Dept. of Biological Sciences. Paper copy at Leddy Library: Theses & Major Papers - Basement, West Bldg. / Call Number: Thesis1981 .B372. Source: Masters Abstracts International, Volume: 40-07, page: . Thesis (M.Sc.)--University of Windsor (Canada), 1981.
Multiple dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) mRNAs, differing substantially in abundance, are produced as a result of the utilization of multiple transcription initiation sites and multiple polyadenylation sites. We have shown that dhfr mRNAs initiating from an upstream promoter region utilize the same collection of six polyadenylation sites and generate multiple dhfr mRNAs at the same relative abundance as do the mRNAs initiating from the major transcription promoter region. These results indicate that the 5 and 3 ends of dhfr mRNAs are independently determined. We show that the relative abundance of steady-state dhfr mRNAs was the same in nuclear and cytoplasmic RNA fractions. This finding makes it unlikely that differences in mRNA stability account for differences in the relative abundance of the multiple dhfr mRNAs in the cytoplasm. Our analysis of the dhfr promoter region revealed the existence of stable cytoplasmic polyadenylated transcripts complementary to the first 300 nucleotides of the ...
Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid [poly(A)] at their 3-termini. Although it has been almost two decades since the discovery of these poly(A) tracts, their function(s) have yet to be clarified. Earlier results from our laboratory led us to propose that poly(A) has a role in translation. More specifically, we proposed that an interaction of the cytoplasmic poly(A)-binding protein (PABP) with a critical minimum length of poly(A) facilitates the initiation of translation of poly(A)+, but not poly(A)-, mRNAs. The results of several different experimental approaches have provided evidence which indirectly supports this hypothesis. These results include: 1) the correlation of specific changes in mRNA poly(A) tail length with translational efficiency in vivo and in vitro; 2) correlations between the abundance and stability of PABPs and the rate of translational initiation in vivo and in vitro; and 3) the demonstration that exogenous poly(A) is a potent and specific inhibitor of the in
The 3 end of almost all eukaryotic mRNAs is polyadenylated. Most eukaryotic genes contain multiple polyadenylation sites (PASs), leading to alternative polyadenylation (APA), which has been increasingly appreciated as an important layer of post-transcriptional regulation. Multiple lines of evidence indicates that 3 end processing and nuclear export are interconnected. However, how mRNA export factors in general regulates APA and how nuclear export of APA isoforms are controlled to precisely regulate gene expression remain unknown ...
Post-transcriptional mechanisms of gene regulation play a prominent role during early development. Because the oocyte and developing embryo go through a phase in which no transcription takes place, gene expression relies on a pool of maternal mRNAs accumulated during oogenesis and is regulated at the level of translation or mRNA stability. It has been shown in several biological systems that poly(A) tail shortening contributes to translational silencing, whereas translational activation requires poly(A) tail extension (Richter, 2000; Tadros and Lipshitz, 2005). Poly(A) tail shortening, or deadenylation, is also the first step in mRNA decay. Subsequent steps occur only after the poly(A) tail has been shortened beyond a critical limit (Meyer et al., 2004; Parker and Song, 2004). Rapid deadenylation of unstable RNAs is caused by destabilizing elements, for example AU-rich elements (AREs) found in the 3′ UTRs of several mRNAs. A number of proteins have been identified that bind to destabilizing ...
摘要 构建重组表达载体是转基因动物生产制备研究中非常关键的一步,包括构建完整的外源基因表达盒,包含目的基因、调控序列(启动子、终止子)和筛选报告基因等。本文概述了转基因大动物制备技术,归纳统计了近10年转基因猪、牛、羊制备过程中常用的载体和频数,统计结果表明,转基因猪中启动子频数从多到少依次为酪蛋白、CAG、CMV启动子,终止子频数依次为兔β-globin poly A、酪蛋白poly A、SV40 poly A和BGH poly A;转基因羊中启动子频数从多到少依次为酪蛋白、BLG和CMV启动子,终止子依次为酪蛋白poly A、BLG poly A、BGH poly A、SV40 poly A和兔β-globin poly A;转基因牛中启动子频数从多到少依次为酪蛋白、CMV、人乳清白蛋白启动子等,终止子依次为SV40 poly A、BGH poly A和酪蛋白poly ...
The protein encoded by this gene has sequence similarity with members of the WD40 repeat-containing protein family. The WD40 group is a large family of proteins, which appear to have a regulatory function. It is believed that the WD40 repeats mediate protein-protein interactions and members of the family are involved in signal transduction, RNA processing, gene regulation, vesicular trafficking, cytoskeletal assembly and may play a role in the control of cytotypic differentiation. This gene has multiple polyadenylation sites. It might have multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants but the variants have not been fully described yet. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
Gene Information The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the immunophilin protein family which play a role in immunoregulation and basic cellular processes involving protein folding and trafficking. This encoded protein is a cis-trans prolyl isomerase that binds to the immunosuppressants FK506 and rapamycin. It is thought to mediate calcineurin inhibition. It also interacts functionally with mature hetero-oligomeric progesterone receptor complexes along with the 90 kDa heat shock protein and P23 protein. This gene has been found to have multiple polyadenylation sites. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants.[provided by RefSeq Mar 2009]. ...
The use of small molecules to specifically control important cellular functions is an area of major current interest at the interface of chemical biology and medicinal chemistry. Recognition of ribonucleic acids (RNA) has emerged more recently as a critical event in many biological pathways of eukaryotic cells and consequently the opportunity of drugs targeting to diverse structures of RNA is abundant. Such RNA targeting molecules must be able to specifically bind to unique structural organizations in RNA to regulate the gene expression. One particular example in this context is the modulation of the mRNA through its polyadenylic acid [poly(A)] tail. All mRNAs in eukaryotic cells have a poly(A) tail at the 3-end This tail of about 200-250 or so adenine residues is an important determinant in maturation, stability of poly(A) and in initiation of translation process. Small molecules that could bind to this poly(A) tail could influence and possibly inhibit mRNA function and subsequent protein ...
PAN, a yeast poly(A) nuclease, plays an important nuclear role in the posttranscriptional maturation of mRNA poly(A) tails. The activity of this enzyme is dependent on its Pan2p and Pan3p subunits, as well as the presence of poly(A)-binding protein (Pab1p). We have identified and characterized the associated network of factors controlling the maturation of mRNA poly(A) tails in yeast and defined its relevant protein-protein interactions. Pan3p, a positive regulator of PAN activity, interacts with Pab1p, thus providing substrate specificity for this nuclease. Pab1p also regulates poly(A) tail trimming by interacting with Pbp1p, a factor that appears to negatively regulate PAN. Pan3p and Pbp1p both interact with themselves and with the C terminus of Pab1p. However, the domains required for Pan3p and Pbp1p binding on Pab1p are distinct. Single amino acid changes that disrupt Pan3p interaction with Pab1p have been identified and define a binding pocket in helices 2 and 3 of Pab1ps carboxy terminus. The
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This method is able to read the full length RNA isoforms with the entire poly (A) tail sequences using the PacBio sequencing platform. The full isoform information couple with poly (A) tail information allows the study of the relationship between RNA splicing and poly (A) tail regulation. Moreover, it is sensitive enough to analyze single GV oocytes,which makes it particularly suitable for rare samples that cannot be obtained in good quantity ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Effect of Capsid Tail on the Ejection Dynamics of Semiflexible Polymers. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
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for when mono isnt enough and poly is too redundant Connect seamlessly between mono and poly modules, branch poly signals out into individualized chains, batch modify mono sources with poly tools, and have the basis for interesting signal parallelism. This is the bundle for anyone whod like each voice of a polyphonic...
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Recently, it was shown that U1snRNP is able to suppress the usage of intronic cryptic polyadenylation sites in the cellular genome. Foamy viruses take advantage of this surveillance mechanism to suppress premature polyadenylation at the 5end of their RNA. At the 3end, Foamy viruses use a secondary structure to presumably block access of U1snRNP and thereby activate polyadenylation at the end of the genome. Our data reveal a contribution of U1snRNP to cellular polyadenylation site selection and to the regulation of gene expression ...
RNA-binding protein 8A is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RBM8A gene. This gene encodes a protein with a conserved RNA-binding motif. The protein is found predominantly in the nucleus, although it is also present in the cytoplasm. It is preferentially associated with mRNAs produced by splicing, including both nuclear mRNAs and newly exported cytoplasmic mRNAs. It is thought that the protein remains associated with spliced mRNAs as a tag to indicate where introns had been present, thus coupling pre- and post-mRNA splicing events. Previously, it was thought that two genes encode this protein, RBM8A and RBM8B; it is now thought that the RBM8B locus is a pseudogene. Two alternative start codons result in two forms of the protein, and this gene also uses multiple polyadenylation sites. RBM8A has been shown to interact with IPO13, MAGOH and UPF3A. TAR syndrome 1q21.1 deletion syndrome 1q21.1 duplication syndrome GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000265241 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl ...
Poly (A) binding proteins are intimately implicated in controlling a number of events in mRNA metabolism from nuclear polyadenylation to cytoplasmic translation and stability. The known poly(A) binding proteins can be divided into three distinct structural groups (prototypes PABP1, PABPN1/PABP2 and Nab2p) and two functional families, showing that similar functions can be accomplished by differing structural units. This has prompted us to perform a screen for novel poly(A) binding proteins using Xenopus laevis. A novel poly(A) binding protein of 32 kDa (p32) was identified. Sequence analysis showed that p32 has about 50% identity to the known nuclear poly(A) binding proteins (PABPN1) but is more closely related to a group of mammalian proteins of unknown function. The expression of Xenopus laevis ePABP2 is restricted to early embryos. Accordingly, we propose that p32 is the founder member of a novel class of poly(A) binding proteins named ePABP2.
Alternative Polyadenylation Sites Database (APASdb), at Sun Yat-Sen University, Anlong Xu, Shangwu Chen, Shengfeng Huang, Yonggui Fu, Shengfeng Huang, Shaochun Yuan, Leiming You
Alternative Polyadenylation Sites Database (APASdb), at Sun Yat-Sen University, Anlong Xu, Shangwu Chen, Shengfeng Huang, Yonggui Fu, Shengfeng Huang, Shaochun Yuan, Leiming You
We have found strong supporting evidence for the helical structures of single-stranded nucleic acids by stretching individual molecules of polyadenylic acid [poly(A)] and polycytidylic acid [poly(C)]. Analyzing the force versus extension data using a two-state elastic model in which random-coil domains alternate with rigid helical domains allows one to extract the thermodynamic and structural properties. In addition, it also yields moderate to low cooperativity of the helix-coil transition for poly(A) and poly(C), respectively. Single stranded (ss) nucleic acids (NA) can form rigid helical domains. These are thought to arise because of stacking interactions favoring parallel orientation of adjacent aromatic rings of the bases leading to weakly cooperative helix-coil transition. The evidence for stacking of NA in solution is mostly based on calorimetric measurements and spectroscopy. The thermodynamic parameters extracted from these measurements are not consistent and vary over a wide range. Furthermore
Poly Network has no intention of holding Mr. White Hat legally responsible, said the team.. Decentralized finance protocol Poly Network has offered the person behind a $610 million hack an advisory position and $500,000 - whether they like it or not. In a Tuesday update, the Poly Network team said in a seeming attempt to gain access to hackers expertise, it would be inviting them to the position of chief security advisor. In addition, the project will be sending a $500,000 bounty for the attacker, whom Poly dubbed Mr. White Hat, despite the fact they have previously refused any payment. Poly Network has no intention of holding Mr. White Hat legally responsible, as we are confident that Mr. White Hat will promptly return full control of the assets to Poly Network and its users, said the team. As we have stated in previous announcements and encrypted messages that have been made public, we are grateful for Mr. White Hats outstanding contribution to Poly Networks security ...
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The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the transmembrane 4 superfamily, also known as the tetraspanin family. Most of these members are cell-surface proteins that are characterized by the presence of four hydrophobic domains. The proteins mediate signal transduction events that play a role in the regulation of cell development, activation, growth and motility. The use of alternate polyadenylation sites has been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
The metabolism of high-molecular-weight RNA in the nuclear and cytoplasmic fractions of newborn and adult rat brain was investigated after the intracranial administration of [32P]Pi. In young brain, a considerable proportion of the newly synthesized radioactive RNA is transferred to the cytoplasm, in contrast with the adult brain, where there appears to be a high intranuclear turnover. Electrophoretic analysis of the newly synthesized RNA showed that processing of the rRNA precursor to yield the 28S and 18S rRNA may be more rapid in the adult than in the young, although most of the adult rRNA in the nucleus is not transferred to the cytoplasm. In young brain, processing is probably tightly coupled to transport of rRNA into the cytoplasm, so that 28S and 18S rRNA are not subjected to possible degradation within the nucleus. Polyadenylated RNA turns over in concert with high-molecular-weight RNA in the nuclei of the adult rat brain. In the cytoplasm the polyadenylated RNA has a higher turnover ...
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Component Of The CCR4-NOT Transcriptional Complex; CCR4-NOT Is Involved In Regulation Of Gene Expression; Component Of The Major Cytoplasmic Deadenylase, Which Is Involved In MRNA Poly(A) Tail Shortening
Assuming $\mathsf{P} \ne \mathsf{NP}$ can we show $\mathsf{P} \ne \mathsf{P/poly} \cap \mathsf{NP}$? Obviously this would be the case if $\mathsf{P} \ne \mathsf{NP}$ and $\mathsf{P/poly} \supset \mathsf{NP}$ but this is unlikely. This is also true under the assumption $\mathsf{P} \ne \mathsf{BPP}$, however AFAIK it is commonly believed $\mathsf{P} = \mathsf{BPP}$. Can we prove $\mathsf{P} \ne \mathsf{P/poly} \cap \mathsf{NP}$ under a weaker assumption? What evidence can be provided for/against? Is there a specific language which is believed to be in $\mathsf{P/poly} \cap \mathsf{NP}$ but not in $\mathsf{P}$?. ...
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Dive into the research topics of On the role of organoclay in promoting co-continuous morphology in high-density poly(ethylene)/poly(amide)6 blend. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
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The long-term goal of this proposal is to understand, in detail, the mechanisms of mammalian mRNA 3processing through comprehensive characterization of the 3p...
Histogram uses bars of varying height which are proportional to the number of data within bands. This graphical presentation can be used to describe how the data are distributed. It is characterized by peaks and tails of histogram as follows. A histogram with one peak is called unimodal. When the histogram has two major peaks, it is said to be bimodal, suggesting a possibility of two distinct populations in the data. A symmetric histogram has two symmetric tails on both side, whereas a skewed histogram has a longer tail on one side than that on the other. We call it right-skewed or left-skewed accordingly as we observe the longer right-hand tail or the longer left-hand tail The vertical axis of histogram can be ...