene/benzo[j]fluoranthene). USP Code: None Phase: Non-bonded; 1,12-Di(tripropylphosphonium)dodecane bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide Temp. Limits: Subambient to 300 °C (isothermal or programmed)
In order to clarify future automobile technologies and fuel qualities to improve air quality, second phase of Japan Clean Air Program (JCAPII) had been conducted from 2002 to 2007. Predicting improvement in air quality that might be attained by introducing new emission control technologies and determining fuel qualities required for the technologies is one of the main issues of this program. Unregulated material WG of JCAPII had studied unregulated emissions from gasoline and diesel engines. Eight gaseous hydrocarbons (HC), four Aldehydes and three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were evaluated as unregulated emissions. Specifically, emissions of the following components were measured: 1,3-Butadiene, Benzene, Toluene, Xylene, Ethylbenzene, 1,3,5-Trimethyl-benzene, n-Hexane, Styrene as gaseous HCs, Formaldehyde, Acetaldehyde, Acrolein, Benzaldehyde as Aldehydes, and Benzo(a)pyrene, Benzo(b)fluoranthene, Benzo(k)fluoranthene as PAHs ...
In order to clarify future automobile technologies and fuel qualities to improve air quality, second phase of Japan Clean Air Program (JCAPII) had been conducted from 2002 to 2007. Predicting improvement in air quality that might be attained by introducing new emission control technologies and determining fuel qualities required for the technologies is one of the main issues of this program. Unregulated material WG of JCAPII had studied unregulated emissions from gasoline and diesel engines. Eight gaseous hydrocarbons (HC), four Aldehydes and three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were evaluated as unregulated emissions. Specifically, emissions of the following components were measured: 1,3-Butadiene, Benzene, Toluene, Xylene, Ethylbenzene, 1,3,5-Trimethyl-benzene, n-Hexane, Styrene as gaseous HCs, Formaldehyde, Acetaldehyde, Acrolein, Benzaldehyde as Aldehydes, and Benzo(a)pyrene, Benzo(b)fluoranthene, Benzo(k)fluoranthene as PAHs ...
Members of the Acidovorax genus are frequently encountered in association with PAH degradation, notably that of phenanthrene, but prior to this work little was known of the underlying genetic determinants behind the phenotype. The particular Acidovorax strain used in this study has genes very similar in sequence and arrangement to those in Alcaligenes faecalis AFK2, and the initial dioxygenase sequence is also highly similar to those in several Burkholderia strains, although not to that of Burkholderia sp. strain RP007. These observations suggest that this particular genotype may be widespread among some PAH-degrading members of the order Burkholderiales.. Unfortunately for comparative purposes, while the genes determined in this study bear significant resemblance to the Alcaligenes faecalis AFK2 sequences deposited in GenBank, there does not appear to be a publication associated with the entry (GenBank accession number AB024945). However, other previously published research on AFK2 revealed the ...
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), including benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), are among the most prominent toxic air pollutants, posing a threat to human health because their metabolites and oxidation products are carcinogenic and mutagenic (1). PAHs are emitted into the atmosphere from incomplete combustion and biomass burning and by smoking and cooking in indoor environments. Due to its low vapor pressure, BaP resides mostly in the condensed phase, and heterogeneous oxidation of BaP by oxidants such as OH and O3 is a major atmospheric loss pathway (2). Laboratory measurements show rapid degradation of BaP against ozone when adsorbed to a variety of substrates such as water, ammonium sulfate, soot, and organic compounds (3⇓⇓-6).. Upon chemical aging in the atmosphere, PAH-containing particles are likely coated by semi- or low-volatile organic compounds, which are formed by multigenerational gas-phase oxidation of volatile organic compounds. Laboratory experiments have shown that organic coatings ...
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured in airborne particles (PM10) collected in an urban site of São Paulo City, Brazil. Samples were Soxhlet extracted sequentially with dichloromethane and acetone, followed by solid phase fractionation. Increasing polar fractions (A-K) of dichloromethane and acetone extracts were obtained. Fractionated extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and Salmonella microsuspension bioassay. Sixteen PAH compounds were quantified in dichloromethane B and C fractions, nevertheless the D and E fractions presented higher mutagenic activities. Concentrations of the individual PAHs ranged from 0.8 ng m−3 (perylene) to 12.8 ng m−3 (benzofluranthene), reaching a total concentration of 95.5 ng m−3. BaP/BgP and Pyr/BaP ratios indicated the presence of vehicular emissions and BghiP/Ind and Chr/BeP ratios suggested a contribution of wood combustion emissions. Further investigation is still necessary for a better understanding of the PAH ...
TY - JOUR AU - Milić, Jelena AU - Avdalović, Jelena AU - Šolević Knudsen, Tatjana AU - Gojgić-Cvijović, Gordana AU - Jednak, Tanja AU - Vrvić, Miroslav PY - 2016 UR - http://cer.ihtm.bg.ac.rs/handle/123456789/1937 AB - The group of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are very hazardous environmental pollutants because of their mutagenic, carcinogenic and toxic effects on living systems. The aim of this study was to examine and compare the ability and efficiency of selected bacterial isolates obtained from oil-con-taminated areas to biodegrade PAHs. The potential of the bacteria to biodeg-rade various aromatic hydrocarbons was assessed using the 2,6-dichlorophe-nolindophenol assay. Further biodegradation of PAHs was monitored by gra-vimetric and gas-chromatographic analysis. Among the eight bacterial isolates, identified on the basis of 16S rDNA sequences, two isolates, Planomicrobium sp. RNP01 and Rhodococcus sp. RNP05, had the ability to grow on and utilize almost all examined ...
Author: Panda, S. K. et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 2006; Keywords: beta-cyclodextrin stationary phase; FT-ICR-mass spectrometry; polycyclic aromatic sulfur heterocycles; fossil fuel; vacuum gas oil; Title: β-cyclodextrin as a stationary phase for the group separation of polycyclic aromatic compounds in normal-phase liquid chromatography
Pyrosequencing of the bacterial community associated with a cosmopolitan marine diatom during enrichment with crude oil revealed several Arenibacter phylotypes, of which one (OTU-202) had become significantly enriched by the oil. Since members of the genus Arenibacter have not been previously shown to degrade hydrocarbons, we attempted to isolate a representative strain of this genus in order to directly investigate its hydrocarbon-degrading potential. Based on 16S rRNA sequencing, one isolate (designated strain TG409T) exhibited ,99% sequence identity to three type strains of this genus. On the basis of phenotypic and genotypic characteristics, strain TG409T represents a novel species in the genus Arenibacter, for which the name Arenibacter algicola sp. nov. is proposed. We reveal for the first time that PAH-degradation is a shared phenotype among members of this genus, indicating that it could be used as a taxonomic marker for this genus. Kinetic data for PAH mineralization rates showed that ...
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are environmental pollutants that have received considerable attention because of their carcinogenic and mutagenic effects. Due to the extensive amount of data suggesting the hazards of these compounds, 16 PAHs are on the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Priority Pollutant List. These compounds are often emitted into the atmosphere by way of combustion processes. Thus, analysis of these compounds during coal combustion is an important task. Three 1000-hour coal combustion burns were performed using the 0.1 MW (0.3 m) bench-scale Fluidized Bed Combustor (FBC) in the Combustion Laboratory at Western Kentucky University. The data for this thesis were collected from the second and third 1000-hour experiments. An in-situ sampling system was designed for 16 PAHs specified by EPA, which consisted of a glass wool filter, condenser, glass fiber filter, Teflon filter, and Tenax. The filters and Tenax were extracted by methylene chloride and hexane, respectively,
Tar and nicotine levels have been made to conform to EU standards as of 1 July 2004, but data on tobacco-derived carcinogenic compounds, such as PAH, in Chinese cigarettes are lacking in the literature. Levels of tar, nicotine, carbon monoxide and PAH were measured in 20 cigarette brands purchased in China between 2003 and 2004. Higher nicotine and tar levels were found in Chinese cigarettes than in European brands just 3 months before the above deadline; carcinogenic PAH levels were about 1.5 fold higher than in European cigarettes, but analysed singly, the mean value of benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) and dibenzo(a,h)anthracene (DBA), the most potent carcinogenic PAH yields, were 2.4 and 4.4 fold higher, respectively. Tar levels were well correlated with carcinogenic PAH (r = 0.53, P , 0.01), thus providing an easily measurable parameter for ranking various cigarette brands in developing countries where more sophisticated techniques might not be feasible for lack of funds and expertise.. ...
BACKGROUND: The negative health effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are well established for modern human populations but have so far not been studied in prehistoric contexts. PAHs are the main component of fossil bitumen, a naturally occurring material used by past societies such as the Chumash Indians in California as an adhesive, as a waterproofing agent, and for medicinal purposes. The rich archaeological and ethnohistoric record of the coastal Chumash suggests that they were exposed to multiple uptake pathways of bituminous PAHs, including direct contact, fume inhalation, and oral uptake from contaminated water and seafood. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the possibility that PAHs from natural bitumen compromised the health of the prehistoric Chumash Indians in California. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure of the ancient Chumash Indians to toxic PAHs appears to have gradually increased across a period of 7,500 years because of an increased use of bitumen in the Chumash technology, together ...
Over the past 10 years, a number of safety measures for reducing firefighters exposure to combustion particles have been introduced in Sweden. The most important measure was the reduction in the time firefighters wear suits and handle contaminated equipment after turn-outs involving smoke diving. This study was divided into two parts, those being to investigate the level of protection obtained by multiple garment layers and to assess exposure during a standardized smoke diving exercise. First, realistic work protection factors (WPFs) were calculated by comparing air concentrations of the full suite of gaseous and particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) inside and outside structural ensembles, including jacket and thick base layer, during a tough fire extinguishing exercise using wood as the fuel ...
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous pollutants in urban atmospheres. Several PAHs are known carcinogens or are the precursors to carcinogenic daughter compounds. Understanding the contributions of the various emission sources is critical to appropriately managing PAH levels in the environment. The sources of PAHs to ambient air in Baltimore, MD, were determined by using three source apportionment methods, principal component analysis with multiple linear regression, UNMIX, and positive matrix factorization. Determining the source apportionment through multiple techniques mitigates weaknesses in individual methods and strengthens the overlapping conclusions. Overall source contributions compare well among methods. Vehicles, both diesel and gasoline, contribute on average 16-26%, coal 28-36%, oil 15-23%, and wood/other having the greatest disparity of 23-35% of the total (gas- plus particle-phase) PAHs. Seasonal trends were found for both coal and oil. Coal was the dominate PAH source
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of fluorine substitution on the DNA binding and tumorigenicity of benzo[b]fluoranthene in mouse epidermis. AU - Weyand, Eric H.. AU - Amin, Shantu. AU - Huie, Keith. AU - Boger, Eliahu. AU - Neuber, Evelyn. AU - Hecht, Stephen S.. AU - LaVoie, Edmond J.. N1 - Funding Information: This study was supported by Grant No. CA-44377 from the National Cancer Institute and Grant No. ES-02030 from the National Institute of Environmental Health and Sciences.. PY - 1989. Y1 - 1989. N2 - The effects of fluorine substitution on benzo[b]fluoranthene (B[b]F) DNA adduct formation and tumorigenicity in mouse epidermis were investigated. Fluoro derivatives studied included 1-, 6-, 7-, 8-, 9- and 11-fluoroB[b]F as well as 1,9- and 6,9-difluoroB[b]F. Each compound was applied topically to mice and hydrocarbon/DNA adduct formation was assessed using the 32P-postlabelling technique. All of the fluorinated compounds bound to DNA to a lesser extent than B[b]F. Among the fluorinated compounds, the ...
Five types of nanofibrous membranes were prepared by electrospinning poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL), poly(D,L-lactide) (PDLLA), poly(lactide-co-caprolactone) (P(LA/CL)), poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PDLGA) and methoxy polyethylene glycol-poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (MPEG-PLGA), respectively. These electrospun nanofibrous membranes (ENFMs) were used to adsorb anthracene (ANT), benz[a]anthracene (BaA) and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) from aqueous solution, and the sorption kinetics and isotherms of these PAHs on the five ENFMs were investigated. The pseudo-second-order model (PSOM) can well describe the sorption kinetics of the three PAHs on five ENFMs, and the partition-adsorption model (PAM) can interpret the sorption processes of PAHs on the ENFMs. PCL ENFMs, which had the largest surface areas (8.57 m(2)g(-1)), exhibited excellent sorption capacity for ANT at over 4112.3 ± 35.5 μg g(-1). Moreover, the hydrophobicity and pore volume of ENFMs significantly affected the sorption kinetics and sorption capacity
Bioflavonoids are plant compounds touted for their potential to treat or prevent several diseases including cancers induced by common environmental chemicals. Much of the biologic activity of one such class of pollutants, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), is mediated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor/transcription factor (AhR). For example, the AhR regulates PAH immunotoxicity that manifests as pre-B cell apoptosis in models of B cell development. Because bioflavonoids block PAH-induced cell transformation and are structurally similar to AhR ligands, it was postulated that some of them would suppress PAH-induced, AhR-dependent immunotoxicity, possibly through a direct AhR blockade. This hypothesis was tested using a model of B cell development in which pre-B cells are cultured with and are dependent on bone marrow stromal or hepatic parenchymal cell monolayers. Of seven bioflavonoids screened, galangin (3,5,7-trihydroxyflavone) blocked PAH-induced but not C(2)-ceramide- or H(2)O(2)-induced ...
One hundred and twenty (120) fingerlings of Clarias gariepinus (mean weight: 0.96 ± 0.1g) were randomly exposed to 4 experimental treatments of petroleum, based on LC50 values (6.4mg/L of crude oil, 8.7mg/L of petrol, 8.0mg/L of kerosene and 7.8mg/L of diesel oil) and replicated thrice, to determine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in exposed fish for 96 h. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in total (PAHs) between crude oil (97.1 ng/uL) and diesel (97.2 ng/uL) exposed fish and also between petrol (53.2 ng/uL) and kerosene (49.6 ng/uL) exposed fish, but there was a significant difference (P < 0.05) in PAH levels of the crude oil/diesel exposed -groups of fish compared to petrol/kerosene exposed -groups of fish (97.1/97.2 and 53.2/49.6 ng/uL). Naphthalene correlated positively to benzo a anthracene (r=0.672, (P < 0.05), benzo b fluoranthene (r=0.681, P < 0.05) and chrysene (r=0.615, P < 0.05) but did not correlate to fluorene. Benzo a anthracene correlated
Zhigacheva I.. Emanuel Institute of Biochemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, street Kosygin, 4, Moscow, 119334 Russia 1 pp. (accepted). The consequences of long-term exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitrosamines (NA) on the body began to be studied in detail more than 100-150 years ago [Proctor R. N., 2004; Scanlan R. A., 2004]. The researchers interest in these toxicants is associated with the high carcinogenic properties of PAHs and NAs. The bulk of PAHs in the environment is of anthropogenic origin. The main sources of PAHs are: household, industrial discharges, wash-outs, transport, accidents. The anthropogenic flux of PAHs, in particular benzo(a)pyrene (BP) is approximately 30 tons a year [Larin S. A. and co-authors, 2005]. Currently, the contamination by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is global. Their presence is found in all elements of the natural environment (air, soil, water, biota) from the Arctic to Antarctica. Not less toxic nitrosamines ...
Cometabolic biodegradation processes are potentially useful for the bioremediation of hazardous waste sites. In this study the potential application of phenol-oxidizing and nitrifying bacteria as priming biocatalysts was examined in the degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), aryl ethers, and aromatic ethers. We observed that a phenol-oxidizing Pseudomonas strain cometabolically degrades a range of 2- and 3-ringed PAHs. A sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was used to overcome the competitive effects between two substrates and the SBR was evaluated as a alternative technology to treat mixed contaminants including phenol and PAHs. We also have demonstrated that the nitrifying bacterium Nitrosomonas europaea can cometabolically degrade a wide range polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), aryl ethers and aromatic ethers including naphthalene, acenaphthene, diphenyl ether, dibenzofuran, dibenzo-p-dioxin, and anisole. Our results indicated that all the compounds are transformed by N. ...
BACKGROUND: We investigated if blood Cu++/Zn++ superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase activities are increased and total plasma antioxidant concentration is decreased in coke oven workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. METHODS Ninety-six coke oven workers participated in the study. Nonexposed workers (n = 105) were randomly sampled among power plant workers in the same age range. The examination included a questionnaire on health status, occupational history, smoking, and dietary habits. Blood samples completed the examination. Coke oven workers were classified into low-, middle-, and high-exposure groups based on the benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) air concentrations and were further classified into the categories topside and non-topside, according to their proximity to the ovens. RESULTS: Erythrocyte glutathiane peroxidase activity increased with age (r = 0.18, P = 0.061) in power plant workers, whereas plasma glutathione peroxidase activity decreased with age (r = -0.18,
Dumping wastes generated from the oil industry to the local waste disposal facilities remains the most common means of oil waste management. In industrial landfills, the most serious ecological problem is the contamination of soil and local groundwater by landfill leachate. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) represent a hazardous group of harmful chemical compounds that threaten human and ecosystem health. This study focuses on a PAH-contaminated soil from a landfill site in New South Wales, Australia. Soil was exposed to two different bioremediation treatments, natural attenuation and biostimulation using pea straw. The bacterial community composition and diversity of the PAH-contaminated soil were also examined using high throughput Illumina MiSeq sequencing. The results revealed that PAHs were degraded naturally by indigenous microorganisms; however, the addition of plant residues led to enhanced degradation (66.6%) at the beginning of the treatment, although in all treatments a ...
Urban air quality and real human exposure to chemical environmental stressors is an issue of high scientific and political interest. In an effort to find innovative and inexpensive means for air quality monitoring, the ability of car engine air filters (CAFs) to act as efficient samplers collecting street level air, to which people are exposed to, was tested. In particular, in the case of taxis, air filters are replaced after regular distances, the itineraries are almost exclusively urban, cruising mode is similar and, thus, knowledge of the air flow can provide with an integrated city air sample. The present pilot study focused on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), the most important category of organic pollutants associated with traffic emissions. Concentrations of Sigma PAHs in CAFs ranged between 650 and 2900 mu g CAF(-1), with benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene and indeno[123-cd]pyrene being the most abundant PAHs. Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) ranged between 110 and 250 mu g CAF(-1), ...
Twelve workers from a coke plant in The Netherlands participated in an intensive skin monitoring programme combined with personal air sampling and biological monitoring during five consecutive eight hour workshifts. The purpose of the study was to make a quantitative assessment of both the dermal and respiratory intake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Pyrene was used as a marker compound for both dermal and respiratory exposure to PAHs. The biological measure for the internal exposure to PAHs was urinary 1-OH-pyrene concentration. Measurements on exposure pads at six skin sites showed that mean total skin contamination of the 12 workers ranged between 21 and 166 micrograms pyrene a day. The dermal uptake of pyrene ranged between 4 and 34 micrograms/day, which was about 20% of the pyrene contamination on skin. The mean concentration of total pyrene in the breathing zone air of the 12 coke oven workers ranged from 0.1 to 5.4 micrograms/m3. The mean respiratory uptake of pyrene varied ...
PAHs occur in oil, coal and tar produced by carbonization of coal, but not in bitumen. They can also be found in grilled meat, cigarette smoke and automobile exhaust. PAH are persistent, ubiquitous and some of them have carcinogenic, mutagenic and teratogenic properties. There are more than 100 different PAH, but usually the 16 PAH defined by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) are analyzed. These are acenaphthene, acenaphthylene, anthracene, benz(a)anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(ghi)perylene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, chrysene, dibenz(ah)anthracene, fluoranthene, fluorene, indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene, naphthalene, phenanthrene and pyrene. Benzo(a)pyrene is often used as a lead substance. This Application Note describes the extraction and determination of these EPA-PAHs in a dried sediment SETOC sample according to EPA 3541. The sample was extracted with the UniversalExtractor E-800 in the Soxhlet warm mode. The quantification was done by Labor Veritas Zurich, ...
This is the first attempt for the direct detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-DNA adducts in human placental DNA samples by solid-matrix phosphorescence (SMP). Six samples were investigated, and SMP emission spectra and the corresponding second derivative SMP spectra were obtained for all the samples. Numerous excitation and emission wavelengths were studied for detecting PAH-DNA add
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous environmental pollutants, known human lung carcinogens, and potent mammary carcinogens in animal models. However, the association between PAHs and breast cancer in women is unclear. Vehicular traffic is a major source of ambient PAH exposure. This study evaluates the association between residential exposure to vehicular traffic-related PAHs and risk of breast cancer, overall and by tumor subtype, and within strata of nucleotide excision repair and base excision repair genotypes and fruit/vegetable intake. For this population-based study, residential histories, dietary intake, and other factors were assessed in 1996-1997 for 1,508 newly diagnosed breast cancer cases and 1,556 controls. Residential traffic exposure estimates were reconstructed using a validated model for the years 1960 through 1995. The following single nucleotide polymorphisms were genotyped: ERCC1 8092C/A, OGG1 Ser326Cys, XPA -4A/G, XPD Lys751Gln and Asp312Asn, XPF ...
Soils are a major reservoir of organic pollutants, and soil-air partitioning and exchange are key processes controlling the regional fate of pollutants. Here, we report and discuss the soil concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), their soil fugacities, the soil-air partition coefficients (KSA) and soil-air gradients for rural and semirural soils, in background areas of N-NE Spain and N-NW England. Different sampling campaigns were carried out to assess seasonal variability and differences between sampling sites. KSA values were dependent on soil temperature and soil organic quantity and type. Soil fugacities of phenanthrene and its alkyl homologues were 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than their ambient air fugacities for all sampling sites and periods. The soil to air fugacity ratio was correlated with soil temperature and soil redox potential. Similar trends for other PAHs were found but with lower fugacity ratios. The ubiquitous source of PAHs from background soils to the ...
PAH is the short name for a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon. A PAH is a stable structure made up of multiple rings that are fused together. The rings are made of carbon and hydrogen (though other elements sometimes sneak into the structure!). These rings are tough to break apart. They are held together by a type of hybrid bond (hybrid between a single and double bond) that is actually stronger than the single or double bond with which you might be familiar. Many people think that all aromatic molecules contain one or more benzene rings. This is a historical misconception. Benzene rings are found in many, but not all aromatic molecules. Many of the plants that were first found to contain benzene rings, such as vanilla or sassafras, were smelly...aromatic! So, it is a common misconception that all aromatic molecules contain benzene rings...when in fact, some do not (they contain other forms of carbon and hydrogen). PAHs form easily. PAHs are very abundant in the solar system as well as in space. ...
Fluorene, a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), is a precursor to other fluorene compounds. Fluorene and its derivative can be used as a precursor to fluorene-based dyes. - Mechanism of Action & Protocol.
Air sampled from the breathing zone of chimney sweeps during dirty work and soot samples were analysed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). A total of 20 PAH were quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in 115 air samples and 18 soot samples. These included benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), chrysene, dibenz(a,h)anthracene, and indeno (1,2,3-cd)pyrene, all of which are animal carcinogens. The summed atmospheric concentration of these compounds depended on the type of fuel used and averaged 2.27 micrograms/m3 for oil fuel. If a mixture of oil and solid fuel was used the concentration was 5.06 micrograms/m3; pure solid fuel heating yielded 5.08 micrograms/m3. The air concentrations of BaP were 0.36, 0.83, and 0.82 micrograms/m3 respectively. The soot samples recovered after using the three different fuel types were 10.50, 109.10, and 51.25 mg BaP/kg. The maximum total concentrations of the five carcinogenic PAH were 243.70, 691.06, and 213.94 mg/kg respectively. The ...
In a longitudinal cohort of ∼700 children in New York City, the prevalence of asthma (|25%) is among the highest in the US. This high risk may in part be caused by transplacental exposure to traffic-related polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) but biomarkers informative of PAH-asthma relationships is lacking. We here hypothesized that epigenetic marks associated with transplacental PAH exposure and/or childhood asthma risk could be identified in fetal tissues. Mothers completed personal prenatal air monitoring for PAH exposure determination. Methylation sensitive restriction fingerprinting was used to analyze umbilical cord white blood cell (UCWBC) DNA of 20 cohort children. Over 30 DNA sequences were identified whose methylation status was dependent on the level of maternal PAH exposure. Six sequences were found to be homologous to known genes having one or more 5′-CpG island(s) (5′-CGI). Of these, acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 3 (ACSL3) exhibited the highest concordance between
Rhodococcus sp. 124 is a Gram-positive soil bacterium being developed for the manufacture of (-)cis-(1S,2R)-1-aminoindan-2-ol, a key precursor in the production of the HIV-1 protease inhibitor CrixivanTM, from the aromatic hydrocarbon indene. Rhodococcus sp. 124 was grown by batch fermentation in the presence of naphthalene and indene to measure changes in gene expression and aromatic hydrocarbon metabolism with DNA microarray technology. Genes were selected for microarray analysis based on functional annotation assignments made by the Consensus Annotation by Phylogeny Anchored Sequence Alignment (CAPASA) program, a high throughput system for automated functional annotation assignment of DNA sequence similarity search results. CAPASA was validated by comparison to several methods of annotation, and the agreement to other methods ranged from 75-94%. Microarray results were analyzed by the newly described method of trigonometric deconvolution, a mathematical system for the measurement of changes ...
Produced water constitutes the largest volume of waste from offshore oil and gas operations and is composed of a wide range of organic and inorganic compounds. Although treatment processes have to meet strict oil in water regulations, the definition of oil is a function of the analysis process and may include aliphatic hydrocarbons which have limited environmental impact due to degradability whilst ignoring problematic dissolved petroleum species. This thesis presents the partitioning behavior of oil in produced water as a function of temperature and salinity to identify compounds of environmental concern. Phenol, p-cresol, and 4-tert-butylphenol were studied because of their xenoestrogenic power; other compounds studied are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon PAHs which include naphthalene, fluorene, phenanthrene, and pyrene. Partitioning experiments were carried out in an Innova incubator for 48 hours, temperature was varied from 4゚C to 70゚C, and two salinity levels of 46.8‰ and 66.8‰ ...
Dibenz[a,h]anthracene has been shown to be carcinogenic to experimental animals.. Dibenz[a,h]anthracene is embryotoxic to rats when given at high doses. The available data on teratogenicity were inadequate for evaluation. Dibenz[a,h]anthracene was positive in differential survival assays using DNA-repair-proficient/-deficient strains of bacteria and was mutagenic to Salmonella typhimurium in the presence of an exogenous metabolic system. In cultured mammalian cells, dibenz[a,h]anthracene was mutagenic and induced unscheduled DNA synthesis in the presence of an exogenous metabolic system. It was positive in assays for morphological transformation. In the one available study, it induced sister chromatid exchange but not chromosomal aberrations in vivo.. There is sufficient evidence that dibenz[a,h]anthracene is active in short-term tests. ...
The mutagenicity of crude extracts and subfractions of two samples of a reference sewage sludge material and two sewage sludges from two wastewater treatment plants (WWTP), one urban and the other one urban mixed with industrial, was assessed using an Ames fluctuation assay based on 384-well microtiter plates with liquid cultures. Crude extracts of sludges were obtained by ultrasonic extraction with dichloromethane/methanol, and further column fractionation yielded two fractions, one of which containing mutagenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Quantitative analysis performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry gave sum concentrations of the 16 PAHs listed as priority pollutants by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency at levels between 1,305 and 2,442 μg/kg. Subjecting crude extracts and column fractions to the mutagenicity assay with Salmonella strains TA98 and TA100 provided good qualitative correlation between the presence of mutagenic PAH and the induction of gene ...
The intertidal zone-a transitional boundary between terrestrial and marine environments-has important ecological functions, and receives polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from human activities, but how and to what extent anthropogenic factors influence the distribution of PAHs in this important niche remain largely unknown. Here we measured the distribution of United States Environmental Protection Agency priority PAHs in samples of intertidal sediments from across more than 4,500 km of Chinas coastline. The total PAH concentrations ranged from 2.3 to 1,031.7 ng g−1 sediment (dry weight) and all PAHs showed positive correlations with total organic carbon (TOC). TOC-normalized high-molecular-weight (HMW) PAH concentrations, but not TOC-normalized low-molecular-weight (LMW) PAHs, were positively correlated with TOC. Moreover, population size and economic development influenced TOC-normalized HMW PAH concentrations, whereas urbanization had a major influence on TOC-normalized LMW PAHs. Human
The risks associated with a soil contaminated by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are generally assessed by measuring individual PAHs in the soil and correlating the obtained amounts to known adverse biological effects of the PAHs. The validity of such a risk estimation is dependent on the presence of additional compounds, the availability of the compounds (including the PAHs), and the methods used to correlate the measured chemical data and biological effects. In the work underlying this thesis the availability, chemical composition and biological effects of PAHs in samples of soils from PAH-contaminated environments were examined. It can be concluded from the results presented in the included papers that the PAHs in the studied soils from industrial sites were not generally physically trapped in soil material, indicating that the availability of the PAHs was not restricted in this sense. However, the bioavailable fraction of the PAHs, as assessed by bioassays with the earthworm Eisenia ...
The economy of the state of Tabasco is based on oil extraction. However, this imposes major effects to the environment and communities. Examples are the Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) that may be found in the soil, water and sediment of the region. Their volatility makes them available to living beings and results in genotoxic activity. The purpose of this study was to quantify the levels of PAHs in the air at several points in the state, and to analyze their relationship with possible damage to DNA on local inhabitants. Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis Assay (Comet Assay) was applied to peripheral blood lymphocytes of five groups of children between six and 15 years of age. PAH samples were analyzed following US/EPA TO-13-A method. Results indicated the presence in the air of most of the 16 PAHs considered as high priority by EPA, some of which have been reported with carcinogenic activity. Differences (p
Apart from widely known anthropogenic pollutants as SO2, NOx, CO2, CO, there are another dangerous substances emitted to the air named polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). In the air they occur in a form of vapours and aerosols deposited on dust particles of 10 μm (PM 10) and 2.5 μm (PM 2.5) in diameter. In cities, the air polluted by gases and atmospheric particulate was analysed using special automatic or semi-automatic equipment or analytic procedures. That is why a powerful development of bioanalytical techniques based on using organisms as bioindicators is observed in recent years. The lichens are the most frequently used organisms in bioindication. The purpose of this research is to evaluate air pollution by PAHs in urban agglomeration with the use of Hypogymnia physodes (L.)Nyl. The research was performed in two hundred thousand occupants in south-east Poland in 2004-2007. The lichens placed on tree branches of 30 cm on 4 crossroads, and the 3 branches were put in each research ...
Strata™-PAH from Phenomenex Inc. is a new sorbent designed for the isolation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in environmental samples. Strata-PAH solid phase extraction (SPE) sorbents target these analytes while simultaneously removing humic acids that can interfere with chromatographic separation of environmental samples such as soil and water.
A tandem-cartridge system was established for studying colloid formation and physical state distribution of trace polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHS) in water. The effectiveness of the method for measuring the trace PAH colloids was demonstrated. With aqueous samples prepared by adding the PAH solutes with a small amount of organic solvent carrier, the potential of colloid formation increased with the hydrophobicity and concentration of the solute, but the incipient concentration for the colloid formation may be far lower than the aqueous solubility of the solute. After formation in water, the colloids showed remarkable stability at room temperature, and the stability was greatly reduced by elevated temperature and the presence of a small amount of inorganic electrolytes. The possible mechanism of destabilization of the colloids was discussed, and the mechanism might be of utility in providing insights into the physical state distribution of the solutes in various water samples. However, ...
Nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (nitro-PAHs) contains 1 article on - GreenMedInfo contains 4 articles on Radioiodine 131 indicating it may contribute to Radiation-Induced Illness: Radioiodine (Iodine-131), Thyroid Cancer, and Radiation Induced Illness
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GC Application #15562: Extended List Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) on ZB-5MS. Column used: Zebron™ ZB-5MS, GC Cap. Column 20 m x 0.18 mm x 0.18 µm, Ea Part#: 7FD-G010-08
GC Application #15560: Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) on ZB-5MS. Column used: Zebron™ ZB-5MS, GC Cap. Column 20 m x 0.18 mm x 0.18 µm, Ea Part#: 7FD-G010-08
Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons msds sheet, PAHs, short for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, are a group of chemicals consisting of numerous carbon atoms joined together to form multiple rings. There are at least 10,000 different PAH compounds. Most are formed from the incomplete combustion of plant or animal matter, or carbon fuels, such as coal or petroleum.
The photophysical and photochemical properties of aromatic hydrocarbons have been reviewed. Aromatic hydrocarbons were photoreduced upon irradiation in the presence of amines, and also photosensitized the decarboxylation of amino acids. Product and kinetic studies have shown that both these reactions involve the same initial step, i.e. transfer of an electron from the amino function to the first excited singlet state of the aromatic hydrocarbon. Products obtained from the decarboxylation of amino acids photosensitized by dyes and aromatic carbonyl and aza-aromatic compounds were identical with those obtained from the decarboxylations sensitized by aromatic hydrocarbons. The mechanism for photodecarboxylation by all these sensitizers was proposed to be the same. Amino alcohols quench the fluorescence of aromatic hydrocarbons less efficiently than do amines. This inefficiency has been attributed to hydrogen bonding between the hydroxylic proton and the nitrogen atom of the amino alcohol. Two ...
The substance distillates (coal tar), heavy oils (anthracene oil high (, 50 ppm) BaP, AOH - composite sample CS 06) [CAS no. 90640-86-1] is a UVCB and consists of a complex and within limits variable combination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Manufacturing process excludes low molecular aromatic hydrocarbons (1- and 2-ring aromatics) as well as largely polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons composed of 5 rings and above. Main components are phenanthrene, anthracene (3-ring PAH), fluoranthene, pyrene, chrysene, and benz[a]anthracene (4-ring PAH) representing approx. 30 % of total AOH, each accounting for ca. 3 to 10 %. The majority of other components of AOH fall within the molecular size range of these five substances. A key component of AOH is phenanthrene (7 - 10 %). Fluoranthene and pyrene are present in similar amounts.In analogy to the structure-related anthracene oil (low (, 50 ppm) BaP, AOL) [CAS no. 90640-80-5], the key component phenanthrene is considered to adequately represent ...
Some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are known carcinogens and workplace PAH exposure may increase the risk of cancer. Monitoring early cancer-related changes can indicate whether the exposure is carcinogenic. Here, we enrolled 151 chimney sweeps, 152 controls, and 19 creosote-exposed male workers from Sweden. We measured urinary PAH metabolites using LC/MS/MS, the cancer-related markers telomere length (TL) and mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNAcn) using qPCR, and DNA methylation of lung cancer-related genes F2RL3 and AHRR using pyrosequencing. The median 1-hydroxypyrene (PAH metabolite) concentrations were highest in creosote-exposed workers (8.0 μg/g creatinine) followed by chimney sweeps (0.34 μg/g creatinine) and controls (0.05 μg/g creatinine). TL and mtDNAcn did not differ between study groups. Chimney sweeps and creosote-exposed workers had significantly lower methylation of AHRR CpG site cg05575921 (88.1% and 84.9%, respectively) than controls (90%). Creosote-exposed workers ...
Background. The capital city of Prague becomes one of the most polluted localities of the Czech Republic. The effect of exposure to carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (c-PAHs) adsorbed onto respirable air particles (PM2.5, ,2.5 \#956;m) on DNA adducts and chromosomal aberrations was repeatedly studied in the groups of policemen working in the downtown area as well as in bus drivers. Methods. Ambient air particles (PM10, PM2.5) and (c-PAHs) were monitored using VAPS sampler, personal exposure to c-PAHs was evaluated using personal samplers during working shift. DNA adducts were analysed in lymphocytes by 32P-postlabeling assay, chromosomal aberrations by conventional cytogenetic analysis and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), cotinine in urine, plasma levels of vitamins A, E and C by HPLC, , cholesterol and triglycerids using commercial kits. Polymorphisms of metabolic genotypes (GSTM1, GSTP1, GSTT1, EPHX1, CYP1A1-MspI) and DNA repair genotypes (XRCC1 and XPD) were determined by ...
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) content and Ames test mutagenic activity of exhaust particulate matter from a diesel engine burning fuel containing the barium (7440393) based additive Lubrizol-565 were evaluated. A heavy duty air cooled engine commonly used in underground mining equipment was used for the test. The additive was tested at concentrations of 0.75, 1.5 and 3.0 grams per liter in
Article Spatial and temporal variations of nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in PM 2.5 aerosols in Yangtze River Delta Region, China. Nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (nitro-PAHs) are of great interest because of their high potentia...
TY - JOUR. T1 - CYP1A1, GSTM1, and GSTP1 genetic polymorphisms and urinary 1-hydroxypyrene excretion in non-occupationally exposed individuals. AU - Nerurkar, P. V.. AU - Okinaka, L.. AU - Aoki, C.. AU - Seifried, A.. AU - Lum-Jones, A.. AU - Wilkens, L. R.. AU - Le Marchand, L.. PY - 2000. Y1 - 2000. N2 - The CYP1A1 and glutathione S-transferase enzymes (e.g., GSTM1 and GSTP1) are involved in the activation and conjugation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), respectively, and are controlled by genes that are polymorphic. The CYP1A1*2 allelic variant has been associated with elevated urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP), a proposed marker for internal dose of activated PAHs, in coke-oven workers. We investigated whether this association could be observed at low exposure levels, such as those experienced by the general population. We conducted a cross-sectional study among 188 individuals (106 Japanese, 60 Caucasians, and 22 Hawaiians) who were selected as controls in a population-based ...
ENCODES a protein that exhibits 3-5 DNA helicase activity (ortholog); INVOLVED IN cell population proliferation (ortholog); DNA dealkylation involved in DNA repair (ortholog); DNA duplex unwinding (ortholog); ASSOCIATED WITH intellectual disability (ortholog); FOUND IN activating signal cointegrator 1 complex (ortholog); cytosol (ortholog); nucleus (ortholog); INTERACTS WITH benzo[b]fluoranthene; cadmium dichloride; carbon nanotube
A method for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in carbonaceous materials and on particulate Batter produced in the atmosphere during the electrolytic reduction by various methods in the metallurgical industry is presented. The PAH are extracted into hexane with the aid of ultrasound, which is shown to be more efficient than the conventional Soxhlet thimble technique. Cyclohexane and hexane are shown to be more selective extractants for PAH than benzene or acetone. Hexane is preferred because it has a lower boiling point than cyclohexane. Three metnods of identification were investigated. These included thin-layer chromatography (TLCJ, gas chromatography (GO using retention times and indices and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Hexane containing 2 % by volume of N.N -dimethylformaoide was used for the development of a thin-layer chromatograa. This resolved only ten of the twenty PAH investigated adequately. The non-polar OV-101 capillary column used in the GC-MS work did not ...
social_buttons]. As a pollutant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (or PAHs as we call them in the business), are of concern because they have been identified as carcinogenic, mutagenic, and teratogenic (not good things if you were wondering). PAHs are created as a byproduct of the burning of coal, oil, and fossil fuels. Often they are of concern in urban areas where there is a higher carbon footprint, and it forms that nice cloud of yellow smoke you see floating over some of your major cities.. Now, new research out of Columbia University is showing that exposure to PAHs, can reduce neonates intelligence. The study performed in New York city where PAHs are in no short demand, showed IQ scores that were 4.31 and 4.67 points lower, respectively than those of less exposed children.. ...
Maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with a variety of adverse neonatal outcomes including altered reproductive performance. Herein we provide molecular evidence for a pathway involved in the elimination of the female germline due to prepregnancy and/or lactational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), environmental toxicants found in cigarette smoke. We show that ovaries of offspring born to mice exposed to PAHs contained only a third of the ovarian follicle pool compared with offspring of unexposed female mice. Activation of the cell death pathway in immature follicles of exposed females was mediated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Ahr), as ovarian reserve was fully rescued by maternal cotreatment with the Ahr antagonist, resveratrol, or by inactivation of the Ahr gene. Furthermore, in response to PAHs, Ahr-mediated activation of the harakiri, BCL2 interacting protein (contains only BH3 domain), was necessary for execution of cell death. This pathway appeared to be ...
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Two important limitations of our study were the small sample size and the lack of PAH exposure data. Because of the small sample size, single observations in this study may have large potential influence on our findings. Our results need to be interpreted cautiously until consistent findings are observed in similar studies with larger populations. We observed an increase in PAH metabolite levels during work, but we could not determine the relative contribution of occupational exposure sources for this increase. A future study with personal exposure measures would allow us to identify different sources of variation of PAH exposures and possibly strengthen the association between occupational exposure and DNA damage. Despite these important limitations, we were able to observe statistically significant associations between 8-OHdG and 1-OHPyr after 6 h of work. 1-OHPyr is the main metabolite of pyrene and has been widely accepted as the gold standard of biomarkers of exposure to PAHs.55 ,56 In this ...