purpose. To determine whether the visual cycle is affected in mice without a functional gene for cellular retinol-binding protein type I (CRBPI −/− mice).. methods. Visual-cycle retinoids and rhodopsin levels were analyzed in eyes of dark adapted (DA) CRBPI −/− and wild-type (wt) mice before and during recovery from a flash. The rate of dark adaptation was analyzed using electroretinography (ERG).. results. all-trans-Retinyl esters were reduced to approximately 33% of wt levels in DA CRBPI −/− mice. Recovery from a flash in wt mice produced transient accumulations of all-trans-retinal and all-trans-retinyl ester, as the pulse of retinoid produced by the flash traversed the visual cycle. In CRBPI −/− mice, all-trans-retinal accumulated transiently, as in wt mice. However, all-trans-retinol also accumulated transiently in the neural retina, and the transient increase in all-trans-retinyl ester of the wt was reduced. Rates of 11-cis-retinal and rhodopsin formation were comparable in ...
Looking for online definition of oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy in the Medical Dictionary? oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy explanation free. What is oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy? Meaning of oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy medical term. What does oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy mean?
TY - JOUR. T1 - Bovine interstitial retinol-binding protein (IRBP)-isolation and sequence analysis of cDNA clones, characterization and in vitro translation of mRNA. AU - Liou, Gregory I. AU - Fong, S. L.. AU - Beattie, W. G.. AU - Cook, R. G.. AU - Leone, J.. AU - Landers, R. A.. AU - Alvarez, R. A.. AU - Wang, C.. AU - Li, Y.. AU - Bridges, C. D.B.. PY - 1986/1/1. Y1 - 1986/1/1. N2 - Three clones for b-IRBP were isolated by anti b-IRBP screening of two bovine retina libraries in the expression vector λgt11. The cDNA inserts were then used as hybridization probes to screen and isolate three more clones in a bovine retina library in the non-expression vector λgt10. The six overlapping clones generated a b-IRBP cDNA sequence of 3400 nucleotides. An open reading frame encoded the complete amino acid sequences of 8 of the 35 b-IRBP tryptic peptides purified in the present study. One tentative glycosylation site was identified. The coding region was followed by TAG translation terminating codon ...
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zebrafish cellular retinoic acid-binding protein 1: differential and complementary expression patterns of the zebrafish crabp1a and crabp1b genes imply that subfunctionalization may be the mechanism for the retention of both crabp1 duplicated genes in the zebrafish genome; GenBank BI533516
Looking for online definition of RNA-binding motif protein 30 in the Medical Dictionary? RNA-binding motif protein 30 explanation free. What is RNA-binding motif protein 30? Meaning of RNA-binding motif protein 30 medical term. What does RNA-binding motif protein 30 mean?
All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) triggers a wide range of effects on vertebrate development by regulating cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. ATRA activates retinoic acid receptors (RARs) which heterodimerize with retinoid X receptors (RXRs). RAR/RXR heterodimers function as ATRA-dependent transcriptional regulators by binding to retinoic acid response elements (RAREs). To identify RAR/RXR heterodimer-binding sites in the human genome, we performed a modified yeast one-hybrid assays and identified 193 RAR/RXR heterodimer-binding fragments in the human genome. The putative target genes included genes involved in development process and cell differentiation. Gel mobility shift assays indicated that 160 putative RAREs could directly interact with the RAR/RXR heterodimer. Moreover, 19 functional regulatory single nucleotide polymorphisms (rSNPs) on the RAR/RXR-binding sequences were identified by analyzing the difference in the DNA-binding affinities. These results provide insights into the
RBP4, rat recombinant protein, Retinol Binding Protein 4, Plasma retinol-binding protein, PRBP, RBP validated in (PBV11176r-10), Abgent
Shop RNA-binding motif protein ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and RNA-binding motif protein Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
Retinoic acid receptor gamma (RXR-gamma), also known as NR2B3 (nuclear receptor subfamily 2, group B, member 3) is a nuclear receptor that in humans is encoded by the RXRG gene. This gene encodes a member of the retinoid X receptor (RXR) family of nuclear receptors which are involved in mediating the antiproliferative effects of retinoic acid (RA). This receptor forms heterodimers with the retinoic acid, thyroid hormone, and vitamin D receptors, increasing both DNA binding and transcriptional function on their respective response elements. This gene is expressed at significantly lower levels in non-small cell lung cancer cells. Alternate transcriptional splice variants, encoding different isoforms, have been characterized. Retinoid X receptor Retinoid X receptor gamma has been shown to interact with ITGB3BP. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000143171 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000015843 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". "Mouse PubMed Reference:". ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Aminoimidazole carboxamide ribonucleotide ameliorates experimental autoimmune uveitis. AU - Suzuki, Jun. AU - Yoshimura, Takeru. AU - Simeonova, Marina. AU - Takeuchi, Kimio. AU - Murakami, Yusuke. AU - Morizane, Yuki. AU - Miller, Joan W.. AU - Sobrin, Lucia. AU - Vavvas, Demetrios G.. PY - 2012/6/1. Y1 - 2012/6/1. N2 - PURPOSE. To investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of an adenosine monophosphate (AMP) analog, aminoimidazole carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR), in experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis (EAU). METHODS. C57BL/6 mice were injected daily with AICAR (200 mg/kg, intraperitoneally [IP]) from day 0, the day of interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein (IRBP) immunization, until day 21. The severity of uveitis was assessed clinically and histopathologically. T-cell proliferation and cytokine production of IFN-γ, IL-17, and IL-10 in response to IRBP stimulation were determined. In addition, regulatory T-cell (Treg) populations were measured. Co-stimulatory molecule ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Biochemical basis for dominant inheritance, variable penetrance, and maternal effects in RBP4 congenital eye disease. AU - Chou, Christopher M.. AU - Nelson, Christine. AU - Tarlé, Susan A.. AU - Pribila, Jonathan T.. AU - Bardakjian, Tanya. AU - Woods, Sean. AU - Schneider, Adele. AU - Glaser, Thomas M. PY - 2015/4/23. Y1 - 2015/4/23. N2 - Gestational vitamin A (retinol) deficiency poses a risk for ocular birth defects and blindness. We identified missense mutations in RBP4, encoding serum retinol binding protein, in three families with eye malformations of differing severity, including bilateral anophthalmia. The mutant phenotypes exhibit dominant inheritance, but incomplete penetrance. Maternal transmission significantly increases the probability of phenotypic expression. RBP normally delivers retinol from hepatic stores to peripheral tissues, including the placenta and fetal eye. The disease mutations greatly reduce retinol binding to RBP, yet paradoxically increase the ...
This gene encodes a specific binding protein for a vitamin A family member and is thought to play an important role in retinoic acid-mediated differentiation and proliferation processes. It is structurally similar to the cellular retinol-binding proteins, but binds only retinoic acid at specific sites within the nucleus, which may contribute to vitamin A-directed differentiation in epithelial tissue.
1GTF: The structure of the trp RNA-binding attenuation protein (TRAP) bound to a 53-nucleotide RNA molecule containing GAGUU repeats
Nuclear retinoid receptors (RARs) upon a ligand binding act as all-trans retinoic acid-inducible transcription factors interacting as conditional heterodimers with nuclear retinoid X (rexinoid) receptors (RXRs). The disruption of retinoic acid (RA) signalling pathways is believed to underlie the etiology of a number of malignancies. RAR and RXR ligands are known to play role in reprogramming several tumour cells, and thus the development of appropriate ligands with reduced teratogenic and other side effects are still highly required. In this study, we have investigated expression pattern of retinoid receptor subtypes (RARalpha, RARbeta, RARgamma) and retinoid X nuclear receptor subtypes (RXRalpha, RXRbeta, RXRgamma) in three different human organ malignancies, i) thyroid papillary carcinoma, ii) breast cancer, and iii) renal carcinoma.. ...
TC Hardman, SW Dub Rey, S Soni, S Chalkley; Erythrocyte Sodium-Lithium Countertransport (SLC) Activity and Retinol Binding Protein (Rbp) Excretion in Healthy Normotensive Subjects. Clin Sci (Lond) 1 August 1998; 95 (s39): 5P. doi: https://doi.org/10.1042/cs095005pa. Download citation file:. ...
Polyadenylate-binding protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PABPC1 gene. The protein PABP1 binds mRNA and facilitates a variety of functions such as transport out of the nucleus, degradation, translation, and stability. There are two separate PABP1 proteins, one which is located in the nucleus (PABPN1) and the other which is found in the cytoplasm (PABPC1). The location of PABP1 affects the role of that protein and its function with RNA. The poly(A)-binding protein (PAB or PABP), which is found complexed to the 3 poly(A) tail of eukaryotic mRNA, is required for poly(A) shortening and translation initiation. In humans, the PABPs comprise a small nuclear isoform and a conserved gene family that displays at least 3 functional proteins: PABP1 (PABPC1), inducible PABP (iPABP, or PABPC4; MIM 603407), and PABP3 (PABPC3; MIM 604680). In addition, there are at least 4 pseudogenes, PABPCP1 to PABPCP4.[supplied by OMIM] PABPC1 is usually diffused within the cytoplasm and concentrated at ...
J, Goh K and V, Subrayan and I, Tajunisah (2007) Antiphospholipid Syndrome Manifesting as Papilloedema. International Journal Of Ophthalmology, 7. pp. 1522-5. J, Goh K (2007) Serological evidence of possible human infection with Tioman virus, a newly described paramyxovirus of bat origin. The Journal of Infectious Disease, 196 (6). pp. 884-6. J, Goh K (2005) Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy with PABPN1 mutation in a Chinese Malaysian woman. pp. 262-4. J, Goh K (2005) The long-term outcome of botulinum toxin A treatment for hemifacial spasm in Malaysian patients. pp. 105-8. J, Goh K (2004) Covert use of anticonvulsant medication in traditional Chinese medication used for the treatment of epilepsy. pp. 55-7. J, Goh K (2004) The clinical spectrum of Malaysian patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy. Neurology Asia, 9. pp. 33-7. J, Goh K (2004) The clinical syndrome associated with lumbar spinal stenosis. European Neurology, 52. pp. 242-9. J, Goh K (2003) Symptomatic ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - DAX 1 Gene mutations and deletions in japanese patients with adrenal hypoplasia congenita and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. AU - Kinoshita, Ei Ichi. AU - Yoshimoto, Masaaki. AU - Motomura, Katsuaki. AU - Kawaguchi, Tomoko. AU - Mori, Ryogo. AU - Baba, Tsuneyoshi. AU - Nishijo, Kahoru. AU - Hasegawa, Tomonobu. AU - Momoi, Toru. AU - Yorihuji, Tom. PY - 1997/1/1. Y1 - 1997/1/1. N2 - Abnormality of the DAX-1 gene accounts for many instances of congenital adrenal hypoplasia. In the present study, we performed molecular genetic analysis of DAX-1 in 4 unrelated Japanese patients with adrenal hypoplasia congenita and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. A double-point mutation for V126M and W171X was identified in 1 family and a complex de novo insertion-deletion mutation was identified in a second. The DAX-1 gene was entirely deleted in a 3rd patient as well as in a 4th with the additional feature of glycerol kinase deficiency.. AB - Abnormality of the DAX-1 gene accounts for many instances ...
Interleukin-2 (IL-2) controls the proliferation of the murine T cell line B6.1 and induces transferrin receptor (TfR) mRNA steady-state levels 50-fold when added to arrested, IL-2-deprived cells. In addition, TfR mRNA is post-transcriptionally regulated by intracellular iron. Low iron levels activate a cytoplasmic RNA-binding protein, called iron regulatory factor (IRF) or iron-responsive element-binding protein, which coordinately stabilizes TfR mRNA and inhibits ferritin mRNA translation. Since ferritin expression is known to be modulated by cytokines, we decided to investigate the mechanism by which IL-2 activates TfR gene expression in B6.1 cells. Induction by IL-2 of both nuclear and cytoplasmic TfR RNA was compared with run-on transcription rates in isolated nuclei. The results revealed a 3-fold increase in TfR gene transcription and a 6-fold rise in nuclear TfR RNA reaching its steady-state level within 2 h. The main accumulation of mature mRNA in the cytoplasm occurred after 6 h in parallel with
Mutation in the orphan nuclear receptor DAX-1 gene causes X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita (AHC). Affected male children classically suffer a salt-losing crisis and adrenal insufficiency in their early infancy or, in some rare exceptions, with late-onset subtype. We report here a patient manifesting late-onset adrenal hypoplasia congenita caused by the premature truncation of the C-terminus of the DAX-1 molecule, which is essential for its function as a transcriptional repressor. A 12-year-old boy was referred to us after being afflicted with generalized skin pigmentation for about 3 years, fatigue and headache. Primary adrenal insufficiency was determined on the basis of a low plasma cortisol level (3.9 μg/dl) despite an extremely high ACTH level (1200 pg/ml). Replacement therapy with hydrocortisone and fludorocortisone acetate was initiated soon thereafter. Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism was confirmed at the age of 18 years, at which time sexual infantilism had become apparent. Direct sequencing
Polyadenylate-binding protein 2 (PABP-2) also known as polyadenylate-binding nuclear protein 1 (PABPN1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PABPN1 gene. This gene encodes an abundant nuclear protein that binds with high affinity to nascent poly(A) tails. The protein is required for progressive and efficient polymerization of poly(A) tails on the 3 ends of eukaryotic genes and controls the size of the poly(A) tail to about 250 nt. At steady-state, this protein is localized in the nucleus whereas a different poly(A) binding protein is localized in the cytoplasm. An expansion of the trinucleotide (GCN) repeat from normal 10 to 11-17 at the 5 end of the coding region of this gene leads to autosomal dominant oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD) disease. Multiple splice variants have been described but their full-length nature is not known. One splice variant includes introns 1 and 6 but no protein is formed. PABPN1 has been shown to interact with SNW1. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ...
Introduction: Fenofibrate is a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-alpha agonist which showed beneficial effects on lipid profile and total cardiovascular risk in patients with type 2 diabetes in the Fenofibrate Intervention and Event Lowering in Diabetes (FIELD) study. This study aimed to investigate the long-term effect of fenofibrate therapy on three novel biomarkers of cardiovascular risk, namely adipocyte-fatty acid binding protein (A-FABP), fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), and retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4), which are all downstream targets of PPAR-alpha or PPAR-gamma, in patients with type 2 diabetes.. Methods: A total of 216 patients (108 in the fenofibrate group and 108 in the placebo group) were randomly selected from the FIELD study cohort. A-FABP, FGF21, and RBP4 levels were measured in serum samples at both baseline and the fifth year of the study.. Results: Relative to the placebo group, the changes of serum FGF21 and RBP4 levels were 85% (P,0.001) and 10% ...
Context: Insulin resistance, which associates with levels of retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) and adiponectin, is implicated in the development of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).. Objective: The objective of the study was to explore the potential contribution of RBP4 and adiponectin in the etiology of PCOS and their relationships with specific fat depot measurements.. Design: This was a cross-sectional study.. Setting and Participants: Serum RBP4 and adiponectin levels were compared between 50 PCOS cases and 28 female controls (including 22 body mass index/fat mass-matched pairs) and correlated with specific fat depot (including visceral) axial magnetic resonance imaging cross-sectional area measurements. All subjects were of U.K. British/Irish origin.. Main Outcome Measure(s): Serum levels of RBP4 (automated immunonephelometric assay) and adiponectin [immunoassay: total and high molecular weight (HMW)]. Data are reported as geometric mean (SD, range) and optionally adjusted for fat mass and ...
The gene coding for the uncharacterized protein PAB1135 in the archaeon Pyrococcus abyssi is in the same operon as the ribonuclease P (RNase P) subunit Rpp30. Here we report the expression, purification and structural analysis of PAB1135. We analyzed the interaction of PAB1135 with RNA and show that it binds efficiently double-stranded RNAs in a non-sequence specific manner. We also performed molecular modeling of the PAB1135 structure using the crystal structure of the protein Af2318 from Archaeoglobus fulgidus (2OGK) as the template. Comparison of this model has lead to the identification of a region in PAB1135 that could be involved in recognizing double-stranded RNA.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Disabled-2 Mediates c-Fos Suppression and the Cell Growth Regulatory Activity of Retinoic Acid in Embryonic Carcinoma Cells. AU - Smith, Elizabeth R.. AU - Capo-Chichi, Callinice D.. AU - He, Junqi. AU - Smedberg, Jennifer L.. AU - Yang, Dong Hua. AU - Prowse, Amanda H.. AU - Godwin, Andrew K.. AU - Hamilton, Thomas C.. AU - Xu, Xiang Xi. PY - 2001/12/14. Y1 - 2001/12/14. N2 - F9 embryonic stem cell-like teratocarcinoma cells are widely used to study early embryonic development and cell differentiation. The cells can be induced by retinoic acid to undergo endodermal differentiation. The retinoic acid-induced differentiation accompanies cell growth suppression, and thus, F9 cells are also often used as a model for analysis of retinoic acid biological activity. We have recently shown that MAPK activation and c-Fos expression are uncoupled in F9 cells upon retinoic acid-induced endodermal differentiation. The expression of the candidate tumor suppressor Disabled-2 is induced and ...
Vitamin D Binding Protein antibody (group-specific component (vitamin D binding protein)) for ICC/IF, IHC-P, WB. Anti-Vitamin D Binding Protein pAb (GTX109955) is tested in Human, Mouse samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Purpose: Primary ovarian insufficiency before the age of 40 years affects 1% of the female population and is characterized by permanent cessation of menstruation. Genetic causes include FMR1 expansion mutations. Previous studies have estimated mutation prevalence in clinical referrals for primary ovarian insufficiency, but these are likely to be biased as compared with cases in the general population. The prevalence of FMR1 expansion mutations in early menopause (between the ages of 40 and 45 years) has not been published. Methods: We studied FMR1 CGG repeat number in more than 2,000 women from the Breakthrough Generations Study who underwent menopause before the age of 46 years. We determined the prevalence of premutation (55-200 CGG repeats) and intermediate (45-54 CGG repeats) alleles in women with primary ovarian insufficiency (n = 254) and early menopause (n = 1,881). Results: The prevalence of the premutation was 2.0% in primary ovarian insufficiency, 0.7% in early menopause, and 0.4% in ...
From NCBI Gene:. This gene encodes a protein that is involved in hair growth. This protein functions as a transcriptional corepressor of multiple nuclear receptors, including thyroid hormone receptor, the retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptors and the vitamin D receptors, and it interacts with histone deacetylases. The translation of this protein is modulated by a regulatory open reading frame (ORF) that exists upstream of the primary ORF. Mutations in this upstream ORF cause Marie Unna hereditary hypotrichosis (MUHH), an autosomal dominant form of genetic hair loss. Mutations in this gene also cause autosomal recessive congenital alopecia and atrichia with papular lesions, other diseases resulting in hair loss. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2014]. From UniProt: ...
To identify the physiological functions of the retinoid-related orphan receptor γ (RORγ), a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily, mice deficient in RORγ function were generated by targeted disruption. RORγ−/− mice lack peripheral and mesenteric lymph nodes and Peyers patches, indicating that RORγ expression is indispensable for lymph node organogenesis. Although the spleen is enlarged, its architecture is normal. The number of peripheral blood CD3+ and CD4+ lymphocytes is reduced 6- and 10-fold, respectively, whereas the number of circulating B cells is normal. The thymus of RORγ−/− mice contains 74.4% ± 8.9% fewer thymocytes than that of wild-type mice. Flow cytometric analysis showed a decrease in the CD4+CD8+ subpopulation. Terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining demonstrated a 4-fold increase in apoptotic cells in the cortex of the thymus of RORγ−/− mice. The latter was supported by the observed increase in annexin ...
Cytotoxic T- and NK-cell neoplasms constitute a rare clinico-pathological entity associated with aggressive clinical behaviour and a poor prognosis. The entity comprises a heterogenous group of different diseases classified by histologic, immunologic as well as clinical features. Recently, expression patterns of cytotoxicity-associated proteins such as T-cell intracellular antigen (TIA), perforin and granzyme B have been applied to differentiate between an immature (TIA positive) and a mature (TIA and perforin and/or granzyme B positive) phenotype of these malignant cells. In particular, expression of perforin and granzyme B are considered to mediate cytotoxic activity. This study assesses histology/cytology, immunophenotype, expression of cytotoxicity-associated proteins and the actual exhibition of cytotoxic activity of lymphoma cells of 10 patients suffering from different T- and NK-cell neoplasms. As investigated by PKH67 labelling of the target cells 6 out of 10 samples exhibited cytotoxic
Vitamin A and iron deficiency are common malnutrition affecting billions of people worldwide. However, in infrastructure limited settings, access to blood vitamin A and iron status test is limited because of the complexity and cost of traditional diagnostic methods. Direct measurements of vitamin A and iron level is not easy to perform, and it is necessary to measure approximate marker for obtaining vitamin A and iron deficiency status. Measurement of inflammatory marker is also necessary because the vitamin A and iron level are altered by inflammation status. Here we introduced a multiplex rapid point-of-care (POC) diagnostic devices that simultaneously characterize three markers relevant to vitamin A, iron and inflammation status: retinol binding protein 4, ferritin and C-reactive protein with lateral flow immunoassay test strips. Level of retinol binding protein 4, ferritin and C-reactive protein are indicated by excitation intensity of fluorescence tags with three different colors. The test ...
Discussion. Hepatic dysfunction and megalosplenia were the main clinical manifestations in this patient. She was negative for markers of viral hepatitis and autoimmune liver diseases and had no history of alcohol or drug use. Furthermore, cirrhosis and portal hypertension were excluded based on abdominal CT angiographic and gastroscopic findings. In patients with fever and marasmus, the differential diagnosis may include tuberculosis, leishmaniasis and other hematological malignancies. However, no space-occupying lesions were found on thoracic and abdominal CT imaging, and the PPD skin and the T-SPOT test for tuberculosis were negative. In addition, leishmania for leishmaniasis was not detected in the bone marrow or spleen biopsy. The biopsies revealed the typical pathological characteristics of EBV+T-LPD. The infiltrating lymphocytes in tissues were positive for CD3, cytotoxic molecules, cytotoxic T cell intracellular antigen-1, telomerase B, and EBV (EBER+). Additionally, T-cell receptor γ ...
Follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (FVPTC) and follicular adenoma (FA) are histologically closely related tumors and differential diagnosis remains challenging. RNA expression profiling is an established method to unravel molecular mechanisms underlying the histopathology of diseases. BRAF mutational status was established by direct sequencing the hotspot region of exon 15 in six FVPTCs and seven FAs. Whole-transcript arrays were employed to generate expression profiles in six FVPTCs, seven FAs and seven normal thyroid tissue samples. The threshold of significance for differential expression on the gene and exon level was a p-value with a false discovery rate (FDR) < 0.05 and a fold change cutoff > 2. Two dimensional average linkage hierarchical clustering was generated using differentially expressed genes. Network, pathway, and alternative splicing utilities were employed to interpret significance of expression data on the gene and exon level. Expression profiling in FVPTCs and FAs, all
Observational studies suggest that moderate intakes of retinol and increased circulating retinol levels may increase fracture risk. Easy access to supplements, combined with an aging population, makes this a potentially important association. The aim of this study was to investigate plasma retinol and total carotene concentrations in relation to fracture risk after long-term supplementation with retinol and/or beta-carotene in 998 adults between 1990 and 2007. Methods: Participants were 663 men and 335 women in a cancer prevention program who were initially randomized to a retinol (7.5 mg RE/d) or beta-carotene (30 mg/d) supplement between 1990 and 1996. After 1996, all participants received the retinol supplement only. Plasma retinol and total carotene, medication use and various lifestyle factors were measured at annual clinic visits. Fractures were identified by self-report in 2007. The risk for any fracture or osteoporotic fracture was modeled using Cox proportional hazard models.Results: ...
Lipocalin 2, 0.2 mg. Lipocalin 2 is a member of the lipocalin family which encompass more than 25 members (including proteins like retinol binding protein, a1 microglobulin, b lactoglobulin, apolipoprotein D and odorant binding protein).
The group A colicins and the DNA of many single-stranded filamentous bacteriophage are able to use combinations of the Tol proteins to gain entrance into or across the membrane of Escherichia coli. The TolA protein is a 421-amino acid residue integral membrane protein composed of three domains. Domain I, consisting of the amino-terminal 47 amino acids, contains a 21-residue hydrophobic segment that anchors the protein in the inner membrane. The remaining 374 amino acids, containing the other two domains, reside in the periplasmic space. Domain III, consisting of the carboxyl-terminal 120 residues, is considered to be the functional domain based on the location of the tolA592 deletion mutation. The internal 262 amino acids comprise domain II, which connects domains I and III together via short regions of polyglycine. It contains a large number of 3- to 5-residue polyalanine stretches, many of which have a repeat of the sequence Lys-Ala-Ala-Ala-(Glu/Asp). Circular dichroism analysis of different ...
Although picornavirus RNA genomes contain a 3-terminal poly(A) tract that is critical for their replication, the impact of encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) infection on the host poly(A)-binding protein (PABP) remains unknown. Here, we establish that EMCV infection stimulates site-specific PABP proteolysis, resulting in accumulation of a 45-kDa N-terminal PABP fragment in virus-infected cells. Expression of a functional EMCV 3C proteinase was necessary and sufficient to stimulate PABP cleavage in uninfected cells, and bacterially expressed 3C cleaved recombinant PABP in vitro in the absence of any virus-encoded or eukaryotic cellular cofactors. N-terminal sequencing of the resulting C-terminal PABP fragment identified a 3C(pro) cleavage site on PABP between amino acids Q437 and G438, severing the C-terminal protein-interacting domain from the N-terminal RNA binding fragment. Single amino acid substitution mutants with changes at Q437 were resistant to 3C(pro) cleavage in vitro and in vivo, ...
Background/aim: Little is known about biochemical markers related to change in visual acuity after vitrectomy. The potential use of transthyretin (TTR), a carrier of the retinol/retinol-binding protein, as a biochemical marker protein, was investigated.. Methods: TTR was measured using immunonephelometry in a group of patients (n = 77) in longstanding (,1 week) retinal detachment (n = 29), fresh (,1 week) retinal detachment (n = 17), macular holes (n = 20) or diabetic retinopathy (n = 11). Vitreous samples were taken at the start of every vitrectomy procedure. For reference values, cadaver specimens (n = 73) were used.. Results: Reference values for vitreous TTR (median 18 mg/l; IQR 4 to 24 mg/l) comprised 2.2% of reference values for vitreous protein levels (median 538 mg/l; IQR 269 to 987 mg/l). Vitreous TTR values of patients were comparable in all disorders. Vitreous TTR values were higher in phakic (median 22.5 mg/l; IQR 10 to 27 mg/l) than in pseudophakic patients (median 12 mg/l; IQR 8 to ...
Transthyretin (TTR) is a transport protein in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid that carries the thyroid hormone thyroxine (T4) and retinol-binding protein bound to retinol. This is how transthyretin gained its name: transports thyroxine and retinol. The liver secretes transthyretin into the blood, and the choroid plexus secretes TTR into the cerebrospinal fluid. TTR was originally called prealbumin (or thyroxine-binding prealbumin) because it ran faster than albumin on electrophoresis gels. It functions in concert with two other thyroid hormone-binding proteins in the serum: In cerebrospinal fluid TTR is the primary carrier of T4. TTR also acts as a carrier of retinol (vitamin A) through its association with retinol-binding protein (RBP) in the blood and the CSF. Less than 1% of TTRs T4 binding sites are occupied in blood, which is taken advantage of below to prevent TTRs dissociation, misfolding and aggregation which leads to the degeneration of post-mitotic tissue. Numerous other small ...
1. WahleE (1991) A novel poly(A)-binding protein acts as a specificity factor in the second phase of messenger RNA polyadenylation. Cell 66: 759-768.. 2. KuhnU, NemethA, MeyerS, WahleE (2003) The RNA binding domains of the nuclear poly(A)-binding protein. J Biol Chem 278: 16916-16925.. 3. KerwitzY, KuhnU, LilieH, KnothA, ScheuermannT, et al. (2003) Stimulation of poly(A) polymerase through a direct interaction with the nuclear poly(A) binding protein allosterically regulated by RNA. Embo J 22: 3705-3714.. 4. KuhnU, GundelM, KnothA, KerwitzY, RudelS, et al. (2009) Poly(A) tail length is controlled by the nuclear poly(A)-binding protein regulating the interaction between poly(A) polymerase and the cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor. J Biol Chem 284: 22803-22814.. 5. KuhnU, WahleE (2004) Structure and function of poly(A) binding proteins. Biochim Biophys Acta 1678: 67-84.. 6. ApponiLH, LeungSW, WilliamsKR, ValentiniSR, CorbettAH, et al. (2010) Loss of nuclear poly(A)-binding protein 1 ...
Lecithin retinol acyltransferase (LRAT) is a microsomal enzyme that catalyzes the esterification of all-trans-retinol into all-trans-retinyl ester. This reaction is essential for the retinoid cycle in retinal photopigmentation and to metabolize vitamin A in the liver. Mutations in the LRAT gene have been associated with early-onset severe retinal dystrophy. LRAT is also known as phosphatidylcholine--retinol O-acyltransferase, LCA14, AI449251, and 1300010A18Rik.. ...
Author Summary Almost all eukaryotic messenger RNAs (mRNAs) have a string of 150-200 adenylates at the 3′ end. This poly(A) tail has been implicated as important for regulating mRNA translation, stability and export. During the lytic phase of infection of Kaposis Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus (KSHV), a noncoding viral RNA is synthesized that resembles an mRNA in that it is transcribed by RNA polymerase II, is methyl-G capped at the 5′ end, and is polyadenylated at the 3′ end; yet this RNA is never exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Rather, it builds up in the nucleus to exceedingly high levels. We present evidence that the function of this abundant, polyadenylated nuclear (PAN) RNA is to bind poly(A) binding protein, which normally binds poly(A) tails of mRNAs in the cytoplasm but is re-localized into the nucleus during lytic KSHV infection. The interaction between PAN RNA and re-localized poly(A) binding protein is important for formation of new virus, in particular for the synthesis of
Flow cytometry is conventionally used to measure cell-surface antigen expression. However, many antigens are found within the cytoplasm, and it is necessary to fix and permeabilize cells to enable antibodies to gain access to them. In this study we have established the conditions for studying intracellular antigens in human trophoblast cells by flow cytometry using an antibody to TAP1 (a key molecule in the process of Class I MHC assembly). We have previously shown by immunocytochemistry that TAP1 expression is apparently greater on Class 1 positive extravillous cytotrophoblast than on any other fetal or maternal tissue. However, as immunohistochemistry is not quantitative we have used three-colour flow cytometry to measure the expression of TAP1 in different trophoblast populations. Villous and extravillous cytotrophoblast were identified in first trimester and term placental and decidual digests on the basis of their expression of cytokeratin and Class I MHC antigens. The level of expression of TAP1
Purpose: Myeloid-derived cells, including neutrophils and macrophages, are critically involved in retinal damage and angiogenesis in experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis (EAU). Suppressors of cytokine signalling (SOCS) proteins are negative-feedback regulators of the JAK/STAT pathway. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of SOCS3 deletion in myeloid cells to EAU development and its associated angiogenesis.. Methods: EAU was induced in C57BL/6 (WT) and LysM-Cre-SOCS3fl/fl mice. Retinal inflammation was evaluated clinically using the topical endoscopic fundus imaging (TEFI) system and optical coherence tomography (OCT), and pathologically by light microscopy. Retinal vascular leakage was examined by fluorescein fundus angiography (FFA) and angiogenesis was studied by confocal microscopy of retinal flatmounts. Real-time RT-PCR and Western blot were used to explore factors that were critically involved in inflammatory and angiogenic processes.. Results: TEFI and OCT investigations ...
Identifying key cellular events that facilitate stem cell function and tissue organization is critical for understanding the process of regeneration. Planarians are powerful model system to study regeneration and stem cell (neoblast) function. Here, using planaria, we show that the initial events of regeneration, such as epithelialization and epidermal organization are critically regulated by a novel cytoplasmic Poly A binding protein, SMED-PABPC2. Knockdown (KD) of Smed-pabpc2 leads to defects in epidermal lineage specification, disorganization of epidermis and ECM, and deregulated wound healing resulting in the selective failure of neoblast proliferation near the wound region. Polysome profiling suggested epidermal lineage transcripts, including zfp-1, to be translationally regulated by SMED-PABPC2. Together, our results uncover a novel role of SMED-PABPC2 in the maintenance of epidermal and ECM integrity, critical for wound healing, and subsequent processes for regeneration. ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Loredana Poeta, Francesca Fusco, Denise Drongitis, Cheryl Shoubridge, Genesia Manganelli, Stefania Filosa, Mariateresa Paciolla, Monica Courtney, Patrick Collombat, Maria Brigida Lioi, Jozef Gecz, Matilde Valeria Ursini, Maria Giuseppina Miano].
Translation is important in the regulation of gene expression and is implicated in the control of cell growth, proliferation, and differentiation (32-34). In eukaryotes, initiation is the rate-limiting step of translation under most circumstances, and initiation is a major target for regulation (33). Paip1 is a mammalian PABP that binds to eIF4A and eIF3 and stimulates translational initiation. In the present study, we showed that the Paip1 protein was degraded by the HECT ubiquitin ligase WWP2. The following findings from the present study directly support the use of Paip1 as a physiological substrate of WWP2. WWP2 directly interacted with Paip1, and the interaction depended on the integrity of the WW domain of WWP2. The loss of WWP2 impeded Paip1 turnover. WWP2 promoted Paip1 ubiquitination both in vivo and in a reconstituted in vitro system. The ubiquitin ligase activity of WWP2 and the PXXY motif of Paip1 were critical for ubiquitination and degradation. Previous studies have demonstrated ...
A repeat expansion mutation in the C9orf72 gene is the most common known genetic cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). In this study, using multiple cell-based assay systems, we reveal both increased dipeptide repeat protein (DRP) toxicity in pr...read more ...