Read, G. (2012). Abyssoclymene Hartman, 1967. In: Read, G.; Fauchald, K. (Ed.) (2017). World Polychaeta database. Accessed at http://marinespecies.org/polychaeta/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=173587 on 2017-12- ...
Read, G. (2012). Sphaerodoridium campanulata Borowski, 1994. In: Read, G.; Fauchald, K. (Ed.) (2017). World Polychaeta database. Accessed at http://www.marinespecies.org/polychaeta/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=595866 on 2017-12- ...
[Objective] The aim was to study the effection of malathion on the activity of antioxidant enzgme of Perinereis.aibuhitensis Grube.[Method]Using the indoor simulation method,the acute toxic effects of various concentrations of organophosphorus pesticide malathion on Perinereis aibuhitensis Grube were determined. The median lethal concentration (LC50 ) of malathion to Perinereis aibuhitensis Grube for 96 h was 33.16 mg/L,and the safety concentration was 3.32 mg/L. The six treatments (0.001 8,0.018,0.18,1.8,3.6,9 mg/L) were set up ,and the Perinereis aibuhitensis Grude were exposed to those treatments for 3 d and 6 d respectively,which the superoxide dismutase (SOD)activity,peroxidase (POD) ,catalase (CAT) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA)content were examined.[Result] The results indicated that the CAT,SOD and POD were sensitive to the malathion,and were inhibited following a 3 d exposure to 0.001 8 mg/L . Malathion treatment led to an initial decline in CAT and SOD activity followed by a sharp increase
Thiosulphate, the main sulphide detoxification product, is accumulated in the body fluids of the lugworm Arenicola marina. The aim of this study was to elucidate the fate of thiosulphate. Electrophysiological measurements revealed that the transepithelial resistance of body wall sections was 76+/−34 capomega cm2 (mean +/− s.d., N=14), indicating that the body wall of the lugworm is a leaky tissue in which mainly paracellular transport along cell junctions takes place. The body wall was equally permeable from both sides to thiosulphate, the permeability coefficient of which was 1. 31×10(−)3+/−0.37×10(−)3 cm h-1 (mean +/− s.d., N=30). No evidence was found for a significant contribution of the gills or the nephridia to thiosulphate permeation. Thiosulphate flux followed the concentration gradient, showing a linear correlation (r=0.997) between permeated and supplied (10-100 mmol l-1) thiosulphate. The permeability of thiosulphate was not sensitive to the presence of various metabolic ...
Coral reef inhabiting tubeworms (Polychaeta: Serpulidae) from Enewetak, Kwajalein, Rongelap and Utirik Atolls, Marshall Islands - Volume 92 Issue 5 - Julie H. Bailey-Brock, Wagner F. Magalhães, Richard E. Brock
Read "Unusual isozyme patterns of glucose-6-phosphate isomerase in polydorids (Polychaeta: Spionidae) and the possible mechanisms of their formation, Russian Journal of Genetics" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
University of Vienna. The Impact of Light on Nervous System Function. Recommended Readings:. Empirical Papers. Backfisch, B., Veedin Rajan, V. B., Fischer, R. M., Lohs, C., Arboleda, E., Tessmar-Raible, K., & Raible, F. (2013). Stable transgenesis in the marine annelid Platynereis dumerilii sheds new light on photoreceptor evolution. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 110(1), 193-198. doi:10.1073/pnas.1209657109. Fischer, R. M., Fontinha, B. M., Kirchmaier, S., Steger, J., Bloch, S., Inoue, D., … Tessmar-Raible, K. (2013). Co-expression of VAL- and TMT-opsins uncovers ancient photosensory interneurons and motorneurons in the vertebrate brain. PLoS Biology, 11(6), e1001585. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1001585. Zantke, J., Ishikawa-Fujiwara, T., Arboleda, E., Lohs, C., Schipany, K., Hallay, N., … Tessmar-Raible, K. (2013). Circadian and circalunar clock interactions in a marine annelid. Cell Reports, 5(1), 99-113. ...
2002 Tzetlin, A. B., Dahlgren, T. G., & G. Purschke. Ultrastructure of the body wall, body cavity, nephridia and spermatozoa in four species of the Chrysopetalidae (Annelida). Zoologischer Anzeiger 241, 37-55. 2000 Dahlgren, T. G., Lundberg, J., Pleijel, F. & P. Sundberg. Morphological and molecular evidence of the phylogeny of Nereidiform polychaetes (Annelida). Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research 38(4): 249-254.. 1998 Pleijel, F. & T. G. Dahlgren. Phylogeny of Phyllodocida and Nereidiformia (Polychaeta, Annelida). Cladistics 14: 129-150.. 1996 Dahlgren, T. G. Two new species of Dysponetus (Polychaeta: Chrysopetalidae) from Italy and Papua New Guinea. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 109 (3): 575-585.. 1995 Dahlgren, T. G. & F. Pleijel. On the generic allocation of Chrysopetalum caecum (Polychaeta: Chrysopetalidae). Mitteilungen aus dem Hamburgischen zoologischen Museum und Institut 92:159-173. ...
ABSTRACT: The ecophysiological differences of 4 sibling species of the Capitella capitata species complex from habitats with different sulfide concentrations were studied: Capitella sp. S (small) from a North Sea intertidal flat, living in the upper sediment layer containing low sulfide concentrations (up to 20 µmol l-1); Capitella sp. L (large), sympatric to Capitella sp. S, but living in deeper sediment layers with high sulfide concentrations (up to 350 µmol l-1); Capitella sp. M from the Mediterranean Sea from highly sulfidic sediments (up to 710 µmol l-1) close to shallow hydrothermal vents; and Capitella sp. I from eutrophicated coastal areas of the North Atlantic. Capitella sp. L, Capitella sp. M and Capitella sp. I are significantly more tolerant to anoxia and 760 µmol l-1 sulfide than Capitella sp. S from the upper North Sea sediments. Respiration rates showed that only Capitella sp. S can be characterized as an oxyconformer. The oxygen consumption of Capitella sp. S becomes ...
Background: Members of Family Nereididae have complex neural morphology exemplary of errant polychaetes and are leading research models in the investigation of annelid nervous systems. However, few studies focus on the development of their nervous system morphology. Such data are particularly relevant today, as nereidids are the subjects of a growing body of "evo-devo" work concerning bilaterian nervous systems, and detailed knowledge of their developing neuroanatomy facilitates the interpretation of gene expression analyses. In addition, new data are needed to resolve discrepancies between classic studies of nereidid neuroanatomy. We present a neuroanatomical overview based on acetylated α-tubulin labeling and confocal microscopy for post-embryonic stages of Neanthes arenaceodentata, a direct-developing nereidid. Results: At hatching (2-3 chaetigers), the nervous system has developed much of the complexity of the adult (large brain, circumesophageal connectives, nerve cords, segmental nerves), ...
Background Vestimentiferan tubeworms are some of the most recognizable fauna found at deep-sea cold seeps, isolated environments where hydrocarbon rich fluids fuel biological communities. Several studies have investigated tubeworm population structure; however, much is still unknown about larval dispersal patterns at Gulf of Mexico (GoM) seeps. As such, researchers have applied microsatellite markers as a measure for documenting the transport of vestimentiferan individuals. In the present study, we investigate the utility of microsatellites to be cross-amplified within the escarpiid clade of seep vestimentiferans, by determining if loci originally developed for Escarpia spp. could be amplified in the GoM seep tubeworm, Seepiophila jonesi. Additionally, we determine if cross-amplified loci can reliably uncover the same signatures of high gene flow seen in a previous investigation of S. jonesi. Methods Seventy-seven S. jonesi individuals were collected from eight seep sites across the upper Louisiana
1. The blood-system in sabellids of the following genera is described: Sabella, Potamilla, Branchiomma, Dasychone, Amphiglena, Fabricia, Jasmineira, Dialychone, and Myxicola.. 2. The central blood-system of Sabella is typical of the family, but the peripheral blood-system is variable.. 3. The dorsal vessel lacks the valve and muscular sphincter found in some serpulids.. 4. Lateral vessels are present only in Sabella and Dasychone.. 5. The differences and similarities between sabellid and serpulid blood-systems are discussed. Special attention is given to the functions of sub-epidermal and coelomic capillaries and the blood-supply of the body-wall musculature.. ...
Phylum Annelida : True Worms. Class Polychaeta : Bristle worms. Order Phyllodocida. Order Capitellida. Worms are the most important of bait species collected in the UK, by digging on sediment shores. Their exploitation is also completely unregulated, since they are not classified as seafish and do not fall under the scope of fisheries legislation. Class Polychaeta : Bristle worms. This Class is the largest group of worms. All are aquatic and the great majority is marine. A few polychaetes are commensal or parasitic, but most are free-living and include pelagic swimmers, crawling and actively burrowing species, and tube-dwelling species. However, only a very small number of the over 1,000 species which occur in UK waters are sufficiently large, robust, common and easily obtained to be target bait species. Order Phyllodocida. Superfamily Nereidoidea, Family Nereidae : Ragworms. Ragworms are very common errant (free-living) polychaetes all around the British Isles. Nineteen species have been ...
Marine polychaetes in the family Sabellariidae live in tubular shells cobbled together with sandgrains, the broken skeletons of marine invertebrates and a protein-based underwater glue. Juvenile worms build new tubes adjoining existing tubes of the same species to create reef-like intertidal and subtidal colonies. Phragmatopoma californica (Fewkes), known commonly as the sandcastle worm, is found along the west coast of the USA. The description of a P. californica colony from the original classification by Fewkes (Fewkes, 1889) provides a sense of the turbulent habitats preferentially inhabited by sabellariids. To paraphrase, the aggregation was a continuous mass, several feet across and 1-2 feet thick, encrusted onto the roof of a cavern carved by the sea into soft rock cliffs near Santa Barbara, CA, USA. The colony was exposed for several hours between tides. Colonization of high-energy shoreside environments, such as that described by Fewkes, requires robust construction of the ...
Cantino, P.D., and de Queiroz, K. 2000. PhyloCode: A Phylogenetic Code of Biological Nomenclature. http://www.ohiou.edu/phylocode.. Dahlgren, T.G., Lundberg, J., Pleijel, F., and Sundberg, P. 2000. Morphological and molecular evidence of the phylogeny of Nereidiform polychaetes (Annelida). J. zool. Syst. evol. Res. 38:249-253.. Grube, A.E. 1850. Die Familien der Anneliden. Arch. Naturgesch. 16:249-364.. Haaland, B., and Schram, T.A. 1982. Larval development and metamorphosis of Gyptis rosea (Malm) (Hesionidae, Polychaeta). Sarsia 67:107-118.. Haaland, B., and Schram, T.A. 1983. Larval development and metamorphosis of Ophiodromus flexuosus (Delle Chiaje) (Hesionidae, Polychaeta). Sarsia 68:85-96.. Licher, F., and Westheide, W. 1994. The phylogenetic position of the Pilargidae with a cladistic analysis of the taxon-facts and ideas. In: J.-C. Dauvin, L. Laubier and D. J. Reish (Eds), Actes de la 4 me Conf rence internationale des Polych tes, M moires du Mus um national dHistoire naturelle. pp. ...
Annelids are segmented worms that are found worldwide in most habitats, except the aerial and the most arid ones. Earthworms and leeches are the most familiar members of this group; however, most annelid diversity lies within the largely marine polychaetes. Until recently, Annelida was split into three major groups, each given class rank: Polychaeta (bristleworms), Oligochaeta (earthworms, etc.) and Hirudinea (leeches).
Dear Marie, I would recommend to try to id them using morphology first, at least to the gens, or better to the genus level, it is much cheaper. Cheers, Lena marie go wrote: , Hello all, , , In relation with our fishmeal replacement project with polychaetes, we , carried out a survey in a mangrove near Tawau, Sabah, West Malaysia , and collected 29 specimens which probably belong to 5 species. , Currently we have 16S RNA, CoL1 and 18S RNA primers which we could use , to ID. Which one of these or other would you recommend? Or would , anyone be interested in getting fixed specimens? I guess we could also , extract DNA from the middle of the body and send heads. , , I can send photos of the specimens to anyone interested. , , Thank you, , , Marie -- Dr Elena Kupriyanova Earth and Environmental Sciences Darling DP418 The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005 AUSTRALIA Ph : +61 8 8303 3990 Fax : +61 8 83034364 e-mail: elena.kupriyanova from adelaide.edu.au ...
Michaud, A.B., Leonardo,M.R., Bruckner, J.C., Fisher, J.C., Dodsworth, J.A. and D.P. Moser. 2009 "Shewanella Diversity and abundance in Keane Wonder Spring, Death Valley National Park," American Society for Microbiology General Meeting, Philadelphia, PA. Davison, P.M and M.R. Leonardo. 2009 "Characterization of the Microbial Flora Associated with the Marine Tube Worm Phragmatopoma lapidosa," American Society for Microbiology General Meeting, Philadelphia, PA. Steele, L.D., Davison, P.M and M.R. Leonardo. 2009 Molecular Characterization of Five Bacterial Types Isolated from the Marine Polychaete Worm Pectinaria gouldii, American Socoiety for Microbiology General Meeting, Philadelphia, PA.. Melhus, B. Leippley, D., Leonardo, M.R., and M. Affatigato. 2005. "Development of Functional Glass Surfaces to Inhibit Bacterial Growth". International Glass Conference. Turino, Italy.. Lares-Casanova, P., Leonardo, M.R., and M. Scherer. 2005. "Fe(II) adsorption at the cell-water interface: From macroscopic ...
A radiole is a heavily ciliated feather-like tentacle found in highly organized clusters on the crowns of Canalipalpata. Canalipalpata is an order of sessile marine polychaete worms consisting of 31 families (including the Sabellidae, Serpulidae, Terebellidae, and Alvinellidae, a family of deep-sea worms associated with hydrothermal vents). These benthic annelid tube worms employ radioles primarily for alimentation. While their primary role is to function as an organ for filter feeding, radioles also serve as respiratory organs. Because of their role in gas exchange, radioles are often referred to as "gills". Canalipalpata have a head located at the anterior end of the body. The head is formed by the fusion of a funnel-shaped, symmetrical peristomium with the prostomium. The prostomium bears a specialized mouth appendage which is referred to as a branchial crown. The crown functions as both a sieve and a gill. The animal can extend the crown from its calcareous tube for feeding and gas exchange, ...
Define Blood worm. Blood worm synonyms, Blood worm pronunciation, Blood worm translation, English dictionary definition of Blood worm. n. 1. Any of various marine polychaete worms of the genus Glycera, having bright red bodies and often used for bait. 2. Any of various freshwater larvae of...
Life-cycle transitions connecting larval and juvenile stages in metazoans are orchestrated by neuroendocrine signals including neuropeptides and hormones. In marine invertebrate life cycles, which often consist of planktonic larval and benthic adult stages, settlement of the free-swimming larva to the sea floor in response to environmental cues is a key life cycle transition. Settlement is regulated by a specialized sensory-neurosecretory system, the larval apical organ. The neuroendocrine mechanisms through which the apical organ transduces environmental cues into behavioral responses during settlement are not yet understood. Here we show that myoinhibitory peptide (MIP)/allatostatin-B, a pleiotropic neuropeptide widespread among protostomes, regulates larval settlement in the marine annelid Platynereis dumerilii. MIP is expressed in chemosensory-neurosecretory cells in the annelid larval apical organ and signals to its receptor, an orthologue of the Drosophila sex peptide receptor, expressed ...
Worms /wɜːrm/ are many different distantly related animals that typically have a long cylindrical tube-like body and no limbs. Worms vary in size from microscopic to over 1 metre (3.3 ft) in length for marine polychaete worms (bristle worms),[1] 6.7 metres (22 ft) for the African giant earthworm, Microchaetus rappi,[2] and 58 metres (190 ft) for the marine nemertean worm (bootlace worm), Lineus longissimus.[3] Various types of worm occupy a small variety of parasitic niches, living inside the bodies of other animals. Free-living worm species do not live on land, but instead, live in marine or freshwater environments, or underground by burrowing. In biology, "worm" refers to an obsolete taxon, vermes, used by Carolus Linnaeus and Jean-Baptiste Lamarck for all non-arthropod invertebrate animals, now seen to be paraphyletic. The name stems from the Old English word wyrm. Most animals called "worms" are invertebrates, but the term is also used for the amphibian caecilians and the slowworm Anguis, ...
ABSTRACT: Mitochondrial mechanisms, which may define and adjust an organism¹s thermal tolerance window to the environmental temperature regime, were studied in 2 intertidal populations of the polychaete worm Arenicola marina (L.) from the North Sea (boreal) and the White Sea (subpolar). Adaptation to lower mean annual temperatures in the subpolar White Sea population (4 vs 10°C in the North Sea) was reflected in a 2.4 times higher mitochondrial volume density in their muscle tissue. In White Sea worms acclimated to 6°C, a 10 times higher cytochrome c-oxidase (CytOx) activity was seen and the activation energy (Ea) for the oxidation of cytochrome c was reduced compared to boreal specimens acclimated to 11°C. Moreover, mitochondria from White Sea lugworms were characterised by a 2.7 times higher succinate oxidation rate and reduced Ea under mitochondrial State 3 (phosphorylating) respiration at low temperatures, as well as a higher activity of NADP-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) ...
Cavalier-Smith,T (1998): A revised six-kingdom system of life. ,Biological Reviews 73(3), 203-266. , ,Subphylum Polychaeta, Infraphylum NOV. Operculata (Spirorbis, Serpula), ,Infraphylum NOV. Pharyngata (Nereis, Arenicola, Sabella). We should feel honoured that the great Tom Cavalier-Smith, famous for his multifarious hypotheses about the evolution and classification of the Eukaryota, has deigned to cast his eye on our little clade (or grade). For Tom, paraphyly and polyphyly are not dirty words, they give one an opportunity to revise, and revise again. So look out for his new, improved, 7 Superduper-Kingdom system in your library sometime soon. ********************************* Greg Rouse School of Biological Sciences A08 University of Sydney N.S.W. 2006 Australia gregr at bio.usyd.edu.au Tel. (02) 9351 5571 Fax (02) 9351 4119 International: 61 2 replaces 02 -- ANNELIDA Discuss = annelida at net.bio.net = talk to all members Server = biosci-server at net.bio.net = un/subscribes Archives = ...
Mono- and Stereopictres of 5.0 Angstrom coordination sphere of Copper atom in PDB 3f7l: X-Ray Crystal Structure of Alvinella Pompejana Cu,Zn Superoxide Dismutase
Light micrograph of the planktonic larva of the bristle worm, Eulalia viridis. The spherical body of the larva, known as a trochophore, is encircled by two or three bands of cilia used for feeding and locomotion. The bristle worms (polychaeta) are free-swimming, marine worms of the phylum Annelida (the segmented worms). Each segment of the adult bristle worm has a pair of limb-like outgrowths called parapodia, which are covered with tufts of chitinous bristles or chaetae. Magnification: x160 at 35mm size. - Stock Image Z195/0025
Types Oligochaeta: Earthworms and other terrestrial worms; chaetae (chitin bristles), no parapodia Polychaeta: Marine worms that are free or tube living; parapodia Hirudinea: Leeches and other flat annelids with no chaetae Albert Gordon Jacob Cole
12$==(two+ clades)=== odd tube-building worms (Chaetopteridae, Oweniidae) , , =====3= Errantia (active, highly mobile marine worms) <<=1=, , , =2=Polychaeta==, =5= bone boring & parasitic Sedentaria (whalebone worms, myzostomids) , , =4=, ==, =6= typical Sedentaria $$ (tube dwelling or burrowing worms) , , =====8============ Oligochaeta (earthworms & relatives) , , =7==, ==10===== Acanthobdellida (primitive leech-like annelids) =====9===, ==11===== Hirudinea (true leeches ...
A chaeta or cheta (see spelling differences) is a chitinous bristle or seta found in insects, arthropods or annelid worms, although the term is also frequently used to describe similar structures in other invertebrates. The plural form is chaetae or chetae. In the Polychaeta, they are located on the parapodia. A range of chaetal shapes and formats exists.[1] Particular forms of chaetae are often species-specific, giving the features a useful taxonomic function.[2]. ...
Members of the class Polychaeta are mostly gonochoric (sexual). Mating: Females produce a pheromone attracting and signalling the males to shed sperm which in turn stimulates females to shed eggs, this behavior is known as swarming. Gametes are spawned through the metanephridia or body wall rupturing (termed as "epitoky", wherein a pelagic, reproductive individual, "epitoke", is formed from a benthic, nonreproductive individual, "atoke"). After fertilization, most eggs become planktonic; although some are retained in the worm tubes or burrowed in jelly masses attached to the tubes (egg brooders). Life Cycle: Eggs develop into trocophore larva, which later metamorph into juvenile stage (body lengthened), and later develop into adults (Ref. 833). ...
The ventral nerve cord in C. teleta has many features characteristic of a ladder-like nerve cord, with segmentally-iterated ganglia, longitudinal connectives between ganglia in adjacent segments, and commissures between each hemiganglion within one segment. Initially the ventral nerve cord in C. teleta has 5 longitudinal connectives (Fig. 11). These appear to fuse into two main bundles in the juvenile, although in the abdominal segments, a thin medial connective (aTUB-LIR) and four outer connectives (5HT-LIR) can still be seen. Thus, C. teleta has the ancestral pattern of five connectives. The exact number of commissures within each ganglion is difficult to discern. There are two pairs of peripheral nerves in the thoracic segments and three pairs of peripheral nerves in the abdominal segments. The numbers of nerves in C. teleta fall within the range seen in other annelids, and this study highlights the advantage of characterizing nervous system architecture during development since the number ...
Hediste diversicolor and other important characterizing species are adapted to living within the intertidal zone where temperatures fluctuate. Some resistance to temperature fluctuations is achieved by burying within the sediment, which buffers against acute temperature changes over the tidal cycle.. The geographic range of Hediste diversicolor (throughout north-west Europe on the Baltic Sea, North Sea and along Atlantic coasts to the Mediterranean) suggests that it is tolerant of a range of temperatures and a temperature increase at benchmark levels is unlikely to have an adverse effect on UK populations. Hediste diversicolor can tolerate temperatures from below zero under Baltic ice to high summer temperatures in Black Sea lagoons (>25°C) (Smith, 1977).. Hediste diversicolor were not strongly affected by heat waves in an estuary in north western Portugal, where temperatures reached 40°C in intertidal pools (higher temperatures than experienced around UK and Irish coasts) (Dolbeth et al., ...
Worms with segmented bodies make up the phylum Annelida. This program explores the 3 classes of annelids: Polychaeta (feeding, locomotion, and larval stages); Oligochaeta (lifestyles, feeding adaptations, and anatomy of freshwater oligochaetes and earthworms); and Hirudinea (leeches, crayfish, and w...
This data set includes the results of the activities undertaken in the REVIZEE Program by the South Score/Benthos (Cabo de São Tomé, RJ - Arroio Chuí, RS). The main objectives of this sub-program are the knowledge of biodiversity and the evaluation of the sustainable potential of the faunistic resources of the exclusive economic zone of the southeastern and southern regions of Brazil. The field collections were taken from December 13th 1997 to April 20th 1998 in the continental shelf and slope (60 - 810 m depth) with the Oceanographic Vessel Prof. W. Besnard (IO-USP). The fauna was collected using the benthic samplers van Veen and Box-corer and the rectangular dredge, summing up 322 samples. In some cases, data of organisms scrapped from hard substrates were also presented. The following groups are presented: Porifera, Cnidaria (Hydrozoa, Scyphozoaand and Anthozoa), Sipuncula, Mollusca (Gastropoda, Bivalvia, Cephalopoda, Polyplacophora and Solenogastres), Annelida (Polychaeta), Crustacea ...
Domain: Eukaryota • Regnum: Animalia • Subregnum: Eumetazoa • Cladus: Bilateria • Superphylum: Protostomia • Phylum: Annelida • Classis: Polychaeta • Subclassis: Canalipalpata • Subordo: Sabellida • Familia: Serpulidae Johnston, 1865 ...
Find out whats known about Giant Feather Duster Worms, Eudistylia polymorpha, Polychaeta, Canalipalpata, Sabellidae, including their world range and habitats, feeding behaviors, life history, ecology, reproduction, and conservation status.
Find out whats known about Indian Feather Duster Worms, Sabellastarte spectabilis, Polychaeta, Sabellida, Sabellidae, including their world range and habitats, feeding behaviors, life history, ecology, reproduction, and conservation status.
Members of the class Polychaeta are mostly gonochoric (sexual). Mating: Females produce a pheromone attracting and signalling the males to shed sperm which in turn stimulates females to shed eggs, this behavior is known as swarming. Gametes are spawned through the metanephridia or body wall rupturing (termed as "epitoky", wherein a pelagic, reproductive individual, "epitoke", is formed from a benthic, nonreproductive individual, "atoke"). After fertilization, most eggs become planktonic; although some are retained in the worm tubes or burrowed in jelly masses attached to the tubes (egg brooders). Life Cycle: Eggs develop into trocophore larva, which later metamorph into juvenile stage (body lengthened), and later develop into adults (Ref. 833). ...
WoRMS (2014). Adyte assimilis (McIntosh, 1874). In: Read, G.; Fauchald, K. (Ed.) (2014) World Polychaeta database. In: Costello, M.J.; Bouchet, P.; Boxshall, G.; Arvantidis, C.; Appeltans, W. (2014) European Register of Marine Species, accessed through PESI at http://www.eu-nomen.eu/portal/taxon.php?GUID=urn:lsid:marinespecies.org:taxname:155007 ...
Some of the chemical and physico-chemical characteristics of the respiratory blood pigment chlorocruorin have been dealt with in previous papers (H. M. Fox, 1926, 1932). An experimental investigation is described below of the blood circulation in sabellids and serpulids. These polychæte worms have chlorocruorin in solution in their blood plasma. The work was done in part in the Marine Biological Laboratories of Banyuls, Plymouth, and Tamaris, and my sincere thanks are due to the Directors and staffs of these institutions for their welcom and help. 1. The Normal Blood Circulation. In sabellids and serpulids both the anatomy of the blood system and the mode of blood circulation are peculiar and different from those in other polychæte worms. The best description of the anatomy of the blood system is that of Meyer (1888) ...
Q 5. Describe briefly the Sexual Reproduction in Paramecium. Q 6. Discuss the various theories of Locomotion in Sarcodina. Q 7. Give a Detailed Account of Canal System In Poriferans. Add a Note on the Significance of Canal System. Q 8. Explain the Phenomenon of Polymorphism in Siphonophora. Q 9. Describe the structure of different coral reefs in detail. Q 10. Write Briefly about the Excretion and the Excretory structures in Oligochaeta. Q 11. Discuss the Adaptive Radiation in Polychaeta with respect to their nutrition. Q 12. Explain the life cycle, and pathogenicity of Ascaris lumbricoides or Trypanosona gambiense. Q 13. Write Short Notes on the Following ...
Microscopic plastic debris as small as 20 µm (Thompson et al. 2004) also litters the global environment (Thompson et al. 2004; Ng & Obbard 2006; Reddy et al. 2006). This material enters the environment both directly from use as scrubbers in cleaning products and as abrasive beads for cleaning ships, and indirectly from deterioration of brittle, weathered macroscopic plastics (Derraik 2002). To investigate the possibility for microscopic plastics to transport contaminants to benthic organisms, lugworms (Arenicola marina) were exposed to contaminant-sorbed plastics. Phenanthrene (a PAH), tetrabromodiphenyl ether (a PBDE), triclosan (antimicrobial) and NP were sorbed to microscopic PVC particles at environmentally relevant concentrations. Lugworms were exposed to sediment containing these contaminated plastics (5% w/w) for 10 days. At the end of the trial, contaminant concentrations in the lugworm tissue were significantly higher than that in the sediment. While this demonstrated that ...
Microscopic plastic debris as small as 20 µm (Thompson et al. 2004) also litters the global environment (Thompson et al. 2004; Ng & Obbard 2006; Reddy et al. 2006). This material enters the environment both directly from use as scrubbers in cleaning products and as abrasive beads for cleaning ships, and indirectly from deterioration of brittle, weathered macroscopic plastics (Derraik 2002). To investigate the possibility for microscopic plastics to transport contaminants to benthic organisms, lugworms (Arenicola marina) were exposed to contaminant-sorbed plastics. Phenanthrene (a PAH), tetrabromodiphenyl ether (a PBDE), triclosan (antimicrobial) and NP were sorbed to microscopic PVC particles at environmentally relevant concentrations. Lugworms were exposed to sediment containing these contaminated plastics (5% w/w) for 10 days. At the end of the trial, contaminant concentrations in the lugworm tissue were significantly higher than that in the sediment. While this demonstrated that ...
Polychaete worms have populated the oceans for millions of years. Today they are the focus of study on cryptic species, which shows that apparently identical animals may be entirely different species. Researchers at the University of Gothenburg, Sweden, have now found new worm species in the Kattegat and Skagerrak.. Polychaetes belong to a group of segmented worms that display enormous diversity. It turns out that there may be significantly more of these worms than researchers had imagined. Many of the worm species have been identified morphologically, that is to say on the basis of their appearance. New molecular techniques show that many worms that have been assumed to belong to the same family are not as closely related as had been thought. Cryptic species. The research scientist Jenny Eklöf at the Department of Zoology works in the rapidly advancing field of research which studies what are known as cryptic species, that is to say animals that are identical in appearance but genetically ...
Objective To investigate antidiabetic potential of alcoholic leaves extract of Alangium lamarckii (A. lamarckii) on streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced type 2 diabetic rats. Methods Oral glucose tolerance test was done by inducing hyperglycemic state via administration of glucose in water (2g/kg). Single dose of alcoholic leaves extract of A. lamarckii (250 and 500 mg/kg, p.o.) were administered to normoglycemic, hyperglycemic rats. Type 2 diabetes was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of nicotinamide (110 mg/kg) followed by streptozotocin (65mg/kg). The study also included estimations of blood plasma glucose, lipid profile, liver glycogen, body weight and antioxidant status in normal and diabetic rats. Results Admistration of alcoholic extract of A. lamarckii at two dosage 250 and 500 mg/kg, p.o. did not
Worms of Many Kinds, but particularly the Polychaete Annelids mainly knowns as bristleworms to aquarium hobbyists exist in good numbers of individuals and species in the Red Sea. Vine (1986) cites a study of a 4.7 kg lump of Pocillopora damicornis in which 1,441 polychaetes were extracted, belonging to 103 species. Most families of polychaetes have representatives here, but enthusiasts are generally only interested in ones that are ornamental; Featherduster/Fanworms of the families Sabellidae and Serpulidae. These can/do occur in both the rocky and sandy reef slope environments.. ...
Nearly all octopuses are predatory; bottom-dwelling octopuses eat mainly crustaceans, polychaete worms, and other molluscs such as whelks and clams; open-ocean octopuses eat mainly prawns, fish and other cephalopods.[71] Major items in the diet of the giant Pacific octopus include bivalve molluscs such as the cockle Clinocardium nuttallii, clams and scallops, and crustaceans such as crabs and spider crabs. Prey that it is likely to reject include moon snails, because they are too large, and limpets, rock scallops, chitons and abalone, because they are too securely fixed to the rock.[70]. A bottom-dwelling octopus typically moves among the rocks and feels through the crevices. The creature may make a jet-propelled pounce on prey and pull it towards the mouth with its arms, the suckers restraining it. Small prey may be completely trapped by the webbed structure. Octopuses usually inject crustaceans like crabs with a paralysing saliva then dismember them with their beaks.[71][72] Octopuses feed on ...
Eurybathic, eurythermic (Ref. 4426) and benthic (Ref. 58426). Cold temperate species found in offshore waters (Ref. 88171) on all kinds of bottoms (Ref. 3167), mainly sandy and muddy (Ref. 82311). In the northeast Atlantic most common between 50-100 m depth (Ref. 88187) at temperatures of 2-5 °C (Ref. 89120). Some seasonal migrations have been reported from the western Atlantic (Ref. 52109, 89121). Migration experiments showed that 85 % of tagged individuals remained within 93 km of the release site, with longest distance travelled at 180 km (Ref. 82319). Feed mainly on fish, crustaceans (Ref. 5951) and polychaete worms (Ref. 5578), but also on hydroids, molluscs, cephalopods and echinoderms (Ref. 49751); known to be a scavenger (Ref. 89122). Diet changes with increasing body size (Ref. 82311). Different populations of starry rays mature at different ages and sizes (Ref. 88171). Oviparous (Ref. 3167). Maturity size varies from 44-90 cm TL. Young hatch at ca. 8-12 cm TL (Ref. 114953). Young may ...
The ability of dramatically altering the material properties, by changing its hierarchical structure starting at the chemical level, offers exciting new opportunities to tune the material, and to build upon the natural material design towards new engineering applications," wrote Markus J. Buehler, the McAfee Professor of Engineering, head of CEE, and senior author of the paper.. The research, recently published in ACS Nano, shows that depending on the ions and pH levels in the environment, the protein material expands and contracts into different geometric patterns. When the conditions change again, the material reverts back to its original shape. This makes it particularly useful for smart composite materials with tunable mechanics and self-powered roboticists that use pH value and ion condition to change the material stiffness or generate functional deformations.. Finding inspiration in the strong, stable jaw of a marine worm. In order to create bio-inspired materials that can be used for soft ...
The secrets of lugworm hemoglobin lie in its ability to survive in extreme conditions, burrowing into sand at the edges of the tide.. The worm grows to about 25 centimetres (10 inches) in length and has several bushy external gills along its body.. At high tide, submerged in water, the worm builds up stocks of oxygen that, astonishingly, allow it to survive more than eight hours out of the water at low tide.. Anyone who has walked along a sandy beach at low tide will see evidence of lugworms, from the tiny coiled casts of sand they throw up from their burrow, 10 centimeters below the surface.. But, apart from anglers who dig up the creatures for bait, lugworms are rarely seen - and breeding them is a novel challenge.. "The main difficulty is working with a small animal that lives its life hidden," explained Raymond.. Aquastream struggled at first with basic rearing problems - including how to tell a male lugworm from a female.. After nine months of testing, "50 percent of adult worms survived ...