Recently, it was shown that U1snRNP is able to suppress the usage of intronic cryptic polyadenylation sites in the cellular genome. Foamy viruses take advantage of this surveillance mechanism to suppress premature polyadenylation at the 5end of their RNA. At the 3end, Foamy viruses use a secondary structure to presumably block access of U1snRNP and thereby activate polyadenylation at the end of the genome. Our data reveal a contribution of U1snRNP to cellular polyadenylation site selection and to the regulation of gene expression ...
Arabidopsis mRNA polyadenylation machinery: comprehensive analysis of protein-protein interactions and gene expression profiling. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Spermatogenesis is coordinated by the spatial and temporal expression of many transcriptional and posttranscriptional factors. The cyclic AMP-responsive element modulator (CREM) gene encodes both activator and repressor isoforms that act as transcription factors to regulate spermiogenesis. We found that the testis-expressed paralog of CstF-64, tauCstF-64 (gene symbol Cstf2t), is involved in a polyadenylation site choice switch of Crem mRNA and leads to an overall decrease of the Crem mRNAs that are generated from internal promoters in Cstf2t(-/-) mice. More surprisingly, loss of tauCstF-64 also leads to alternative splicing of Crem exon 4, which contains an important activation domain. Thus, testis-specific CREMtau2 isoform protein levels are reduced in Cstf2t(-/-) mice. Consequently, expression of 15 CREM-regulated genes is decreased in testes of Cstf2t(-/-) mice at 25 days postpartum. These effects might further contribute to the infertility phenotype of these animals. This demonstrates that tauCstF
TY - JOUR. T1 - A novel source for miR-21 expression through the alternative polyadenylation of VMP1 gene transcripts. AU - Ribas, Judit. AU - Ni, Xiaohua. AU - Castanares, Mark. AU - Liu, Minzhi M.. AU - Esopi, David. AU - Yegnasubramanian, Srinivasan. AU - Rodriguez, Ronald. AU - Mendell, Joshua T.. AU - Lupold, Shawn E.. PY - 2012/8/1. Y1 - 2012/8/1. N2 - miR-21 is the most commonly over-expressed microRNA (miRNA) in cancer and a proven oncogene. Hsa-miR-21 is located on chromosome 17q23.2, immediately downstream of the vacuole membrane protein-1 (VMP1) gene, also known as TMEM49. VMP1 transcripts initiate ∼130kb upstream of miR-21, are spliced, and polyadenylated only a few hundred base pairs upstream of the miR-21 hairpin. On the other hand, primary miR-21 transcripts (pri-miR-21) originate within the last introns of VMP1, but bypass VMP1 polyadenylation signals to include the miR-21 hairpin. Here, we report that VMP1 transcripts can also bypass these polyadenylation signals to include ...
Drought stress is considered one of the most devastating abiotic stress factors that limit crop productivity for modern agriculture worldwide. There is a large range of physiological and biochemical responses induced by drought stress. The responses range from physiological and biochemical to regulation at transcription and posttranscriptional levels. Post-transcription, the products encoded by eukaryotic genes must undergo a series of modifications to become a mature mRNA. Polyadenylation is an important one in terms of regulation. Polyadenylation impacts gene expression through determining the coding and regulation potential of the mRNA, especially when different mRNAs from the same gene may be polyadenylated at more than one position. This alternative polyadenylation (APA) has numerous potential effects on gene regulation and function. I have studied the impact of drought stress on APA, testing the hypothesis that drought stress may give rise to changes in the usage of poly(A) sites generating
Availability of large numbers of transcriptomic sequences provides an unprecedented opportunity to explore genome-wide polyadenylation profiles. The standard RNA-seq reads are commonly used to define the genome wide polyadenylation profiles in species with no available or limited polyadenylation data (Zhao et al. 2014; Wang et al. 2016b). Here, 9.48 billion RNA-Seq reads from the 24 high-throughput transcriptomic studies were analyzed to comprehensively characterize genome-wide polyadenylation profiles in the maize. The datasets used in this study consists of 401 pooled samples collected from different tissues under various physiological and developmental conditions (Table S1). Using a robust PAC identification process (Dong et al. 2015) with slight modifications, 21 million transcriptomic reads with eight or more terminal A- or T-residues were used to find the evidence for 95,345 polyadenylation events (PACs) in the maize genome.. Heterogeneity in the polyadenylation events is a common ...
Alternative polyadenylation (APA) can for example occur when a protein-coding gene has several polyadenylation (polyA) signals in its last exon, resulting in messenger RNAs (mRNAs) with different 3′ untranslated region (UTR) lengths. Different 3′UTR lengths can give different microRNA (miRNA) regulation such that shortened transcripts have increased expression. The APA process is part of human cells natural regulatory processes, but APA also seems to play an important role in many human diseases. Although altered APA in disease can have many causes, we reasoned that mutations in DNA elements that are important for the polyA process, such as the polyA signal and the downstream GU-rich region, can be one important mechanism. To test this hypothesis, we identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that can create or disrupt APA signals (APA-SNPs). By using a data-integrative approach, we show that APA-SNPs can affect 3′UTR length, miRNA regulation, and mRNA expression-both between ...
siRNA microwalk around Il4R-α polyA site. (A) Position of siRNAs relative to Il4R-α upstream poly A site. PolyA site is shown in grey. Wild-type (B) and Ago2
The process of 3′ end formation/polyadenylation occurs co-transcriptionally on cellular and HIV mRNAs generated by RNA Pol II and influences the termination of transcription at a site several hundred bases downstream of the mature 3′ end of the mRNA [50]. The 3′ end of most human mRNAs is generated first by an endonucleolytic cleavage event (catalyzed by CPSF73, aka CPSF3) followed by the addition of 100-250 adenylate residues by poly(A) polymerase (PAP). A typical polyadenylation signal contains two types of elements. The core elements consist of an AAUAAA or similar hexanucleotide and a short (about 5 base long) U- or GU-rich tract located within approximately 25-30 bases upstream or downstream, respectively, of the site. The core elements serve as the assembly site of the complex of polyadenylation factors. Many polyadenylation signals also contain auxiliary elements that are located upstream or downstream of the core elements. These auxiliary elements bind to a variety of cellular ...
Emerging evidence has demonstrated that regulating the length of the poly(A) tail on an mRNA is an efficient means of controlling gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. In early development, transcription is silenced and gene expression is primarily regulated by cytoplasmic polyadenylation. In somatic cells, considerable progress has been made toward understanding the mechanisms of negative regulation by deadenylation. However, positive regulation through elongation of the poly(A) tail has not been widely studied due to the difficulty in distinguishing whether any observed increase in length is due to the synthesis of new mRNA, reduced deadenylation or cytoplasmic polyadenylation. Here, we overcame this barrier by developing a method for transcriptional pulse-chase analysis under conditions where deadenylases are suppressed. This strategy was used to show that a member of the Star family of RNA binding proteins, QKI, promotes polyadenylation when tethered to a reporter mRNA. Although
Pre-mRNA cleavage/polyadenylation (C/P) defines the 3end of a mature transcript. Over half of the human genes have multiple C/P sites (pAs), resulting in mRNA...
Two nearly identical, gstD21(L) and gstD21(S) mRNAs whose polyadenylation sites differ by 19 nucleotides, are transcribed from the intronless glutathione S-transferase D21 gene in Drosophila. Both mRNAs are intrinsically very labile, but exposure to pentobarbital renders them stabilized beyond what can be attributed to transcriptional activation. We have reconstituted this PB-mediated mRNA stabilization in a transgene (D21L) that contains the full-length gstD21(L) sequence. We have also constructed a similar transgene (D21L-UTR), which matches D21L but excluded the native 3′-UTR. D21L-UTR produces a relatively stable RNA, whose stability is unaffected by pentobarbital. Following pentobarbital treatment of wild-type flies, the levels of gstD21(L) and gstD21(S) mRNAs hold at a relatively constant ratio (L/S) of 1.4 ± 0.2. In transgenic flies, heat shock induction of D21L mRNA changed the L/S ratio to 0.6 ± 0.1, and it was further reduced to 0.3 ± 0.1 as D21L mRNA accumulated in the presence ...
Alternative Polyadenylation Sites Database (APASdb), at Sun Yat-Sen University, Anlong Xu, Shangwu Chen, Shengfeng Huang, Yonggui Fu, Shengfeng Huang, Shaochun Yuan, Leiming You
Alternative Polyadenylation Sites Database (APASdb), at Sun Yat-Sen University, Anlong Xu, Shangwu Chen, Shengfeng Huang, Yonggui Fu, Shengfeng Huang, Shaochun Yuan, Leiming You
Abstract: Production of mature mRNA is a multistep process requiring many proteins that is essential for proper cellular function. Defects in mRNA maturation lead to radical changes in development, growth and viability of the cell. The essential mRNA 3 end processing subunit, Pcf11, is required for the cleavage and polyadenylation of nascent mRNAs and for proper termination of RNA polymerase II t... read moreranscription. Pcf11 also plays a role in alternative polyadenylation. Previous work has identified and described the function of several domains in the Pcf11 protein, but the crystal structure has not been solved and there remain large stretches of Pcf11 that are uncharacterized. Pcf11 is part of the CF 1A factor involved in cleavage and polyadenylation. As part of CF 1A, Pcf11 makes contacts with each of the other CF 1A protein subunits as well as several of the protein subunits that make up the Cleavage and Polyadenylation Factor (CPF), but the importance of these cross-factor ...
The mouse Tcp10 genes are transcribed exclusively in male germ cells and display multiple 5 and 3 untranslated variations generated by alternative splicing and polyadenylation signal usage. To investigate the possible role of untranslated sequences in the regulation of these genes, chimeric expression constructs with or without endogenous 5 and 3 untranslated sequences were generated and used to make transgenic mice. Analysis of these animals showed that the untranslated sequences have no effect on the transcription or translation of an attached lacZ reporter gene, thereby implying these sequences are dispensible. However, the endogenous pattern of polyadenylation site usage was altered when Tcp10 3 untranslated sequences were linked to lacZ, indicating that internal coding sequence can influence recognition of polyadenylation signals in testis. The characteristics of alternative splicing and polyadenylation signal variability reflects a common theme of promiscuity in testicular gene
Functions of the PolyA Tail 1.Promotes mRNA stability - Deadenylation (shortening of the polyA tail) can trigger rapid degradation of the mRNA 2.Enhances translation - promotes recruitment by ribosomes - bound by a polyA-binding protein in the cytoplasm called PAB1 - synergistic stimulation with Cap!
In this study, we provide genome-wide, high-resolution polyadenylation maps of the human heart and show that in subsets of genes, 3′end formation of mRNA changes in failing hearts. For the vast majority of genes, the importance of APA remains unknown, but this work and that of others,8 indicate that APA shifts toward a proximal CS, resulting in shorter 3′UTRs, may contribute to an increased expression. Along the same lines, an APA shift toward a distal CS contributes to downregulation of the mRNA. We did not find global shifts in 3′UTR length in failing hearts, but identified groups of genes where the 3′UTR ratio changed. Genes displaying 3′UTR shortening were mostly enriched for categories related to RNA binding, whereas the genes that displayed 3′UTR lengthening were found in categories of actin binding and structural constituent of cytoskeleton. Strikingly, we did not find APA shifts in genes important for contractile functions, suggesting that APA does not play an important role ...
Project A1: Structural Analysis of Protein-Protein Interactions in the Polyadenylation-Complex by Chemical Crosslinking and Mass Spectrometry Messenger RNA precursors (pre-mRNAs) undergo different processing steps, including splicing, 5-end capping and 3-end cleavage, and polyadenylation. Pre-mRNAs get cleaved downstream of the poly(A) signal (often AAUAAA) and polyadenylated (up to 250 adenosin residues) by a multi-protein complex, which consists of different subcomplexes. The complete compositon, structure and mechanism of the polyadenylation machinery is still unclear. To adress this issue, the subcomplexes are analysed by chemical cross-linking in combination with high resolution with mass spectrometry.. Supervisor: Prof. Elmar Wahle. Contact:. phone: 0345-5524950. eMail: christian.tueting(at)biochemtech.uni-halle.de. ...
How different types of cells in intact tissues regulate their mRNAs in physiologic and disease conditions remains largely unexplored. My research goal is to study mRNA regulation in both physiologic and disease scenarios with a special emphasis on 3-prime UTR-mediated regulation. Cells use 3-prime untranslated regions (3-prime UTRs) as dynamic platforms to regulate mRNA stability, localization and translational efficiency in response to outside stimuli by interacting with regulators such as microRNAs (miRNAs) and RNA-binding proteins (RBPs). Moreover, erroneous 3-prime UTR-mediated mRNA regulation is frequently involved in human disease. One important mechanism to generate mRNA isoforms with distinct 3-prime UTR sequences is through alternative polyadenylation (APA), which has been recently shown to play important roles in fundamental cellular processes including proliferation and differentiation, and also in human disease such as cancer, vascular thrombosis, and neurological disorders. During ...
The UTRome.org database is intended as a comprehensive resource for 3UTR biology in C. elegans. The database provides detailed information on 3UTR structures and alternative polyadenylation for all protein-coding mRNAs, and includes annotations extracted from other databases (such as WormBase and PicTar) as well as new annotations generated by others ...
Reaktivität: Fledermaus, Huhn, Rind (Kuh) and more. 67 verschiedene CPSF4 Antikörper vergleichen. Alle direkt auf antikörper-online bestellbar!
Includes: CMV promoter, T7 promoter, Fluc gene, EMCV IRES (wt), Rluc gene, 3 UTR, polyA site, and complete vector (derivative of CloneTech pIRES). This seq and map were updated from previous Oct-06 version of ...
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Local protein synthesis is required for long-term memory formation in the brain. One protein family, Cytoplasmic Polyadenylation Element binding Protein (CPEB) that regulates protein synthesis is found to be important for long-term memory formation possibly through regulating local protein synthesis in neurons. The well-studied member of this family, CPEB1, mediates both translational repression and activation of its target mRNAs by regulating mRNA polyadenylation. Mouse with CPEB1 KO shows defect in memory extinction but not long-term memory formation. Three more CPEB1 homologs (CPEB2-4) are identified in mammalian system. To test if CPEB2-4 may have redundant role in replacing CPEB1 in mediating local protein synthesis, the RNA binding specificity of these homologs are studied by SELEX. The result shows CPEB2-4 bind to RNAs with consensus sequence that is distinct from CPE, the binding site of CPEB1. This distinction RNA binding specificity between CPEB1 and CPEB2-4 suggests CPEB2-4 cannot replace
EE, PE and poly(A)‐site signals were suggested to be sufficient to direct cleavage and polyadenylation of yeast pre‐mRNAs (Guo and Sherman, 1996b). CF IA, CF IB and CF II trans‐acting factors were initially defined as sufficient for cleavage in vitro (Kessler et al., 1996). Subsequent work showed, however, that CF IB is dispensable for cleavage activity and instead controls cleavage‐site selection (Minvielle‐Sebastia et al., 1998). These observations also resulted in the surprising finding that CYC1‐512 RNA is cleaved by CF IA and CF II in vitro when CF IB is absent, suggesting that both EE and PE are dispensable for cleavage.. We extended this observation by analysing cleavage of a short CYC1 substrate by CPF and CF IA in vitro. Consistent with previous results CF IB was not required for cleavage activity but restricted cleavage to the poly(A) site. While deletion of EE sequences in sCYC1 did not influence poly(A)‐site cleavage, removal of the PE had a strong effect. In contrast, ...
Gametogenesis and early embryogenesis in many animal species often occur in the context of little or no new transcription. Instead, they rely on the translation of preexisting mRNAs that had been synthesized and stockpiled earlier in gametogenesis. Translation of these mRNAs must be repressed during their synthesis and deposition, and then be activated later. One mechanism to regulate the translation of maternal mRNAs is to control the length of their 3 poly(A) tails through cytoplasmic polyadenylation. Studies in C. elegans identified a cytoplasmic poly(A) polymerase (PAP) GLD-2 that, in complex with an RNA-binding protein GLD-3, extends poly(A) tails of stored maternal mRNAs during oogenesis. Here, I identified the two GLD-2 cytoplasmic PAPs in Drosophila melanogaster. Using yeast two-hybrid assays I showed that both can interact with the Drosophila GLD-3 (Bic-C). I showed that one Drosophila GLD-2 PAP is expressed in the female germline, and the other in testes. I focused my subsequent ...
Gene expression of the α-subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor-2 (eIF-2α), involves transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms. eIF-2α is a single-copy gene expressing two mRNAs, 1.6 and 4.2 kb in size. Cloning and sequencing of the cDNA for the 4.2 kb mRNA revealed that it is the result of alternative polyadenylation site selection. Four polyadenylation sites were identified within the 3´ untranslated region (UTR) of eIF-2α, only two of which are normally utilized in human and mouse tissues. A functional role for the extended 3´ UTR was assessed by comparing the translatability and stability of the 1.6 and 4.2 kb mRNAs. Both the 1.6 and 4.2 kb transcripts could be translated in vitro and were identified in vivo as being distributed on large polyribosomes. This indicates that both mRNAs are efficiently translated. Stability studies showed that in activated T-cells the 4.2 kb mRNA was more stable than the 1.6 kb mRNA. Polyadenylation site selection and mRNA stability differ for ...
Since their discovery, the study of maternal mRNAs has led to the identification of mechanisms underlying their spatiotemporal regulation within the context of oogenesis and early embryogenesis. Following synthesis in the oocyte, maternal mRNAs are translationally silenced and sequestered into storage in cytoplasmic granules. At the same time, their unique distribution patterns throughout the oocyte and embryo are tightly controlled and connected to their functions in downstream embryonic processes. At certain points in oogenesis and early embryogenesis, maternal mRNAs are translationally activated to perform their functions in a timely manner. The cytoplasmic polyadenylation machinery is responsible for the translational activation of maternal mRNAs, and its role in initiating the maternal to zygotic transition events has recently come to light. Here, we summarize the current knowledge on maternal mRNA regulation, with particular focus on cytoplasmic polyadenylation as a mechanism for ...
CPEB1 overexpression lysate, 0.1 mg. Transient overexpression lysate of cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding protein 1 (CPEB1), transcript variant 1
Pattern formation in Drosophila depends initially on the translational activation of maternal messenger RNAs (mRNAs) whose protein products determine cell fate. Three mRNAs that dictate anterior, dorsoventral, and terminal specification--bicoid, Toll, and torso, respectively--showed increases in polyadenylate [poly(A)] tail length concomitant with translation. In contrast, posteriorly localized nanos mRNA, although also translationally activated, was not regulated by poly(A) status. These results implicate at least two mechanisms of mRNA activation in flies. Studies with bicoid mRNA showed that cytoplasmic polyadenylation is necessary for translation, establishing this pathway as essential for embryogenesis. Combined, these experiments identify a regulatory pathway that can coordinate initiation of maternal pattern formation systems in Drosophila. ...
Fig. 3. SRp20 binds to the CT/CGRP enhancer core. (A) UV cross-linking of HeLa cell nuclear extract proteins to a site-specifically labeled ribo-oligonucleotide containing the enhancer core sequence. The sequence of the utilized oligonucleotide (oligo) containing the enhancer core is indicated, with the pyrimidine tract (Py) and 5′ splice site sequence (5′ ss) (the 5′ splice site is underlined) marked. The position of the single introduced labeled phosphate is indicated with an asterisk. UV cross-linking was performed in the presence of no competitor RNA (lane 1), a competitor RNA consisting of the pyrimidine tract of the enhancer core (lane 2), a competitor RNA consisting of the 5′ splice site sequence of the enhancer core (lane 3), or a competitor RNA consisting of U3 RNA sequences (lane 4). The molecular masses of cross-linked species are indicated. An arrow marks the position of SRp20. The identities of the high-molecular-mass bands are unknown; the 45-kDa band is probably hnRNP C. ...
The 3 end of almost all eukaryotic mRNAs is polyadenylated. Most eukaryotic genes contain multiple polyadenylation sites (PASs), leading to alternative polyadenylation (APA), which has been increasingly appreciated as an important layer of post-transcriptional regulation. Multiple lines of evidence indicates that 3 end processing and nuclear export are interconnected. However, how mRNA export factors in general regulates APA and how nuclear export of APA isoforms are controlled to precisely regulate gene expression remain unknown ...
The protein encoded by this gene, a member of the peptidase S1 protein family, is found in azurophil granules of neutrophilic polymorphonuclear leukocytes. The encoded protease has a specificity similar to that of chymotrypsin C, and may participate in the killing and digestion of engulfed pathogens, and in connective tissue remodeling at sites of inflammation. In addition, the encoded protein is antimicrobial, with bacteriocidal activity against S. aureus and N. gonorrhoeae. Transcript variants utilizing alternative polyadenylation signals exist for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2014] ...
We have analyzed in detail the transcription pattern of the putative apoptotic gene Pdcd2 [9] and the tightly linked Tbp gene, a key factor in transcription initiation of all eukaryotes [32].. One new alternative Pdcd2 transcript, arising by alternative splicing, and at least three new transcripts of Tbp originated by alternative polyadenylation have been identified in the mouse. The presence of the alternative Pdcd2 mRNA was also found in human [GenBank: NM_144781] and chicken. Although the mechanism and structure of these transcripts is different, in all three species the alternative Pdcd2 transcript encodes the MYND zinc-finger domain but not the highly conserved CT domain, suggesting the biological importance of such truncated protein. The function of the alternative Pdcd2 product can be deduced from the reported study of cell-cycle regulation [14]. The cell line used has a mutation in the HCFC1 gene, causing an arrest of the cell growth at the non-permissive temperature. Transfection of a ...
Understanding how and why traits differ between individuals. Longevity, susceptibility to age-associated diseases, and many other attributes relevant for aging vary from one person to another. These differences are due in part to DNA sequence variants somewhere in our genomes-though exactly where is still a mystery in most cases. Worms, flies, and single-celled microbes can serve as powerful models for the study of the principles of genetic variation. Research in the Brem lab uses these model organisms to discover genetic changes that impact aging behaviors and other traits, as well as their evolutionary histories. The Brem lab approach uses large-scale analyses of thousands of genes at once, both computational and experimental, with ongoing work in the following areas:. The genetics of alternative polyadenylation. Most genes contain instructions for the production of a protein-a molecular machine that does work for the cell-including information that regulates the amount and timing of protein ...
Clickable adenosine derivative, to capture newly polyadenylated transcripts, and next-generation sequencing reveals mRNA sequence motifs that are linked to polyadenylation; High Quality Biochemicals for Research Uses
Recombinant protein from the full-length sequence of homo sapiens cleavage and polyadenylation factor I subunit 1 (CLP1), transcript variant 1 (NM_006831), with a His tag., from EUPROTEIN
usr/bin/perl -w use strict; ## set minimum length for polytail to search for my $polytail_min_len = 10; my $polytail_curr_len = $polytail_min_len; my $workline; my $polya_str_base; ## read data record for (,DATA,) { ## remove exteranious characters s/[\r\n]//g; # add new data to end of working data string $workline = $workline . $_; while (length($workline) , $polytail_curr_len) { $polya_str_base = substr($workline,0,$polytail_curr_len); ## remove desired characters from string $polya_str_base =~ s/[AN]//g; ## no characters left = all characters were in desired character set if (length($polya_str_base) == 0) { ## add a character from data set to string to test (ok - bump subscrip +t) $polytail_curr_len++; } else { ## a polytail of at least minimum length was found if ($polytail_curr_len , $polytail_min_len) { print substr($workline,0,$polytail_curr_len-1) . \n; ## trim characters of found polytail from working string $workline = substr($workline,$polytail_curr_len); ## reset length of string ...
AtCPSF30 is the only Arabidopsis protein with a degree of sequence similarity to other eukaryotic CPSF30 proteins that extends beyond the typical spacing of Cys and His residues in the CCCH zinc-finger motif, and a number of lines of evidence support the conclusion that AtCPSF30 is an authentic polyadenylation factor subunit. As is the case with its yeast counterpart (Yth1p; Barabino et al., 1997), AtCPSF30 interacts with another Arabidopsis polyadenylation subunit homolog, AtFip1(V) (Forbes et al., 2006); AtFip1(V) also interacts with poly(A) polymerase and thereby provides a conceptual link between AtCPSF30 and poly(A) polymerase. The results presented in this study show that AtCPSF30 is present in the nucleus (Fig. 2B), as would be expected of a polyadenylation factor subunit. The coimmunoprecipitation of AtCPSF30 by antibodies raised against AtCPSF100 (Fig. 2C) indicates that AtCPSF30 resides, at least in part, in a complex with another Arabidopsis polyadenylation factor subunit. AtCPSF30 is ...
mRNA cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor complex, 5-3 exonuclease activity, endoribonuclease activity, RNA binding, mRNA 3-end processing by stem-loop binding and cleavage, mRNA cleavage, mRNA polyadenylation
Cleavage factor Im (CFIm) is one of six factors necessary for correct cleavage and polyadenylation of pre-mRNAs. CFIm is composed of three different subunits of 25, 59, and 68 kDa, and it functions as a heterotetramer, with a dimer of the 25 kDa subunit binding to two of the 59 or 68 kDa subunits. The protein encoded by this gene represents the 59 kDa subunit, which can interact with the splicing factor U2 snRNP Auxiliary Factor (U2AF) 65 to link the splicing and polyadenylation complexes. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2016 ...
CPEB, or cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding protein, is a highly conserved RNA-binding protein that promotes the elongation of the polyadenine tail of messenger RNA. CPEB most commonly activates the target RNA for translation, but can also act as a repressor, dependent on its phosphorylation state. In animals, CPEB is expressed in several alternative splicing isoforms that are specific to particular tissues and functions, including the self-cleaving Mammalian CPEB3 ribozyme. CPEB was first identified in Xenopus oocytes and associated with meiosis; a role has also been identified in the spermatogenesis of Caenorhabditis elegans. CPEB is involved in closed-loop regulation of mRNAs that keeps them inactive. The closed-loop structure between the 3UTR and 5UTR inhibits translation. This has been observed in Xenopus laevis in which eIF4E bound to the 5 cap interacts with Maskin bound to CPEB on the 3 UTR creating translationally inactive transcripts. This translational inhibition is ...
Faculty Mentor: Amanda Norvell. Student: Letitia Thompson. During Drosophila oogenesis, the TGF-alpha protein Gurken (Grk) is responsible for pattering the dorsal-ventral (D-V) axis of the egg and future embryo. Consequently, Grk distribution within the ovary is tightly controlled and the spatial and temporal regulation of Grk protein activity is, in part, achieved through post-transcriptional mechanisms. The goal of this project is to determine whether any aspects of Grk regulation are mediated through alterations in the polyadenylation of grk mRNA. Polyadenylation is the process of adding a poly(A) tail to the 3 untranslated region (UTR) of the mRNA. Hex sites (AAUAAA) are required in order for polyadenylation to occur. We have found that grk mRNA is polyadenylated throughout oogenesis, and moreover that there are two major polyadenylated grk transcripts that differ by approximately 15 nucleotides in size. The grk 3UTR does contain two Hex sites suggesting that alternative polyadenylation ...
Background Mutations in the X-linked MID1gene are responsible for Opitz G/BBB syndrome, a malformation disorder of developing midline structures. Previous Northern blot analyses revealed the...
Efficient in vitro and in vivo systems are now in place to study the role of viral proteins in replication and/or transcription, the regulation of these processes, polyadenylation of viral mRNAs, the viral promoter structures, or the significance of noncoding regions for virus replication. In this chapter, we review the status of current knowledge of the orthomyxovirus RNA synthesis.
We have isolated the human homolog of S. cerevisiae Fip1p and have found that hFip1 is a genuine subunit of CPSF. Our results reported here indicate that hFip1 contributes to poly(A) site recognition and to CPSF‐dependent stimulation of polyadenylation. hFip1 binds to U‐rich sequence elements on the pre‐mRNA and is able to stimulate the activity of PAP.. CPSF has originally been described as a tetrameric complex containing the subunits CPSF160, CPSF100, CPSF73 and CPSF30, based on their stoichiometric cofractionation with CPSF activity. These polypeptides are related to four subunits of the yeast polyadenylation factor CPF (Yhh1p, Ydh1p, Ysh1p and Yth1p). However, CPF contains additional subunits (Preker et al, 1997; Dichtl et al, 2002a; Gavin et al, 2002; Walsh et al, 2002), one of which is Fip1p. Based on sequence conservation, we have identified the human homolog of yeast Fip1p and have shown that hFip1 is an additional, so far unrecognized subunit of CPSF. Most likely, hFip1 has not ...
As published in the January 15th issue of G&D, Dr. Joel Richter s laboratory at UMASS Medical School has identified a critical role for the RINGO/Spy protein in the control of cytoplasmic polyadenylation. CPEB is a highly conserved, sequence-specific RNA-binding protein that modulates polyadenylation, and thereby mRNA translation. Dr. Richter and his graduate student, Kiran Padmanabhan, now show that CPEB phosphorylation (and subsequent activation) is regulated by RINGO/Spy in Xenopus oocytes. ...
Avots, A., Buttmann, M., Chupvilo, S., Escher, C., Smola, U., Bannister, A.J., Rapp, U.R., Kouzarides, T., Serfling, E. CBP/p300 integrates Raf/Rac-signalling pathways in the transcriptional induction of NF-Atc during T cell activation Immunity 10: 515-524 (1999) Chirmule, N., Avots, A., LakshmiTamma, S.M., Pahwa, S., Serfling, E. CD4-mediated signals induce T cell dysfunction in vivo J. Immunol. 163: 644-649 (1999) Bannert, N., Avots, A., Baier, M., Serfling, E., Kurth, R. GA-binding protein factors, in concert with the coactivator CREB binding protein/p300, control the induction of the interleukin 16 promoter in T lymphocytes Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96: 1541-1546 (1999) Chupvilo, S., Zimmer, M., Kerstan, A., Glöckner, J., Avots, A., Escher, C., Fischer, C., Inashkina, I., Jankevics, E., Berberich-Siebelt, F., Schmitt, E., Serfling, E. Alternative polyadenylation events contribute to the induction of NF-ATc in effector T cells Immunity 10: 261-269 (1999) Chupvilo, S., Avots, A., ...
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